Outbreak Over Monkey Pox Virus in Human: Immediate Countermeasures from the Endemic to Non-Endemic Regions

  • Sameeksha Jain Adina College of Pharmacy, ADINA Campus Rd, Lahdara, Sagar, MP, 470001
  • Megha Jha Pinnacle Biomedical Research Institute (PBRI), Near, Bharat Scout and Guides Campus, Shanti Marg, Shyamla Hills Road, Depot Chouraha, Bhopal, MP, 462003
  • Anjali Singh Aryan College of Pharmacy, Ghaziabad, UP, 201002
  • Rashmi Haldkar Sir Atma Ram Institute of Pharmacy and Technology, Saript, Khasra no 69/1, PHN 30, Tilwara-Nagpur Road, Manegaon, Jabalpur, MP, 482051
  • Deepak Kumar Jain Chetana College of Pharmacy, Infront of New Police Station, RLM Campus, Rithore, Khurai, Dist-Sagar, MP, 470117

Abstract

A zoonotic orthopoxvirus called human monkeypox has symptoms that resemble smallpox. When people come into contact with diseased animals, they may unintentionally contract monkeypox. According to reports, the virus can also spread through close physical contact, such as skin-to-skin contact or sexual contact, respiratory droplets, and by household items like towels and blankets. There are numerous medical countermeasures on hand for orthopoxviruses like monkeypox. Monkeypox, which originated in western and central Africa, has lately been found in a integer of nations, counting Spain, Canada, Australia, and the United Arab Emirates. Despite its extremely low incidence rate, it nonetheless poses a serious concern that needs to be addressed as soon as possible because of the strong likelihood that it will spread to many other nations. Outside of endemic areas, the danger of monkeypox transmission in medical settings is not well known. One recorded instance of transmission was found after a quick assessment of the literature from 2000 to 2022, which also included cases outside of areas where monkeypox is endemic. It is unusual for monkeypox to recur in non-endemic nations. It is a zoonosis that can extend from animal to human and from human to human, and it has clinical characteristics comparable to smallpox. The latest outbreaks may be attributed to lowered resistance to the orthopoxviruses, movement of people from widespread to non-endemic areas, hereditary alterations in the viral genome, and diminished observation.  Transmission and pathogenicity could be avoided with the use of a multifaceted strategy that includes health education, monitoring human mobility, the development of diagnostic tools, and an efficient vaccination.


Keywords: Monkeypox, Outbreak, Orthopoxvirus, Epidemiology, Vaccination, Virology, Public health, Preventive measures

Keywords: Monkeypox, Outbreak, Orthopoxvirus, Epidemiology, Vaccination, Virology, Public health, Preventive measures

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sameeksha Jain, Adina College of Pharmacy, ADINA Campus Rd, Lahdara, Sagar, MP, 470001

Adina College of Pharmacy, ADINA Campus Rd, Lahdara, Sagar, MP, 470001

Megha Jha, Pinnacle Biomedical Research Institute (PBRI), Near, Bharat Scout and Guides Campus, Shanti Marg, Shyamla Hills Road, Depot Chouraha, Bhopal, MP, 462003

Pinnacle Biomedical Research Institute (PBRI), Near, Bharat Scout and Guides Campus, Shanti Marg, Shyamla Hills Road, Depot Chouraha, Bhopal, MP, 462003

Anjali Singh, Aryan College of Pharmacy, Ghaziabad, UP, 201002

Aryan College of Pharmacy, Ghaziabad, UP, 201002

Rashmi Haldkar, Sir Atma Ram Institute of Pharmacy and Technology, Saript, Khasra no 69/1, PHN 30, Tilwara-Nagpur Road, Manegaon, Jabalpur, MP, 482051

Sir Atma Ram Institute of Pharmacy and Technology, Saript, Khasra no 69/1, PHN 30, Tilwara-Nagpur Road, Manegaon, Jabalpur, MP, 482051

Deepak Kumar Jain, Chetana College of Pharmacy, Infront of New Police Station, RLM Campus, Rithore, Khurai, Dist-Sagar, MP, 470117

Chetana College of Pharmacy, Infront of New Police Station, RLM Campus, Rithore, Khurai, Dist-Sagar, MP, 470117

References

1. McCollum AM, Damon IK. Human monkeypox. Clin Infect Dis. 2014; 58(2): 260-267. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit703 PMid:24158414
2. World health organisation. Multi-country monkeypox outbreak: situation updates 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON390.
3. Peng PWH, Ho P-L, Hota SS. Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know. Br J Anaesth. 2020; 124(5): 497-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2020.02.008 PMid:32115186 PMCid:PMC7124191
4. Odor PM, Neun M, Bampoe S, et al. Anaesthesia and COVID-19: infection control. Br J Anaesth. 2020; 125(1): 16-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2020.03.025 PMid:32307115 PMCid:PMC7142687
5. Yang M, Dond H, Lu Z. Role of anaesthesiologists during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Br J Anaesth. 2020; 124(6): 666-669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2020.03.022 PMid:32307116 PMCid:PMC7144667
6. Petersen E, Kantele A, Koopmans M, et al. Human monkeypox: epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and prevention. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2019; 33(4): 1027-1043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2019.03.001 PMid:30981594 PMCid:PMC9533922
7. UK Health Security Agency. High consequence infectious diseases (HCID): guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England 2018. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/highconsequence-infectious-diseases-hcid (accessed Nov 20, 2022).
8. Jezek Z, Szczeniowski M, Paluku KM, Mutombo M. Human monkeypox: clinical features of 282 patients. J Infect Dis. 1987; 156(2): 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/156.2.293 PMid:3036967
9. Bunge EM, Hoet B, Chen L, et al. The changing epidemiology of human monkeypoxda potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022; 16(2): e0010141. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010141 PMid:35148313 PMCid:PMC8870502
10. Adler H, Gould S, Hine P, et al. Clinical features and management of human monkeypox: a retrospective observational study in the UK. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022; 22(8): 1153-1162. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00228-6 PMid:35623380
11. Brown K, Leggat PA. Human monkeypox: current state of knowledge and implications for the future. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2016; 1(1): 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed1010008 PMid:30270859 PMCid:PMC6082047
12. Huhn GD, Bauer AM, Yorita K, et al. Clinical characteristics of human monkeypox, and risk factors for severe disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41(12): 1742-1751. https://doi.org/10.1086/498115 PMid:16288398
13. Von Magnus P, Andersen EK, Petersen KB, Birch-Andersen A. A pox-like disease in cynomolgus monkeys. Acta Path. Micro. Scand. 1959; 46(2):156-176. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1699-0463.1959.tb00328.x
14. Arita I, Gispen R, Kalter SS, et al. Outbreaks of monkeypox and serological surveys in nonhuman primates. Bull World Health Organ. 1972; 46 (5):625-631.
15. Ladnyi ID, Ziegler P, Kima A. A human infection caused by monkeypox virus in Basankusu Territory, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bull World Health Organ. 1972; 46 (5):633-639.
16. Heymann DL, Szczeniowski M, Esteves K: Re-emergence of monkeypox in Africa: a review of the past six years. Br Med Bull. 1998; 54(3):693-702. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a011720 PMid:10326294
17. Update: multistate outbreak of monkeypox-Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003; 52 (26):616-618.
18. Monkeypox. World Health Organization (WHO) 2022. 〈https://www.who.int/ news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox〉 (accessed Nov 20, 2022).
19. Alkhalil A, Hammamieh R, Hardick J, Ichou MA, Jett M, Ibrahim S. Gene expression profiling of monkeypox virus-infected cells reveals novel interfaces for host-virus interactions. Virol J. 2010; 7:173. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-173 PMid:20667104 PMCid:PMC2920256
20. Transmission Monkeypox Poxvirus CDC n.d. https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/transmission.html .
21. Ježek Z, Szczeniowski M, Paluku KM, Mutombo M. Human monkeypox: clinical features of 282 patients. J Infect Dis. 1987; 156:293-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/156.2.293 PMid:3036967
22. World Health Organization (WHO). Multi-country monkeypox outbreak in nonendemic countries n.d. 〈 https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreaknews/item/2022-DON385 〉.
23. Huhn GD, Bauer AM, Yorita K, Graham MB, Sejvar J, Likos A, et al. Clinical characteristics of human monkeypox, and risk factors for severe disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41:1742-51. https://doi.org/10.1086/498115 PMid:16288398
24. Sklenovska N, Van Ranst M. Emergence of monkeypox as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans. Front Public Health. 2018:6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00241 PMid:30234087 PMCid:PMC6131633
25. Durski KN, McCollum AM, Nakazawa Y, et al., Emergence of monkeypox-west and central Africa, 1970-2017, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2018; 67(10): 306-310. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6710a5 PMid:29543790 PMCid:PMC5857192
26. Oladoye MJ. Monkeypox: a neglected viral zoonotic disease, Electron. J. Med. Educ. Technol. 2021; 14 (2): em2108. https://doi.org/10.30935/ejmets/10911
27. Weinstein RA, Nalca A, Rimoin AW, Bavari S. Whitehouse, Reemergence of monkeypox: prevalence, diagnostics, and countermeasures. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41 (12):1765-1771. https://doi.org/10.1086/498155 PMid:16288402
28. Huhn GD, Bauer AM, Yorita K, et al. Clinical characteristics of human monkeypox, and risk factors for severe disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41(12): 1742-1751. https://doi.org/10.1086/498115 PMid:16288398
29. Abdullah SA, Fernando Augusto Corrˆea Queiroz Cançado, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira, The emergence of Monkeypox virus, new challenges to the healthcare settings in Pakistan. J Med Virol. 2022; e27899. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27899 PMid:35642552
30. Kabuga AIEl Zowalaty ME, A review of the monkeypox virus and a recent outbreak of skin rash disease in Nigeria. J Med Virol. 2019; 91(4): 533-540. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25348 PMid:30357851
31. Bunge EM, Hoet B, Chen L, et al., The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox-a potential threat? A systematic review, PLoS Neglected Trop Dis. 2022; 16 (2): e0010141. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010141 PMid:35148313 PMCid:PMC8870502
32. Mauldin MR, McCollum AM, Nakazawa YJ, et al., Exportation of monkeypox virus from the African continent. J Infect Dis. 2022; 225(8):1367-1376. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa559 PMid:32880628 PMCid:PMC9016419
33. World Health Organization, Multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries. https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/20 22-DON385 .
34. World Health Organization, Multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries: Update. https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/ite m/2022-DON388 .
35. CNBC. Belgium introduces mandatory monkeypox quarantine as global cases rise n.d. https://www.cnbc.com/2022/05/23/belgium-introduces-mandatorymonkeypox-quarantine-as-global-cases-rise.html .
36. Business Standard News. UK brings in 21-day isolation measures to contain monkeypox spread n.d. 〈 https://www.business-standard.com/article/international/uk-brings-in-21-day-isolation-measures-to-contain-monkeypoxspread-122052301205_1.html.
37. Fortune. Government orders millions of monkeypox vaccines after virus is confirmed in U.S n.d. 〈 https://fortune.com/2022/05/19/monkeypox-vaccinepurchase-2022-us-government/ 〉.
38. Precision Vaccinations. JYNNEOS Smallpox (Monkeypox) Vaccine n.d. 〈 https:// www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/jynneos-smallpox-monkeypoxvaccine 〉.
39. Monkeypox. World Health Organization (WHO) 2022. 〈 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox 〉.
40. Reuters. Britain offers smallpox shot as monkeypox cases spread in Europe n.d. 〈 https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/britain-offerssmallpox-shot-monkeypox-cases-spread-europe-2022-05-19/ 〉.
41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Monkeypox and Smallpox Vaccine Guidance n.d. 〈 https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/clinicians/smallpox-vaccine.html 〉.
42. Ministry of Health and Prevention. MoHAP: UAE health system fully prepared to deal with monkeypox n.d. 〈 https://mohap.gov.ae/en/media-center/news/22/5/2022/mohap-uae-health-system-fully-prepared-to-deal-with-monkeypox 〉.
43. Ministry of Public Health-Qatar. Ministry of Public Health Statement on Monkeypox n.d. 〈 https://www.moph.gov.qa/english/mediacenter/News/Pages/NewsDetails.aspx?ItemId=527 〉.
44. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO working closely with countries responding to monkeypox n.d. 〈 https://www.who.int/news/item/20-05-2022-who-working-closely-with-countries-responding-to-monkeypox 〉.
45. Monkeypox: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology n.d. 〈 https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1134714-overview 〉
Crossmark
Statistics
69 Views | 4 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Jain S, Jha M, Singh A, Haldkar R, Jain DK. Outbreak Over Monkey Pox Virus in Human: Immediate Countermeasures from the Endemic to Non-Endemic Regions. JDDT [Internet]. 15Mar.2024 [cited 19Apr.2024];14(3):197-01. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6472