Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</a>.&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera G.) Seed Against White Male Rats Using Paw Edema Method <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity test of ethanol extract of lotus seeds in rats induced by carrageenan. The research method used was experimental. The object used in this study was male white rats. Observations were made for 6 hours and then the data were analyzed using the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The anti-inflammatory activity test was carried out on the test animals which were divided into 5 groups, 3 each with the suspension test group with a dose of 200, 300, 400 mg/kg bw, the negative control group was the CMC Na 1% suspension and the positive control was diclofenac Na 2, 25 mg/kg bw. The results showed that the ethanol extract of the seeds of lotus (<em>Nelumbo nucifera</em> G) was proven to have an anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced male white rats at doses of 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg BW with the percentage value of inflammation inhibition at the 6th hour was 65.79, 74.65 and 80.77%, with the most effective dose in reducing anti-inflammatory drugs being 400 mg/kg bw. The ethanol extract of the seeds of lotus (<em>Nelumbo nucifera</em>) has anti-inflammatory activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> anti-inflammatory activity, <em>Nelumbo nucifera,</em> paw edema</p> Khairani Fitri Tetty Noverita Khairani Kristin Tiurma Sianturi Leny Leny Ihsanul Hafiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 1 4 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4918 Hepato-Renal Activities of Hydro-Methanol Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in Adult Male Wistar Rats <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Medicinal plants such as <em>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius </em>(CA) have been studied over the years for their protective and curative potentials against a myriad of common global health challenges such as hepatorenal injuries.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To ascertaining the effects of the hydromethanol leaf extract of CA (HMLECA) on hepato-renal parameters in adult male wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A total of 18 adult male wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of six rats each. Group I served as the negative control which received distilled water while groups 2 and 3 served as extract treatment groups which received 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of the HMLECA respectively. The administration was daily for a period of 58 days while blood sample for the biochemical analysis was drawn via cardiac puncture at the end of the study following light chloroform anaesthesia.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>The results showed that the administration of both doses of the extract produced no significant (P&lt;0.05) effect on the levels of serum liver enzyme (AST, ALT, ALP), TP, ALB, electrolytes (K<sup>+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup> and HCO3–), Creatinine and Urea while that of the 400 mg/kg BW produced significant (P&lt;0.05) decrease in the level of TB and Cl <sup>–</sup>. Hence, the administration of the leaf extract in this study did not elicit any toxic effect on both the liver and kidney functions and could be effective as hepato-renal protective agent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Liver function, Liver enzymes, Renal function, Serum biochemicals, Serum electrolytes</p> Ijeoma Ezebuiro Avweresuoghene Ododo Uchechukwu Ifeanyichukwu Apugo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 5 9 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4870 Evaluation of Antioxidant activities of Aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum on Carbon tetrachloride-induced albino rat tissues <p>Oxidative injury or cellular damage arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. These ROS are generated through normal metabolism of drugs, environmental chemicals and other xenobiotics as well as endogenous chemicals. Accumulated evidence suggests that ROS can be scavenged through chemoprevention utilizing natural antioxidant compounds present in foods and medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to evaluate antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> using carbon tetrachloride-induced albino rats as model. An <em>in-vivo</em> antioxidant activity was carried out on the CCl<sub>4 </sub>induced rats by administration of aqueous extract of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> at doses of 50, 100 and 200mg/Kg bw for 14 consecutive days, and one group was treated with Silymarin at a dose of 50 mg/Kg as a standard drug. The antioxidant activities were estimated by evaluating its effects on antioxidant parameters in the tissues of albino rats (Serum, Liver and Heart). The activity of catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of MDA and GSH were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Results showed that the rats fed with the higher concentrations of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> had significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in glutathione content (GSH), GPx, SOD and catalase activities relative to normal and standard control. However, the level of MDA was decreased (p&lt;0.05) for the treated groups (100 and 200mg/kg). These results suggest that aqueous extracts of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> has active substances contributing to varied degrees of potent antioxidant activity and could serve as important source of antioxidants in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Oxidative injury, <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>, antioxidant, Diseases, Tissues</p> Yemisi Rufina ALLI SMITH Bukola Tola ALUKO Olutunmise Victoria OWOLABI ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 10 15 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4877 Formulation and Evaluation of Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Raloxifene Hydrochloride <p>Raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) is a selective Estrogen-receptor modulator used to treat osteoporosis as well as breast and endometrial cancer prevention. The bioavailability of RLX is only 2% due to substantial pre-systemic clearance. The goal of this research was to customise and characterise RLX-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery systems (SNEDDS) by using bioactive excipients that impact drug metabolism. The droplet size, zeta potential and drug content determination of optimized formulation (F-06) was found to be 147.5 nm, -28.8, 99.67% respectively. The drug release study from the nano formulation was studied in Phosphate buffer 6.8 for all the formulations F1,F2,F3,F4,F5,F6 and F7. The optimized formulation was found to be F6</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Raloxifene hydrochloride, nanoemulsion, SNEDDS&nbsp;</p> T. Gayathri M. Venkata Ramana N. Rama Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 16 19 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4857 Immunostimulant Effect of Seaweeds in Channa punctatus Challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila <p>The current study focused on to evaluate the bioactive potential and immunostimulant effect of seaweeds in striped murrel <em>Channa punctatus</em> against the fish pathogen <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em>. The aqueous extracts of seaweeds, <em>Glacilaria foliifera, Acanthophora spicifera </em>and<em> Ulva lactuca </em>were obtained in four different concentrations (25 µL, 50 µL, 75 µL and 100 µL) and evaluated for their immunostimulant potential.&nbsp; Aqueous extract of <em>G. foliifera</em> and <em>A. spicifera</em> has shown promising activity against fish pathogen. <em>G. foliifera</em> exhibited higher bacterial inhibitory zone of 8mm at 100 µL concentration followed by <em>A. spicifera</em> with 6mm at same concentration. The disease challenge study was used to ascertain the immunostimulant efficacy of active seaweed extracts. <em>C. punctatus</em> was administrated with the <em>A. hydrophila</em> and then fed with artificial feed incorporated with seaweeds extract.&nbsp; The survival rate seems to be higher in <em>G. foliifera</em> (80%) when compared with A<em>. spicifera</em> (60%). Observed result shows that both seaweeds possess active metabolites which may pave the way for the discovery of novel compounds with immunostimulant potential, which can be used in the field of aqua industry to augment disease management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Seaweed, Bioactive compounds, <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em>, <em>Gracilaria polifera</em></p> S Muthu Krishnan P Raja ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 20 23 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4948 Content Validity of Drug Addiction Recovery Test Instruments Using Content Validity Ratio (CVR) Method <p>Recovery is related to control addiction problems among drug addicts based on context environment in Malaysia. This research, to identify several aspects that have relationship with addiction recovery among Malaysian drug addicts specifically. Although there are several measurement instruments that have been developed to assess drug addiction recovery, a good validity instruments are still lacking and limited. In this regard, this study aimed to test content validity of Drug Addiction Recovery Test (DART) instruments specifically among 123 treated addicts in Besut Cure and Care Rehabilitation Centre (CCRC) using the content validation Ratio (CVR) method to ensure that measurement instruments are appropriate for use in local contexts and cultures.&nbsp; Eight experts selected according to experience they are in a particular field of research. The experts made up of UniSZA, UMT and UPSI. The instrument validation process involved 80 items from four components. The previous study found that the instrument had good validity with the minimum level of CVR value (N=8, CVR = 0.75). A total of 68 items were identified to be retained while the other 12 items had values below 0.75 rated refund and purified. This study found that the instrument is appropriate and relevant and has the potential to be a good instrument for measuring addiction recovery among drug addicts. It is proposed that pilot studies be conducted, and the data should be analysed using more in-depth statistical analysis such as factor analysis to obtain more detailed information about the items.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Content validity, Addiction recovery, Drug addict, Expert</p> S. R., Norashida O. Norshahira Z. M. Lukman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 24 29 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4949 Pharmacognostical and Physiochemical Study on the Leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn <p><strong><em>Aim:</em></strong><em> To rationalize the macroscopial, microscopical and physico-chemical studies on leaves of plant Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. </em><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong><em> The pharmacognostic characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy and powder microscopy of plant Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves. The crude ethanolic extract of leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. was using physico-chemical parameters, and preliminary phytochemical investigation (TLC). </em><strong><em>Results:</em></strong><em> The microscopic study shows the general characteristic of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves.</em> <em>Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various phytochemical groups like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolic, tannins constituents. </em><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>It can be concluded that the established pharmacognostic profile of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves will be helpful in developing pharmacopoeial standards for correct identification and quality control. The present observation will also be helpful in macroscopical and microscopical on leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Nyctanthes arbor-tristis,</em> <em>Pharmacognostical Study, Macroscopial and Microscopical studies</em></p> Rohit Kumar Bijauliya Pushpendra Kannojia Pankaj Mishra Prashant Kumar Singh Rahul Kannaujia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 30 34 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4914 New Smartphone Based Colorimetric Method Development and Validation of Emtricitabine in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form <p>The novel smartphone based colorimetric application called PhotoMetrix-PRO has been used for quantitative analysis of Emtricitabine in bulk and tablet dosage form and it compared with conventional UV –visible spectrophtotometry. Smartphone based colorimetric method and UV method was based on detection of intensity of color with increasing concentration Ammonium metavanadate (inorganic oxidizing agent) which was used for preparation Mandeline reagent they used as coloring agent for colour development .The reagent is orange red colour but when it react with Emtricitabine it convert into green color complex. The developed methods have good linearity 50-250μg/ml. The color intensity of API increase with increasing concentration. All images were captured through mobile phone and analysed in PhotoMetrix PRO application. This application convert image into Red, Green and Blue(RGB)histogram and regression models were built into PhotoMetrix-PRO Application both the method have correlation coefficient R<sup>2</sup>&gt;0.995.The LOD and LOQ for PhotoMetrix PRO&nbsp; 4.77μg/ml and14.92μg/ml and UV-visible spectrophotometry method 4.99 μg/ml and 14.96 μg/ml respectively. The % RSD of Emtricitabine by PhotoMetrix PRO and UV method was 99% (%RSD &lt;2). Appling statistical tool i.e paired two test on both the methods result indicate that both methods are equally significant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Smartphone, PhotoMetrix PRO, UV Spectrophotometry, RGB</p> Yashashree Mane Rajashree Mashru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 35 40 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4933 Formulation and Evaluation of Oral dispersible Tablet of Paroxetine Hydrochloride <p>Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) is one such novel approach which helps to increase user acceptance by virtue of rapid disintegration, self-administration without water or chewing. ODTs are solid unit dosage forms like the conventional tablets containing super disintegrants, which help them to disintegrate and/or disperse rapidly in the mouth within few seconds. The orodispersible tablet of Paroxetine hydrochloride was prepared by using direct compression method and the tablet were formulated using various concentration of Kyron T-314 as disintegrating agent, PVP K-30 as binder, F melt Type C as diluent, Sodium Saccharin as sweetening agent, talc as lubricant and Aerosil as glidant respectively. All the batches were prepared according to Factorial design. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various parameters like hardness, dissolution, friability, weight variation, disintegration time. Batch F5 was found to be the best batch as the disintegration time is minimum (26seconds) and better drug release profile. Orodispersible tablets of Paroxetine Hydrochloride were successfully formulated by which first pass metabolism could be avoided and faster onset of action could be achieved.</p> Ria Shah Disha Patel Dhruvanshi Kothari Hetvi Shah Aishwarya Chavda Manan Patel Riddhi Trivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 41 47 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4921 Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Calendula officinalis Flowers Extract <p><strong>Background: </strong>The present study is an attempt to explore the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of flower of <em>Calendula officinalis</em>. Various doses of ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, <em>Pheretima posthuma</em>. <em>Calendula officinalis </em>Linn has been widely used in homeopathic medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities, which include antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral,antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The ethanol extract of air dried flowers powder (500g) was prepared by using soxlet apparatus, concentrated and vacuum dried which gave an orange yellowish mass (60.46 g). Extract was subjected to qualitative chemical investigation of phytoconstituents such as glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, proteins, vitamins, coumarins etc.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All extracts were able to show anthelmintic activity at 10mg/mL concentration. The activities are comparable with the standard drugs, piperazine citrate and albendazole. The data were found statistically significantly by using one way Anova at 5% level of significance (p&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>All the doses of ethanolic extract of <em>calendula officinalis </em>showed dose dependent anthelmintic activity in comparison to standard drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Calendula officinalis</em>, Asteraceae, Anthelmintic, Piperazine citrate, Albendazole</p> Alok Bhardwaj Khursheed Alam Devender Pathak Shahid Ansari Vandana Arora Sethi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 48 50 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4944 Knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to smoking among Burkinabé people residents of Dakar (Senegal) on World No Tobacco Day 2020 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The study focused on knowledge attitudes and practices vis-à-vis smoking. It was carried out by the 2020 executive office of the Collective of Burkinabé Students in Health in Senegal on World No Tobacco Day 2020. The objective was initially to assess attitudes and practices in relation to smoking smoked by industrial cigarettes and shisha then knowledge of the anti-smoking law and the possibilities of weaning that exist in Senegal and finally to know the best attitude to fight against smoking.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a descriptive cross-sectional study for analytical purposes. The sampling technique was voluntary and data collection was self-administered and took place from Monday May 25th to Saturday May 30th, 2020 via electronic questionnaires.</p> <p>The self-administered data collection technique reduced prevarication and social desirability bias. However, the lack of preliminary calculation of a sample size makes inferences in the general population difficult. The sampling technique that was voluntary exposes itself to self-selection biases. Nevertheless, the study does suggest some very important aspects of smoking among young people.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study shows that shisha is increasingly becoming the gateway to smoking among young people. It reveals that the health warnings on industrial cigarette packages are less and less dissuasive. It also shows that our study population believes that the two priority actions to be carried out to fight effectively against smoking in Senegal are on the one hand "to improve the offer of help for smoking cessation" and on the other hand " rigorously apply the punitive aspects of the anti-smoking law”.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Smoking is a global epidemic that increasingly affects young people. Tobacco control is multidimensional and requires perfect synchronization of the different actors and continuous assessment of the effectiveness of control and prevention methods.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cigarette, Shisha, Youth, Anti-tobacco control, Senegal</p> Pêngd-Wendé Habib Boussé TRAORE Jean Augustin Diegane TINE Hamadou SAWADOGO Carmen Fally Wendyam KABORE Arvis Abraham OUEDRAOGO Dono Khadidiatou OUARE Nongamanegre Ulrich Cédric OUEDRAOGO Pengdwendé Hassan Elie OUEDRAOGO Boris Angelbert GOUBA Gaëlle SANDOUIDI Hassan SANA Adama FAYE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 51 59 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4950 Profile of Bioactive Phyto-compounds in Essential Oil of Cymbopogon martinii from Palani Hills, Western Ghats, INDIA <p>Worldwide interest in use of plants based natural products (PBNPs) has been growing, and its beneficial effects being rediscovered for the development of novel drugs. Literature survey on indigenous traditional knowledge bestows ethnopharmacological potentials of PBNPs that has inspired current research in drug design and discovery; PBNPs provide baseline for the development of novel drug leads against various pharmacological targets. Studies indicate that <em>Cymbopogon martini</em> Essential Oil (CMEO) exhibit wide range of biological activities such as hepatoprotective, antifungal, insecticide, antioxidant and antibacterial. Pharmacological properties in Palmarosa Essential Oil (PEO) may be due to the presence of compounds like 4-Decen-6-yne, (Z), 2-Ethylimino-4-methyl-pent-3-enenitrile, Dihydrocarvyl acetate, 2-Methylbenzaldehyde, Geranyl butyrate, 1,5,9,9-Tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene. However, its application is limited because of the odor, color and taste. In the present study, GCMS based profile of bioactive phyto-compounds in essential oil of <em>Cymbopogon martinii</em> along with its physiochemical, biological, molecular, pharmacological and drugable properties has been envisaged.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Cymbopogon martinii</em> Essential Oil (CMEO); Pharmacological Activity; ADMET Properties; Bioactive Compounds; Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs);</p> C. Soorya S. Balamurugan Afroze Naveed Basha C. Kandeepan S. Ramya R. Jayakumararaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 60 65 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4887 Physicochemical, ADMET and Druggable properties of Myricetin: A Key Flavonoid in Syzygium cumini that regulates metabolic inflammations <p><em>Syzygium cumini</em> (Myrtaceae) is a potential medicinal plant traditionally used in indigenous systems of medicines practiced in India and elsewhere due to its functional properties against metabolic inflammations viz., anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective, and antioxidant activities. Targeting metabolic inflammation has emerged as a standalone strategy to attenuate metabolic disease. Myricetin (3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxyflavone) is one of the flavonoids from stem bark, leaf, flowers, fruits, pulp and seeds of <em>S. cumini</em>. Therefore, attention has been paid to explore bioactive potentials of this compound in <em>S. cumini</em> owing to its exemplary therapeutic prospective and health-promoting effects. Antioxidant effect of Myricetin from <em>S. cumini</em> has been though experimentally demonstrated, therapeutic potential of Myricetin has not been fully explored. In the present study, physicochemical, ADMET and druggability properties of Myricetin - a key flavonoid compound in <em>S. cumini </em>have been evaluated. Data implicates that this molecule of GRAS standard can be a novel jumble-sale lead in drug discovery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs); Drug Discovery; Pharmacological Activity; ADMET Properties; Flavonoid; Myricetin; <em>Syzygium cumini</em></p> C. Soorya S. Balamurugan S. Ramya K. Neethirajan C. Kandeepan R. Jayakumararaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 66 73 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4890 “Organs on a Chip”: Revolutionization in personalized treatment <p>“<em>Organs-on-a-chip</em>” (OOAC), involves microfluidics based biomaterial sciences, bio-engineering and cell biology majorly cell isolation and cell culturing aspects. This technology claims to develop 3-dimensional tissues structurally and physiologically in simulation to <em>in vivo</em> providing relevant results in terms of physiological and genetic aspects with virtue of its origin from human systems. In recent times, experts from diversified disciplines have developed and established many OOAC systems with an assertion of being perfect for drug research replacing convectional cell cultures and animal testing due to the technical limitations in the applicability&nbsp; of the same <em>in vivo</em> for systemic complexities and genetic variances. “<em>Organs-on-a-chip</em>” has attracted substantial interest for its wide range of applications in fields of drug research, regenerative medicine and personalized medicine. Successful development and establishments of different OOACs will contribute towards newer avenues in the path of precised personalized medicine.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Organs on a chip, personalized medicine, OOAC, 3D cell culture</p> Subhalaxmi Sahoo Priyanka Patel Meghna Goswami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 81 87 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4909 Agmatine: A potential Neurotherapeutic Agent <p>Agmatine, a natural polyamine disregarded almost for over 100 years, was discovered in year 1910. Almost after a decade, several researches on Agmatine indicated its modulatory action at multiple molecular targets such as, nitric oxide synthesis, neurotransmitter systems, and polyamine metabolism unbolt the new avenues for extensive therapeutic applications which includes neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases, antidepressant, cognitive disorders. Agmatine exerts its varied biological characteristics and therapeutic potential in diverse arena. Agmatine has been extensively researched for its neuroprotective effect in various types of neurological diseases, including stroke and trauma brain injury along with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Hypoxia /Ischemia. In the present review we have summarized the therapeutic potential of agmatine as protective and regenerative properties in the CNS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Agmatine, Neuroprotective, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, CNS disorders.</p> Neha Binjhade Vinanti Supare Shailesh Ghaywat Sagar Trivedi Kamlesh Wadher Milind Umekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 88 92 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4855 A Brief Review on Floating Drug Delivery System <p>Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was most convenient and widely used drug delivery for systemic intervention, oral administration. The main purpose of developing the FDDS is to enhance therapeutic benefits such as ease of dosing administration, patient compliance, and formulation versatility. In pharmaceuticals industries we are approaches&nbsp; to&nbsp; design single-unit&nbsp; and&nbsp; multiple-unit&nbsp; floating&nbsp; systems,&nbsp; and&nbsp; classification&nbsp; and&nbsp; formulation&nbsp; of FDDS aspects&nbsp; are&nbsp; covered&nbsp; in detail.&nbsp; This review summarizes the tablet, Floating Drug Delivery System, Type, Mechanism, and also the Advantages &amp; Disadvantages. This sort of medication delivery method is beneficial because it has enough buoyancy to float above gastric contents and stay buoyant in the stomach for a long time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:- </strong>FDDS, Floating Drug Delivery System, Therapeutic, Design, Buoyant, Gastric</p> Divya Arora Lalit Kumar Ashish Joshi Abhishek Chaudhary Pooja Devi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 93 95 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4861 Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicines in Health care system to combat COVID 19- A Validation <p>Human mankind has always been under the wrath of various epidemics viz. Spanish Flu, Asian Flu, Hong Kong Flu, influenza A-H1N1 virus, SARS in 2003, etc. The on-going COVID 19 pandemic has posed as a serious concern to humans with no proper treatment and no specific drugs against this virus. There have been various challenges to the current health care delivery system. There is dearth of reported RCTs evaluating effects of antivirals. Corticosteroid treatment has reported to have delayed coronavirus RNA clearance with its widespread use leading to development/exacerbation of fungal diseases like Mucormycosis. Various vaccines designed have many questions about their efficacy that may rise with time, as SARS-CoV-2 has numerous variants, and it can mutate over time. With limited success in developing antivirals, Complementary and Alternative medicines like Traditional Chinese medicines, Ayurvedic and homoeopathic medicines have been gaining momentums in recent years displaying promising results. Methodical researches are warranted to further evaluate the efficacy of Complementary and alternative medicines. For curtailing the devastating effects of COVID 19 requires reviewing the current health policies by integrating complementary medicine with conventional system. To channelize all the available therapeutic options to win the battle against COVID-19 is the need of hour.</p> Vaishali H. Shinde Ramesh Bawaskar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 96 100 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4932 A Review on Nanoparticles Drug Delivery System <p>The method or process of delivering a pharmaceutical ingredient to create a therapeutic effect in people or animals is referred to as drug delivery. Nasal and pulmonary routes of medication administration are becoming increasingly important in the treatment of human illnesses. These methods, especially for peptide and protein therapies, provide potential alternatives to parenteral drug administration. Several medication delivery methods have been developed for this purpose and are being tested for nasal and pulmonary delivery. Chitosan, Alginate, vanilline oxalate, zinc oxalate, cellulose, polymeric micelles, Gliadin, and phospholipid are examples of these. Multidrug resistance, a key issue in chemotherapy, can be reversed with these nanoparticles. Surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation are all well-established treatments used in cancer treatment. A nanoparticle has emerged as a potential method for the targeted delivery of medicines used to treat certain illnesses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nasal Drug Delivery, Pulmonary Drug Delivery, Nanoparticles</p> Kranti Pawar Ramanlal Kachave Madhuri Kanawade Vinayak Zagre ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 101 104 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4865 Topical Drug Delivery Therapeutics, Drug Absorption and Penetration Enhancement Techniques <p>The delivery of medications through the skin has long been a fascinating as well as difficult subject of study. For different medications, topical drug administration has brought substantial benefits over the systemic route, one of the most important of which is reduced toxicity due to minimal or no exposure to non-target organs. Because of its simplicity and affordability, topical administration is the preferred method for delivering medicinal substances locally. Topical drug delivery system includes solid powders, semisolids, liquid preparations, and sprays, among other pharmaceutical dose forms. Gels, creams, and ointments are the most often used semisolid preparations for topical medication delivery. Topical medication delivery methods allow a medicine to enter the systemic circulation at a controlled rate by penetrating the epidermal layer. New drugs are being developed utilizing the transdermal approach in addition to the existing formulations due to the inherent benefits of delivery via this route. Although low skin permeability limits its applicability, it does provide a non-invasive route of medication administration. Innovative research using penetration-enhancing technologies such iontophoresis, electroporation, microneedles, sonophoresis, and others offers promise for successful implementation of these drugs in clinical practice as consumer-friendly, transdermal dosage forms. This paper examines some of the most promising new strategies for enhancing transdermal permeability, as well as providing a scientific update on recent improvements in the topical drug delivery system. The current study focuses on the most modern methods and techniques for administering local treatment to the skin. This data can be used as a foundation for further research and development of existing methodologies and technologies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Topical drug delivery, Recent techniques, TDDS, Advances in skin delivery</p> Kamal Singh Bani Khushboo Bhardwaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 105 110 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4864 Unani Concept of Anaemia in Pregnancy (Hamla me Khoon ki Kami): An Overview <p>Anaemia is a most common disorder of Indian women especially during the age of reproduction. Anaemia in pregnancy is a condition with effects that may deleterious to mothers and foetus. Indeed, it is a known risk factor for maternal and leads to foetal complications. However, women are much better aware now about their pregnancy related conditions than they were years ago. This is not just a feminist fad but common sense for the woman who knows what is likely to happen and will be better prepared for actions in pregnancy. The WHO considers iron deficiency to the largest International nutritional disorder. According to WHO anaemia in pregnancy is present when the concentration of haemoglobin in the peripheral blood is 11gms/100ml or less. As per American college of obstetrician and gynaecologist 60-100mgs of elemental iron per day prevents iron deficiency in a pregnant woman. In Unani system of medicine number of drugs and diets are available which have preventive and therapeutic role.&nbsp; Unani physicians paid special attention to child and mother care in general as well as in pregnancy. Natural medicines are economical, easily available and relatively free of side effects. So, the present topic highlights the use of Unani medicines providing iron supplements in the treatment of early and late pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anaemia, Pregnancy, Foetal complications, Unani medicine</p> S.M. Arif Zaidi Khudeja Khatoon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 111 115 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4863 Understanding the drug delivery through nails: a comprehensive review <p>The nail unit is the largest cutaneous musculo-skeletal appendage. The management of nail disorders is an onerous task owing to the disease manifestations and anatomical structure of the nail plate. The topical treatment of nail infections/disorders has been a centerpiece of nail research in the past few decades as it offers a much safer and focused alternative to conventional oral therapy. However, transungual delivery had its challenges. This necessitated a lookout for novel approaches that enhanced treatment efficacy and reduced treatment time. Moreover, curing the nail condition using topical delivery has been challenging due to the lack of a validated animal model to determine the efficacy of the formulation and to establish a mathematical model that can help in predicting the desirable attributes of the formulation and permeation of various molecules through the nail plate. This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of nail anatomy and its disorders, factors affecting nail delivery, diagnostic procedures, current approaches, and promising approaches to treat nail infections/disorders including nail lacquers and the role of permeation enhancers, <em>in-vitro</em> models. This review also covers current available treatments and treatments under clinical trial.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Musculo-skeletal, Nail infection, Transungual, Mathematical model, <em>In-vitro</em> models.</p> BEDANTA BHATTACHARJEE NIKITA DEY DHUNUSMITA BARMAN ARKA KARMAKAR NASIMA AHMED ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 116 131 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4941 A Study on the Wound Healing Properties of Medicago sativa <p>There are lots of herbal plants are using for various treatment, food remedy etc from the prehistoric time. India has taken a great part to garage lots of herbal plants. 3-12 years lifespan containing and cool climate growing <em>Medicago sativa</em> is one of them good rank holder herbal plant. After studying the chemical constituents of <em>M. sativa</em>, it contains vitamin C, vitamin K, genistein which have great wound healing activity as well as it can cure kidney pain, cough, sore muscle, asthma etc. But it cannot take those people who are suffering breast cancer, ovarian cancer etc. At last, after overall study, <em>Medicago sativa</em> has great reflection on human and animals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Me<em>dicago sativa</em>, wound healing, vitamin C, vitamin K, genistein, food remedy.</p> Prashant Sharma Sujit Das Tanmay Mohanta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 132 135 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4940 A Review on Deprescribing in Elderly <p>Deprescribing can be defined as the process of stopping a medication or reducing its dose to reduce adverse effects and improve health outcomes. Elderly people with co morbidities usually have a risk of adverse drug events and these events can only be treated by medicines. Despite the benefits offered by these medicines, older patients are at a high risk of harm caused by these medications. The use of multiple medications for treating the comorbidities may also leads to severe health problems. Deprescribing help to reduce the risk related to inappropriate medicines. Deprescribing is usually a patient centered process which helps to withdraw drugs which are harmful to be prescribed to older patients. Several explicit and implicit tools have been developed internationally to identify these inappropriate medications. Deprescribing of inappropriate medicines would help to reduces drug-related harm and improves the quality of life of older adults.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Deprescribing, polypharmacy, older adults</p> Christy Babu Lincy George K. Krishnakumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 136 137 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4871 A Review on Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Correction of Hyponatremia in Hospitalized Patients <p>Pontine myelinolysis (PM) can be a nerve disorder represented by pons demyelination. it is characterized by damage to regions of the brain, most commonly tracts pontine substantia alba, after rapid correction of metabolic disorders such as hyponatremia. PM (Pontine Myelinolysis) is categorized into Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and extra pontine myelinolysis (EPM). The various studies revealed that quick correction of hyponatremia plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of ODS. Prevention of ODS must be conducted by gradually increasing sodium concentration of 4–6 mmol/Lin in any 24-h period. PubMed and Medline literature search was done using CPM and hyponatremia as keywords. The principal aim of this review is to encapsulate, the recent evidence from literature about the association between rapid correction of hyponatremia and central pontine myelinolysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Demyelination syndrome, EPM, CPM, Serum tonicity, Hyponatremia, Demyelination </p> Anju Joy Bincy T. Abraham K. Krishnakumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 138 140 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4876 Plausible role of Arq Ajīb in combating COVID-19: A multi-faceted review <p>The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led to a massive change in every aspect of our lives. It has grossly affected the healthcare system, business and world trade, disruption of movement and supply of essential goods and has crippled the global economy. Although few vaccines have been approved for the control of disease, targeted therapy options for this virulent disease still remain limited and elusive. Exhaustive search for potent therapeutic candidate is in progress, for which herbal armory are also being explored. Medicinal plants and their products play a vital role in alleviating various diseases and have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Plant-based drugs with antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulotry activities were hypothetically considered as potential drugs to prevent and mitigate the prevailing situation caused by SARS-CoV-2. Arq Ajīb ‘a Unani formulation’ presents compelling approach in treating numerous diseases. The ingredients of Arq Ajīb and their phytocompounds have been reported for wide-ranging pharmaco-biological activities including antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulotry, anti-allergic, antitussive and bronchodilatory activities. Scientific data available on the formulation ingredients and their phytocompounds indicates that the formulation may have a significant role in augmenting the immune status of individual, protecting them from infection and providing symptomatic relief to patients affected with COVID-19. Hence, it may be considered as a potential drug for the development of novel therapeutic candidate for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This multi-faceted review highlights the therapeutic significance and pharmacological actions of Arq Ajīb and its ingredients to demonstrate the plausible role of the formulation in combating COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Arq Ajīb, COVID-19, Pudina, Ajwain, Camphor, Unani formulation</p> Noman Anwar N. Zaheer Ahmed Shehnaz Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 141 148 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4947 Orodispersible Tablet in Treatment of Migraine: Opportunities, Challenges and Recent Advancements <p>The most comfortable and choicely path of drug administration is oral route. Orodispersible tablets bring a revolution among all routes of drug administration as well as oral route of drug administration also. Orodispersible tablets are unit dosage form but it has unique characteristics. It disintegrates in the mouth within a minute for the presence of saliva where the presence of super disintegrates in the preparation. Especially, old and child have no chance to swallow as a result it is very acceptable for them. Migraine is a very well-known irritating condition for adult and female. Migraine is a debilitating and common neurovascular illness associated with symptoms of one-sided headache, nausea with or without vomiting, photophobia and/or phonophobia. But these symptoms are subjective and vary from patient to patient. Orodispersible tablets are most important solution of migraine like emergency condition and helping human by transferring from hell to heaven. Very short half-life, quick disintegration, quick onset of action and better bioavailability brings the orodispersible tablets into the top position of the management of migraine. Sumatriptan, zolmitriptan like drugs are helping their hands to reduce migraine. Lastly, there are lots of drugs are investigating for this purpose and our hope that the orodispersible tablet can give the pioneer and will give the migraine free era to us and our futures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Orodispersible tablet, migraine, sumatriptan, super disintegrate, fast dissolving</p> Suhasis Bhattacharya Tanmay Mohanta Sujit Das Rumpa Basak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 149 156 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4878 A Review on process validation of solid dosage form <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of this work is to perform a study on concurrent validation of levonorgestrel tablet BP 0.03mg that will deliver process validation approach as a quality assurance means. The process validation program will be investigated so that the plan will be designed to the character of the procedure under study. This can be performed by checking and controlling the various critical in process parameters.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The samples from the three consecutive batches of levonorgestrel tablet 0.03mg are collected at the different stages of the manufacturing from dispensing, mixing, granulation process, drying process, blending process, compression process. Each and every parameter are analyzed and tested as per the specifications and all the data are recorded. The obtained results must be within the specified limit range.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The results obtained from the evaluation of different parameters like bulk density, tapped density, friability, hardness, weight variation, and assay were found to be within specification limit range.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>The conclusion of the concurrent process validation of levonorgestrel tablet BP 0.03mg is based on the result of the validation data of three consecutive batches. It is concluded that the manufacturing process used for levonorgestrel consistently producing the stable product meeting it is predetermined specification and quality attributes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Concurrent process validation, Process validation, Levonorgestrel, Critical process parameter.&nbsp;</p> Maulikkumar D Vaja Bhoomi D Patel Krina A Patel Ankit B Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 11 4 157 160 10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4880