Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</a>.&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> A Case Report of a Male with Systemic Lupus Erythematous with First Presentation of Annular Macular Itchy Rashes on his Extremities <p><strong>Background:</strong> Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an idiopathic autoimmune disease which impacts multiple organs and has various clinical presentations. Among all the organs, the skin is the most frequently affected.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> This case report presents a 34-year-old male who presented with severe, itchy, and painful rashes over his right arm and both legs, along with a history of pigmented skin lesions. Initially, the patient was given corticosteroid creams by a dermatologist, but the condition progressed, requiring further investigation. The patient's medical history revealed hypertension and, on review, signs of rashes, fatigue, and arthralgias were noted.</p> <p>Physical examination indicated mild swelling and tenderness in both knees. Additionally, an examination revealed his skin was warm, he had fast capillary refill (&lt;2 seconds), and he had an erythematic rash on the right arm and both legs. A nodular erythema rash was seen on the left leg, along with pigmented skin lesions on the right leg, including a bigger lesion measuring approximately 2.5 cm. Laboratory results indicated increased creatinine, low white blood cell count, anemia, and abnormal protein levels, raising doubts about SLE. Further tests confirmed a raised level of autoantibodies, low complement levels, and positive lupus-related antibodies.</p> <p>Later, the patient was referred to a rheumatologist and an SLE diagnosis was confirmed based on laboratory results and hematological manifestations, mucocutaneous involvement, and lupus nephritis. Treatment initially started with hydroxychloroquine and prednisolone, then tests were repeated and the patient underwent a renal biopsy that revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. He was again prescribed methylprednisolone and prednisolone for three days. The patient's condition resolved and he made a successful recovery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This case demonstrates the multiple clinical manifestations of SLE, the necessity of in-depth investigations, and the requirement for multidisciplinary care to address the intricacies of organ involvement in the disease.</p> Alyaa Alouthmani Ashraf ALakkad Samar Ramli Marwa Eldegwy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 1 7 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6416 Clinical study to Evaluate Safety and Efficacy of Boozidaan (Pyrethrum indicum) in the management of Niqris Muzmin (Chronic Gout) <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objectives of this study were to observe the Efficacy of unani pharmacopoeial formulation<em> Boozidan (Pyrethrum indicum</em>) for the management of <em>Niqris Muzmin (</em>Chronic gout) and to observe any concomitant and adverse effects of formulation.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This single blind, randomized and standard control clinical study was conducted between April 2021 to October 2021 for a period of 28 days. 60 patients diagnosed with chronic gout were divided into two groups, 30 Test group and 30 Control group. The test group was administered with 5g boozidaan in powder form once daily with water and the patients of control group were given tablet febuxostat 80mg once daily. Patients were followed up and improvements in subjective parameters were assessed weekly at 7<sup>th</sup>, 14<sup>th</sup>, 21<sup>st</sup>, and 29<sup>th</sup> day. Objective parameters were assessed at the baseline and at 29<sup>th</sup> day. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Both the test and control drug were effective in reducing Serum uric acid level, ESR and CRP levels.&nbsp; A significant improvement in subjective and objective parameters was observed in both test and control groups and no adverse effects were observed during and after the study.</p> <p>However, the test drug had superior efficacy in reducing the objective parameters and it was statistically significant (p-value&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Both Boozidaan and Febuxostat were safe and significantly effective in resolving the symptoms and signs of gouty arthritis and both have significant effect on reducing serum uric acid level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Boozidaan, Chronic gout, Niqris, Febuxostat, serum uric acid, unani medicine</p> JOSEE AMIN Naquibul Islam Towseef Amin Rafeeqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 8 21 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6447 Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp. Among Pregnant Women Attending General Hospitals in Delta Central Senatorial District, Nigeria <p>This study aimed to assess the prevalence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Enterococcus </em>sp. among pregnant women who visit the General Hospital in Delta Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. Samples were collected from the vaginal and rectum areas of pregnant women attending the General Hospitals of Abraka, Oghara, Udu, Ughelli North and Ughelli South. Bacteriological and biochemical analyses were conducted to isolate, characterize, and identify the bacteria. Two types of bacteria were found; <em>Enterococcus</em> sp. and <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp. The study result showed that <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (13.7%) was more prevalent than other isolates and was found in samples obtained from Udu General Hospital. In comparison, Ughelli South General Hospital had the lowest prevalence for <em>S. aureus</em> (7.9%). Samples from Oghara General Hospital had the highest prevalence for <em>Enterococcus</em> sp. (3.7%) while the lowest prevalence for <em>Enterococcus</em> sp. (1.1%) was obtained from Ughelli South General Hospital. S. aureus (51.6%) was found to be the most prevalent bacterium, while <em>Enterococcus </em>sp. (11.1%) was the least prevalent. The bacterial load from the vaginal swab samples was higher than that of rectum swab samples, which suggests that pregnant women attending these hospitals may have infections. The total bacterial count among pregnant women was highest in samples obtained from Udu General Hospital (5.4±0.5), followed by Abraka (5.0±0.6), Oghara (4.8±0.2), and Ughelli North (4.5±0.15), and while the least count was recorded from samples obtained from Ughelli South General Hospital (3.0±0.2). This study helps manage and plan future medical treatments. Pregnant women should be screened early in their pregnancies, between the 12th and 16th weeks, which is the second trimester, and treated appropriately to avoid complications that arise from untreated infections.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Prevalence, vaginal, pregnancy, women, infection</p> Olivia Sochi Egbule Emmanuel Morka Patricia Konye Omenogor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 22 26 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6441 Application of direct electric current to the corneal and conjunctival epithelia regulates the tight junctional assembly for ocular iontophoretic drug delivery <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: In this study, we determined how iontophoresis (IP) affects tight junctions (TJs) in isolated rabbit corneas and conjunctiva.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Direct electric current in the range of 0.5–2.0 and 0.5–10 mA/cm<sup>2</sup> were applied to the cornea and conjunctiva, respectively, for 30 min. The localization and expression levels of TJ-associated proteins were assessed before and after the application of the electric currents using immunostaining and western blotting.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In both corneal and conjunctival epithelia, the localization of proteins, such as claudin-1, claudin-4, occludin, and ZO-1, was temporarily altered by anodal and cathodal IP; however, the protein relocalization was slower at higher currents. Additionally, in both anodal and cathodal IP, the expression levels of claudin-1 and occludin in the cornea and conjunctiva remained unchanged after the application of the electric currents compared with those before.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our results indicated that the application of a direct electric current temporarily regulated TJ assemblies without altering the levels of TJ-associated proteins in both the cornea and conjunctiva. This temporary weakening of the paracellular barrier by the current may be responsible for the enhanced drug transport across the cornea and conjunctiva induced by ocular IP.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: ocular drug delivery, iontophoresis, electric current, cornea, conjunctiva, tight junction</p> Hidehisa Sekijima Yutaro Hazama Soichiro Kimura Yasunori Morimoto Hideo Ueda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 27 38 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6455 Blood Pressure in Relation to Age and Gender <p>Hypertension is a disease defined as persistently elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) with systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 mm Hg. Age is one the most common predictor and non-modifiable risk factor of hypertension. Hypertension is more common among older adults than adults of 40-59 years of age. Gender is another common non-modifiable risk factor of hypertension. On average, hypertension is more common among men than in women. A Prospective observational study was carried out where all the patients of either sex attending general medicine department with established hypertension above 35 years of age were included. A Chi-square test was used to find a significant association between age &amp; gender with hypertension. A p value of or lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Majority of the patients 65% were males and 35% were females and common age group was ≥60 years. CNS disorders were found in majority of the patients. Diuretics were the most prescribed class of drugs. There was a steady rise in the number of hypertensive patients with increase in age. Hypertension was more prevalent among males than in females. Factors like age and gender were found to be statistically significant associated with hypertension. Clinical pharmacist at an early stage need to monitor the BP and related risk factors and achieve the therapeutic goals, thereby enhancing the quality life span of the patient.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension, Gender, Age distribution, Clinical Pharmacist, Statistical, Blood Pressure</p> Syed Areefulla Hussainy Shaima Shereen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 39 43 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6456 Relationship between antibody titer than the Incidence of Infection After Complete Dose of COVID-19 Astrazeneca Vaccination Based on Sociodemographics <p><strong>Background</strong>: Vaccine is an essential tool to limit the health of the COVID -19 pandemic and one of the vaccines that got permitted to used is AstraZeneca Vaccine. The base of the AstraZeneca is the viral vector vaccine. This vaccine has a more advanced method that uses a modified virus to trigger antibodies to make herd immunity for people. <strong>Objective</strong>: To found correlation between antibody titer than the incidence of Covid infection after complete dose vaccination base on sociodemographics <strong>Method:</strong> Observasional prospective Cohort method was use in this study with a convenience sampling design. Inclusion criteria were all Indonesian citizens above 18 years old (n=113) who were vaccinated at UTA 45 Jakarta Vaccine Center with no history of COVID -19 before the vaccination and had filled up the informed consents. <strong>Results</strong>: there were 43 (38%) respondents infected Covid-19 after vaccinated full doses<strong>Conclusion: </strong>Base on this study, it was found that there was a correlation between sociodemographics after vaccinated full doses AstraZeneca, gender, age, comorbid, smoking, and drinking than infected Covid -19 (P-value &lt; 0.05)).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Astrazeneca vaccine, Antibody titer, COVID-19.</p> Stefanus Lukas Diana Laila Ramatillah Yufri Aldi Fatma Sri Wahyuni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 44 47 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6462 The Relationship between Patient Safety Culture and The Level of Knowledge of Health Personnel with Compliance in Patient Identification Implementation in Hospital <p>The basic principle of health care in health institutions that continues to require quality improvement is patient safety. This study aims to analyze the relationship between patient safety culture and the level of knowledge of health workers with compliance with patient identification. This research is quantitative analytical with an observational approach. Data was collected on 70 respondents by observing patient identification compliance, patient safety culture questionnaires, and the level of knowledge of health workers regarding patient identification. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficient analysis. The results of the analysis show that there is a significant relationship between patient safety culture and level of knowledge and compliance with patient identification (p = 0.000 &lt; 0.05). The findings of this study provide insight into the importance of patient safety culture and the level of knowledge of health workers in increasing their compliance in carrying out patient identification, especially in hospitals. This study suggests that management and related health workers should actively participate in implementing patient safety programs, especially those involved in patient identification, to achieve optimal patient safety outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Patient Safety Culture, Patient Identification, Hospital, Health personnel</p> Agustina Ayu Puput Fiohana Djazuly Chalidyanto Nyoman Anita Damayanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 48 53 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6457 Evaluation of Interleukin 4, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Activity of Alanine Transaminase Among Cooks in Nnewi <p>Soot arises from burning wood, oils, tires, and other hydrocarbon or organic compounds. Soot is widespread and has a massive detrimental effect on human health, climate, and air quality. The serum levels of Interleukin 4, High sensitivity C-reactive protein, and alanine transaminase activity were evaluated. This cross–sectional study recruited 90 participants consisting of 45 participants exposed to soot (test group) and 45 participants not exposed to soot (control group). The Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology Ethics Committee at Nnamdi Azikiwe University granted ethical approval, and participants’ informed consent was acquired. Interleukin 4 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were determined using the Sandwich ELISA method while the activity of alanine transaminase was determined using the spectrophotometric method. Questionnaires were used to obtain the socio-demographic data of the participants and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated using weight (kg)/height<sup>2</sup> (m<sup>2</sup>). Independent t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis and significance was set at p&lt;0.05. The results showed that the mean serum activity of alanine transaminase (9.30 ± 0.28) was significantly lower in the participants exposed to soot compared with the control (9.48 ± 0.37) (p&lt;0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the mean serum levels of Interleukin 4 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein of participants exposed to soot compared with the control (p&gt;0.05). Hence, exposure to soot through the use of firewood did not predispose cooks to systemic inflammation, or cardiovascular and hepatic dysfunctions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Soot, alanine transaminase, Interleukin 4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, inflammation</p> Augustine Chinedu Ihim Joy Chiemeka Iloka Christian Ejike Onah Patrick Chinedu Obi N Osakue Ejiofor Christopher Agbo JC Awalu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 54 59 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6439 Development of a technique for determining the viability of dormant organisms in powdered substances <p>The purposes of pharmaceutical biotechnology and quality control of probiotics containing lyophilized bacterial preparations, as well as the purpose of ensuring biological safety, require methods for rapid determination of the viability of dormant forms. This paper describes an approach to determining the viability of dry powdered substances. Lyophilized powder of <em>Kalanchoe daigermontiana</em>, dry dormant eggs of <em>Artemia salina</em>, and dry powder of <em>Lycopodium sp. </em>spores were proposed as model objects<em>. </em>Suspensions of virus-like particles (VLPs) to SARS-CoV-2 were proposed as a cell-free reference material. The following methods of elemental analysis were used in the study: X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on an energy-dispersive device, atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization, and Zeeman background correction (GZ-AAS). The free water content was determined by NMR spin echo. A new method was also used for recording the kinetics of changes in broadband radio emission in the centimeter and millimeter wavelength ranges, with a measurement duration of up to 20 minutes. Live and inactivated powdered preparations of <em>K. daigermontiana</em> and <em>A. salina</em> were prepared and characterized by elemental composition, water content, and spin-spin relaxation time (T<sub>2</sub>). For these live and inactivated preparations, it was determined that the flux density of intrinsic thermal radio emission decreases by an order of magnitude with the loss of viability. In the future, the results obtained will allow for a rapid test of the viability of lyophilized therapeutics (from medicinal plants to bacterial mixtures that stabilize the intestinal microflora).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> millimeter emission, X-ray fluorescence analysis, NMR spin echo, nanoparticles, powdered substances, medicinal plant raw materials</p> Ivan Andreevich Gaidashev Yuliana Gennadievna Nikolaeva Anton Vladimirovich Syroeshkin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 60 65 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6467 A detailed research on Antioxidant and therapeutic potential of Immuxanth implementing in silico and in vitro approach <p>Imuuxanth powder, a dietary supplement enriched with natural antioxidants, is explored for its nutritional properties and potential health benefits. The powder provides 5.26 Kcal energy, 1.90g protein, zero fat and added sugar, and 1.80g fiber per serving. Suitable for low-calorie diets, it supports protein intake, tissue repair, and muscle development. With no fat or added sugar, it aids weight management and blood sugar control. Amino acid analysis highlights its diverse essential and non-essential amino acids. GC-MS identifies flavonoids, xanthones, and carotenoids for antioxidant properties.</p> <p>Antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS) confirm Imuuxanth's potential to combat oxidative stress. Molecular docking studies predict interactions with proteins related to antioxidant effects. Top berries intensify its antioxidant activity due to active compounds. Imuuxanth powder presents promising nutritional properties, including low energy, moderate protein, and absence of fat and added sugar. Its diverse bioactive compounds contribute to potent antioxidant capabilities. In silico studies support its potential as a dietary supplement for overall health, warranting further research for specific benefits.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Immuxanth powder, Antioxandant potential, GCMS Analysis, Nutritional Analysis, Insilico Analysis</p> Rajdeep Dutta Gopal Dutta Gautam Kar Seema Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 66 79 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6405 To Carry Out Anti-Arthritic Activity of Combination of Quercetin and Curcumin Using FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant) Induced Arthritis in Laboratory Rats <p>To investigate anti-arthritic activity of Quercetin and Curcumin in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats. AA was induced by injecting with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Rats were randomly divided into six groups with 10 mice in each group: (1) Normal group (saline), (2) Vehicle control, (3) Leflunomide (LF, 10 mg/kg), (4) Curcumin (80), (5) Quercetin (40), (6) Curcumin (80) + Quercetin (40). Male SD rats were subjected to treatment with Lut at 10 mg/kg from days 18 to 24 after immunization. Arthritic scores, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), paw histopathology and the proteins of P2X4 pathway were assessed at the end of the experiment. Lut reduced the severity of arthritic scores during the experimental period as compared with positive control (RA). Lut significantly suppressed TNF-α and IL-1 as compared with RA group. Histopathological examination indicated that Lut alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells and synovial hyperplasia as well as protected joint destruction. Lut significantly suppressed inflammatory cells, and Caspase-1p10. Quercetin and Curcumin may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammation and arthritis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rheumatoid arthritis, anti-arthritic activity, Quercetin, Curcumin<strong>, </strong>Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Leflunomide, histopathology.</p> Ajay Sunil Sabale Anjali Sunil Sabale Gajendra Kale Arati Machale H. V. Kamble Supriya Hambir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 80 87 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6463 Formulation and Evaluation of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride Loaded Cubosomal Gel for Ocular Delivery <p>This study aimed to develop and evaluate an ocular, prolonged-release cubogel formulation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MX) to treat conjunctivitis. Using glycerol monooleate and poloxamer 407 in varying concentrations, a cubosome containing the antibiotic MX was developed using a top-down approach. Further, by dispersing optimized cubosomes in a cold in-situ gelling system, MX cubogels were prepared.&nbsp; Following Higuchi's release kinetic model, formulations MA4, MA8, MA11, and MA14 released 95.84, 95.77, 97.45, and 97.68% of MX after 12 hours. The in-vitro corneal permeation study showed that the goat cornea absorbed 81% of MX cubogel than conventional formulations. From the results of antibacterial and histopathological studies, the selected formulations were safe for ocular administration. This study concluded that MX cubogel may be a suitable alternative to conventional eye drops due to its increased permeability and sustained release characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<em>: </em></strong>Conjunctivitis<strong>, </strong>Cubosome, Glycerol monooleate, Moxifloxacin hydrochloride Poloxamer 407</p> A Bhageerathy V V Prasanth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 88 99 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6464 Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Novel Depsides as Potential Antibacterials <p>Sixteen depsides were synthesized to screen for their antibacterial activity. All of them were reported for the first time. Their chemical structures were clearly determined by FTIR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, ESI mass spectra. All the compounds were assayed for antibacterial and antifungal activities against two Gram-positive bacterial strains (<em>Bacillus subtilis</em> ATCC 6633) and (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 29747)and two gram-negative bacterial strains (<em>Escherichia coli</em> ATCC 8739) and (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>ATCC 25619) the MIC and zone of inhibition calculated by cup-plate method and serial dilution method and two fungal strains (<em>Aspergillus niger</em> ATCC 90292) and (<em>Candida albicans</em> ATCC 24433)by the micro-broth dilution method.Compound2-(2- propoxy -2-oxoethylphenyl (4-methoxyphenyl)acetate(P<sub>6</sub>) and 2-(2- propoxy-2-oxoethylphenyl(4-methylphenyl)acetate(P<sub>7</sub>) showed powerful antibacterial activities against <em>E. coli </em>with MIC of 2.0 40mg/ml while compound 2-(2- propoxy -2-oxoethylphenyl(4-methylphenyl)acetate (P<sub>7</sub>) and 2-(2- propoxy -2-oxoethylphenyl and (3-methoxyphenyl)acetate (P<sub>8</sub>) exhibited significant antibacterial activities against <em>B. subtilis</em> with MIC of 3.12 40mg/ml, which were superior to the positive controls amoxycillin trihydrate and ciprofloxacin HCl, respectively and compound 2-(2- propoxy -2-oxoethyl) phenyl 4-methylbenzoate (P<sub>8</sub>) was found to have highest antifungal activity against <em>Candida albicans</em> ATCC 24433. On the basis of the biological results, quantitative structure activity relationships were discussed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Depsides, Antibacterials, Antifungal, Quantitative structure activity relationship.</p> Manoj Kumari More ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 100 105 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6474 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomal gel using Tretinoin and Clindamycin combination <p>The objective of the present study was to formulate topical Niosomal gel loaded with combination of Tretinoin, also known as&nbsp;all-<em>trans</em>&nbsp;retinoic acid&nbsp;(ATRA), and Clindamycin for the beneficial of acne patients, to provide sustained release effects, to prevent their side effects. Purpose of this study was to develop a stable formulation that allows progressive follicle penetration and increased efficacy. Niosomes was prepared by ether injection method. Preformulation studies such as melting point, FTIR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, solubility, partition coefficient (log P) were performed for both drugs. In preformulation study, FTIR spectrum reveals that drugs were in pure state. Combination of Tretinoin and clindamycin reveal better therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance as compared to individual agent. From the research findings, it can be concluded that Tretinoin as well as Clindamycin hydrochloride was successfully integrated into niosomal gel by ether injection method for topical application in the treatment of acne.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Niosomes; Tretinoin (ALL TRANS RETINOIC ACID); Clindamycin; Carbopol gel; Acne; Ether injection method.</p> Palak Palak Ritu Rani Rajesh Kumar Ajeet Pal Singh Amar Pal Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 106 114 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6477 Synthesis and characterizations of Hg (II) Complex of Macrocyclic complexes compounds Tetradecahydrodibenzo hexaazacyclooctadecine with HgX2 (X= Cl, Br) by Hirshfeld analysis and antimicrobial activity <p>This study examines the synthesis and characterization of a macrocyclic complex molecule having the general formula [M-LX<sub>2</sub>], where M =Hg (II) with schiff base Tetradecahydrodibenzo hexaazacyclooctadecine ligands. Resulted from the interaction between mercury and the diethyl triamine and benzene- 1, 2 diol in an ethanolic solution. Schiff base and its novel mercury (II) Complexes were studied vibrational in the solid state using spectral, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, IR, UV, and antimicrobial activity approaches. We were able to establish the coordination mode of the metal in complexes by comparing the changes in the ligands' and complexes' FT-IR and UV-Visible spectra.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>MERCURY (II), Schiff bases, IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, PXRD Spectroscopy.</p> Anil Kumar Pal Amit Jaiswal Dharmendra Kumar Sahu Ranjeet Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 115 121 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6476 A Comprehensive Review of Tamaric gallica Linn.: A Herbal Haemostat with special reference in Unani Medicine <p><strong>Background and aim</strong><em>: Tamarix gallica L</em>. is commonly known as “<em>Jhau</em>”. These deciduous, herbaceous, twiggy shrub or small tree reaching up to about 5 meters high and mainly found in the salty regions and is found between interdunal areas of the desert. It has enormous potential and having a broad spectrum of activity on a variety of illnesses such as leukoderma, eye diseases, teeth disorder, any type of hemorrhage, spleen disorders etc. This review aims to compile maximum information available, regarding its various traditional uses, pharmacognosy, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities to enrich our knowledge about this plant.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: A manual literature survey of classical Unani texts such <em>as&nbsp;</em><em>Khazā’in al-Adwiya, Tanqīh-al-Mufradāt, Bustān-al- Mufradāt, Muḥīṭ-i-A‘ẓam</em> and online literature survey from Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochrane library, science direct was conducted to collect the information available on the plant <em>Tamarix gallica. </em></p> <p><strong>Result and discussion</strong>: The findings of the literature survey on the basis of previous phytochemical analyses of this plant revealed the presence of a number of components, some of which are tannin, tannic acid, tamarixin, significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidants like carotenoids and essential oils which are extracted from various parts of the plants. Its reported pharmacological activities include anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-proliferative, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic activity and hepatoprotective activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Tamarix gallica, </em>phytochemical analyses, tannin, antioxidant, pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiproliferative, antibacterial.</p> Iram Ateeq Kouser Fathima Firdose ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 121 125 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6440 The Comprehensive Review: Exploring Future Potential of Nasopulmonary Drug Delivery Systems for Nasal Route Drug Administration <p>This comprehensive review aims to explore the future potential of nasopulmonary drug delivery systems for the administration of drugs through the nasal route. Nasal drug delivery has gained significant attention due to its numerous advantages, including rapid absorption, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, and non-invasive administration. This review provides an overview of the nasal anatomy and physiology, highlighting the factors influencing drug absorption and bioavailability. Additionally, it discusses the various types of nasopulmonary drug delivery systems, such as nasal sprays, powders, and gels, along with their advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the review delves into the challenges associated with nasal drug delivery, including mucociliary clearance, nasal irritation, and formulation issues. The potential applications of nasopulmonary drug delivery systems in the treatment of various diseases, such as allergies, respiratory disorders, and systemic conditions, are also discussed. Finally, the review concludes with an outlook on the future prospects of nasopulmonary drug delivery systems, emphasising the need for further research and development to optimise their efficacy and safety.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> nasal pulmonary; nasal spray; nasal mucosa; gels; drops; nasal approaches; nasal route; nasal delivery.</p> Rahul Pal Prachi Pandey Manju Koli Khushi Srivastava Vaisanavi Tiwari Aman Kumar Gaur Prottay Dutta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 126 136 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6444 An Overview of Niosomes <p>In recent times, there has been a significant shift towards developing targeted biological substances for the treatment of infectious diseases and vaccination. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles, known as niosomes, have emerged as a distinctive vesicular structure in contemporary drug delivery methods due to their biological breakdown, compatibility, chemical resistance, cost-effectiveness, ease of manufacturing and preservation, and low toxicity. The progress in nanocarrier technology has garnered attention for its safety and associated advantages, including enhanced therapeutic administration with diverse pharmacological effects, improved targeting capabilities, and reduced side effects. Niosomes serve as vesicular carriers for drugs, composed of non-ionized surfactants, cholesterol or analogs, and charged molecules that enable controlled and targeted drug delivery. They are categorized as unilamellar, oligolamellar, or multilamellar structures. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of niosomes, covering their structure, types, formulation methods, characterization, advantages and disadvantages, preparation techniques, influencing factors, evaluation criteria, applications, and currently available formulations in the market.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Niosomes, drug delivery system, methods of Preparation, Applications.</p> Pardeep Kaur Ritu Rani Ajeet Pal Singh Amar Pal Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 137 146 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6450 Unani perspective of Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) beyond a spice <p><strong>Background:</strong> Saffron is a significant medicinal herb that has a lot of potential for use in the development of new drugs. Since ancient times, saffron (<em>Crocus sativus</em> L.) has been associated with various health benefits in various parts of the world. Some of these applications have been overlooked over time. However, interest in naturally occurring active compounds has rekindled interest in saffron's past applications and the best applications for saffron today can be aided by knowing its various historical uses. It was prized as a culinary spice as well as a perfume, color, and medicinal herb. It was used medicinally in many different cultures to treat a wide range of ailments, from genitourinary to eye problems. In many countries, it was also used as an antidepressant and tonic substance.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the traditional and modern uses of <em>Crocus sativus</em>, with particular attention to its chemical makeup, pharmacological characteristics, and ethnobotanical description.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Scientific databases and publications about the chemical profile, biological activity, and historical use of saffron were included in the literature search.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Saffron is <em>bitter, acrid, fragrant, stimulant, tonic, stomachic, aphrodisiac, anodyne</em>, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diuretic, laxative, galactagogue, and helpful in treating bronchitis, vomiting, fever, melancholia, hepatomegaly, etc. it is widely used in alternative medicine, such as the Unani System of Medicine, Ayurveda, and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Saffron has been the subject of numerous phytochemical and biochemical studies due to its extensive use in traditional medical systems. These studies have revealed that saffron contains a number of constituents, including crocetin, safranal, and crocins, the latter of which is primarily responsible for pharmacological actions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords; </strong>saffron, medicinal herb, unani medicine, crocetin, safranal, emmenagogue.</p> Ghulam Nabi Wani Afifa Naaz Wajeeha Begum Shavana Fathima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 147 153 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6466 A Traditional Review: The Utilization of Nutraceutical as a Traditional Cure for the Modern World at Current Prospectus for Multiple Health Conditions <p>Nutraceuticals refer to food products that have a positive impact on the well-being of individuals. This category includes dietary supplements, herbal products, probiotics, and prebiotics, as well as medical foods designed for disease prevention and treatment. The nutraceutical market is witnessing substantial growth worldwide, primarily due to the growing awareness among consumers about the connection between diet and health. Additionally, there is a rising demand for functional foods and dietary supplements. As consumers prioritize preventive healthcare, they are increasingly looking for products that provide targeted health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The rise of this trend can be attributed to various factors, including the aging population, rising healthcare expenses, and a preference for natural and organic ingredients. Nutraceuticals, as a major force in the industry, offer numerous beneficial effects with minimal undesirable impacts, thus attracting more consumer interest. The increasing shift towards preventive treatments, along with the growth in disposable income and a positive market outlook for the pharmaceutical sector, has primarily contributed to the expanding nutraceutical market in India. However, challenges such as the lack of regulation and awareness, high pricing, marketing, and distribution issues need to be addressed. Nutraceutical market is seeing flowing development chiefly in United States, India, and European nations. This review article primarily focuses on providing a concise overview of nutraceuticals, categorizing them, and discussing their significant roles in various health conditions. Additionally, it delves into the present and future status of nutraceuticals on a global scale.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> traditional cure; nutraceuticals; remedy; prebiotics; probiotics; regulatory compliance; supplementary diets; nutraceutical ingredients.</p> Prachi Pandey Rahul Pal Manju Koli Raj Kumar Malakar Sandeep Verma Narendra Kumar Pavan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 154 163 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6445 Therapeutic potential of Nankhawah/Ajwain (Tracyspermum ammi Linn): A comprehensive review article <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em> Linn., commonly known as <em>ajwain</em>, is a widely recognized spice and medicinal plant originating from Egypt but cultivated across regions such as Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Belonging to the <em>Apiaceae</em> family, this species offers diverse pharmacological benefits due to its rich chemical constituents.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This review aims to summarize the traditional and contemporary applications of <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em>, focusing on its ethnobotanical description, chemical composition, and pharmacological aspects.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: The literature search encompassed scientific databases and publications covering the historical usage, chemical profiling, and biological activities of <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>Trachyspermum ammi</em> exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities, including antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and anthelmintic properties. Traditionally, it has been employed to treat conditions such as flatulence, atonic dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pain, piles, bronchial issues, lack of appetite, galactogogue, asthma, and amenorrhea as it possesses properties of <em>Muhallil,</em> <em>Mudirr-i-Bawl-o-Hayd</em>, <em>Dafa e Tafun</em>, <em>Jali</em>, <em>Habis</em> etc. Modern research supports these claims while also revealing its potential in treating kidney stones, abortion, and aflatoxin detoxification.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Trachyspermum ammi holds great promise as a natural resource for novel therapies, owing to its extensive array of bioactive components and established pharmacological effects. Further investigation into its mechanisms of action and optimization of extraction techniques could lead to more efficient utilization of this valuable medicinal plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Ajwain</em>, <em>Nankhawah</em>, <em>Trachyspermum Ammi</em> Linn, <em>Mudirr-i-Bawl-o-Hayd</em>, <em>Hazim, </em>Thymol, Appetizer.</p> Afifa Naaz Ghulam Nabi Wani Wajeeha Begum Shavana Fathima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 164 169 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6479 Current Perspective in Mixed Pain <p>Pain is one of the 10 leading causes of medical consultation worldwide and is the alarm symptom of the organism in situations that threaten its integrity, however, when it becomes chronic, it loses its protective capacity and becomes, in many cases, the disease itself.</p> <p>According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) pain is classified as nociceptive, neuropathic and nociplastic. Mixed pain has been described years ago due to the coexistence of different types of pain.</p> <p>We can conclude that we do not have a screening tool and/or treatment algorithm for mixed pain, so it is preferable that pain management begins with a rigorous assessment, using the latest available tools, followed by individualized evidence-based treatment with multimodal therapy when appropriate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, mixed pain.</p> María del Rocío Guillén-Núñez Angel Manuel Juárez-Lemus Berenice Carolina Hernández-Porras Daniela Hernández-Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 170 173 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6451 Exploring the Neuroprotective Effects of Intermittent Fasting: A Comprehensive Review on its Impact on Neurological Diseases <p><strong>Background:</strong> Intermittent fasting has various benefits for brain health, owing to the physiological alterations occurring in the human body during intervals of fasting. Fasting induces a metabolic condition that improves neuronal bioenergetics, plasticity, and resilience, potentially counteracting a variety of neurological disorders.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>In the current research, we reveal the impact of IF (Intermittent Fasting)on neurological diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A literature review was conducted to create recent studies on how IF impacts neurological illnesses, including neurodegenerative diseases and Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Fasting decreases the production of inflammatory mediators including homocysteine, IL6, and C-reactive protein which could reduce the creation of plaques that lead to atherosclerosis, which is the primary cause of stroke in individuals. IF and ketogenic diets involve significant mechanisms, including enhanced beta-hydroxybutyrate, that have been linked with improved seizure management in certain studies, as well as the induction of other systems that work together to sustain synaptic activity. IF may also improve health and QoL (Quality Of Life)&nbsp; for those who have relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis. IF could prove to be a beneficial dietary treatment for the prevention and/or deceleration of dementia progression.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The creation of a self-empowering, affordable, and effective treatment alternative for a range of neurological issues in a time of rising medical costs and a rise in neurological diseases. In the future, if these studies are given priority, fasting regimens will be advised in addition to medication-based strategies, leading to the development of a single metabolic strategy that can alter the course and symptoms of the most prevalent and impairing neurological disorders that currently exist.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Intermittent Fasting, Neurological disease, Brain health. </p> Marudhachalam jeevitha R Shanmuga Sundhram R Sambath Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 174 178 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6486 Nanotechnology at Work: Hydrogel Drug Delivery Architectures <p>Hydrogels represent three-dimensional, interconnected networks known to absorb substantial amounts of H<sub>2</sub>O but at the same time, being insoluble in the aforementioned solvent. Their exceptional hydrophilic nature, biocompatibility and diverse therapeutic potential position them as highly promising biomaterials within biological and biomedical fields. These materials, on account of their innoxious innate characteristics and safe utilization, have garnered widespread acceptance across tremendous and diverse biomedical applications ranging from traditional therapies to state-of-the-art advancements. This extensive review incorporates a spectrum of varied types of hydrogels, elaborating on both their chemical, physical aspects and also throws light on the rheological, analytical and spectroscopic tools employed for their characterization. It also continues to elaborate on the various mechanisms of gelation for facilitating a better understanding of the topic under discussion. The review also discusses the different strategies which are substantiated in recent times to expand the utilisation of hydrogels. The primary intent of this review is to render a comprehensive understanding of hydrogels as an ideal drug delivery system to undergraduates, graduates, biomedical students and researchers across the globe. It also targets to unravel the fundamental, applied and general aspects of hydrogels, offering valuable insights to help individuals associated with multidisciplinary research and application spheres.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gelation, Biocompatibility, Cross-linking, Smart hydrogels, Polymerization, Architecture, Polymer network</p> Shubhangi Aher Dipti Solanki Aparna Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 179 196 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6465 Outbreak Over Monkey Pox Virus in Human: Immediate Countermeasures from the Endemic to Non-Endemic Regions <p>A zoonotic orthopoxvirus called human monkeypox has symptoms that resemble smallpox. When people come into contact with diseased animals, they may unintentionally contract monkeypox. According to reports, the virus can also spread through close physical contact, such as skin-to-skin contact or sexual contact, respiratory droplets, and by household items like towels and blankets. There are numerous medical countermeasures on hand for orthopoxviruses like monkeypox. Monkeypox, which originated in western and central Africa, has lately been found in a integer of nations, counting Spain, Canada, Australia, and the United Arab Emirates. Despite its extremely low incidence rate, it nonetheless poses a serious concern that needs to be addressed as soon as possible because of the strong likelihood that it will spread to many other nations. Outside of endemic areas, the danger of monkeypox transmission in medical settings is not well known. One recorded instance of transmission was found after a quick assessment of the literature from 2000 to 2022, which also included cases outside of areas where monkeypox is endemic. It is unusual for monkeypox to recur in non-endemic nations. It is a zoonosis that can extend from animal to human and from human to human, and it has clinical characteristics comparable to smallpox. The latest outbreaks may be attributed to lowered resistance to the orthopoxviruses, movement of people from widespread to non-endemic areas, hereditary alterations in the viral genome, and diminished observation.&nbsp; Transmission and pathogenicity could be avoided with the use of a multifaceted strategy that includes health education, monitoring human mobility, the development of diagnostic tools, and an efficient vaccination.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Monkeypox, Outbreak, Orthopoxvirus, Epidemiology, Vaccination, Virology, Public health, Preventive measures</p> Sameeksha Jain Megha Jha Anjali Singh Rashmi Haldkar Deepak Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 197 201 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6472 A Basic Review on Hypertension, its Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological Treatment <p>Hypertension (HTN) Is Prevalent Leading Health Issue Around the World. It is significant cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors? The term "high blood pressure" refers to hypertension. It is long term condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries continuously increased. Distribution of HTN in developed nation, in obese, elderly, pregnancy and now a day’s teenager is also affected. The pathological mechanisms involved in HTN are genetics, sympathetic nervous system over activity, gender differences, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance, obstructive sleep apnoea, racial and ethnic factors, and many others. it can be prevented by reducing salt intake, weight loss, exercise, smoking cessation. There are many drugs are available for the treatment of this and its combination therapy is more effective. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current state of the disease's management are covered in this study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance</p> Anjali Singh Vishal Vishal Ankit Kumar Sonam Sonam Nitin Kumar Neelam Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 202 209 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6473 Animals Use to Find Anxiolytic Activity: An Updated Review with Advantage of Each Model <p>Anxiety affects both humans and animals in profound ways, and understanding its psychological and biological components is essential to the development of anxiolytic medications. Animal models are utilized as simulations to explain emotional activities and as screening tools in anxiety research. Rats are the animal model used most often; mice, a more genetically flexible mammal, do less well in animal models. Behavioral investigations need careful consideration of changeable characteristics related to handling, climate, or models. To help us better understand the neurobiological elements of anxiety, the most recent experimental anxiety models such as the elevated plus maze apparatus, light-dark model, open field apparatus, and hole board apparatus are being examined. Psychopharmacological disorders affect one in seven Indians; nevertheless, adverse effects include weight gain, cramping in the muscles, dysphoria, upset stomach, blurred vision, and issues with blood tests may occur. In order to improve our knowledge of the animal models used to determine the anxiolytic action in mice, we will talk about pertinent animal models that have been established in this article.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anxiolytic activity, Anxiety, Elevated zero maze, Plus maze, Elevated T maze, light and dark box model and Mirrored chamber, Animal models</p> Akash Akash Ritu Rani Ajeet Pal Singh Amar Pal Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 210 217 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6488 Niosomal Drug Delivery System used in Tuberculosis <p>Niosomes are artificially manufactured vesicles made of Cholesterol and Non-ionic surfactant. Their capacity to encapsulate a broad variety of pharmaceuticals and shield them from deterioration has piqued interest in drug delivery. Niosomes have demonstrated a possible use in the administration of anti-tuberculosis medications. Worldwide, tuberculosis is a serious public health concern. Even with advances in science and technology, tuberculosis remains a persistent problem.Niosomes can encapsulate anti-TB drugs, protecting them from enzymatic degradation and allowing for sustained release. Research in this field is on-going, with scientists working on optimizing niosomal formulations for tuberculosis treatment. It's important to consult current scientific literature for the latest advancements. Some anti-tubercular drugs face challenges in terms of absorption and bioavailability. Niosomal delivery systems can help address these issues. While niosomal drug delivery systems show promise, it's crucial to note that they are still an area of active research and specific formulations and protocols may vary. Patients should always consult with their healthcare providers for the most appropriate and up-to-date treatment options for tuberculosis. Niosomes can encapsulate both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, offering advantages such as increased drug stability, prolonged circulation time, controlled release, and targeted delivery. They have applications in various fields including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agriculture.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tuberculosis, Niosomes, Drug delivery system</p> Oma Shanker Arsh Chanana Pooja Gupta Aditya Narayan Yukta R. Kulkarni Akhilesh Patel Ujwal havelikar Bhabesh Mahato Ravindra Pal Singh Himmat Singh Chawra Anurag Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 218 226 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6475 The Correlation Between Stigma and Mental Health Disorders in People Living with HIV/AIDS <p>Stigma remains a significant challenge for people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA) despite the advances that have been made in HIV care and treatment. It is known to affect health care outcomes including care seeking habits and medication adherence. In addition to contributing to poor health outcomes, stigma is known to increase the risk of developing mental health disorders. Various researchers have found a correlation between stigma and mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, mental distress, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation. The aim of this review is to explore the association between stigma and mental health disorders in PLWHA. It identifies common mental health disorders found in people living with HIV and how these disorders are linked to stigma. The review also identifies how stigma and mental health disorders affect healthcare outcomes of PLWHA. The review concludes by providing a number of measures that can help to end stigma and improve overall health outcomes of PLWHA.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> stigma, HIV-related stigma, HIV/AIDS, mental health disorders, people living with HIV/AIDS</p> Pallav Dave ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 227 233 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6490 Hepatitis Screening in Community Pharmacies as a Measure of Reducing the Rate of Infections <p>The burden of dealing with HBV and HCV still remain despite the progress that has been made in screening, vaccination, and treating the infections. On average, there about 354 million cases of hepatitis globally. Hepatitis has high mortality rates. On average, 1.1 million people lose their lives to the infections each year. Addressing hepatitis requires rigorous measures one of them being increasing screening. Hepatitis infections are identified through screening. As such, screening and taking the right preventative and treatment measures can help to reduce the risk of infections. However, screening is still a challenge. The number of people who screen for hepatitis remains low despite the efforts that have been put in place to increase uptake. The uptake of screening is low because of inadequate access to screening centers. Thus, increasing screening settings can help to increase uptake. Community pharmacies can help to bridge this barrier by making screening more accessible. They are accessible and in close proximity to vulnerable populations, which makes them ideal as screening settings. This review explores the potential of community pharmacies as screening settings for HBV and HCV and whether they can help to reduce the rate of infections.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> screening, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, community pharmacies </p> Pallav Dave ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 14 3 234 239 10.22270/jddt.v14i3.6478