A Basic Review on Hypertension, its Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological Treatment

  • Anjali Singh Research Scholar, Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Saharanpur, UP, 247341
  • Vishal Vishal NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research, Meerut-Hapur Road, Phaphunda, UP, 245206
  • Ankit Kumar Katyayani College of Education, Karnal - Meerut Rd, Badruddinnagar Nanu, Meharmati Ganeshpur, UP, 250341
  • Sonam Sonam Saraswathi College of Pharmacy, National Highway -24, Anwarpur, Pilkhuwa, District- Hapur, UP, 245304
  • Nitin Kumar Shri Venkateshwara University, Rajabpur, NH-24, Venkateshwara Nagar, Gajraula, UP, 244236
  • Neelam Sharma Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Bela, National Highway 88, Nadaun, HP, 177033


Hypertension (HTN) Is Prevalent Leading Health Issue Around the World. It is significant cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors? The term "high blood pressure" refers to hypertension. It is long term condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries continuously increased. Distribution of HTN in developed nation, in obese, elderly, pregnancy and now a day’s teenager is also affected. The pathological mechanisms involved in HTN are genetics, sympathetic nervous system over activity, gender differences, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance, obstructive sleep apnoea, racial and ethnic factors, and many others. it can be prevented by reducing salt intake, weight loss, exercise, smoking cessation. There are many drugs are available for the treatment of this and its combination therapy is more effective. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current state of the disease's management are covered in this study.

Keywords: Hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance

Keywords: Hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Anjali Singh, Research Scholar, Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Saharanpur, UP, 247341

Research Scholar, Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Saharanpur, UP, 247341

Vishal Vishal, NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research, Meerut-Hapur Road, Phaphunda, UP, 245206

NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research, Meerut-Hapur Road, Phaphunda, UP, 245206

Ankit Kumar, Katyayani College of Education, Karnal - Meerut Rd, Badruddinnagar Nanu, Meharmati Ganeshpur, UP, 250341

Katyayani College of Education, Karnal - Meerut Rd, Badruddinnagar Nanu, Meharmati Ganeshpur, UP, 250341

Sonam Sonam, Saraswathi College of Pharmacy, National Highway -24, Anwarpur, Pilkhuwa, District- Hapur, UP, 245304

Saraswathi College of Pharmacy, National Highway -24, Anwarpur, Pilkhuwa, District- Hapur, UP, 245304

Nitin Kumar, Shri Venkateshwara University, Rajabpur, NH-24, Venkateshwara Nagar, Gajraula, UP, 244236

Shri Venkateshwara University, Rajabpur, NH-24, Venkateshwara Nagar, Gajraula, UP, 244236

Neelam Sharma, Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Bela, National Highway 88, Nadaun, HP, 177033

Himachal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Bela, National Highway 88, Nadaun, HP, 177033


1. Katori M, Majima M. A missing link between a high salt intake and blood pressure increase. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2006;100 :370-90 https://doi.org/10.1254/jphs.CRJ06003X PMid:16651701
2. De Leeuw PW, Kroon AA. Salt and sensitivity. Hypertension. 2013;62(3):461-2. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01831 PMid:23897072
3. Granger JP, Alexander BT, Llinas M. Mechanisms of pressure natriuresis. Current Hypertension Reports. 2002;4:152-9 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-002-0040-3 PMid:11884271
4. Lifton RP, Gharavi AG, Geller DS. Molecular mechanisms of human hypertension. Cell. 2001; 104:545-1 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00241-0 PMid:11239411
5. Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Romero F, Johnson RJ. Pathophysiological mechanisms of salt-dependent hypertension. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2007;50 :655-72 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.05.025 PMid:17900467
6. Mullins LJ, Bailey MA, Mullins JJ. Hypertension, kidney, and transgenics: a fresh perspective. Physiological Reviews. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00016.2005 PMid:16601272
7. Victor RG, Kaplan NM. Systemic hypertension: mechanisms and diagnosis. Braunwald's Heart Disease. 2008;8:1027
8. Johnson RJ, Herrera-Acosta J, et al. Subtle acquired renal injury as a mechanism of saltsensitive hypertension. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;346 :913-23 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra011078 PMid:11907292
9. Philips BG, Narkiewicz K, Pesek CA, et.al. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on endothelin-1 and blood pressure. J Hypertens. 1999;17 :61-6 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-199917010-00010 PMid:10100095
10. Trinder J, Kleiman J, Carrington M, et al. Autonomic activity during human sleep as a function of time and sleep stage. J Sleep Res. 2001;10 :253-11 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2869.2001.00263.x PMid:11903855
11. Leuenberger U, Jacob E, Sweer L, et.al. Surges of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during obstructive apnea are linked to hypoxemia. J Appl Physiol. 1995;79 :581-7 https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1995.79.2.581 PMid:7592221
12. Okabe S, Hida W, Kikuchi Y, et al. Role of hypoxia on increased blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Thorax. 1995;50 :28-6 https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.50.1.28 PMid:7886644 PMCid:PMC473701
13. Hickey KA, Rubanyi G, Paul RJ, Highsmith RF. Characterization of a coronary vasoconstrictor produced by cultured endothelial cells. See comment in PubMed Commons below Am J Physiol. 1985; 248: C550-556. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.1985.248.5.C550 PMid:3993773
14. Wagner OF, Christ G, Wojta J, Vierhapper H, Parzer S, et al. Polar secretion of endothelin-1 by cultured endothelial cells. See comment in PubMed Commons below J BiolChem. 1992; 267: 16066-16068. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)41966-7
15. Beevers G, Lip GYH, O'Brie E. The pathophysiology of hypertension. BMJ 2001; 322:912-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7291.912 PMid:11302910 PMCid:PMC1120075
16. Borrell LN, Menendez BS SP. Racial/ethnic disparities on self-reported hypertension in New York City: examining disparities among Hispanic subgroups. Ethn Dis.2011 Autumn;429-36
17. Brondolo E, Love EE, Pencille M, et.al. Racism and hypertension: a review of the empirical evidence and implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Hypertension. 2011; 24(5): 518-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2011.9 PMid:21331054
18. Borghi C, Giuseppe CAF. Serum uric acid and cardio metabolic disease: another brick in the wall. Hypertension. 2017;69:1011-1013 https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09081 PMid:28396532
19. Johnson RJ, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Mazzali M, et.al. What are the key arguments against uric acid as a true risk factor for hypertension. Hypertension. 2013;61: 948-3 https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00650 PMid:23460277
20. YC Li, Kong J, Wei M, et al. 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2002;110:229-38 https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI0215219 PMid:12122115 PMCid:PMC151055
21. Forman JP. Vitamin D and hypertension current evidence and future directions anand vaidya, Hypertension. 2010;56;774-779 https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.140160 PMid:20937970
22. Hall JE Pathophysiology of obesity hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2000;2 :139-8 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-000-0073-4 PMid:10981140
23. Rahmouni K, Correia ML, Haynes WG, et.al. Obesity-associated hypertension: new insights into mechanisms. Hypertension 2005; 45; 9-5. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000151325.83008.b4 Mid:15583075
24. Wofford MR, Hall JE. Pathophysiology and treatment of obesity hypertension. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10:3621 https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612043382855 PMid:15579059
25. Saxena TK, Maheshwari S, Saxena M. Aetiopathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus: could chronic stress play an important role. J Assoc Physicians India. 2014; 62: 484-5
26. Saxena T, Ali AO, Saxena M. Pathophysiology of essential hypertension: an update, Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. 2018; 34(3): 134-167.
27. Lastra G, Dhuper S, Johnson MS, et.al. Salt, aldosterone, and insulin resistance: impact on the cardiovascular system. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2010; 7: 577-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrcardio.2010.123 PMid:20697411
28. Zhou MS, Schulman IH, Raij L: Role of angiotensin II and oxidative stress in vascular insulin resistance linked to hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009, 296: H833-H6 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01096.2008 PMid:19151253
29. Schulman IH, Zhou MS. Vascular insulin resistance: a potential link between cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2009;11: 48-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-009-0010-0 PMid:19146801
30. Munzel T, Gori T, BabischW, et.al Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure Eur Heart J 2014; 35: 829-839 https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu030 PMid:24616334 PMCid:PMC3971384
31. Zhang M, Mueller NT, Wang H, et. al. Hypertension maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter≤ 2.5 µm during pregnancy and the risk of high blood pressure in childhood. Hypertensionaha2018; 117: 1094. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10944 PMid:29760154 PMCid:PMC6002908
32. Smoking Talukder MH, Johnson WM, et al. Chronic cigarette smoking causes hypertension, increased oxidative stress, impaired NO bioavailability, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiac remodeling in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2010;300:H388-96 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00868.2010 PMid:21057039 PMCid:PMC3023256
33. Appel LJ, Miller ER, Seidler AJ, et al: Does supplementation of diet with "fish oil" reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153:1429-1438. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1993.00410120017003
34. Lionakis N, Mendrinos D, Sanidas E, Favatas G, Georgopoulou M. Hypertension in the elderly. World journal of cardiology. 2012;4(5):135. https://doi.org/10.4330/wjc.v4.i5.135 PMid:22655162 PMCid:PMC3364500
35. Kintiraki E, Papakatsika S, Kotronis G, Goulis DG, Kotsis V. Pregnancy-induced hypertension. Hormones. 2015;14(2):211-23. https://doi.org/10.14310/horm.2002.1582 PMid:26158653
36. Mittal BV, Singh AK. Hypertension in the developing world: challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2010;55(3):590-8. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.06.044 PMid:19962803
37. Jiang SZ, Lu W, Zong XF, Ruan HY, Liu Y. Obesity and hypertension. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2016;12(4):2395-9. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3667 PMid:27703502 PMCid:PMC5038894
38. Drukteinis JS, Roman MJ, Fabsitz RR, Lee ET, Best LG, Russell M, Devereux RB. Cardiac and systemic hemodynamic characteristics of hypertension and prehypertension in adolescents and young adults: the Strong Heart Study. Circulation. 2007;115(2):221-7. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.668921 PMid:17210838
39. McNiece KL, Gupta-Malhotra M, Samuels J, Bell C, Garcia K, Poffenbarger T, Sorof JM, Portman RJ. Left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive adolescents: analysis of risk by 2004 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group staging criteria. Hypertension. 2007;50(2):392-5. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.092197 PMid:17592068 PMCid:PMC3582191
40. Tołwińska J, Głowińska B, Urban M, Pieciukiewicz B. Ultrasonographic evaluation of atherosclerotic changes in carotid and brachial arteries in obese and hypertensive children. Przeglad Lekarski. 2005;62(12):1346-51.
41. Sorof JM, Alexandrov AV, Garami Z, Turner JL, Grafe RE, Lai D, Portman RJ. Carotid ultrasonography for detection of vascular abnormalities in hypertensive children. Pediatric Nephrology. 2003;18:1020-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-003-1187-0 PMid:12883975
42. Sorof JM, Cardwell G, Franco K, Portman RJ. Ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular mass index in hypertensive children. Hypertension. 2002;39(4):903-8. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000013266.40320.3B PMid:11967247
43. Tracy RE, Newman III WP, Wattigney WA, Srinivasan SR, Strong JP, Berenson GS. Histologic features of atherosclerosis and hypertension from autopsies of young individuals in a defined geographic population: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 1995;116(2):163-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(95)05525-2 PMid:7575772
44. Chamontin B, Amar J, Barthe P, Salvador M. Blood pressure measurements and left ventricular mass in young adults with arterial hypertension screened at high school check-up. Journal of Human Hypertension. 1994;8(5):357-61.
45. Lurbe E, Álvarez J, Redon J. Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children. Current Hypertension Reports. 2010;12:480-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-010-0155-x PMid:20872099
46. Carretero OA, Oparil S. Essential hypertension: part I: definition and etiology. Circulation. 2000;101(3):329-35. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.101.3.329 PMid:10645931
47. Perloff D, Grim C, Flack J, Frohlich ED, Hill M, McDonald M, Morgenstern BZ. Human blood pressure determination by sphygmomanometry. Circulation. 1993;88(5):2460-70. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.88.5.2460 PMid:8222141
48. Prisant LM, Alpert BS, Robbins CB, Berson AS, Hayes M, Cohen ML, Sheps SG. American national standard for nonautomated sphygmomanometers summary report. American Journal of Hypertension. 1995;8(2):210-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-7061(94)00175-B PMid:7755953
49. Black HR, Weltin G, JAFFE C. The limited echocardiogram: a modification of standard echocardiography for use in the routine evaluation of patients with systemic hypertension. The American Journal of Cardiology. 1991; 67(11):1027-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(91)90178-N PMid:2018006
50. Macmohan S, Cutler J, Brittain E, Higgins M. Obesity and hypertension: epidemiological and clinical issues. European Heart Journal. 1987;8(suppl_B):57-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/8.suppl_B.57 PMid:3301356
51. Schotte DE, Stunkard AJ. The effects of weight reduction on blood pressure in 301 obese patients. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1990;150(8):1701-4. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1990.00040031701019
52. Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, Cutler JA, Borhani NO, Hennekens CH, Kuller LH, Langford H, Jones DW, Satterfield S, Lasser NL. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997;65(2):S652-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/65.2.652S PMid:9022561
53. He J, Whelton PK, Klag MJ. Dietary fiber supplementation and blood pressure reduction: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Am J Hypertens. 1996;9:L21. https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-7061(96)81697-9
54. Elliott P, Stamler J, Nichols R, Dyer AR, Stamler R, Kesteloot H, Marmot M. Intersalt revisited: further analyses of 24 hour sodium excretion and blood pressure within and across populations. BMJ. 1996;312(7041):1249-53. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7041.1249 PMid:8634612 PMCid:PMC2351086
55. Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, Brancati FL, Appel LJ, Follmann D, Klag MJ. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 1997;277(20):1624-32. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03540440058033 PMid:9168293
56. Markovitz JH, Matthews KA, Kannel WB, Cobb JL, D'Agostino RB. Psychological predictors of hypertension in the Framingham study: is there tension in hypertension. JAMA. 1993;270(20):2439-43. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03510200045030 PMid:8230620
57. Jee SH, He J, Appel LJ, Whelton PK, Suh II, Klag MJ. Coffee consumption and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2001; 153(4):353-62. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/153.4.353 PMid:11207153
58. Witteman JC, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Sacks FM, Speizer FE, Rosner B, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US women. Circulation. 1989; 80(5):1320-7. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.80.5.1320 PMid:2805268
59. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Willett WC, Sacks F, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men. Circulation. 1992;86(5):1475-84. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.86.5.1475 PMid:1330360
60. Mizushima S. Dietary magnesium intake and blood pressure: A review of the observational studies. J. Hypertens 1996;14(1):S239.
61. Arroll B, Beaglehole R. Does physical activity lower blood pressure: a critical review of the clinical trials. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1992;45(5):439-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(92)90093-3 PMid:1588350
62. Ketelhut RG, Franz IW, Scholze JÜ. Regular exercise as an effective approach in antihypertensive therapy. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004;36(1):4-8. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000106173.81966.90 PMid:14707760
63. Worthley SG, Tsioufis CP, Worthley MI, Sinhal A, Chew DP, Meredith IT, Malaiapan Y, Papademetriou V. Safety and efficacy of a multi-electrode renal sympathetic denervation system in resistant hypertension: the EnligHTN I trial. European Heart Journal. 2013; 34(28):2132-40. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/eht197 PMid:23782649 PMCid:PMC3717311
64. Symplicity HTN-1 Investigators. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension: durability of blood pressure reduction out to 24 months. Hypertension. 2011; 57(5):911-7. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.163014 PMid:21403086
65. Antihypertensive T, Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs usual care: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT). JAMA 2002;288(23):2998-3007. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.23.2998 PMid:12479764
66. Hollenberg NK. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic. Current Hypertension Reports. 2003;5(3):183-5. https://doi.org/10.1177/14746514030030040501
67. Dahlöf B, Devereux R, Faire UD, Fyhrquist F, Hedner T, Ibsen H, Julius S, Kjeldsen S, Kristianson K, Lederballe-Pedersen O, Lindholm LH. The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction (LIFE) in hypertension study: rationale, design, and methods. American Journal of Hypertension. 1997;10(7):705-13.
68. Sanoski CA. Aliskiren: an oral direct renin inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2009;29(2):193-212. https://doi.org/10.1592/phco.29.2.193 PMid:19170589
69. Costanzo P, Perrone-Filardi P, Petretta M, Marciano C, Vassallo E, Gargiulo P, Paolillo S, Petretta A, Chiariello M. Calcium channel blockers and cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of 175 634 patients. Journal of Hypertension. 2009;27(6):1136-51. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283281254 PMid:19451836
70. Psaty BM, Lumley T, Furberg CD, Schellenbaum G, Pahor M, Alderman MH, Weiss NS. Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis. JAMA 2003;289(19):2534-44. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.19.2534 Mid:12759325
71. Wing LM, Reid CM, Ryan P, Beilin LJ, Brown MA, Jennings GL, Johnston CI, McNeil JJ, Macdonald GJ, Marley JE, Morgan TO. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348(7):583-92. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa021716 PMid:12584366
72. Pitt B, Remme W, Zannad F, Neaton J, Martinez F, Roniker B, Bittman R, Hurley S, Kleiman J, Gatlin M. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348(14):1309-21. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa030207 PMid:12668699
73. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, Palensky J, Wittes J. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;341(10):709-17. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199909023411001 PMid:10471456
74. Ezekowitz JA, McAlister FA. Aldosterone blockade and left ventricular dysfunction: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. European Heart Journal. 2009;30(4):469-77. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn543 PMid:19066207
75. Worthley MI, Corti R, Worthley SG. Vasopeptidase inhibitors: will they have a role in clinical practice. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2004;57(1):27-36. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01947.x PMid:14678337 PMCid:PMC1884420
76. Daugherty SL, Powers JD, Magid DJ, Tavel HM, Masoudi FA, Margolis KL, O'Connor PJ, Selby JV, Ho PM. Incidence and prognosis of resistant hypertension in hypertensive patients. Circulation. 2012;125(13):1635-42. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.068064 PMid:22379110 PMCid:PMC3343635
77. Chrysant SG, Fagan T, Glazer R, Kriegman A. Effects of benazepril and hydrochlorothiazide, given alone and in low-and high-dose combinations, on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Archives of Family Medicine. 1996;5(1):17-24. https://doi.org/10.1001/archfami.5.1.17 PMid:8542050
78. Chrysant SG. Antihypertensive effectiveness of low-dose lisinopril-hydrochlorothiazide combination: a large multicenter study. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1994;154(7):737-43. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1994.00420070047005 PMid:8147677
79. Gradman AH, Kad R. Renin inhibition in hypertension. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008;51(5):519-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2007.10.027 PMid:18237679
80. MacKay JH, Arcuri KE, Goldberg AI, Snapinn SM, Sweet CS. Losartan and low-dose hydrochlorothiazide in patients with essential hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of concomitant administration compared with individual components. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1996;156(3):278-85. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1996.00440030072009 Mid:8572837
81. Frishman WH, Ram CV, McMahon FG, Chrysant SG, Graff A, Kupiec JW, Hsu H. Comparison of amlodipine and benazepril monotherapy to amlodipine plus benazepril in patients with systemic hypertension: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, Parallel‐Group study. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1995;35(11):1060-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1995.tb04027.x PMid:8626878
82. Philipp T, Smith TR, Glazer R, Wernsing M, Yen J, Jin J, Schneider H, Pospiech R. Two multicenter, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of amlodipine and valsartan in combination and as monotherapy in adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Clinical therapeutics. 2007;29(4):563-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2007.03.018 PMid:17617280
83. Chrysant SG, Melino M, Karki S, Lee J, Heyrman R. The combination of olmesartan medoxomil and amlodipine besylate in controlling high blood pressure: COACH, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week factorial efficacy and safety study. Clinical Therapeutics. 2008;30(4):587-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2008.04.002 PMid:18498909
84. Oparil S, Yarows SA, Patel S, Fang H, Zhang J, Satlin A. Efficacy and safety of combined use of aliskiren and valsartan in patients with hypertension: a randomised, double-blind trial. The Lancet. 2007;370(9583):221-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61124-6 PMid:17658393
85. Salvetti A, Magagna A, Innocenti P, Ponzanelli F, Cagianelli A, Cipriani M, Gandolfi E, Del Prato C, Ballestra AM, Saba P, Giuntoli F. The combination of chlorthalidone with nifedipine does not exert an additive antihypertensive effect in essential hypertensives: a crossover multicenter study. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1991;17(2):332-5. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005344-199102000-00021 PMid:1709240
86. Weir MR, Weber MA, Punzi HA, Serfer HM, Rosenblatt S, Cady WJ. A dose escalation trial comparing the combination of diltiazem SR and hydrochlorothiazide with the monotherapies in patients with essential hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension. 1992;6(2):133-8.
87. Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, Psaty BM, Koepsell TD, Wicklund KG, Lin X, Cobb L, Rautaharju PM, Copass MK, Wagner EH. Diuretic therapy for hypertension and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. New England Journal of Medicine. 1994;330(26):1852-7. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199406303302603 PMid:8196728
88. Carlberg B, Samuelsson O, Lindholm LH. Atenolol in hypertension: is it a wise choice. The Lancet. 2004;364(9446):1684-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17355-8 PMid:15530629
89. Lindholm LH, Carlberg B, Samuelsson O. Should β blockers remain first choice in the treatment of primary hypertension? A meta-analysis. The Lancet. 2005;366(9496):1545-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67573-3 PMid:16257341
90. Bradley HA, Wiysonge CS, Volmink JA, Mayosi BM, Opie LH. How strong is the evidence for use of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Hypertension. 2006;24(11):2131-41. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hjh.0000249685.58370.28 PMid:17053529
91. Wing LM, Chalmers JP, West MJ, Russell AE, Morris MJ, Bune CA, Southgate DO. Enalapril and atenolol in essential hypertension: attenuation of hypotensive effects in combination. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. Part A: Theory and Practice. 1988;10(1):119-33. https://doi.org/10.3109/10641968809046803 PMid:2832102
92. Dahlöf B, Innocenti AD, Elmfeldt D, Puig JG, Gundersen T, Hosie J, Januszewicz W, Lindström CJ, Magometschnigg D, Tanser P, Toutouzas P. Felodipine-Metoprolol Combination Tablet: Maintained Health-Related Quality of Life in the Presence of Substantial Blood Pressure Reduction. American Journal of Hypertension. 2005;18(10):1313-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.04.017 PMid:16202854
93. Frishman WH, Hainer JW, Sugg J. A factorial study of combination hypertension treatment with metoprolol succinate extended release and felodipine extended release: results of the Metoprolol Succinate-Felodipine Antihypertension Combination Trial (M-FACT). American Journal of Hypertension. 2006;19(4):388-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.10.007 PMid:16580575
94. Mehta JL, Lopez LM. Rebound hypertension following abrupt cessation of clonidine and metoprolol: Treatment with labetalol. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1987;147(2):389-90. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1987.00370020207067
56 Views | 6 Downloads
How to Cite
Singh A, Vishal V, Kumar A, Sonam S, Kumar N, Sharma N. A Basic Review on Hypertension, its Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological Treatment. JDDT [Internet]. 15Mar.2024 [cited 19Apr.2024];14(3):202-9. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6473