Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</a>.&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> editor.jddt@gmail.com (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) editor.jddt@gmail.com (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Sat, 15 May 2021 07:59:55 -0500 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Sitagliptin-induced Pancreatitis: A case report and plausible mechanism https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4679 <p>Drugs are rare cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) with an estimate incidence of 0.1-2%. We present an 63-year-man 1 week history of severe and progressive epigastric pain that radiates to the back and is worse on lying down, who was found to have lipase of more than 813 IU/L. The patient denied current alcohol use. Abdominal ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography scan did not show gallstones or biliary duct abnormalities. For his type-2 diabetes mellitus, he was taking Gliclazide and Metformin for years and Sitagliptin was the only drug added 6 months ago. He was managed conservatively with intravenous fluids, pain medications, and control of diabetes with insulin.&nbsp; Within 3 days, he improved dramatically and was discharged on diabetic diet and Gliclazide 120 mg daily with Lantos 10 units at night.&nbsp; He was instructed to avoid oral hypoglycemia agents from the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) group.&nbsp; Three weeks later, repeat computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed normal pancreas.&nbsp; On follow up; and up to 1 year, he did not have subsequent AP.&nbsp; The most plausible mechanism of such late-development of rare drug-induced AP is late-encounter with triggering factor/s for Sitagliptin in genetically-predisposed individuals. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: CT scan, diabetes mellitus, DPP-4i, metformin, pancreatitis, Sitagliptin.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, Zaneta Markova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4679 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Male genital allergy with penile oedema and severe aseptic urethritis, due to vulvovaginal candidiasis, simulating sexually transmitted infection https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4699 <p>Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are frequently encountered and more than 1 million are acquired daily.&nbsp; Genital allergy (GA), on the other hand, is another uncommon cause of sexually transmitted disorders that should be considered if no infection is identified or genital soreness persists or worsens with antimicrobial therapy.&nbsp; In this case report; we present a patient, with severe GA (type I hypersensitivity reaction) to vulvovaginal candidiasis in his sex partner.&nbsp; He was initially misdiagnosed as STD as he presented with severe penile and urethral oedema culminating in hematuria and bladder neck obstruction due to severe urethral oedema. Our systematic approach in diagnosis and hence treatment of the patient and his sex partner is outlined.</p> <p>Keywords: Candidiasis, genital allergy, penile oedema, STD, urethritis.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Hosameldin Tawfik Sallam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4699 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: an underestimated autosomal-dominant disease with variable phenotypic presentations https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4744 <p>Periodic paralysis&nbsp;(PP) diseases are autosomal dominant disorders due to gene-mutations that manifests with episodic muscle weakness and/or paralysis.&nbsp; Their mutations result in faulty ion-leaks that result in sustained muscle depolarization and inexcitability.&nbsp; The group include; hyperkalemic PP, hypokalemic PP (HypoPP type I &amp; II), normokalemic PP, thyrotoxic PP, Paramyotonia congenita and Andersen-Tawil syndrome.&nbsp; The hypoPP is the most common disorder yet is underestimated in prevalence due to missed diagnosis mimicking hysterical disorders and neurological diseases as well as the hypokalemic syndromes (Bartter, Gitelman and renal tubular acidosis).&nbsp; Moreover, and due to their considerable gene-penetrance, their phenotypic spectrum ranges from infrequent attacks to progressive muscular failure.&nbsp; In this case report we present a patient with missed diagnosis for years and describe the algorithm of his diagnosis and management.</p> <p>Keywords: chanellopathies, diagnosis, hypokalemia, periodic paralysis, treatment. </p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4744 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Physiochemical Evaluation and Determination of Chemical Constituent in Rose Petal (Rosa centifolia) https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4754 <p>Objectives:&nbsp;The purpose of the present study was to explore the Pharmacognostic parameters for the standardization of Rosa centifolia<em>&nbsp;</em>Petals.&nbsp;</p> <p>Material and Methods:&nbsp;The flowers of&nbsp;<em>Rosa centifolia</em>&nbsp;were authenticated and shade dried.&nbsp;<em>Rosa centifolia</em>&nbsp;petals were collected then macromorphological, physiochemical assessment, and the micrometric study was carried out. The dried powder form of the&nbsp;<em>Rosa centifolia&nbsp;</em>Petals was then extracted with different solvent systems alcoholic, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether, and their extractive values were calculated. Most of the phytochemicals were found in ethanol and ethyl acetate fractions. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) of the ethanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether extract was performed for important phytochemicals flavonoids and polyphenol. Flavonoids and phenolics showed their presence in all extracts with one spot in each extract for ethanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether.</p> <p>Result:&nbsp;The Physicochemical exploration showed values for moisture content, moisture sorption capacity, ash values, and extractive values which are within the limits of World Health Organization standards for the crude drug from medicinal plants. Micromeritic analysis of petal powder reveals good flowability. Ethanolic extractive values were found to be higher when compared to extractive values of, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Preliminary Phytochemical examination for the sample indicated the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, and amino acids. Rf value for flavonoid and phenolic on TLC were found to be for ethanol 0.78 and 0.77, for ethyl acetate 0.81 and 0.78, for petroleum ether 0.81 and 0.78 respectively.</p> <p>Conclusions:&nbsp;The current research would be useful to supplement the information regarding pharmacognostical characteristics, physicochemical evaluation, micrometric analysis, and phytochemical exploration in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for its identification and medicinal use.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords:&nbsp;Rosa centifolia, Macromorphological description, Physicochemical evaluation, Phytochemical screening, TLC screening.&nbsp;</p> Khushbu Singh, Dinesh Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4754 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 In vitro efficacy of fungicides on mycelial growth and spore germination of Alternaria alternata and Mucor plumbeus https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4692 <p>Tomato fruits were infected by various pathogens especially fungal pathogens under storage conditions as well as in field conditions. It was revealed that tomato fruits are attacked by <em>Alternaria alternata</em> causing <em>Alternaria</em> rot of tomato and <em>Mucor plumbeus</em> causing <em>Mucor</em> rot of tomato. Antifungal activity of some fungicides was undertaken during the present study.&nbsp; Different concentrations of fungicides brought about significant reduction in the mycelial growth and spore germination of <em>Alternaria alternata</em> and <em>Mucor plumbeus</em> under <em>in vitro</em> conditions. Hexaconozole proved highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth and spore germination of <em>Alternaria alternata</em> followed by carbendazim and copper oxychloride respectively. However, the most effective fungicide in inhibiting the mycelial growth and spore germination of <em>Mucor plumbeus</em> was hexaconozole followed by carbendazim and copper oxychloride respectively.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>In vitro</em>, fungicides, <em>Alternaria alternata</em> and <em>Mucor plumbeus,</em> mycelial growth, spore germination </p> Jahangir Abdullah Koka, Mohd Yaqub Bhat, Abdul Hamid Wani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4692 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Ethiopian Paper Currency Notes in Wolaita Sodo, Southern Ethiopia https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4704 <p>The present study was conducted to isolate pathogenic bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance pattern from Ethiopian paper currency notes in Wolaita Sodo town. A total of 240 Ethiopian paper currency notes samples in different denominations were collected from four different sources such as market, taxi drivers, fruit sellers and hotels. All the samples were processed to isolate bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and identified by different biochemical tests. Further all identified isolates were used to know the sensitivity/resistant patterns by Bauer-Kirby method based on the zone formation. Out of 240 paper currency notes samples, 120 were showed positive with four different genus such as <em>Staphylococcus </em><em>aureus</em><em>, Escherichia coli, Shigella </em>sp. and <em>Salmonella </em>sp. Among these four different genera, <em>S. aureus </em>were highly prevalent (20.8%) followed by <em>E. coli</em> (14.58%), <em>Shigella </em>sp. (10.81%), and <em>Salmonella </em>sp. (3.74%). From the selected four different sources of currency notes such as market, taxi drivers, fruit sellers and hotel, currency notes collected from market area showed the highest rate of contamination followed by taxi drivers, fruit sellers and hotel. <em>S.s aureus, E. coli, Salmonella </em>spp. and <em>Shigella </em>sp. showed resistivity varied from 70-100% against all the antibiotics. Tobramycin showed 20% effective against <em>S. aureus, </em>11.5% effective against <em>Shigella </em>spp. and 33% effective against <em>Salmonella </em>spp. while <em>E. coli</em> showed 14% sensitivity against Metronidazole antibiotics. Therefore, the present study concludes that the Ethiopian Paper currency notes contaminated with bacterial pathogens and play significant role in the transmission of human pathogenic microorganisms.</p> <p>Keywords: Prevalence, Pathogenic bacteria, Paper Currency and Antimicrobial susceptibility&nbsp; </p> Krishna Moorthy Sivalingam, Dawit Leja Dola ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4704 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Research article Toxicity Studies on Kushta Khabasul Hadeed (calcined iron rust) prepared by Classical and Muffle Furnace Methods https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4835 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Background: Though a number of studies has been carried out in terms of safety of <em>Kushta</em> but concerns have been raised about the presence of heavy metals in Unani formulations. Classical method of preparation of KKH and other <em>Kushta</em> preparation in Unani system of medicine has been found to eliminate all such issues from the end product. Hence; the present study was designed to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity study of KKH prepared by Classical and Muffle furnace methods.</p> <p><em>Objective</em><strong>:</strong> To ascertain the safety profile of <em>Kushta Khabasul Hadeed </em>(KKH) prepared by classical and muffle furnace methods.</p> <p><em>Materials and methods</em>:</p> <p>Both of the samples of KKH i.e. <em>Kushta Khabasul Hadeed</em> (KKHCM) and <em>Kushta Khabasul Hadeed </em>(KKHMFM) prepared by Classical and Muffle Furnace Methods respectively were evaluated for acute and sub-acute toxicity by OECD guidelines 423 and 407 respectively. The starting dose in the acute test was 50 mg/kg and in sub-acute test, it was 134mg, 200 mg and 400 mg/kg b.w. Effect of both of the test samples were assessed for ponderal changes, food and water intake, relative organs weights, hematological, biochemical and histopathological features of various organs.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>Both of the samples did not produce any sign of toxicity in acute toxicity study up to the dose level of 2000mg/kg b.w. In sub-acute toxicity study no mortality in any of the test groups was observed. KKHCM at different doses showed a slight decrease in food intake in all the test groups but significant difference (P&lt;0.05) was observed in the test group B as compared to plain control.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> KKHMFM was found to be relatively toxic than KKHCM at different dose levels. The study demonstrated that both the Classical and Muffle furnace methods of preparation of <em>Kushta </em>are useful for preparing KKH and also safe at the dose prescribed in Unani literature. However, the <em>Kushta </em>prepared by the classical method was found to be safer than the muffle furnace method.</p> Haqeeq Ahmad, Abdul Wadud, Nasreen Jahan, Ghulamuddin Sofi, , Hamiduddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4835 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis alata (Vahl) Nees https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4713 <p>The medicinal properties of plants could be based on their pharmacological effects of the phytochemicals present in them. Hence plant derived antimicrobial properties have received considerable attention in recent years. In the present study, an attempt has been made to screen the antimicrobial potential of <em>Andrographis alata </em>(entire plant), against diseases causing bacterial and fungal pathogens. The results revealed that the methanol extract had an effective antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms and the hexane extract had low antimicrobial activity. Further studies should be carried out to evaluate the other biological active potentials of <em>Andrographis alata</em>.</p> <p>Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, <em>Andrographis alata</em>, Entire plant extracts. </p> N Yasothkumar, S Sankaralingam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4713 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Investigation of Effect of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4827 <p>Pulsed electric field therapy is a novel non-invasive approach for cancer therapy. It serves as a cell permeability enhancing agent for cancer treatment. Nanosecond, high-electrical field pulse power technology is used for delivering variable, controllable, intracellular electrical perturbations in several biological systems. Here, we investigated the effect of nanosecond (ns) electric pulse (nsEP) as a therapeutic tool for cancer. In <em>in-vitro</em> study, the breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were exposed with electric field of ~18kV/cm intensity, ~25ns duration, at 1.5Hz in a 2mm electroporation cuvette. Post exposure, observation shows a significant reduction in cell viability. It was evident that after treatment the viability of MCF-7 cancer cells at 630 pulses are remains ~38% only. The optical microscopic analysis of MCF-7 cells shows cell morphology changes after electrical pulse exposure. Moreover, we have also investigated a comparative study of the effect nano-second electrical pulses on MCF-7 cells and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line. The comparative study, demonstrated that the effect of nsEPF on MCF-7 is more destructive than on CHO cell line. The obtained results support that the pulse electrical field of nanosecond (ns) duration therapy would be a potential solution for cancer treatment.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Nanosecond Pulse Electric Field; Full Width at Half Maxima; Pulse Forming Line; Pulse Exposure; Viability;</em></p> GYANENDRA KUMAR, Sandeep Shelar, Ankur Patel, Amitava Roy, Ramanujam Sarathi, Rajshri Singh, Archana Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4827 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Optimization of Zolmitriptan Orodispersible Tablets https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4703 <p>Zolmitriptan is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist reported for the acute migraine treatment, having poor water solubility leads to poor bioavailability. In the present study, attempt to improve the bioavailability of zolmitriptan with the help of PVP K-30 using the microwave irradiation method.&nbsp; The zolmitriptan and PVP K- 30 in 1:1 ratio was subjected to microwave irradiation for different times such as 60,80,100,120 seconds at 650 watts. Characterization of solid dispersion was done by drug content, XRD, FTIR, DSC. FTIR analysis demonstrated there are no compatibility issues. XRD studies prove that the solid dispersion was in amorphous form. DSC studies prove that solid dispersion was amorphous based on the intensity of peaks. The prepared dispersion was made into orodispersible tablets by direct compression. The optimization of these formulations was carried out by using 3<sup>2</sup> factorial designs on Design Expert 10.0 software. In order to examine the effect of independent variables Crospovidone (X<sub>1</sub>), croscarmellose sodium (X<sub>2</sub>), and combined effect of independent variables 3<sup>2</sup> factorial design was selected. In this design, two responses such as disintegration time and % drug release were evaluated, and experimental trials are performed for all 9 formulations. For all formulations, the precompression and post-compression parameters were studied. Based upon the model optimized formulation (C1 and C2) was obtained having the disintegration time (34.4±0.84 and 39.8±0.91) and %drug release (98.7±0.42 and 93.2±0.46) respectively.</p> <p>Keywords: Zolmitriptan, Solid dispersion, Microwave irradiation, Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium.</p> T.V. Hari Hara Nadh, P. Sivaram Kumar, M. Venkata Ramana, N. Rama Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4703 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration-induced transient hypercalcemia: an unrecognized phenomenon with potential for calcium-loss and vascular calcification https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4779 <p>Uremic vascular calcification is prevalent in 70-80% of end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) patients and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.&nbsp; In this study we report our experience with significant transient hypercalcemia during maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in 105 patients and hemodiafiltration (HDF) in another 44 ones. The studied patients had controlled predialysis levels of calcium, phosphorus, 1, 25 vitamin D and parathyroid hormone.&nbsp; Treatment was associated with high dialysate calcium and low serum phosphorus without significant changes in parathyroid hormone levels.&nbsp; Pre-treatment with a single dose of Fosamax; resulted in amelioration of hypercalcemia indicating its bone etiology.&nbsp; In conclusion; maintenance HD and HDF are associated with inherent hypercalcemia which may contribute to osteomalacia and uremic vascular calcification in ESRD patients.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Bisphosphonates, HD, HDF, hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia, vascular calcification, uremia.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, Salah El-Marzabani, Ehab Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4779 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Academic Stress on the Incidence of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Cross Sectional Study https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4854 <p>Background: Oral and dental diseases experienced by Indonesians is recurrent apthous stomatitis with a national prevalence of 8.0%. Stress can afflict children, adolescents, adults and the elderly even in a school environment, so stress can happen to anyone, anywhere. People who experience stress result in decreased concentration ability, deteriorating health, depression and sleep disorders and even dental and oral health problems, one of which is recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Objective: To determine the relationship between academic stress and the incidence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Methodology: this type of analytic observational study with cross sectional design. The research was conducted on students of the Department of Dental Health, Jakarta Health Polytechnic I. Collecting data using an observation sheet for the incidence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis and a questionnaire to determine the level of academic stress. Data analysis using Chi-Square. Results: it was found that academic stress on the incidence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis showed the p-value was 0.047 (p &lt;0.05). Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between academic stress and the incidence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Academic stress, recurrent aphthous stomatitis</p> Tedi Purnama, Rizki Sofian, Bimo Gigih Sasongko, Muhammad Fiqih Sabilillah, Hadiyat Miko; Yonan Heriyanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4854 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and preclinical evaluation of Anti-inflammatory activity of Triticum aestivum https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4781 <p>A wide scope of medical advantages has been credited to wheatgrass, the young grass of the wheat plant <em>Tritium aestivum.</em> Wheat grass is a decent wellspring of mineral supplements. It contains critical measures of iron, phosphorous, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc. Wheatgrass is a rich supplement of tocopherols with high vitamin E content. Wheatgrass is beneficial in restoring more infections due to its significant function that, it can arrest the development of antagonistic microbes which are responsible for spreading certain diseases. constituents of wheatgrass may be obtained from fresh juice, frozen juice, powder, tablets with compositions differing as per their production methods which otherwise depends on growing conditions of wheatgrass. Anti-inflammatory activity of wheatgrass tablets was assessed by using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The results obtained were compared with aceclofenac, standard drug.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Triticum aestivum</em>, Flaxseed gel, Anti-inflammatory, Aceclofenac, Formalin.</p> Sai Krishna Priya Dasari, Pallavi Vadlamudi, Rama Rao Nadendla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4781 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Isolation and Identification of Multiple Drug Resistant Bacterial Pathogens from Well Water Samples in and Around Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4794 <p>Water for human consumption is required to be free from any bacteria that might pose a health risk. The worldwide prevalence of pathogen contamination is a serious concern, and enhancing the understanding of major pathogen sources and their significant impacts on water resources is crucial. Further, these organisms underwent multiple drug resistance in their systems. The present study mainly focused on Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens in well water system in and around Wolaita Sodo Town. A total of 380 well water samples were collected and screened for SPC, enrichment process and selective media isolation. Further all the isolates were used to know the sensitivity/resistant patterns by Bauer-Kirby method and based on resistant pattern MDR isolates were assessed and recorded. Amon 380 well water samples screened for water potability by SPC method, 154 samples were positive. Among 154 SPC positive water samples yielded 106 different isolates of bacteria and it includes five genera, namely <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella</em> spp., <em>Shigella</em> spp., <em>Proteus</em> spp. and <em>Enterococcus</em> spp. All the isolated five genus were confirmed by preliminary characters, colony morphology and biochemical tests. Among 106 isolates, 13 isolates of <em>E. coli</em>, 3 isolates of <em>Salmonella</em> spp., 21 isolates of <em>Shigella</em> spp., 9 isolates of <em>Proteus</em> spp., and 4 isolates of <em>Enterococcus</em> spp. were documented as MDR bacterial pathogens. The high prevalence rate of multiple drug resistant bacterial pathogens in the well water samples could potentially pose a threat to people consuming this water. Therefore, the present study suggesting to monitor the quality of water and strict quality control measures should be put in place to ensure the effective treatment of drinking water.</p> <p>Keywords: Water samples, Standard Plate Count, Antibacterial Susceptibility Test and MDR</p> Krishna Moorthy Sivalingam, Subramaniyan Vaithilingam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4794 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 In Silico Analysis of Laccifer Lacca as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Cervical, Breast and Lung Cancers https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4802 <p><em>Laccifer lacca</em> has generally been used as pigmenting, coloring agent and dying in chemical industry. Although, it has wide range of industrial applications, but inappropriately, due to lesser availability of data, it has been ignored. Keeping in mind, the wide application of <em>Laccifer lacca</em>, we tried to report the <em>in-silico </em>anti-cancer effects. The experimental techniques used to determine the structure was X-RAY diffraction. The reported resolution of this entry is 2.80 Å. Percentile scores (ranging between 0-100) for global authentication metrics of the record. In silico have a good pool to explore various parameters in molecular docking. We have performed in silico analysis of the active components of <em>Laccifer lacca </em>against the cervical, breast and lung cancer proteins and also found that lac extract enhances the production of anti-inflammatory markers and the increase is significant when compared to the standard vinblastine. It has been demonstrated by Lala and colleagues that a short lived molecule nitric oxide can result in the progression of human tumours. Therefore, the prominent antioxidant activity of phytochemical that can act as inhibitors of nitric oxide production can act as anticancer therapeutics. Both methanolic and aqueous extract shows significant anticancer effect on the hela, MCF-7 &amp; A549 cells suggesting them as potential anticancer therapeutics for future.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Laccifer lacca</em>, In-vitro &amp; <em>In-silico </em>analysis, Carcinogenesis, Anti-inflammatory, Molecular Docking. </p> Ashish Kumar, Neeraj Kumar, Balwan Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4802 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 B-mode gray-scale ultrasound abnormalities in adult patients: A useful tool in diagnosis of kidney diseases https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4698 <p>Ultrasound scanning of the urogenital tract has a pivotal role in revealing most etiologies of renal disease.&nbsp; Moreover, it is also of value in assessment of disease prognosis and its progression.&nbsp; In this review article, details of the examination technique, ultrasonic kidney norms and the clinicoradiological correlation regarding acute and chronic kidney disease are presented.&nbsp; Specific characteristics of diseases viz. acute and chronic glomerulopathy, diabetes, amyloidosis, chronic reflux nephropathy, Nephroangiosclerosis, vasculitis, nephrocalcinosis, cystic diseases of the kidney, renal infarction and obstructive uropathy are presented.</p> <p>Keywords: acute, chronic, diagnosis, diseases, ultrasound, kidney.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4698 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Physiological changes during pregnancy: a mimic of medical disease and risk to existing ones https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4708 <p>During pregnancy; multiple physiological adaptations are encountered.&nbsp; Their aim is to protect and nurture the developing fetus and prepare the mother for labor and delivery.&nbsp; They are mediated by an orchestra of maternal and placental hormones.&nbsp; Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology.&nbsp; The present review summarizes the changes in different systems of the body and its metabolism in an attempt to assist clinicians caring for pregnant women during health and disease.</p> <p>Keywords: adaptations, changes, hormones, metabolism, physiology, pregnancy.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4708 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Dietary Impact in Association to Risk of Cancer and their Anticancer Immune Response https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4826 <p>The imbalance between modulation of the cell proliferation and apoptosis results in abnormal cell production which ultimately leads to the cancerous condition. During the 21<sup>st</sup> century, cancer is probably exceeded to infectious and other chronic diseases as the major cause of death in all countries. The increasing global prevalence ratio and a speedily rising population of cancer survivors focus on the ferocity of public health and economic challenges pretended this disease. This review summarizes the significant outcomes of dietary intake which can enhance the immune response and reduce the risk of cancer. The nutritional general mechanism of action to influence the immune function and the potential activity of anticancer immunotherapy are also studied. For several cancers immunotherapy has developed into standard treatment but considerably remains to be done to prolong the activity of its potential efficiency mainly to cancers that are unaffected within each indication. Although a higher consumption of plant foods like vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and whole grains has been suggested for cancer prevention, it has been undecided what is the prime amount of ingestion of these foods and whether particular subtypes are valuable. Several million premature mortalities can be prevented if a high intake of plant foods is adopted globally. Furthermore, for reducing the risk of different types of cancers and slow down their development many dietary products have been proven advantageous.</p> <p>Keywords: Cancer, Immune system, Dietary items, Immunotherapy, Nutritional balance.</p> Arslan Habib, Zahid Hussain, Malik ShahZaib Khalid, Zeeshan Ashraf, Ghulam Jaffar, Aqsa Ashfaq, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Talha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4826 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Punica granatum L. (Dadim) Punica granatum L. (Dadim), Therapeutic Importance of World’s Most Ancient Fruit Plant https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4832 <p>The custom of using plants for the therapeutic and dietary practices is as old as origin of humanity on the earth. One of the most ancient fruit plant is <em>Punica granatum </em>L., pomegranate belongs to Lythraceae family. The plant has a very rich ethnic history of its utilization around the world. The plant was used to symbolize prosperity, life, happiness, fertility etc. Apart from the ethnic beliefs associated with the plant, it is a well-considered plant based remedy used in treatment of many diseases in traditional system like Ayurveda and folk system of medicine. In Ayurveda it is esteemed as a Rasayana. It is used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations which are used against many diseases. The plant consists of numerous phytochemical constituents in it such as polysaccharides, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, saponins, quinones, alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids etc. Each of the phytochemical constituent is associated with important therapeutic properties. This supper food is globally known for its high anti-oxidant potential<em>. </em>Other associated properties of this medicinal fruit plant are anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-anemic etc. The aim of present review is to provide information related to phytochemistry, traditional uses in Ayurveda and folk medicinal system and therapeutic properties of<em> Punica granatum </em>L.</p> <p>Keywords: Dadim, Rasapanchak, Punicalagin, Punicic acid, Anti-oxidant. </p> Isha Kumari, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4832 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation Development Studies for Sterile Dosages: A Comprehensive Review https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4743 <p>Sterile generic dosage development requires that specific critical quality attributes be considered and evaluated, regardless of the route of delivery or the type of registration application. The review briefed with an overview of Pharmaceutical Development study&nbsp;requirements. Each of the various stages of studies like Compatibility with the packaging materials, manufacturing vessels, processing aids, MOCs, Filters, Tubing’s and Gaskets also with special studies to be conducted as part of Regulatory Submission, process considerations. Thus, the chapter offers the formulator an overview of the foundational principles associated with formulation development /Pre-formulation studies of sterile products.</p> <p>Keywords: Pharmaceutical Development, Compatibility, Studies, Hold time.</p> Govind Raju. N, Shishir Ojha, Sumit Kumar Roy, Amit Kori, Anjaneyulu Vinukonda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4743 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz (Dhatki): Ayurvedic, Folk and Modern Uses https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4839 <p><em>Woodfordia fruticosa kurz</em> is an herbal plant that belongs to the family <em>Lythraceae</em>. This plant is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of India, Sri Lanka, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan and Pakistan. The plant possesses a long history of medicinal use. The flowers of <em>Woodfordia fruticosa</em> are recorded to possess potent therapeutic values. The various phytochemicals isolated from this plant are tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinone, glycosides and polyphenols. The extract of flowers and leaves are associated with useful therapeutic activities. These phytochemical compounds have many pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, antifertility and anti-tumor.&nbsp; These pharmacological activities of <em>Woodfordia fruticosa</em> plant are also mentioned in the literature of ayurveda, yunani and other traditional systems of medicine. This review is intended to provide brief information on the plant <em>Woodfordia fruticosa</em> on the basis of chemical constituents, folk usage, ayurvedic usage, modern usage and its biological activities.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Woodfordia fruticosa</em>, antimicrobial, Ayurvedic, flavonoids, Octacosanol&nbsp; </p> Shifali Thakur, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4839 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Nutūl as an effective and time tested regimenal modality in Unani system of medicine: An Overview https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4716 <p><em>Ilāj bit tadbīr</em> is one of the treatment plans in the <em>Unani</em> system of medicine which includes the modification in <em>asbāb-i-sitta zarooriya</em> (six essential factors) through certain interventions. <em>Nutūl</em> or irrigation is a classical and effective method in regimenal therapy which refers to pouring or dripping of liquid slowly and steadily over the body part from a pre-fixed height. The benefits achieved are an amalgamation of neurological effect, psychological effect and pharmacological actions of the procedure and the drugs used. For this purpose, usually water, oil or medicated decoction is poured from a height over specific sites of body in certain diseases. Therapeutically, <em>nutūl</em> is effective in various ways such as dispersing the causative morbid matter from the part, normalizing the mal-temperament, relieving pain, increasing the circulation, etc. It is specifically useful as an adjuvant treatment in the management of central nervous system disorders like headache, insomnia, migraine, amnesia, melancholia, vertigo, epilepsy and also in certain other disorders like cystitis, mastitis, arthralgia, etc. These therapeutic effects are expected due to the <em>kafiyat</em> (quality) of liquid and the constituents of the formulation used in the procedure. <em>Nutūl</em> has an analgesic effect also, hence, recommended in several Musculoskeletal problems such as <em>waja-ul-mafasil</em> (osteoarthritis), <em>waja-uz-zahr</em> (low backache), <em>waja-ul-azlat</em> (myalgia), <em>irq-un-nasa</em> (sciatica), etc. The exact mechanism of action of <em>Nutūl</em> therapy is still not known but few preliminary reports suggested that it has an anxiolytic effect through decreasing the plasma noradrenaline and urinary serotonin excretion, decrease in rate of breathing, reduction in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate with lowered sympathetic tone.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Taḥlīl</em>; <em>Kafiyat</em>; <em>Mizāj</em>; <em>Tadbīr</em>;<em> Joshānda</em> </p> Mohd Nayab, Fatima Khan, Abdul Nasir Ansari, Tariq Nadeem Khan, Malik Itrat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4716 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Gaikwad Abhijeet R. Phytosome as a Novel Drug Delivery System for Bioavailability Enhancement of Phytoconstituents and its Applications: A Review https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4847 <p>Phytoconstituents are used extensively in modern science due to their varied therapeutic actions with few side effects. Regardless of their excellent pharmacodynamic activity, many Phytoconstituents have shown less bioavailability in vivo. Novel drug delivery systems have gained vital importance due to their increased bioavailability, and overall therapeutics. The water miscible Phytoconstituents have excellent bioactivity in vitro, however poor or no action in vivo. Phytosome technology can overcome this drawback during which the Phyto actives are allowed to react with phospholipid molecules. The Phytoconstituents with low lipoid solubility on complexation into herbal extract. Phospholipids show high affinity for polyphenolics, and type supramolecular adducts having a certain ratio. Hydrogen bond interactions between Phytoconstituents and phospholipids enable phospholipid complexes as an integral part. Complexation of phospholipids with active constituents of plants improves their bioavailability and is being extensively studied by researchers, and additional research during this regard is predicted within the future. This review highlights the unique property of phospholipids in drug delivery, phospholipid chemistry, stoichiometric ratios. We also discuss recent progress in research on the preparation, characterization, structural verification, advantages, recent patents, marketed formulation their application to enhance the bioavailability of active herbal Phytoconstituents.</p> <p>Keywords: Phytosome, Novel drug delivery, Phosphatidylcholine, Bioavailability, Patents, Applications.</p> Abhijeet Ramnath Gaikwad, Komal D Ahire, Aachal A Gosavi, K S Salunkhe, Aditi Khalkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4847 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Literature Review: Risk Factors Affecting Hearing Loss among Fishermen in Indonesia https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4780 <p>Indonesia is a country where most of the people work as fishermen because most of its territory is water. Fishermen are a profession that has a high risk of occupational disease in the form of hearing loss which causes losses in the form of permanent disabilities, decreased financial income and quality of life, as well as the mental health of fishermen. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors that cause occupational hearing loss experienced by fishermen. This research is a literature review conducted using the Google Scholar database with the keywords "Hearing Loss", "Occupational Diseases", "Fishermen", and "Indonesia". The results of this literature review show that diving and non-diver fishermen have a risk of hearing loss due to personal factors such as age, years of service, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, while occupational factors that influence are noise intensity, length of exposure to availability of ear protection equipment, length of time, and depth of diving activity.</p> <p>Keywords: hearing loss, occupational diseases, fishermen</p> Meirina Ernawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4780 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Significance of Ahara Vidhi Vidhana in COVID -19 Pandemic https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4797 <p>The emergence of COVID -19 pandemic has impacted individuals in each and every field of life. The rapid spread of the disease to nearly all parts of the country has posed enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population. In the absence of any effective drugs and vaccines for treatment, social distancing and&nbsp;&nbsp; Wearing mask are important measures. But these measures were not followed properly so Lockdown was among one of the options suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce spread of the virus. On March 22, 2020 In India world’s largest COVID lockdown came into existence. In this lockdown there was a kind of fear&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; different theories of virus spread were in existence. So People have to change their life style. Cinema hall, resurents were closed&nbsp;&nbsp; online&nbsp; food delivery system was also under suspicion so it was&nbsp; a question&nbsp; how to adopt healthy food habit and&nbsp; keep healthy&nbsp;&nbsp; to himself&nbsp; . In this critical time application of ayurvedic principles and follow them properly was a heat of hope</p> <p>Keywords: COVID, lockdown, mask.&nbsp;</p> Ramakant Dwivedi, Jayashankar Mund, Amit Vishvas Nakanekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4797 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500 Traditional Uses, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Ficus auriculata: A Review https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4853 <p><em>Ficus auriculata</em> belongs to family Moraceae. It is also known as Elephant earfig tree because of its large leaves. In India&nbsp; it is commonly known as Timla, Gular , Tirmal, Timal, Timbal, Tremal, Trimmal.. The plants are mainly distributed in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of about 1800–2600 m altitude. It is native to Asia, especially in India, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia.The plants have great ethnomedicinal importance and are used in traditional folk medicine for curing many ailments in humans. The plants rich in Phytoconstituent&nbsp; e.g.&nbsp; alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, phytosterols, resins, phenols, tannins, diterpenes, flavonoids, proteins, and amino acids which are present in barks, leaves and fruit extract. The review reveals that huge numbers of phytochemicals which was&nbsp; isolated from the plant possesses the biological and pharmacological properties are shown by the&nbsp; bark, leaves and fruits extract of <em>Ficus auriculata</em> i.e antioxidant, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, histopathological studies, toxicity activity,&nbsp; anticancerous, antidiabatic, hyperlipidemic, hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory. Leaf extract has also an important role in Glutathione&nbsp; level in cardiac and also used as fodder for farming system,&nbsp; for medicinal properties and for further commercial purpose.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Ficus auriculata</em>, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Activity, Herbal Medicine</p> garima tamta, Nisha Mehra, S. Tandon ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4853 Sat, 15 May 2021 00:00:00 -0500