Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2021-10-16T10:30:19-05:00 Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <form></form> ATT-Therapy Induced DRESS: A Case Report 2021-10-15T03:17:03-05:00 Navya Sri G Feba Stanly Georgina Sarah Prasad Bali Varsha Dalal <p>A severe adverse reaction called Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS syndrome), is usually described by eosinophilia, fever, swollen lymph nodes, severe skin rash and extensive systemic association. It is distinguished by a lengthy latency period, which is characteristic drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Formerly known as drug-induced delayed multi-organ hypersensitivity syndrome (DIDMOHS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity (DIHS). There are a variety of clinical symptoms associated with the syndrome yet it is still poorly understood. Drugs most commonly implicate in Anticonvulsants are the most common cause of DRESS syndrome, followed by sulfonamides and a variety of anti-inflammatory medications.Anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) is rarely associated with DRESS syndromeWe present the case of a 60-year-old female patient who had previously been treated with Anti-tubercular Therapy for Tubercular Meningitis (ATT).She was admitted to the hospital with presenting complaints of vomiting, burning micturition, fever associated with chills, generalized swelling and reddish skin all over the body including facial puffiness. The problem was successfully resolved by refraining from the offending medication and administering supportive care. Thus, the case illustrates the necessity of considering anti-tubercular drug reactions even when symptoms are delayed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Anti-tubercular Therapy (ATT), Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), Adverse drug reaction (ADR), Drug-induced, Systemic symptoms syndrome, </p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Consuming Different Varieties of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea) Seeds on Glycaemia and Lipid Profile of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats 2021-10-15T03:17:03-05:00 Daniel Hassan Mhya Abdulrashid Mohammed <p><strong>Background:</strong> Bambara groundnut seed is reported to possess high fibre and good nutritional content, and is locally used as a daily dietary therapy by diabetic patients in northern Nigeria. The plant seeds are of different varieties and whether the antidiabetic effect may vary with the varieties is largely unknown. This has prompted the current study to investigate effect of consuming different varieties of Bambara groundnut seeds on glycaemia and lipid profile of diabetic and non-diabetic rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Bambara groundnut seed’s varieties were processed into flour and use in formulating feeds which were given to diabetic and non-diabetic rats as follows; group A (ALK01 feed), group B (ALK02 feed), group C (ALK03 feed), group D (ALK04 feed), group E (Basal feed), and group F (Normal animal’s feed) for 28 days during which blood glucose and weights were measured weekly while lipid profile was assayed at the end of the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result of the study showed continuous increase in glycemic levels for diabetic rats fed basal and normal feeds compared to those fed plant seed formulated feeds. While, glycemic levels for non-diabetic rats fed plant seed formulated feeds, normal or basal feeds remain within normal range. The lipid components of diabetic rats fed basal and normal feeds were elevated and are significantly different (<em>P&lt;.05</em>) from those fed plant seed formulated feeds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concluded that consumption of different varieties of Bambara groundnut seed could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia by a variety dependent manner.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Bambara groundnut, seed varieties, effect, glycaemia, lipid profile, rats</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Acid Suppression Therapy for the Empirical Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients 2021-10-15T03:17:03-05:00 YOUSIF S ALAKEEL Meshary F. Almeshary Mohammed A. Alghamdi Rawa M. Faden <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate and compare the safety and efficacy of the empirical use of Histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), for the treatment of unspecified nausea and vomiting (NV) in hospitalized children.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh (KAMC-R) and included pediatric patients ≤14 years who received acid suppression therapy (AST), H2RAs or PPIs, for the treatment of unspecified NV between April 30, 2018, and April 30, 2019. The primary outcome was the complete resolution of NV within three days of AST. The secondary outcomes were the frequency of rescue medication use, the number of vomiting episodes since starting the AST, and the adverse drug reactions (ADRs).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Sixty-two patients were included in the study, 25 (40.3%) were in the H2RAs group and 37 (59.7%) in the PPIs group. The mean age was 3.69 ± 4.13 years, with the majority male (64.5%). Overall, 87% (n=54) of the sample had complete resolution of NV within 3 days of the AST therapy with no difference between the H2RAs and PPIs groups (p=0.344). The number of NV episodes from initiating the AST until the complete resolution was similar between the groups. In total, 14 patients (25.9%) required rescue therapy with granisetron, 6 (26.1%) in the H2RAs group compared to 8 (25.8%) in the PPIs group. There was no difference in the number of the required granisetron doses or the incidence of ADRs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Both PPIs and H2RAs were effective and safe for the treatment of unspecified NV in hospitalized pediatric patients. The selection of either agent should be based on other factors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pediatric; Nausea and vomiting; Proton pump inhibitor; Histamine-2-receptor antagonist; Granisetron.</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antihyperglycemic effect of turmeric aqueous root extract and morphological changes in the pancreas of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats 2021-10-15T03:17:03-05:00 Samuel I. Ogenyi Ezinne Imoko Anthony A. Ngokere Amalachukwu O. Ike <p>Introduction: The study aims to evaluate the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of turmeric and the histological changes in the pancreas of adult Wistar rats.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: Forty adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups of [A-D] ten rats per group. Group A was normal control, group B was diabetic control, group C was treated with 300mg/kg weight of extract and group D was 500mg/kg body weight. All animals had access to food and water <em>ad libitum</em>.&nbsp; Aqueous extract of turmeric was administered orally, once daily for 14 days. The rats were then anaesthetized with dichloromethane before sacrifice and sample collection. Pancreatic tissues were processed, stained using the hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) method. Blood glucose estimation was determined using the glucose oxidase method.</p> <p>Results: The mean body weights of the rats across groups were not statistically significant. Similarly, blood glucose levels across groups revealed a progressive statistically significant increase from group A to D and from day one to day 17. Pairwise comparison of group A with B, C and D showed a statistically significant increase but a comparison of Group B with C and D were not significant.</p> <p>Discussion: There was progressive body weight increase of the rats from day one to the final day across all groups and reduction in the blood glucose levels of the animals treated with 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weights, after seven days of treatment, but these, progressively increased with time even with treatment. The overall pancreas features indicate moderate inflammatory changes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>turmeric, anti- hyperglycemia, alloxan, Wistar rats</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Role and Efficacy of “Katankateriyadi Kwatha” in Patients of Madhumeha (Diabetes Mellitus Type 2): A Clinical Trial 2021-10-15T03:17:04-05:00 Vandana Singh Bhuwal Ram <p><em>Madhumeha</em> (Diabetes Mellitus) is a by-product of urbanization, proclaimed thousands of years back by <em>Acharya Charaka</em>. India has a high prevalence of diabetes which is increasing in number at an alarming rate. The introduction of oral hypoglycaemic drugs in modern therapeutics materialize to be a breakthrough in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus initially but subsequently, it was experienced that most of the hypoglycaemic drugs were inadequately effective and were associated with many major side effects. To get rid of this problem, here we aimed to find out an effective and safe remedy to control the disease. This study is an Open-label, standard control, randomized and comparative clinical study with the 3-month assessment of the response of the trial drug “<em>Katankateriyadi Kwatha</em>” on the diabetic patients through subjective and objective parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes mellitus, Clinical study, <em>Madhumeha, </em><em>Katankateriyadi Kwatha</em>.</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biochemical and resistance profile of Helicobacter pylori isolated in N’Djamena in Chad 2021-10-15T03:17:04-05:00 Nadlaou Bessimbaye Ali Mahamat Moussa Mayanna Habkréo Ali Senoussi Moukhtar Choua Ouchemi <p><em>Helicobacter pylori</em> infection and resistance to antibiotics is a public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and rates of resistance to antibiotics used in the protocol for the management of patients with <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> infection<strong>.</strong></p> <p>Spanning a period from February 2020 to February 2021, it was an observational diagnostic study on gastric biopsies and stool including 97 patients admitted for endoscopy. It was carried out according to standard methods of medical microbiology.</p> <p>Of 97 patients whose mean age was 46.10 years with extremes of 16 and 85 years, an infection prevalence of 60.82% was observed. 44.07% of infected patients were between 16 and 39 years old, 33.90% between 40 and 63 years old, and 22.03% between 63 and 85 years old.</p> <p>Significant differences were observed between the proportions of positive (81.44%) and negative (18.56%) cultures, between infection with <em>H. pylori</em> (75%) and other microbial agents (25.35%) with probabilities of 0.01 and 0.02 respectively.</p> <p>The most resistant antibiotics were: Metronidazole, Clarithromycin, Levofloxacin, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin with resistance rates of 74.58%, 16.95%, 13.56%, 8.47%, and 5.08% respectively.&nbsp; The frequencies of antibiotic resistance revealed 74.58% for Metronidazole, 16.95% for Clarithromycin, 13.56% for Levofloxacin, 8.47% for Tetracycline, and 5.08% for Amoxicillin.</p> <p>This study made it possible to determine a significant proportion of <em>H. pylori</em> infection and to shed light on the resistance to the antibiotics used in the eradicating treatment of the bacteria. From this study, we retain that the prescription of Metronidazole is prohibited in Chad.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Helicobacter pylori</em>, Resistance, Antibiotic, Chad.</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative therapeutic evaluation of two Unani formulations in the management of Chronic Tonsillitis 2021-10-15T03:17:04-05:00 Abdul Aziz Md. Wasi Akhtar Abdul Mannan Yasmeen Aziz <p>Chronic tonsillitis is a common disease found worldwide mostly in school going children. There are many challenges in the management of chronic tonsillitis especially in refractory cases. There are many single as well compound drugs for the management of tonsillitis which are being used for a longer duration without any known side effect. A randomized open comparative study was designed to validate the efficacy of two very commonly prescribed formulations in the patients of chronic tonsillitis viz. <em>Laooq Sapistan Khyar Shambari</em> and <em>Sharbat Toot Siyah</em>.</p> <p><em>Laooq Sapistan Khyar Shambari</em> 6 gm and <em>Sharbat Toot Siyah</em> 20 ml were given orally twice a day to the patients of Group A &amp; Group B respectively for 6 weeks continuously. The data was compiled and statistically analyzed using chi square test and paired t-test.</p> <p>In test group A, maximum benefit was seen in Sore throat (p&lt;0.0001, χ<sup>2 </sup>=48.81), followed by Irritation in throat (p&lt;0.0001, χ<sup>2 </sup>=17.23), Pain in throat (p&lt;0.0001, χ<sup>2 </sup>=17.23), dry cough (p=0.0002, χ<sup>2 </sup>=14.35) and dysphagia (p=0.0076, χ<sup>2 </sup>=7.12). In test group B, maximum benefit was observed in sore throat (p=0.0076, χ<sup>2 </sup>=7.12), followed by notable improvement in irritation in throat (p=0.0014, χ<sup>2 </sup>=10.15), and pain in throat (p=0.0098, χ<sup>2 </sup>=6.67).</p> <p>Although both <em>Laooq Sapistan Khyar Shambari</em> and <em>Sharbat Toot Siyah</em> are effective, but <em>Laooq Sapistan Khyar Shambari</em> is a better option for the management of chronic tonsillitis; as it relives most of the symptoms &amp; signs very effectively and safely.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Chronic tonsillitis, Unani formulation, <em>Laooq Sapistan Khyar Shambari, Sharbat Toot Siyah</em></p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Stability and Degradation Kinetic study of Bilastine in Solution State by RP-HPLC Method 2021-10-15T03:17:04-05:00 Krishna R Gupta Ekta P Tembhare Anvesha V Ganorkar Heera Karemore Milind J Umekar <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The current study dealt with the degradation behavior of Bilastine and degradation kinetics of a drug in solution state. <strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp; Very limited information on the effect of pH on maximum stability has been published. In order to understand the degradation kinetics of bilastine, aqueous stability studies were carried out, because such studies on bilastine have not been reported in the literature, further no methods have reported about shelf-life determination of bilastine. The study design involves selection of stability indicating RP-HPLC method for estimation of drug then evaluation of degradation kinetics, shelf-life determination and validation of proposed method. <strong>Results: </strong>The Shimadzu HPLC series 1100 was used for stress degradation analysis of bilastine in tablet dosage form. The analysis was performed using Agilent ZORBAX SB-C8 (4.6×150×5µm) column and Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile (pH-5.0) in the ratio of 60:40 as mobile phase; wavelength selected for analysis was 254nm with the flow rate of 1mL/min at which drug showed sharp peak. The analysis was performed on the isocratic pump mode with the injection volume of 20µl. The mobile phase is used as diluent. The proposed method was found to be linear over the range 10 to 50 µg/mL. The analysis was performed by placing standard and samples with 7 different pH buffer, oxidative and neutral hydrolytic solutions in oven at 40ºC, 60⁰C and room temperature for an interval of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mints for standard and samples. The results indicated that the pH, temperature, ionic strength and oxidation greatly influence the stability of Bilastine and the degradation behavior of Bilastine followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Bilastine was most stable in neutral, alkaline, lower temperature conditions and lower ionic strength. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The proposed method was found to be specific, selective and robust and successfully applied for its assay, degradation (stress testing) of drug and degradation kinetics in solution state.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Degradation, Stability, Bilastine, RP-HPLC, Kinetics</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of a RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous estimation of Amoxicillin, Omeprazole and Tinidazole in fixed dose combinations 2021-10-15T03:17:04-05:00 Basant Lal Manish Jaimini Devesh Kapoor <p>New liquid chromatographic technique was established for the simultaneous estimation of tinidazole, omeprazole and amoxicillin in the fixed dose combination (HP-KIT by Sun Pharma). RP-HPLC elution has performed by using the Phenomenex Luna column (250 mm x 4.6 mm) having internal diameter and the packing material of size 5µm) in isocratic mobile phase of solution A: acetonitrile at a ratio of 80:20 v/v (Solution A consists of Buffer: Acetonitrile: Methanol: Triethylamine in the ratios of 68:22:10:0.01 respectively). The selected flow rate was kept as 1 ml/min and selected wavelength was 230 nm was for detection of the drugs in UV detector. As per the ICH guidelines, the method validation was carried out. Moreover, the different parameters of method such as precision, specificity, linearity, robustness and accuracy were established. The time of retention for the tinidazole, amoxicillin, and omeprazole were 4.021 2.324, and 7.332 minutes respectively. The RP-HPLC approach was robust and accurate, so it is appropriate for repetitive assay of drugs and quality control. This method is effectively used for the assessment of marketable dosage form preparation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> RP-HPLC, Amoxicillin, Tinidazole, Omeprazole, Method Development, Method Validation.</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vitro anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longepedunculata and Annona senegalensis hydro-alcoholic extract 2021-10-15T03:17:04-05:00 G'massampou Datagni Aklesso Pouwelong Mouzou Kossi Metowogo Yaovi-Gameli Afanyibo Adodo Sadji Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku <p><em>Annona senegalensis</em> and <em>Securidaca longepedunculata</em> are two plants traditionnaly used in inflammation and wounds infection treatment after snakebites.</p> <p>This study aims to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>Annona senegalensis</em> and <em>Securidaca longepedunculata.</em></p> <p>Antimicrobial activity of the two plant extracts was examined against five bacterial strains with the well diffusion method and the inhibition zones diameters (IZD), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. While antiinflammatory activity was assessed by the albumin denaturation method.</p> <p>The results obtained showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Annona senegalensis</em> has antimicrobial property against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (IZD=12.22 ± 0.24 mm, MIC=62.5 mg/mL, MBC=125 mg/mL) and against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (IZD=12.06 ± 0.06 mm, MIC=125 mg/mL, MBC=250 mg/mL). <em>Securidaca longepedunculata</em> also showed its antimicrobial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (IZD=12.03 ± 0.03 mm, MIC=125 mg/mL, MBC=250 mg/mL) and <em>Candida albicans</em> (IZD=12.12 ± 0.07 mm, MIC=62.5 mg/mL, MFC=125 mg/mL).</p> <p>In the order hand,&nbsp; <em>Annona senegalensis</em> <em>and Securidaca longepedunculata</em> exhibited concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory activity by reducing significantly (p&lt;0.001)&nbsp; the denaturation of BSA. In addition&nbsp; <em>S. longepedunculata</em> inhibited haemolysis significantly (p&lt;0.001) more than Diclofenac sodium at 200 and 400 µg/mL.</p> <p>Hence, it was concluded that <em>Annona senegalensis</em> and <em>Securidaca longepedunculata</em> possessed anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties and can be used in the treatment of inflammation and wounds infection after snakebites.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Annona senegalensis, Securidaca longepedunculata,</em> anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, BSA. </p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preventive and Curative treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Mali: Evaluation of the Healthcare Professionals based on the Malian National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) Guidelines 2021-10-15T03:17:05-05:00 Mahamadou BALLO Karim Traoré Samou Sidibé Seidina Diakité Abdoulaye Guindo Fatoumata Daou Modibo Sangaré Drissa Konaté Mahamadou Diakité Estelle Youl Sékou Bah <p>Malaria infections in pregnancy should be treated promptly with safe and efficacious antimalarial drugs to prevent harmful effects on the mother and fetus. To succeed, the Malian has developed NMCP guidelines for the management of malaria cases in pregnant women. The study aimed at the analysis of the prescription of antimalarial drugs based on the Mali's NMCP guidelines.</p> <p>We conducted a cross-sectional study during malaria transmission season from June to August 2020. The sampling concerned all prescriptions for pregnant women containing at least one antimalarial drug.</p> <p>The frequency of prescription of antimalarial drugs was 85%. 132 (74.16%) were preventive treatments and 46 (25.84%) curative treatments. 30 (90.91%) of pregnant women in the first trimester received one dose of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine. 6 (12.5%) received three doses in the third trimester. Of the 46 antimalarial drugs prescribed for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, 30 (65.22%) were Artemether-lumefantrine (tablet), 10 (21.74%) were Quinine (tablet). 29 (63.04%) were compliant with NMCP guidelines and 17 (36.96%) were not. The non-compliances concerned 3 prescriptions of Artemether-lumefantrine in the first trimester, 3 and 5 prescriptions of Quinine (tablet) in the second and third trimester respectively and at the end 2 and 4 non-compliances respectively for the prescription of injectable dosage forms of Quinine and Artesunate.</p> <p>This study showed a great noncompliance with the Mali's NMCP guidelines in the prescription of antimalarial in pregnant women. Chemoprophylaxis should be prohibited in the first trimester.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Curative and Preventive Treatment, Malaria in Pregnancy, Malaria Transmission, Mali</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-silico ADMET predicated Pharmacoinformatics of Quercetin-3-Galactoside, polyphenolic compound from Azadirachta indica, a sacred tree from Hill Temple in Alagarkovil Reserve Forest, Eastern Ghats, INDIA 2021-10-15T03:17:05-05:00 M. Sabitha K. Krishnaveni M. Murugan A N Basha Gilse A Pallan C. Kandeepan S. Ramya R. Jayakumararaj <p>Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-Pentahydroxyflavone) is the one among the bioactive secondary metabolite (BASM) in neem seed of <em>Azadirachta indica </em>A. Juss. Quercetin (Que) and its derivatives hold promising pharmacological effects. Antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer’s, antiarthritic, cardiovascular, and wound-healing effects of Que have been extensively investigated, recently lot of work has been carried out on its anticancer activity against different cancer cell lines. Recently, <em>in silico/ in vitro</em> studies have demonstrated that Que interferes with different stages of coronavirus entry and replication cycle (PLpro, 3CLpro, and NTPase/helicase). Due to its pleiotropic effects in human health and disease and lack of systemic toxicity, Que and its derivatives could be tested for their efficacy on human target system in future clinical trials. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the physicochemical, druggable properties of Que from <em>A. indica </em>to prospect its ADMET properties.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>NEEM; <em>Azadirachta indica</em>; Quercetin; Pharmacoinformatics; ADMET; Drug-Likeness; Toxicology</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antifungal Potential of silver nanoparticles from Acacia nilotica Pod against Dermatophytes 2021-10-15T03:17:05-05:00 Yunusa Saheed <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Su</em><em>perficial fungal infections can lead to systemic infection in immune-compromised individuals. Acacia nilotica pod have been used ethnomedical to treat dermatophytes infection for ages. In this study, the anti-dermatophytes potential of silver nanoparticles biogenically synthesized using extracts from pod of A. nilotica against dermatophytes isolated from secondary care hospital in Damaturu, North-East Nigeria. </em><strong><em>Experimental</em></strong><em>:Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis were conducted to screen the phytoconstituents of the plant material. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by Uv-vis, FT-IR, and SEM. 133 samples (skin scraping) were screened for dermatophytes and antifungal susceptibility testing were conducted against the isolates using aqueous, methanolic extracts, and AgNPs. </em><strong><em>Results: </em></strong><em>Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, oxalate, quinones, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, GS-MS revealed the presence Polyphenolics including Hexadecenoic, Octadecanoic and Undecanoic acids, Catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylpyridine and methylmannose. Uv-vis of synthesized AgNPs exhibited double sharp absorbance at 308nm and 311nm, FT-IR showed functional groups, thus, OH, C – H, </em><em>C≡N, </em><em>and</em><em> C=O</em><em> stretches of phenolics, alkenes, nitrile, and ketones respectively, and SEM showed various characteristic shapes and sizes. out of 133 samples collected, 54% were male and the age group with the highest clinical presentation were51 – 60, followed by 1 – 10years. according to clinical presentation, Tinea pedis (36%) and T. capitis (29%) were the commonest which may be due to constant contact with water and limited hair care. Aetiologic agents isolated include Trichophyton mentagrophyles (51%), T. rubrum (34%), and T. tonsurans (14%), although, there is no significant relationship between the clinical presentation and disease agent (p-value &lt; 21.3 at 95% confidence level). AgNPs showed wider consistent zones of inhibitions against all the isolates. </em><strong><em>Discussion</em></strong><em>: A. nilotica is indeed very rich in polyphenolics. Foot and hair infections commonest in the study could be due to current weather conditions but sharing of footwear, caps, and brushes should be discouraged. </em><strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong><em> This study opens up possibilities for exploration of this eco and economic approach of improving the medicinal value of plants, an opportunity the pharmaceutical industries can utilize. This study is the first to report prevalence of dermatophytes in the area &amp;explored the AgNPs against it.</em></p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Curative impacts of Ethanoic Extract of Laportea aestuans (L) Chew in Aspirin-Induced Ulcerative compromise in Male Rats 2021-10-16T10:30:19-05:00 Onadeko Akinwande Akinola Olusegun <p>Toxicity of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being reported with its diverse effect in the host resulting in ulcerations. Ulceration was induced orally using aspirin. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were used for this study (120-150g). Rats were divided into 6 groups with each group containing 4 rats. Rats were pre-treated orally with cimetidine, a reference drug. Group 1 rats orally received 1% gum acacia solution as the control group, Group 2 rats orally administered 25 mg/kg aspirin and served as the ulcerated, untreated group, rats in groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated orally with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively for 3 days while rats in groups 5 and 6 were pre-treated orally with 50 mg/kg cimetidine and 50 mg/kg catechin respectively for 3 days. The result of this study shows that the ulcerated, untreated rats showed increased concentrations of The result of this study shows that the ulcerated, untreated rats showed increased concentrations of acid output, pepsin activity with a concomitant decrease in pH values, and mucin content compared to control group but pre-treatment with different doses, cimetidine and catechin reversed these observations. Activities of&nbsp; superoxide oxidase were decreased in the ulcerated, untreated group with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation concentration but pre-treatment with different doses, cimetidine and catechin reversed these observations. In conclusion, the ethanoic extract of&nbsp;<em>L. aestuans</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;can be said to be used therapeutically agaisnt aspirin-induced gastric ulcer which is due to the presence of bioactive compounds in the plant.</p> <p>as an anti-ulcerogenic agent against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer which is due to the presence of phytochemicals in the plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Ulcerations, bioactive compounds, oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase, aspirin </p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## 4D Printing: The Dawn of “Smart” Drug Delivery Systems and Biomedical Applications 2021-10-15T03:17:06-05:00 Ahmar Khan Mir Javid Iqbal Saima Amin Humaira Bilal , Bilquees Aneeza Noor Bushra Mir Mahak Deep Kaur <p>With the approval of first 3D printed drug “spritam” by USFDA, 3D printing is gaining acceptance in healthcare, engineering and other aspects of life. Taking 3D printing towards the next step gives birth to what is referred to as “4D printing”. The full credit behind the unveiling of 4D printing technology in front of the world goes to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who revealed “time” in this technology as the fourth dimension.&nbsp; 4D printing is a renovation of 3D printing wherein special materials (referred to as smart materials) are incorporated which change their morphology post printing in response to a stimulus. Depending upon the applicability of this technology, there may be a variety of stimuli, most common among them being pH, water, heat, wind and other forms of energy.&nbsp; The upper hand of 4D printing over 3D printing is that 3D printed structures are generally immobile, rigid and inanimate whereas 4D printed structures are flexible, mobile and able to interact with the surrounding environment based on the stimulus. This capability of 4D printing to transform 3D structures into smart structures in response to various stimuli promises a great potential for biomedical and bioengineering applications. The potential of 4D printing in developing pre-programmed biomaterials that can undergo transformations lays new foundations for enabling smart pharmacology, personalized medicine, and smart drug delivery, all of which can help in combating diseases in a smarter way. Hence, the theme of this paper is about the potential of 4D printing in creating smart drug delivery, smart pharmacology, targeted drug delivery and better patient compliance. The paper highlights the recent advancements of 4D printing in healthcare sector and ways by which 4D printing is doing wonders in creating smart drug delivery and tailored medicine. The major constraints in the approach have also been highlighted.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> 4D printing, smart, drug delivery system, patient compliance, biomaterials, tailored medicine</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The New Outlook of Monoclonal Antibodies in Neutralizing Target Cells in COVID-19 2021-10-15T03:17:06-05:00 P Ashwathi N Venkateswaramurthy R Sambath Kumar <p><strong>Background: </strong>The deadly arrival of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in late December 2019, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged worldwide causing a pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proved ineffectiveness against existing medications this influenced the prompt identification of Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which plays a vital role as the prophylactic application that helps in developing new interventions.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To study the effect of mAbs in high-risk individuals in treating COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The recent studies related to the aim of the review were undertaken through a literature search to analyze the importance of mAbs in combating SARS-CoV-2.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><em>&nbsp; </em>In several countries even though vaccines have reached the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) people still rely on traditional medications. Besides repurposed drugs, recently many mAbs targeting S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been signed up for clinical trials. Currently, no specific neutralizing mAbs have been reported for SARS-CoV-2 and it may take several years for such antibodies to be readily available. The development of mAbs for preventing the SARS-CoV 2 infection is challenged by the threat of antibody-dependent enhancement, antibody-resistant against SARS-CoV-2 variants, acute respiratory infections, clinical trials and risk assessment, and inexplicable. The clinical trial data proved that there is no life-threatening Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) occurred during mAbs therapy for COVID-19 patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Establishing monoclonal antibodies will continue to be the best prophylactic application as it minimizes the risk of hospitalization in the high-risk individuals affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) </p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comprehensive Description on Ethnopharmacology and Therapeutics of Murdarsang: A Review 2021-10-15T03:17:06-05:00 Sultana Anjum Sana Kauser Ateeque Ahmed Farha Naz Saba Khanum <p><em>Murdarsang</em> is a mineral that contains pbo, or lead oxide is an important medicine in the Unani system of medicine (USM) due to its multiple therapeutic properties. It can be prepared manually with different methods and used in different forms. Etymologically, it is known as 'Litharge' which is derived from Greek 'Litharguros' (lithos meaning stone and arguros for silver) which forms as a 'waste' during the last stage of silver smelting. Throughout human history, <em>lead</em> and <em>lead minerals</em> have been used for medicinal purposes. <em>Galena</em> was used as an eye salve in <em>pre-dynastic Egypt</em>, as well as by the ancient Indian civilisations of <em>Mohendro-Daro and Harappa</em> between 3200 and 2800 BC.<em> Dioskourides</em> in his <em>De Materia Medica</em> says about <em>lithargyros</em> that one is made from sand called <em>molybditis</em> which is roasted until it is totally burned, another from silver, a third from lead. According to Unani system of medicine <em>Murdarsang</em> possess different properties such as Astringent, Agglutinant, mildly Detergent, Desiccant, Anti-inflammatory Refrigerant, Corrosive and Rarefying properties. It is used as a base for making ointments. It composes the drugs and reduces the intensity of their dissolution, corrosion and astringency. It also have a corrosive, Resolvent and Insecticidal action. Many pharmacological activities mentioned in Unani medicine are validated, and many activities need further exploration due to the immense therapeutic scope in this drug. The current review designed to give an overview on the historical, chemical constituents, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of <em>Murdarsang.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Murdarsang, Litharge, Lead oxide, Unani system of medicine.</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Liposomes as Drug Delivery System: An Updated Review 2021-10-15T03:17:06-05:00 Faisal Farooque Mohd Wasi Mohd Muaz Mughees <p>The liposomes were the first Nano medicine to be accepted for clinical use. They are the spherical vesicles that possess mid empty aqueous space, which is encircled by a phospholipids bilayer. Liposomes have immense capability to prevent the degradation of drugs, reduce side effects and are thus increasingly used for targeted drug delivery. The drugs can either be incorporated inside the aqueous space (hydrophilic drugs) or inside the phospholipids bilayer (hydrophobic drugs) of liposomes for the targeted drug delivery. Considering the importance of liposomes as a drug delivery system, the present review paper tries to look into its details. The entire paper is classified into six parts. The first part is introductory. The second part discusses the classification of liposomes. In the third segment, the structural components of liposomes are detailed. The fourth portion of the paper talks about methods of preparation of liposomes. In the fifth segment, the characterization of liposomes is discussed. The sixth part discusses the application of liposomes and the last part is given to concluding observation. Literature shows distinct types of liposomes, categorized based on size, number of lipid layers, composition and preparation method. They are recently used for various nanoscale drugs formulation and a piece of concrete evidence was seen recently in recommended drug for black fungus i.e., Liposomal Amphotericin B. Although, their development and application are remaining the challenge due to costly and tedious processes involved in their production and development. Therefore, further research and development are required to perform to overcomes these challenges.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Liposome, characterization, amphiphatic, controlled release, phospholipids</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concept of Busoore Labaniya (Acne Vulgaris) and its Management In Light of Unani System of Medicine 2021-10-15T03:17:07-05:00 Sultana Anjum Ayesha Tabasum Faisel Manzoor Mohammed Uwais Faisal <p>Acne vulgaris is extremely common dermatological disorder, affecting more than 85% of adolescents and young adults. In western societies, acne vulgaris is a nearly universal skin disease afflicting 79% to 95% of the adolescent population. A recent systematic review of the epidemiology of acne across the world noted acne prevalence estimates ranging from just over 20% to over 95%. The greatest burden of acne globally is between the first and third decade of life and almost certainly causes embarrassment, stigma, shame, guilt, and low self-esteem, which are likely to cause psychosocial problems. It is characterized by both inflammatory (papules, pustules and nodules) and non-inflammatory comedones (open and closed) lesions. In Unani system of medicine, acne vulgaris is termed as <em>busoore labaniya</em> that are whitish eruptions on the nose and face that represent milk droplets or frozen ghee <em>(Roghan zard) </em>due to <em>Ma’dah sadidiyah</em> or pus like morbid matter that is directed towards the skin for expulsion along with <em>ghaleez bukharat</em>. There are mentioned numerous single and compound formulations having <em>Mujaffif</em> and <em>Muhallil </em>properties for the management of <em>Busoore Labaniya</em><em>.</em> The principle of treatment is aimed to removal of morbid matter, which is the actual culprit for the genesis of pathology leading to development of busoore labaniya. So there is need to explore the Unani concept of dermatoses. Present review paper is an attempt to highlight the possible management and preventive measures of acne vulgaris through Unani medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Busoore labaniya, </em>Acne vulgaris<em>, </em>Unani system of medicine,<em> Mujaffif</em> and <em>Muhallil.</em></p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Use of learning media to support resident doctor skills in obstetrics and gynecology during the COVID-19 pandemic: A narrative review 2021-10-15T03:17:07-05:00 Citra Aulia Bachtiar Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati Hermanto Tri Juwono Budi Utomo Nur Anisah Rahmawati <p>COVID-19 is a pandemic that has spread in various countries. The health care system in hospitals is burdened with widespread infections and health problems. In addition, educational aspects, especially obstetrics and gynecology education, have problems in clinical practice. This study reviews the role of the learning media in supporting the competence of resident doctors in specialist education for obstetrics and gynecology. Narrative review is done by reviewing some literature that explores the use of media in supporting medical education competencies. The search was performed using MeSH keywords in the PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases. The literature used is research conducted in the last 5 years. The collected data is then arranged in a narrative manner. The challenges experienced in medical resident education, especially the focus on obstetrics and gynecology during the COVID-19 pandemic, have become a consideration for the need for innovative media so that learning can run as usual. All aspects need to ensure quality education for resident doctors because they will continue to provide health services in the future.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Maternal health, COVID-19, Media, Obstetrics and gynecology</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points as a Quality Risk Management Tool in the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review 2021-10-15T03:17:07-05:00 , Priya Meenu Chaudhary <p>For several years, quality risk management (QRM) has been such an integral component of healthcare as well as pharmaceutical product manufacturing. Effectual QRM can help companies make better informed and smarter choices, and furnish regulators with more prominent confirmation of an organization's capacity to manage possible dangers. In the pharmaceutical sector, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points<strong> (</strong>HACCP), a QRM tool is comparatively a new approach. It is a globally perceived management system that gives rules to the pharmaceutical and food industries. HACCP approach emphasizes the hazards, with the overarching goal of ensuring that drug products are safe to use because the production of drug products is prone to health together with safety concerns. The HACCP system offers guidance to a considerable extent for quality control, by detecting, assessing, monitoring, and validating the crucial procedures and operations in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. The presented review article provides HACCP as a risk assessment tool, which could be applied to various parts of drug quality so that it might promote and assist the adoption of quality practices by pharmaceutical industries with the objective of improving HACCP efficiency together with company performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>&nbsp;HACCP, Hazards, QRM, Quality</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comprehensive Review on Natural Products as Chemical Penetration Enhancer 2021-10-15T03:17:07-05:00 Sudip Das Koushik Sen Gupta <p>The drug delivery within the stratum corneum of the skin prevails a challenging area for the pharmaceutical field, especially to the formulation scientists. Several investigations revealed that the lipid domain, which is the integral component of the transport barrier, must be breached if it is to be delivered transdermally at an appropriate rate. In particular, transdermal drug delivery has intrigued researchers with multiple suggestions because multiple dosing or insufficient drug delivery or characteristics of various drugs often results in low therapeutic effects. The application of permeation or penetration enhancers may prolong the number of drugs that can be offered topically. The application of any natural permeation enhancer is innoxious over the artificial permeation enhancers. The natural permeation enhancers are investigated, so notably include essential oils, terpenes, terpenoids, fatty acid esters, etc., have a certain effect in the transdermal drug delivery system. Despite decades of investigation on the natural chemical penetration enhancer, the researchers could not establish the effectiveness of natural penetration enhancers clinically due to the lack of in vivo models. Several factors, like solubility, solvent selection, experimental models, etc., has restricted the application and development of natural penetration enhancers in topical drug delivery systems, especially in the patches. Therefore, further investigation needs to do on skin irritation to decide natural penetration enhancers controlling optimum enhancement effects with minimal skin irritation. This review gives a comprehensive literature survey on naturally obtained chemical penetration enhancers and their future possibilities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Topical Drug delivery system, Natural products, Penetration enhancer, Stratum corneum, <em>In vivo</em> models. </p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems: A revolution in design and development of drugs 2021-10-15T03:17:07-05:00 Prashant Shukla Shweta Sharma Padma Rao <p>The recent developments in nanoparticle-based drug formulations have been helping to address issues around treating challenging diseases. Nanoparticles come in different sizes but usually vary between 100nm to 500nm. For the past few years there has been research going on in the area of drug delivery using particulate delivery systems. Various drug molecules have been modified for both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties using nanoparticles as physical approach. Various polymers have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles for drug delivery research to increase therapeutic benefit, while minimizing side effects. Here, we review various aspects of nanoparticle formulation, characterization, effect of their characteristics and their applications in delivery of drug molecules and therapeutic genes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> nanoparticles, applications in delivery, Liposomes, Dendrimers</p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mechanisms of Action of Flavonoids in the Management of Diabetes mellitus 2021-10-15T03:17:07-05:00 S Chandra Mohan Namrata Jain S. Sumathi <p>Management of diabetes mellitus is a challenge for clinicians. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia increases the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications, damaging the body systems.&nbsp; Although a number of antidiabetic drugs are available for therapeutic intervention, toxicity, loss of efficacy in chronic use and high cost of treatment have necessitated the search for new molecules to manage diabetes. Safety and cost are the main prerequisite for the new antidiabetic molecules. Medicinal plants and their purified phytochemicals have shown promising antidiabetic potential in the past few years. The flavonoids can be widely classified into different categories like anthocyanins, catechins, flavanols, flavones, flavanones etc. Some flavonoids have hypoglycemic properties. They may improve al-tered glucose and oxidative metabolisms of diabetic states. The hypoglycemic effect of some herbal extracts has been confirmed in human and animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Some of the important phytoconstituents from the classes of flavonoid have been discussed here. The current review summarizes the&nbsp; antidiabetic activity of flavonoids, the mechanism-based action of flavonoids that target the various metabolic pathways in humans.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diabetes mellitus, Flavonoids, Medicinal plants, mechanisms of action, T2DM </p> 2021-10-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##