Animals Use to Find Anxiolytic Activity: An Updated Review with Advantage of Each Model

  • Akash Akash Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India https://orcid.org/0009-0001-0517-2325
  • Ritu Rani Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India https://orcid.org/0009-0009-0013-6016
  • Ajeet Pal Singh Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1212-5770
  • Amar Pal Singh Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0027-2869

Abstract

Anxiety affects both humans and animals in profound ways, and understanding its psychological and biological components is essential to the development of anxiolytic medications. Animal models are utilized as simulations to explain emotional activities and as screening tools in anxiety research. Rats are the animal model used most often; mice, a more genetically flexible mammal, do less well in animal models. Behavioral investigations need careful consideration of changeable characteristics related to handling, climate, or models. To help us better understand the neurobiological elements of anxiety, the most recent experimental anxiety models such as the elevated plus maze apparatus, light-dark model, open field apparatus, and hole board apparatus are being examined. Psychopharmacological disorders affect one in seven Indians; nevertheless, adverse effects include weight gain, cramping in the muscles, dysphoria, upset stomach, blurred vision, and issues with blood tests may occur. In order to improve our knowledge of the animal models used to determine the anxiolytic action in mice, we will talk about pertinent animal models that have been established in this article.


Keywords: Anxiolytic activity, Anxiety, Elevated zero maze, Plus maze, Elevated T maze, light and dark box model and Mirrored chamber, Animal models

Keywords: Anxiolytic activity, Anxiety, Elevated zero maze, Plus maze, Elevated T maze, light and dark box model, Mirrored chamber, Animal models

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Akash Akash, Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

Ritu Rani, Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

Ajeet Pal Singh, Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

Amar Pal Singh, Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

Department of Pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT (R.E.C.), Jalandhar, Amritsar by pass, NH-1, Jalandhar -144011, Punjab, India

References

1. Ninan PT, Dissolving the burden of generalized anxiety disorder, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (JCP),2001; 62: 1-5.
2. Silva R, Xd C, Rocha SP, Herculano AM, LimaMaximino MG and Maximino C, Animal models for panic disorder,Psychology & Neuroscience (PN), 2020; 13(1):1-18. https://doi.org/10.1037/pne0000177
3. Desingu R, Sadasivam B, Kalra S, Lakhawat B, Animal models of anxiety: a review. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 2022;12:134 https://doi.org/10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20223368
4. Treit D, Engin E, McEown K,Animal Models of Anxiety and Anxiolytic Drug Action In: Stein M, Steckler T, (eds) Behavioral Neurobiology of Anxiety and Its Treatment. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009;2. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2009_17 PMid:21309109
5. Fuchs E, Flïugge G,Experimental animal models for the simulation of depression and anxiety,Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 2006; 8(3): 323-333. https://doi.org/10.31887/DCNS.2006.8.3/efuchs PMid:17117614 PMCid:PMC3181820
6. Gupta A, Maheshwari KK, Yadav R and Bansal I, A review on experimental animal models for anxiety disorders in rats, International Journal of Recent Research in Pharmacy (IJRRP), 2020; 1(1A):08-15.
7. Gorman JM, New molecular targets for anti‐anxiety interventions, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (JCP), 2003; 64:28‐35.
8. Tharmalingam S, King N, De-luca V, Rothe C, Koszycki D, Bradwejn J, Macciardi F ,Kennedy JL, Lack of association between the corticotrophin‐releasing hormone receptor 2 gene and panic disorder, Psychiatric Genetics (PG), 2006; 16:93‐97. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ypg.0000218610.45441.c3 PMid:16691126
9. Kathryn M, Connor MD and Marian I, Post‐traumatic stress disorder, Focus (F), 2003; 1:247‐262. https://doi.org/10.1176/foc.1.3.247
10. Lakshmi K, Sowmya A, Rao Dr, Anupama B, Rani D, Madhu D, Kumar A, Sarala N, A Short Review on Animal Models in Psychopharmacology, Scholars Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2023;11: 79-108. https://doi.org/10.36347/sjmcr.2023.v11i02.002
11. Brown JS, Kalish HI, Farber IE, Conditioned fear as revealed by magnitude of startle response to an auditory stimulus, Journal of Experimental Psychology (JEP), 1951; 41:317-328. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0060166 PMid:14861383
12. Davis M, Falls WA, Campeau S and Kim M, Fear- potentiated startle: a neural and pharmacological analysis, Beha Brain Res (BBR), 1993; 58: 175-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-4328(93)90102-V PMid:8136044
13. Vogel JR, Beer B, Clody DE, A simple and reliable conflict procedure for testing anti-anxiety agents, Psychopharmacologia (P), 1971; 21: 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00403989 PMid:5105868
14. Maheshwari KK, Drug Screening Techniques, Pharmacological methods, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, Edition 1st, 2015: 57.
15. Pellow S, Chopin PH, File SH, Briley M, Validation of open close arm entires in an elevated plus maze as measure anti-anxiety in rats, J. Neurosci Meth (JNM), 1958; 14: 149-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0270(85)90031-7 PMid:2864480
16. Shepherd JK, Grewal SS, Fletcher A, Bill DJ, Dourish CT, Behavioural and pharmacological characterisation of the elevated ''zero-maze'' as an animal model of anxiety, Psychopharmacology (P), 1994; 116: 56-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02244871 PMid:7862931
17. Viana MB, Tomaz C, Graeff FG,The elevated T- maze: a new animal model of anxiety and memory, Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior Journal (PBBJ), 1994; 49: 549-554. https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(94)90067-1 PMid:7862706
18. Dorr M, Steinberg H, Tomkeiwicz M, Joyee D, Poroslot RD , Summerfield A, Peristence of dose related behavior in mice, Nature (N), 1971; 231:121-123. https://doi.org/10.1038/231121a0 PMid:4930092
19. Belovicova K, Bogi E, Csatlosova K, Dubovicky M, Animal tests for anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in rats, Interdiscip Toxicol (IT), 2017; 10(1): 40-43. https://doi.org/10.1515/intox-2017-0006 PMid:30123035 PMCid:PMC6096862
20. Crawley JN, Marangos PJ, Paul SM, Skolnick P, Goodwin FK, Interaction between purine and benzodiazepine: Inosine reverses diazepam-induced stimulation of mouse exploratory behavior, Science (S), 1981; 211:725-727. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.6256859 PMid:6256859
21. Kulkerni SK, Reddy DS, Animal behavioral model for testing anti-anxiety agents, Meth. Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol (MFECP), 1996; 18:219-230.
22. Maheshwari KK, Drug Screening Techniques, Pharmacological methods, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, Edition 1st, 2015: 65.
23. Zhao H, Zhou M, Liu Y, Jiang J, Wang Y, Recent advances in anxiety disorders: Focus on animal models and pathological mechanisms. Animal models and experimental medicine, 2023; 10.1002/ame2.12360. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12360 PMid:38013621 PMCid:PMC10757213
Crossmark
Statistics
63 Views | 5 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Akash A, Rani R, Singh AP, Singh AP. Animals Use to Find Anxiolytic Activity: An Updated Review with Advantage of Each Model. JDDT [Internet]. 15Mar.2024 [cited 19Apr.2024];14(3):210-7. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6488