A Holistic Approach to Parkinson's Disease: Integrating Advances in Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Therapy

  • Lalit Kumar Research Scholar, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India. https://orcid.org/0009-0001-0348-056X
  • Meenakshi Malhotra Associate Professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0080-1479
  • Ankit Sharma Research Scholar, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India. https://orcid.org/0009-0009-8120-0197
  • Ajeet Pal Singh Academic Dean and Associate professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1212-5770
  • Amar Pal Singh Associate Professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0027-2869

Abstract

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions worldwide, with an increasing burden projected in the coming years. It involves complex neurological decline primarily affecting the Substantia nigra and Locus coeruleus, leading to motor and non-motor symptoms.


Objective: This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of Parkinson's disease, including its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and available therapies, encompassing both traditional pharmaceutical treatments and emerging technological advancements.


Methods: A thorough review of literature was conducted, synthesizing information from various studies and clinical trials to elucidate the current understanding of Parkinson's disease and its management strategies.


Results: Parkinson's disease is characterized by the gradual loss of dopamine-producing cells and the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain. Diagnosis relies on clinical evaluation, and treatment typically involves pharmaceutical interventions such as levodopa, COMT inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and deep brain stimulation. Additionally, advancements in technology offer promising avenues for objective symptom assessment and personalized treatment approaches.


Conclusion: The management of Parkinson's disease requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating traditional pharmacological treatments with emerging technologies and complementary therapies like dance therapy, tai chi, and speech therapy. By combining these diverse modalities, healthcare professionals can provide more effective and personalized care, ultimately enhancing the quality of life for individuals living with Parkinson's disease.


Keywords: Parkinson's disease, medical therapy, device-aided therapy, alternative interventions, personalized treatment, neurodegenerative disorder

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, medical therapy, device-aided therapy, alternative interventions, personalized treatment, neurodegenerative disorder

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Author Biographies

Lalit Kumar, Research Scholar, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Research Scholar, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Meenakshi Malhotra, Associate Professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Associate Professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Ankit Sharma, Research Scholar, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Research Scholar, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Ajeet Pal Singh, Academic Dean and Associate professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Academic Dean and Associate professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Amar Pal Singh, Associate Professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

Associate Professor, Department of pharmacology, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran campus behind NIT, Jalandhar-Amritsar Byepass, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India.

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Kumar L, Malhotra M, Sharma A, Singh AP, Singh AP. A Holistic Approach to Parkinson’s Disease: Integrating Advances in Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Therapy. JDDT [Internet]. 15May2024 [cited 17May2024];14(5):141-7. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6558