Zika virus (ZIKV) disease: past, present and future

  • Sweety Khatri Malhotra College of Pharmacy, Badwai, Bhopal, (MP) 462038
  • Chandni Dhanoriya Malhotra College of Pharmacy, Badwai, Bhopal, (MP) 462038
  • Deepak Kumar Jain Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, (CG) 495009

Abstract

The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (positive-stranded RNA virus, ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak imposing by its extent and quick spread. This became the focus of a current pandemic and public health crisis all around the world because of the incessant geographic growth of both the virus and its mosquito vectors; it is often misdiagnosed with other disease like yellow fever, west nile, dengue and chikungunya because of same clinical manifestation. After unprecedented huge scale outbreak of ZIKV in Pacific, Micronesian island of Yap in 2007, though ZIKV infections are in general sporadic cases or causing mild self-limiting illness, harsh symptoms have been explained including neurological disorders, autoimmune disorder, fetal anomalies, impaired central nervous system of the fetus, microcephaly in newborns, meningoencephalitis, myelitis and Guillain Barre´Syndrome supposed to be linked with ZIKV. The virus is transmitted mainly by a mosquito Aedes aegypti, whereas, other routes of viral broadcast includes monkey bite, coitus and body fluids such as semen, blood and saliva which needs further corroboration. The relationship between these conditions with ZIKV infection is still not established and is under assessment. Till now there is no vaccine or specific antiviral against ZIKV, therefore the public health authority focuses on preventing infection, mainly in pregnant women and virus transmitted area. WHO and other health officials are working on the expansion of new projects and mosquito control techniques to manage up with infection as there is very fewer literature present on the pathogenesis of the ZIKV to help understand the clinical disease spectrum and target treatments to decrease or stop infection. The future status of ZIKV dispersal to other parts of the world is still unknown. The present review emphasizes various features of ZIKV and its history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, progress  and advances in developing effective diagnostics, vaccines and drugs/therapeutics along with accepting suitable avoidance and control strategies to undertake this deadly emerging disease.


Keywords: Zika virus, Flavivirus, Aedes aegypti, Pregnancy, Transmission, Microcephaly, Africa

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sweety Khatri, Malhotra College of Pharmacy, Badwai, Bhopal, (MP) 462038

Malhotra College of Pharmacy, Badwai, Bhopal, (MP) 462038

Chandni Dhanoriya, Malhotra College of Pharmacy, Badwai, Bhopal, (MP) 462038

Malhotra College of Pharmacy, Badwai, Bhopal, (MP) 462038

Deepak Kumar Jain, Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, (CG) 495009

Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, SLT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, (CG) 495009

References

1. Pierson TC, Diamond MS, Flaviviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, (ed). Fields virology. 6th ed. Netherlands: Wolter Kluwer; 2013. P. 747 794.
2. Chen LH, Wilson ME, Dengue and chikungunya infections in travelers, Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 2010; 23:438-444.
3. Dhiman RC, Pahwa S, Dhillon GP, Dash AP, Climate change and threat of vector-borne diseases in India: are we prepared, Parasitology Research, 2010; 106:763-773.
4. Hubalek Z, Rudolf I, Nowotny N, Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals, Advances in Virus Research, 2014; 89:201-275.
5. Medlock JM, Leach SA, Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2015; 15:721-730.
6. Musso D, Aubry M, Broult J, Stassinopoulos A, Green J, Zika virus: new emergencies, potential for severe complications, and prevention of transfusion-transmitted zika fever in the context of co-circulation of arboviruses, Blood Transfusion, 2017; 15:272.
7. Dhama K, Malik YS, Malik SV, Singh RK, Ebola from emergence to epidemic: the virus and the disease, global preparedness and perspectives, The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 2015; 9:441-455.
8. Chang C, Ortiz K, Ansari A, Gershwin ME, The zika outbreak of the 21st century, Journal of Autoimmunity, 2015; 68:1-13.
9. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Rapid risk assessment, zika virus disease epidemic: potential association with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, Second update, Stockholm: ECDC; 2016.
10. Dhama K, Karthik K, Tiwari R, Khandia R , Munjal A, Chakraborty S, et al., Zika virus /zika fever : A comprehensive update, Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 2018; 6(1):1-31.
11. Shan C, Xie X, Barrett ADT, Garcia-Blanco MA, Tesh RB, da CostaVasconcelos PF, et al., Zika virus: diagnosis, therapeutics and vaccine, ACS Infectious Diseases, 2016; 2:170-172.
12. Duong V, Ong S, Leang R, Huy R, Ly S, Mounier U, et al., Low circulation of zika virus, Cambodia, 2007-2016, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2017; 23:296-299.
13. Haddow AD, Schuh AJ, Yasuda CY, Kasper MR, Heang V, Huy R, et al., Genetic characterization of zika virus strains: geographic expansion of the Asian lineage, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2012; 6:e1477.
14. Setoh YX, Prow NA, Peng N, Hugo LE, Devine G, Hazlewood JE, et al., De novo generation and characterization of new zika virus isolate using sequence data from a microcephaly case, mSphere, 2017; 2(3):e00190-17.
15. Munjal A, Khandia R, Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, Karthik K, Dhama K, Advances in designing and developing vaccines against zika virus, International Journal of Pharmacology, 2017; 13:667-676.
16. Rather IA, Kumar S, Bajpai VK, Lim J, Park YH, Prevention and control strategies to counter zika epidemic, Frontiers in Microbiology, 2017; 1-8.
17. Shankar A, Patil AA, Skariyachan S, Recent perspectives on genome, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, vaccine developments and challenges of Zika virus research, Frontiers in Microbiology, 2017; ( In Press).
18. Sharma A, Lal SK, Zika virus: transmission, detection, control and prevention, Frontiers in Microbiology, 2017; 8:110.
19. Singh RK, Dhama K, Karthik K, Tiwari R, Khandia R, Munjal A, et al., Advances in diagnosis, surveillance and monitoring of zika virus: An update, Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018; 8:2677.
20. Rather IA, Kumar S, Bajpai VK, Lim J, Park YH, Prevention and control strategies to counter zika epidemic, Frontiers in Microbiology, 2017; 1-8.
21. Von Seidlein L, Kekulé AS, Strickman D, Novel vector control approaches: The future for prevention of zika virus transmission, PLOS Medicine, 2017; 14:e1002219.
22. Jamil Z, Waheed Y, Durrani TZ, Zika virus, a pathway to new challenges-A review, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2016; 9:626- 629.
23. Dick GW, Zika virus (II) pathogenicity and physical properties, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1952; 46:521-534.
24. Vinet L, Zhedanov A, A missing family of classical orthogonal polynomials, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2010; 15: 1347-1350.
25. Dick GW, Kitchen S, Haddow A, Zika virus (I). Isolations and serological specificity, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1952; 46:509-520.
26. Marano G, Pupella S, Vaglio S, Liumbruno GM, Grazzini G, Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine, Blood Transfusion, 2015; 14:95-100.
27. Song BH, Yun SI, Woolley M, Lee YM, Zika virus: history, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical presentation, Journal of Neuroimmunology, 2017; 308:50-64.
28. Marchette NJ, Garcia R, Rudnick A, Isolation of zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1969; 18:411-415.
29. Macnamara FN, Zika virus: a report on three cases of human infection during an epidemic of jaundice in Nigeria, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1954; 48:139-145.
30. Duffy MR, Chen TH, Hancock WT, Powers AM, Kool JL, Lanciotti RS, et al., Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, New England Journal of Medicine, 2009; 360:2536-2543.
31. Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, Velez JO, Lambert AJ, Johnson AJ, et al., Genetic and serologic properties of zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2008; 14:1232-1239.
32. Cao-Lormeau VM, Musso D, Emerging arboviruses in the Pacific, Lancet, 2014; 384:1571-1572.
33. ECDC, Rapid risk assessment: zika virus infection outbreak, French Polynesia. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden February 14, 2014.
34. Aubry M, Finke J, Teissier A, Roche C, Broult J, Paulous S, et al., Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2015; 41:11-12.
35. Oehler E, Watrin L, Larre P, Leparc-Goffart I, Lastere S, Valour F, et al., Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome-case report, French Polynesia, December 2013, Euro Surveillance, 2014; 19:207-220.
36. Cardoso CW, Paploski IA, Kikuti M, Rodrigues MS, Silva MM, Campos GS, et al., Outbreak of exanthematous illness associated with zika, chikungunya and dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2015; 21:2274-2276.
37. WHO, Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas, Weekly Epidemiological Record, 2015; 90:609-610.
38. Schuler-Faccini L, Ribeiro EM, Feitosa IM, Horovitz DD, Cavalcanti DP, Pessoa A, et al., Brazilian medical genetics society-zika embryopathy task force, possible association between zika virus infection and microcephaly-Brazil, 2015, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2016; 65:59-62.
39. Victora CG, Schuler-Faccini L, Matijasevich A, Ribeiro E, Pessoa A, Barros FC, Microcephaly in Brazil: how to interpret reported numbers, Lancet, 2016; 387:621-624.
40. WHO, WHO statement on the first meeting of the international health regulations 2005 (ihr 2005) emergency committee on zika virus and observed increase in neurological disorders and neonatal malformations, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland February 1, 2016.
41. WHO, WHO Statement: fifth meeting of the emergency committee under the international health regulations (2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and zika virus. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland November 18, 2016.
42. PAHO/WHO, Zika-epidemiological update. Pan American Health Organization/ World Health Organization, Washington, D.C. November 17, 2016.
43. PAHO/WHO, Zika suspected and confirmed cases reported by countries and territories in the Americas (Cumulative Cases), 2015–2016, Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, Washington, D.C. November 17, 2016.
44. CDC, All countries and territories with active zika virus transmission, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA November 21, 2016.
45. Thiel HJ, Collett MS, Gould EA, Heinza FX, Houghton M, Meyers G, et al., Flaviviridae, in: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniolff J (Eds.), Virus taxonomy: eight report of the international committee on the taxonomy of viruses, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005, P, 981-998.
46. Marano G, Pupella S, Vaglio S, Liumbruno GM, Grazzini G, Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine, Blood Transfusion, 2015; 1-6.
47. Weissenbock H, Hubalek Z, Bakonyi T, Nowotny N, Zoonotic mosquitoborne flaviviruses: worldwide presence of agents with proven pathogenicity and potential candidates of future emerging diseases, Veterinary Microbiology, 2010; 140:271-280.
48. Baronti C, Piorkowski G, Charrel RN, Boubis L, Leparc-Goffart I, De Lamballerie X, Complete coding sequence of zika virus from a French polynesia outbreak in 2013, Genome Announcements, 2014; 2.
49. Lindenbach BD, Rice CM, Molecular biology of flaviviruses, Advances in Virus Research, 2003; 59:23-61.
50. McMinn PC, The molecular basis of virulence of the encephalitogenic flaviviruses, Journal of General Virology, 1997; 78 (Pt 11):2711-2722.
51. Shapshak P, Somboonwit C, Foley BT, Alrabaa SF, Wills T, Sinnott JT, Zika virus in global virology i-identifying and investigating viral diseases; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2015. P. 477-500.
52. Adiga R, Phylogenetic analysis of the Ns5 gene of zika virus, Journal of Medical Virology, 2016; 88:1821-1826.
53. Cugola FR, Fernandes IR, Russo FB, Freitas BC, Dias JLM, Guimarães KP, et al., The Brazilian zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models, Nature, 2016; 534:267-271.
54. Wang L, Valderramos SG, Wu A, Ouyang S, Li C, Brasil P, et al., From mosquitos to humans: genetic evolution of zika virus, Cell Host Microbe, 2016; 19:561-565.
55. Diallo D, Sall AA, Diagne CT, Faye O, Faye O, Ba Y, et al., Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011, PLoS One, 2014; 9:e109442.
56. Marchette NJ, Garcia R, Rudnick A, Isolation of zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1969; 18:411-415.
57. Ferreira-de-Brito A, Ribeiro IP, Miranda RM, Fernandes RS, Campos SS, Silva KA, et al., First detection of natural infection of Aedes aegypti with zika virus in Brazil and throughout South America, Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2016; 111:655-658.
58. Guerbois M, Fernandez-Salas I, Azar SR, Danis-Lozano R, AlpucheAranda CM, Leal G, et al., Outbreak of zika virus infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015 and first confirmed transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the Americas, Journal of infected Diseases, 2016; 214:1349-56.
59. Diaz-Quinonez JA, Lopez-Martinez I, Torres-Longoria B, Vazquez-Pichardo M, Cruz-Ramirez E, Ramirez-Gonzalez JE, et al., Evidence of the presence of the zika virus in Mexico since early 2015, Virus Gene, 2016; 52:855-7
60. Boyer S, Calvez E, Chouin-Carneiro T, Diallo D, Failloux AB, An overview of mosquito vectors of zika virus, Microbes and Infection xxx, 2018; 1-15. (Article in press).
61. Grard G, Caron M, Mombo IM, Nkoghe D, Mboui Ondo S, Jiolle D, et al., Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa)e2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2014; 8:e2681.
62. Smartt CT, Stenn TM, Chen TY, Teixeira MG, Queiroz EP, Souza Dos Santos L, et al., Evidence of zika virus RNA fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) field-collected eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, Journal of Medical Entomology, 2017; 54(4):1085-7.
63. Lequime S, Lambrechts L, Vertical transmission of arboviruses in mosquitoes: a historical perspective, Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2014; 28:681-90.
64. Oehler E, Watrin L, Larre P, Leparc-Goffart I, Lastere S, Valour F, et al., Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndromeecase report, French Polynesia, December 2013. Euro Surveillance 2014; 19.
65. Cao-Lormeau VM, Blake A, Mons S, Lastere S, Roche C, Vanhomwegen J, et al., Guillain-Barre Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study, Lancet, 2016; 387:1531-9.
66. Cauchemez S, Besnard M, Bompard P, Dub T, Guillemette-Artur P, EyrolleGuignot D, et al., Association between zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study, Lancet, 2016; 387:2125-32.
67. Dick GW, Kitchen SF, Haddow AJ. Zika virus. I. Isolations and serological specificity, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1952; 46: 509 20.
68. Shehu NY, Shwe D, Onyedibe KI, Pam VC, Abok I, Isa SE, et al., Pathogenesis, diagnostic challenges and treatment of zika virus disease in resource-limited settings, Niger Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2018; 25:67-72.
69. Altman LK, Little known virus challenges a far flung health system, New York Times; July, 2007.
70. Barbi L, Coelho AV, Alencar LC, Crovella S, Prevalence of guillain barré syndrome among zika virus infected cases: A systematic review and meta analysis, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2018; 22:137 41.
71. Coelho AV, Crovella S, Microcephaly prevalence in infants born to zika virus infected women: A systematic review and meta analysis, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2017; 18:E1714.
72. Duffy MR, Chen TH, Hancock WT, Powers AM, Kool JL, Lanciotti RS, et al., Zika virus outbreak on Yap island, federated states of Micronesia, New England Journal of Medicine, 2009; 360:2536 43.
73. All countries and territories with active zika virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 13 April, 2016.
74. França GV, Schuler Faccini L, Oliveira WK, Henriques CM, Carmo EH, PediVD, et al., Congenital zika virus syndrome in Brazil: Acase series of the first 1501 livebirths with complete investigation, Lancet, 2016; 388:891 7.
75. Costello A, Dua T, Duran P, Gülmezoglu M, Oladapo OT, Perea W, et al., Defining the syndrome associated with congenital zika virus infection, Bulletin World Health Organ, 2016; 94:406 406A.
76. Villar J, Giuliani F, Fenton TR, Ohuma EO, Ismail LC, Kennedy SH, et al., Intergrowth 21st very preterm size at birth reference charts, Lancet, 2016; 387:844 5.
77. CDC, Congential zika syndrome and other birth defects, February, 2018.
78. Zika, Olympics plans announced by Rio authorities, BBC, 24 January 2016.
79. Zika virus triggers pregnancy delay calls, BBC, 23 January 2016.
80. Dick GWA, Kitchen SF, Haddow AJ, Zika virus. I. Isolations and serological specificity, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1952; 46(5):509-520.
81. Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Fields Virology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, P,1156, 1199
82. Waggoner JJ, Pinsky BA, Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat, Jounal of Clinical Microbiology, 2016; 54:860-7.
83. Villamil-Gómez WE, González-Camargo O, Rodriguez-Ayubi J, Zapata-Serpa D, Rodríguez-Morales AJ. Dengue, chikungunya and zika co-infection in a patient from Colombia, Journal of Infection and Public Health, 2016; 9(5):684-6.
84. Villamil-Gómez WE, Rodríguez-Morales AJ, Uribe-García AM, GonzálezArismendy E, Castellanos JE, Calvo EP, et al., Zika, dengue and chikungunya co-infection in a pregnant woman from Colombia, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2016; 51(10):135-8.
85. Pan American Health Organization. Zika virus infection and zika fever: zika virus infection and zika fever: frequently asked questions.
86. Barrows NJ, Campos RK, Powell ST, Prasanth KR, Schott Lerner G, Soto Acosta R, et al., A screen of FDA approved drugs for inhibitors of zika virus infection, Cell Host Microbe, 2016; 20:259 70.
87. NIAID, Zika vaccine. [Last Retrieved on 2017 Sep 12].
88. Bousta D, Soulimani R, Jarmouni I, Belon P, Falla J, Froment N, et al., Neurotropic, immunological and gastric effects of low doses of Atropa belladonna L., Gelsemium sempervirens L. and Poumon histamine in stressed mice, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2001; 74:205-215.
89. Rita P, Animesh DK, An updated overview on Atropa belladonna L, International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2011; 2:11-17.
90. Bandyopadhyay B, Das S, Sengupta M, Saha C, Das KC, Sarkar D, et al., Decreased intensity of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in chick chorioallantoic membrane under influence of ultradiluted Belladonna extract, American Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2010; 6:24-8.
91. Mittal J, Sharma MM, Batra A, Tinospora cordifolia: a multipurpose medicinal plant- A review, Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2014; 2:32-47.
Statistics
180 Views | 136 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Khatri S, Dhanoriya C, Jain DK. Zika virus (ZIKV) disease: past, present and future. JDDT [Internet]. 15Dec.2018 [cited 2Mar.2021];8(6-s):320-7. Available from: http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2076