Zika virus (ZIKV) disease: past, present and future
The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (positive-stranded RNA virus, ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak imposing by its extent and quick spread. This became the focus of a current pandemic and public health crisis all around the world because of the incessant geographic growth of both the virus and its mosquito vectors; it is often misdiagnosed with other disease like yellow fever, west nile, dengue and chikungunya because of same clinical manifestation. After unprecedented huge scale outbreak of ZIKV in Pacific, Micronesian island of Yap in 2007, though ZIKV infections are in general sporadic cases or causing mild self-limiting illness, harsh symptoms have been explained including neurological disorders, autoimmune disorder, fetal anomalies, impaired central nervous system of the fetus, microcephaly in newborns, meningoencephalitis, myelitis and Guillain Barre´Syndrome supposed to be linked with ZIKV. The virus is transmitted mainly by a mosquito Aedes aegypti, whereas, other routes of viral broadcast includes monkey bite, coitus and body fluids such as semen, blood and saliva which needs further corroboration. The relationship between these conditions with ZIKV infection is still not established and is under assessment. Till now there is no vaccine or specific antiviral against ZIKV, therefore the public health authority focuses on preventing infection, mainly in pregnant women and virus transmitted area. WHO and other health officials are working on the expansion of new projects and mosquito control techniques to manage up with infection as there is very fewer literature present on the pathogenesis of the ZIKV to help understand the clinical disease spectrum and target treatments to decrease or stop infection. The future status of ZIKV dispersal to other parts of the world is still unknown. The present review emphasizes various features of ZIKV and its history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, progress and advances in developing effective diagnostics, vaccines and drugs/therapeutics along with accepting suitable avoidance and control strategies to undertake this deadly emerging disease.
Keywords: Zika virus, Flavivirus, Aedes aegypti, Pregnancy, Transmission, Microcephaly, Africa
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