Evaluation of acute, subacute toxicity and in vivo impact of aqueous decoction of Flemingia faginea Guill. & Perr. (Barker) leafy stems on NMRI mice and normotensive Wistar rats
Introduction: Flemingia faginea, a Fabaceae family medicinal plant, has been used for a long time in Burkina Faso for the treatment of hypertension and excess salt. However, the safety of the preparations derived from this plant has not yet been scientifically documented. This study aimed to evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity of the leafy stems aqueous decoction of F. faginea (FAD) in healthy normotensive mice and rats and the impact on their normal blood pressure. Material and Methods: The acute oral toxicity study was conducted according to the toxicity class method of the Economic Cooperation and Development Organization (OECD) guideline 423. Subacute toxicity was carried out according to the OECD Guideline 407 for repeated dose chemical toxicity for 28 days. Hematological and biochemical analyzes of blood were performed after autopsy. An evaluation of the impact of the extract on the blood pressure of rats was performed using the non-invasive method. Results: A single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg bw to mice did not cause mortality or clinical signs or symptoms of toxicity during the 14-day study. The FAD was classified in the fifth category of the Harmonized System of Classification of the United Nations and considered practically safe with an estimated 50% lethal dose of 5000 mg/kg bw. Daily gavage of male and female rats with doses of 100,500 and 1000 mg/kg did not result in mortality or significant adverse effects during the 28days of experimentation. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, food &water consumption or relative vital organ weights in treated animals. Analysis of the hematological and biochemical parameters of blood serum did not show significant differences between treated and control animals in this study. Additionally, no aberrant changes were found in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the test animals during the 28 days of inclusion compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: The extract FAD could be considered safe within the doses tested for the results of the toxicological evaluation. However, microscopic, histopathological, and subchronic investigations will have to be carried out to confirm the safety of this extract use.
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