Antimicrobial Properties and Characterization of Secondary Metabolites Obtained from Curvularia lunata, an Endophyte of Azadirachta indica

  • Ogechukwu L. Chukwuemerie Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Scienceꜱ, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2099-6920
  • Samuel J. Bunu Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Ezinne S. Iloh Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria
  • Chukwunonso C. Onwuzuluigbo Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria
  • Felix A. Onyegbule Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Scienceꜱ, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Festus B. C. Okoye Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Scienceꜱ, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract

Background: Endophyte phytochemicals have piqued interest in drug development programs due to their enormous potential for assisting in the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. Aim and objectives: The study was aimed to isolate, evaluate the antimicrobial properties and characterize the secondary metabolites of Curvularia lunata endophyte isolated from A. indica. Method: C. lunata isolated from A. indica leaves using standard extraction protocols were screened for their potential antimicrobial activities using agar diffusion well method. HPLC-DAD, GC-FID, GC-MS, and FTIR techniques were used to characterize secondary metabolites. Results: At 1 mg/mL, growth inhibition of bacteria by the extracts of C. lunata were observed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition diameters of 6, 5, 4, and 4 mm respectively.  The vacuum liquid chromatography sub-fraction of the extract showed the best antimicrobial activity. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of 2-carboxymethyl-3-n-hexylmaleic acid anhydride and aspernigin A. GC-FID analysis showed remarkably high concentrations of flavonones and catechins. The results of GC-MS analysis also showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, and 1,6-Anhydro-beta-D-glucopyranose. FTIR results established the presence of functional groups like carboxylic acids, which may be associated with some of the detected compounds. Conclusion: C. lunata (OM337582) extract of A. indica have potent antimicrobial activity which could be related to a high content of flavonoids and alkaloids.


Keywords: Antimicrobial, Azadirachta indica, HPLC-DAD, Chromatography, Curvularia lunata.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Azadirachta indica, HPLC-DAD, Chromatography, Curvularia lunata

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Author Biographies

Ogechukwu L. Chukwuemerie, Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Scienceꜱ, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Scienceꜱ, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

Samuel J. Bunu, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Ezinne S. Iloh, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria

Chukwunonso C. Onwuzuluigbo, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria

Felix A. Onyegbule, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Scienceꜱ, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

Festus B. C. Okoye, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Scienceꜱ, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Chukwuemerie OL, Bunu SJ, Iloh ES, Onwuzuluigbo CC, Onyegbule FA, Okoye FBC. Antimicrobial Properties and Characterization of Secondary Metabolites Obtained from Curvularia lunata, an Endophyte of Azadirachta indica. JDDT [Internet]. 15Nov.2022 [cited 9Dec.2022];12(6):110-9. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5676