Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the fungus endophytic extracts isolated from Azadirachta indica using gas chromatography- flame ionization detector

  • Ogechukwu L. Nwankwo Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2099-6920
  • Onwuzuluigbo C. Chukwuebuka Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5831-9768
  • Okeke O. Collins Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.
  • Bunu J. Samuel Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa, Nigeria. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5347-9383
  • Josephat C. Obasi Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.
  • Ezinne S. Iloh Department of Pharmacology and toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6499-9106
  • Emmanuel Okechukwu Nwankwo Department of Building Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract

Background information: The phytochemicals of endophytes have generated substantial interest in drug discovery programs because they offer the possibility of discovering new biologically active molecules. Objective: The objective of this study was to quantify and analyze the phytochemical profile of the fungus endophytic extracts isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves, which have been used ethnobotanically for treating malaria and bacterial infections. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated, solid-state fermentation of rice medium was performed, and secondary metabolites were extracted according to standard techniques. An analytical system that uses gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to determine the phytochemical constituents contained in the endophytes. Results: The results of GC-FID analysis showed the presence of Ribalinidine, Naringenin, Sparteine, Phenol, Steroids, Kaempferol, Flavone, Oxalate, Catechin, Tannin, and Rutin at different concentrations. Conclusion: This study reveals the promising ability of the endophytic fungi of A. indica as a foundation of naturally occurring bioactive. The quantitative phytochemical assessment of the endophyte extracts from the leaves of A.indica showed that endophyte extracts from the plant are rich in both alkaloids and flavonoids (Phenolics).


Keywords: GC-FID, Phytochemical, Endophytes, Secondary metabolites, Fermentation.

Keywords: GC-FID, Phytochemical, Endophytes, Secondary metabolites, Fermentation., GC-FID, Phytochemical, Endophytes, Secondary metabolites, Fermentation

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Author Biographies

Ogechukwu L. Nwankwo, Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Onwuzuluigbo C. Chukwuebuka, Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Okeke O. Collins, Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Bunu J. Samuel, Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa, Nigeria.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa, Nigeria.

Josephat C. Obasi, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria.

Ezinne S. Iloh, Department of Pharmacology and toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Department of Pharmacology and toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Emmanuel Okechukwu Nwankwo, Department of Building Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

Department of Building Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

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Nwankwo OL, Chukwuebuka OC, Collins OO, Samuel BJ, Obasi JC, Iloh ES, Nwankwo EO. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the fungus endophytic extracts isolated from Azadirachta indica using gas chromatography- flame ionization detector. JDDT [Internet]. 15Sep.2021 [cited 20Oct.2021];11(5):80-3. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4999