Zarawand Mudharaj (Aristolochia rotunda Linn.), an important medicinal plant used in Unani system of medicine: A review

  • Athar Parvez Ansari Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8623-7898
  • Huzaifa Ansari Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India
  • Tariq Ahmad Butt Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India
  • Ifra Qayoom Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India
  • N. Zaheer Ahmed Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Abstract

Background: Zarawand Mudharaj (Aristolochia rotunda L.) belongs to family Aristolochiaceae. According to Unani scholars, it is a female plant of Aristolochia fontanesii Boiss. & Reut. (Syn. A. longa L.), usually found growing in Mediterranean regions, Central Asia and South Europe.


Purpose of the review: The main aim of this review is to highlight various aspects of Zarawand Mudharaj such as temperament, botanical description, pharmacological properties, therapeutic uses etc, as mentioned in Unani literature that will ultimately guide researchers to design various studies for further exploration of this important medicinal plant.


Materials and methods: The present review has been carried out through extensive literature survey of various classical Unani and botanical texts, and published papers available on different search engines. The botanical names and their synonyms were validated through ‘The Plant List’ (www.theplantlist.org).


Results: In Unani medicine, the rhizome of Zarawand Mudharaj is used for the treatment of several ailments viz. stomach and liver diseases, jaundice, cough, septic wounds, splenomegaly, gout etc. Apart from its use as single drug, it has also been added in many compound preparations viz. Anqarooya-i-Kabir, Habb-i-Rewand, Majun Falasifa, Majun Dabeedul Ward etc. A study on physicochemical standardization of rhizome of Aristolochia rotunda L. has reported the presence of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash, alcohol and water-soluble extractive values within normal limits. The same study has also revealed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of rhizome of Aristolochia rotunda L. possesses significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in albino Wistar rats. Several toxicity reports have pointed out that aristolochic acid containing herbal drugs including Aristolochia rotunda L. cause renal impairment and other serious adverse reactions. 


Conclusion: It is concluded that Aristolochia rotunda L. is widely used in Unani system of medicine. However, extensive studies on pharmacognosy, pharmacology, toxicology, phytochemistry and quality control of different parts of this potential medicinal plant have not been carried out so far. Therefore, such studies on modern scientific parameters may be conducted for further exploration so that the benefits may reach the masses.


Keywords: Zarawand Mudharaj; Aristolochia rotunda L.; Unani medicine; Hepatoprotective; Aristolochic acid; Toxicity

Keywords: Zarawand Mudharaj, Aristolochia rotunda L., Unani medicine, Hepatoprotective, Aristolochic acid, Toxicity

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Author Biographies

Athar Parvez Ansari, Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Huzaifa Ansari, Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Tariq Ahmad Butt, Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Ifra Qayoom, Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

N. Zaheer Ahmed, Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai, CCRUM, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

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1.
Ansari AP, Ansari H, Butt TA, Qayoom I, Ahmed NZ. Zarawand Mudharaj (Aristolochia rotunda Linn.), an important medicinal plant used in Unani system of medicine: A review. JDDT [Internet]. 15Nov.2021 [cited 1Dec.2021];11(6):272-80. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5072