A Review on Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz (Dhatki): Ayurvedic, Folk and Modern Uses
Woodfordia fruticosa kurz is an herbal plant that belongs to the family Lythraceae. This plant is widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of India, Sri Lanka, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan and Pakistan. The plant possesses a long history of medicinal use. The flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa are recorded to possess potent therapeutic values. The various phytochemicals isolated from this plant are tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinone, glycosides and polyphenols. The extract of flowers and leaves are associated with useful therapeutic activities. These phytochemical compounds have many pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antioxidant, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, antifertility and anti-tumor. These pharmacological activities of Woodfordia fruticosa plant are also mentioned in the literature of ayurveda, yunani and other traditional systems of medicine. This review is intended to provide brief information on the plant Woodfordia fruticosa on the basis of chemical constituents, folk usage, ayurvedic usage, modern usage and its biological activities.
Keywords: Woodfordia fruticosa, antimicrobial, Ayurvedic, flavonoids, Octacosanol
2. Baker DD, Alvi KA. Small-molecule natural products: new structures, new activities. Current opinion in biotechnology. 2004 Dec1; 15(6):576-83.
3. Houghton PJ. The role of plants in traditional medicine and current therapy. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1995 Jun 1; 1(2):131-43.
4. Fong HH. Integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practices: issues and prospects. Integrative cancer therapies. 2002 Sep; 1(3):287-93.
5. Shome U, Mehrotra S, Sharma HP. Pharmacognostic studies on the flower of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Proceedings: Plant Sciences. 1981 Aug 1; 90(4):335-51.
6. Thakur RS, Puri HS, Husain A. Major medicinal plants of India. Lucknow, India: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants; 1989.
7. Khare C.P. Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2007. pp. 483-484.
8. Saxena N. Yogaratnakara – An important source book in medicine. Indian Journal of History of Science. 1992; 27(1):15-28.
9. Shandesh B, Dinesh RB. Medicinal Usefulness of Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz. Ethnomedicinal Plants: Revitalizing of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs. Science Publishers. 2011:253-68.
10. Shanker R, Rawat MS. Exploration, conservation and cultivation of Woodfordia fruticosa kurz in north east India. Intern J Med Plnt. Photon. 2013; 105:213-217.
11. Kirtikar, K.R., Basu, B.D. Indian Medicinal Plants. Allahabad: Lalit Mohan Publication; 1935.
12. Shome U, Mehrotra S, Sharma HP. Pharmacognostic studies on the flower ofWoodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Proceedings: Plant Sciences. 1981 Aug 1; 90(4):335-51.
13. Khare CP. Indian herbal remedies: rational Western therapy, ayurvedic, and other traditional usage, Botany. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2004.
14. Syed YH, Khan M, Bhuvaneshwari J, Ansari JA. Phytochemical investigation and standardization of extracts of flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa; a preliminary study. J Pharm Biosci. 2013; 1:134-40.
15. Anjaneyulu B, Babu Rao V, Ganguly AK, Govindachari TR, Joshi BS, KamaY VN, Manmade AH, Mohamed PA, Rahimtula AD, Saksena AK, Varde DS. Chemical investigation of some Indian plants. Indian Journal of Chemistry. 1965; 3(5):237-8.
16. Chauhan, J.S., Srivastava, S.K., Srivastava, S.D. Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa. Planta Medica.1979; 36(2):183-184
17. Dan S, Dan SS. Chemical examination of the leaves of Woodfordia fruticosa. J Indian Chem Soc. 1984 Jan 1; 61:726-7.
18. Chauhan, J.S., Srivastava, S.K., Srivastava, S.D. Chemical constituents of Woodfordia fruticosa Linn. Journal of the Indian chemical society. 1979; 56(10):1041
19. kalidhar sb, parthasarathy mr, sharma p. Norbergenin, A New C-Glycoside from Woodfordia-fruticosa Kurz. Indian Journal of Chemistry Section b-Organic Chemistry Including Medicinal Chemistry. 1981 Jan 1; 20(8):720-1.
20. Kadota S, Takamori Y, Nyein KN, Kikuchi T, Tanaka K, Ekimoto H. Constituents of the leaves of Woodfordia fruticosa KURZ. I: Isolation, structure, and proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance signal assignments of Woodfruticosin (Woodfordin C), an inhibitor of deoxyribonucleic acid topoisomerase II. Chemical and pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1990 Oct 25; 38(10):2687-97.
21. Nair, A.G.R., Kotiyal, J.P., Ramesh, P., Subramanian, S.S. Polyphenols of the flowers and leaves of Woodfordia fruticosa. Indian Journal of Pharmacy. 1976; 38:110–111.
22. Saoji AG, Saoji AN, Deshmukh VK. Presence of Lawsone in Ammania bacciferra Linn. and Woodfordia fruticosa Salisb. Current Science. 1972 Mar 5; 41(5):192-.
23. Chopra, R.N., Nayar, S.L., Chopra, I.C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: CSIR; 1956.
24. Watt, G. A Dictionary of Economic Products of India. III. Periodical Expert. Delhi: Cosmo Publications; 1972.
25. Oudhia, P. Interaction with the Herb Collectors of Gandai Region, Chhatisgarh, MP, India. 2003.
26. Sharma, P.V. Dravyagun Vigyan. Varanasi: Chaukambha Bharti Academy; 1956.
27. Atal CK, Bhatia AK, Singh RP. Role of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz (Dhataki) in the preparation of Asavas and Arishtas. J Res Ayurved Sidd. 1982; 3:193-9.
28. Jayaweera, D.M.A. Medicinal Plants used in Ceylon. Part III. Colombo: The National Science Council of Sri Lanka; 1981. p. 289.
29. Kroes BH, Van den Berg AJ, De Silva KT, Labadie RP. Investigation on Nimba Arishta, an immunomodulating ayurvedic drug obtained by Fermentation. Journal of European Ayurvedic Society. 1992; 2:123-33.
30. Burkill, I.H. A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur;1966. p. 2305.
31. Dey KL. The Indigenous Drugs of India. Dehradun: International Book Distributors; 1984.
32. Das PK, Goswami S, Chinniah A, Panda N, Banerjee S, Sahu NP, Achari B. Woodfordia fruticosa: Traditional uses and recent findings. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007 Mar 21; 110(2):189-99.
33. Tewari NN. Some crude drugs: source, substitute and adulterant with special reference to KTM crude drug market. Sachitra Ayurved. 1991; 44(4):284-90.
34. Shukla P, Pawar RM. OA01. 22. Quality aspect and variability observed in physico-chemical characteristics and mineral content of ayurvedic herbo mineral formulations from Indian market. Ancient Science of Life. 2012 Dec; 32(Suppl 1):S22.
35. Sunita G. Substitute and adulterant plants. Substitute and adulterant plants. New Delhi: CSIR; 1992.
36. Uniyal MR, Joshi GC. Historical view of the basic principles of the identification of controversial drugs, problems and suggestions. Sachitra Ayurved. 1993; 45(7):531-6.
37. Saraswathy A. Adulterants and substitutes in Ayurveda. Sachitra Ayurved. 2001; 54(1):63-6.
38. Monika, Kaushal K. Adulteration in Ayurvedic Raw Herbs. International Journal of Science and Research. 2017; 6(9): 1530 – 1533.
39. Afaq SH. A comparative introduction of the Unani and Tibetan medical traditions. Ayur Vijnana. 1999; 6:1-4.
40. Mitra SK, Kannan R. A note on unintentional adulterations in Ayurvedic herbs. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2007; 2007(1):3.
41. More DB, Giradkar PS. Herbal Drug Adulteration: A Hindrance to the Development of Ayurveda Medicine. International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine. 2020; 10(2): 3764–3770.
42. Thakur S, Kaurav H, Chaudhary G. Terminalia arjuna: A Potential Ayurvedic Cardio Tonic. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 2021 Apr 16; 8(2):227-36.
43. Gupta V, Sharma M. Protective effect of Cinnamomum tejpata on lipid peroxide formation in isolated rat liver homogenate. Curr Res J Biol Sci. 2010 Jul 20; 2:246-9.
44. Ranganayaki MD, Ranganathan TS. Indigenous Indian tanning materials. Woodfordia fruticosa. 1966; 13:293-7.
45. Dastur, J.F. Medicinal Plants of India and Pakistan. Mumbai: Taraporevala Sons & Co. Ltd; 1951.
46. Oshima, K., Mitsunaga, T. Glucosyltransferase inhibitor. Japanese Patent. 1999; 11:343,247.
47. Nanba, T., Hattori, Y., Shimomura, K., Takamatsu, S. Cosmetic. Japanese Patent. 1995; 7:126-144.
48. Ueda, K., Shimomura, K. Cosmetic. Japanese Patent. 1995; 7:157-420.
49. Suzuki, R., Umishio, K., Hasegawa, K., Moro, O. External preparation for skin. Japanese Patent. 2004. 2,004,352,658.
50. Adachi K, Tada T, Aramaki K. Elastase inhibitors or Maillard reaction inhibitors for antiwrinkle cosmetics. Japanese Patent. 2006; 2(006):062-989.
51. Kumaraswamy MV, Kavitha HU, Satish S. Antibacterial potential of extracts of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. on human pathogens. World J Med Sci. 2008; 3(2):93-6.
52. Parekh J, Chanda S. In vitro antibacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Flower (Lythraceae). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2007 Jun; 38(2):204-7.
53. Chougale AD, Padul MV, Arfeen S, Kakad Sl. Antibacterial activity directed fractionation of Woodfordia fruticosa kurz. leaves. Journal Medicinal Plants. 2009; 8(31):75-81.
54. Shah AS, Juvekar AR. In vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory activity of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers on non-specific immunity. Pharmaceutical biology. 2010 Sep 1; 48(9):1066-72.
55. Brindha D, Geetha R. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of Woodfordia fruticosa on phenytoin induced liver damage in rats. Journal of cell and tissue research. 2009 Dec 1; 9(3):1981.
56. Baravalia Y, Vaghasiya Y, Chanda S. Hepatoprotective effect of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz flowers on diclofenac sodium induced liver toxicity in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011 May 1; 4(5):342-6.
57. Lal UR, Tripathi SM, Jachak SM, Bhutani KK, Singh IP. HPLC analysis and standardization of Arjunarishta–an Ayurvedic Cardioprotective formulation. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2009 Sep; 77(3):605-16.
58. Finose A, Devaki K. Phytochemical and Chromatographic Studies in the Flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L) kurz. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 2011; 1(3):81-85.
59. Mihira V, Ramana KV, Ramakrishna S, Rambabu P. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Woodfordia fruticosa roots. Pharmanest. 2011;2(2-3):158-60.
60. Kushlani H, Tatke P, Singh KK. Antifertility activity of dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2006; 68:512-529.
61. Yoshida T, Chou T, Haba K, Okama Y, Shingu T, Miyamoto K et al. macro cyclic ellagitanin dimmers and related dimmers and their anti-tumor activity. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1989a; 37:3174-3176.
62. Rose BN, Prasad NK. Analgesic activity of extracts of Woodfordia fruticosa stems bark in animal models. Indian Journal of Biological and Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 4(4):175-180.
63. Khera N, Bhatia A. Antihyperlipedemic activity of Woodfordia fruticosa extract in high cholesterol diet fed mice. Int. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res. 2012 Nov 1; 2:211-5.
64. Baravalia Y, Kumar YV, Chanda S. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Woodfordia fruticosa kurz flowers. Iran J Pharm Res. 2012; 11:854-861.
65. Verma N, Amresh G, Sahu PK, Rao V, Singh AP. Antihyperglycemic activity of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz flowers extracts in glucose metabolism and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012; 50:351- 358.
66. Sengupta R, Rofel, Bilakhia GM. Comparative in-vitro anthelmintic and phytochemical evaluation of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2013; 4:159-161
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).