Punica granatum L. (Dadim) Punica granatum L. (Dadim), Therapeutic Importance of World’s Most Ancient Fruit Plant
Punica granatum L. (Dadim)
The custom of using plants for the therapeutic and dietary practices is as old as origin of humanity on the earth. One of the most ancient fruit plant is Punica granatum L., pomegranate belongs to Lythraceae family. The plant has a very rich ethnic history of its utilization around the world. The plant was used to symbolize prosperity, life, happiness, fertility etc. Apart from the ethnic beliefs associated with the plant, it is a well-considered plant based remedy used in treatment of many diseases in traditional system like Ayurveda and folk system of medicine. In Ayurveda it is esteemed as a Rasayana. It is used in many Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations which are used against many diseases. The plant consists of numerous phytochemical constituents in it such as polysaccharides, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, saponins, quinones, alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids etc. Each of the phytochemical constituent is associated with important therapeutic properties. This supper food is globally known for its high anti-oxidant potential. Other associated properties of this medicinal fruit plant are anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-anemic etc. The aim of present review is to provide information related to phytochemistry, traditional uses in Ayurveda and folk medicinal system and therapeutic properties of Punica granatum L.
Keywords: Dadim, Rasapanchak, Punicalagin, Punicic acid, Anti-oxidant.
2. Simmler C, Graham JG, Chen SN, Pauli GF. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management. Fitoterapia. 2018 Sep 1; 129:401-14.
3. Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2011 Apr 12; 134(3):851-64.
4. Kumari I, Sudan M, Walia B, Chaudhary G. Zingiber officinale (Ginger): A Review Based Upon Its Ayurvedic and Modern Therapeutic Properties. 2021; 13(3):16583-16587.
5. Chauhan SA, Kaur AM, Vyas MA, Khatik GL. Comparison of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of wild and cultivated variety of Rauwolfia serpentina. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2017; 10(12):404-6.
6. Chukwuma EC, Soladoye MO, Feyisola RT. Traditional medicine and the future of medicinal Plants in Nigeria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 2015; 3(4):23-9.
7. Lifongo LL, Simoben CV, Ntie-Kang F, Babiaka SB, Judson PN. A bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants from Nigeria, West Africa. Natural products and bioprospecting. 2014 Feb 1; 4(1):1-9.
8. Ateş DA, Turgay Ö. Antimicrobial activities of various medicinal and commercial plant extracts. Turkish Journal of Biology. 2003 Sep 4; 27(3):157-62.
9. Hamburger M, Hostettmann K. 7. Bioactivity in plants: the link between phytochemistry and medicine. Phytochemistry. 1991 Jan 1; 30(12):3864-74.
10. Rai LK, Prasad P, Sharma E. Conservation threats to some important medicinal plants of the Sikkim Himalaya. Biological conservation. 2000 Apr 1; 93(1):27-33.
11. Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African journal of biotechnology. 2005 Aug 19; 4(7):685-8.
12. Mann, J.1978. Secondary Metabolism. Oxford University press, London, pp. 154.
13. Shanmugam MK, Lee JH, Chai EZ, Kanchi MM, Kar S, Arfuso F, Dharmarajan A, Kumar AP, Ramar PS, Looi CY, Mustafa MR. Cancer prevention and therapy through the modulation of transcription factors by bioactive natural compounds. InSeminars in cancer biology 2016 Oct 1 (Vol. 40, pp. 35-47). Academic Press.
14. Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Natural product drug discovery in the next millennium. Pharmaceutical biology. 2001 Jan 1;39(sup1):8-17.
15. Kumari I, Kaurav H, Chaudhary G. Myristica fragrans (Jaiphal): A Significant Medicinal Herbal Plant. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 2021; 8(2):213-224.
16. Sarkhosh A, Zamani Z, Fatahi R, Ebadi A. RAPD markers reveal polymorphism among some Iranian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes. Scientia Horticulturae. 2006 Dec 4; 111(1):24-9.
17. Amruthesh S. Dentistry & Ayurveda V-An evidence based approach. International Journal of Clinical Dental Science. 2011; 2(1).
18. Gong XM, Zhang SM, Song FS, Zhu LW. Economic characteristics of fruits in pomegranate cultivars in China. Plant Genetic Resources. 2004; 5:17-21.
19. Khwairakpam AD, Bordoloi D, Thakur KK, Monisha J, Arfuso F, Sethi G, Mishra S, Kumar AP, Kunnumakkara AB. Possible use of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) in cancer therapy. Pharmacological research. 2018 Jul 1; 133:53-64.
20. Puneeth HR, Chandra SS. A review on potential therapeutic properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Plant Science Today. 2020 Jan 1;7(1):9-16.
21. Guerrero-Solano JA, Jaramillo-Morales OA, Jiménez-Cabrera T, Urrutia-Hernández TA, Chehue-Romero A, Olvera-Hernández EG, Bautista M. Punica protopunica Balf., the Forgotten Sister of the Common Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): Features and Medicinal Properties—A Review. Plants. 2020 Sep; 9(9):1214.
22. Davis PH. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 3. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh: University Press. Vol. 3. 1970.
23. Prasad D, Kunnaiah R. Punica granatum: A review on its potential role in treating periodontal disease. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology. 2014 Jul; 18(4):428.
24. Thangavelu A, Elavarasu S, Sundaram R, Kumar T, Rajendran D, Prem F. Ancient seed for modern cure–pomegranate review of therapeutic applications in periodontics. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences. 2017 Nov; 9(Suppl 1):S11.
25. Jurenka J. Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): a review. Alternative medicine review. 2008.1; 13(2): 128-144.
26. Sánchez-Lamar A, Fonseca G, Fuentes JL, Cozzi R, Cundari E, Fiore M, Ricordy R, Perticone P, Degrassi F, De Salvia R. Assessment of the genotoxic risk of Punica granatum L.(Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008 Feb 12; 115(3):416-22.
27. Ward C. Pomegranates in eastern Mediterranean contexts during the Late Bronze Age. World Archaeology. 2003 Jan 1; 34(3):529-41.
28. Heber D, Schulman RN, Seeram NP, editors. Pomegranates: ancient roots to modern medicine. CRC press; 2006 Jul 7.
29. Boroushaki MT, Mollazadeh H, Afshari AR. Pomegranate seed oil: A comprehensive review on its therapeutic effects. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2016 Feb 1; 7(2):430.
30. Lansky EP, Newman RA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2007 Jan 19; 109(2):177-206.
31. Naz S, Rezgui M, Rehman R, Nadeem F. Pomegranate an Ancient Seed for Modern Cure–A Review of Potential Applications. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences. 2015; 8:78-84.
32. Bhandari PR. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L). Ancient seeds for modern cure? Review of potential therapeutic applications. International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases. 2012 Sep 1; 2(3):171.
33. Endo EH, Cortez DA, Ueda-Nakamura T, Nakamura CV, Dias Filho BP. Potent antifungal activity of extracts and pure compound isolated from pomegranate peels and synergism with fluconazole against Candida albicans. Research in Microbiology. 2010 Sep 1; 161(7):534-40.
34. Aviram M, Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis. 2001 Sep 1; 158(1):195-8.
35. Batra A, Mehta BK, Bokadia MM. Fatty Acid Composition of P. granatum Seed Oil. Acta Pharm. Jugosl. 1968; 3(1):63-6.
36. Batta AK, Rangaswami S. Crystalline Chemical Components of Some Vegetable Drugs. Phytochemistry.1973; 12:214-216.
37. Berköz M, Allahverdiyev O. Punicalagin isolated from Punica granatum husk can decrease the inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Eastern Journal Of Medicine. 2017 Apr 1; 22(2):57.
38. Zhang X, Yuan W, Zhao Y, Ren Y, Zhao X, Yuan Z. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of AOMT Gene Family in Pomegranate (Punica granatum). Agronomy. 2021 Feb; 11(2):318.
39. Ganguly S. Medicinal utility of pomegranate fruit in regular human diet: A brief review. International Journal of Forestry and Horticulture. 2017; 3(1):7-18.
40. Anesini C, Perez C. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 1993 Jun 1; 39(2):119-28.
41. Andrade MA, Lima V, Silva AS, Vilarinho F, Castilho MC, Khwaldia K, Ramos F. Pomegranate and grape by-products and their active compounds: Are they a valuable source for food applications?. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2019 Apr 1; 86:68-84.
42. Mavlyanov S, Islambekov S, Karimdzhanov A, Ismailov A. Polyphenols of pomegranate peels show marked anti tumor and anti-viral action.1997:124-126.
43. Baradaran Rahimi V, Ghadiri M, Ramezani M, Askari VR. Antiinflammatory and anti‐cancer activities of pomegranate and its constituent, ellagic acid: Evidence from cellular, animal, and clinical studies. Phytotherapy Research. 2020 Apr; 34(4):685-720.
44. Middha SK, Usha T, Pande V. A review on antihyperglycemic and antihepatoprotective activity of eco-friendly Punica granatum peel waste. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013 Jan 1; 2013.
45. Panth N, Manandhar B, Paudel KR. Anticancer activity of Punica granatum (pomegranate): a review. Phytotherapy research. 2017 Apr; 31(4):568-78.
46. Stover ED, Mercure EW. The pomegranate: a new look at the fruit of paradise. HortScience. 2007 Aug 1; 42(5):1088-92.
47. Rana TS, Narzary D, Ranade SA. Systematics and taxonomic disposition of the genus Punica L. Pomegranate. Fruit Veg. Cereal Sci. Biotechnol. 2010; 4(2):19-25.
48. Shaygannia E, Bahmani M, Zamanzad B, Rafieian-Kopaei M. A review study on Punica granatum L. Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine. 2016 Jul; 21(3):221-7.
49. Purseglove JW. Tropical crops. Dicotyledons 2. Tropical crops. Dicotyledons 2.1968.
50. Watson L, Dallwitz MJ. onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval.1992; 25.
51. Lawrence GH. Taxonomy of vascular plants. Macmillan and Co. New York .1951:628-629.
52. Holland D, Hatib K, Bar-Ya'akov I. 2 Pomegranate: botany, Horticulture, Breeding. Horticultural reviews. 2009 Jan 8; 35(2):127-91.
53. Yan M, Zhao X, Zhou J, Huo Y, Ding Y, Yuan Z. The complete chloroplast genomes of Punica granatum and a comparison with other species in Lythraceae. International journal of molecular sciences. 2019 Jan; 20(12):2886.
54. LaRue JH. Growing pomegranates in California. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California; 1977.
55. Mars M. La culture du grenadier (Punica granaturn L.) et du figuier (Ficus carica L.) en Tunisie. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes. 1995(13):85-95.
56. Levin GM. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) plant genetic resources in Turkmenistan. Bulletin des Ressources Phytogenetiques (IPGRI/FAO); Noticiario de Recursos Fitogeneticos (IPGRI/FAO). 1994.
57. Ismail T, Sestili P, Akhtar S. Pomegranate peel and fruit extracts: a review of potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2012 Sep 28; 143(2):397-405.
58. Ozgen M, Durgaç C, Serçe S, Kaya C. Chemical and antioxidant properties of pomegranate cultivars grown in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Food chemistry. 2008 Dec 1; 111(3):703-6.
59. Soriano JM, Zuriaga E, Rubio P, Llácer G, Infante R, Badenes ML. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Molecular Breeding. 2011 Jan; 27(1):119-28.
60. Lansky EP, Harrison G, Froom P, Jiang WG. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) pure chemicals show possible synergistic inhibition of human PC-3 prostate cancer cell invasion across Matrigel™. Investigational new drugs. 2005 Jan; 23(2):121-2.
61. Basuny AM. Utilization from leaves of olive and pomegranate as a source of bioactive components. Journal of Advances in Biological and Basic Research. 2015; 1:01.
62. Jayaprakash A, Sangeetha R. Phytochemical screening of Punica granatum Linn. peel extracts. Journal of academia and industrial research. 2015 Oct; 4(5):160-2.
63. Ali Redha A, Hasan A, Mandeel Q. Phytochemical determinations of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Rind and Aril extracts and their antioxidant, antidiabetic and antibacterial activity. Nat Prod Chem Res. 2018; 6(4):1-9.
64. Belkacem N, Djaziri R, Lahfa F, El-Haci IA, Boucherit Z. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of various Punica granatum l. Peel extracts from Algeria: A comparative study. Phytothérapie. 2014 Dec 1; 12(6):372-9.
65. Satomi H, Umemura K, Ueno A, Hatano T, Okuda T, Noro T. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from the pericarps of Punica granatum L. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1993 Aug 15; 16(8):787-90.
66. Noda Y, Kaneyuki T, Mori A, Packer L. Antioxidant activities of pomegranate fruit extract and its anthocyanidins: delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002 Jan 2; 50(1):166-71.
67. Mohammad SM, Kashani HH. Chemical composition of the plant Punica granatum L.(Pomegranate) and its effect on heart and cancer. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2012 Oct 17; 6(40):5306-10.
68. Arun N, Singh DP. Punica granatum: a review on pharmacological and therapeutic properties. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research. 2012 May 1; 3(5):1240.
69. Jacob J, Rajiv P, Gopalan R, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P. An Overview of Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potentials of Punica granatum L. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2019; 11(5).
70. Jain V, Murugananthan G, Deepak M, Viswanatha GL, Manohar D. Isolation and standardization of various phytochemical constituents from methanolic extracts of fruit rinds of Punica granatum. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2011 Nov 1; 9(6):414-20.
71. Wu S, Tian L. Diverse phytochemicals and bioactivities in the ancient fruit and modern functional food pomegranate (Punica granatum). Molecules. 2017 Oct; 22(10):1606.
72. Jasuja ND, Saxena R, Chandra S, Sharma R. Pharmacological characterization and beneficial uses of Punica granatum. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2012 Aug 20; 11(6):251.
73. Torwane NA, Hongal S, Goel P, Chandrashekar BR. Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health. Pharmacognosy reviews. 2014 Jan; 8(15):16.
74. Hankey A. CAM modalities can stimulate advances in theoretical biology. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005 Feb; 2(1):5-12.
75. Lad V. The human constitution. Ayurveda: The Science of Self-Healing. Lotus Press, Wilmot. 1985:26-36.
76. Balasubramani SP, Mohan J, Chatterjee A, Patnaik E, Kukkupuni SK, Nongthomba U, Venkatasubramanian P. Pomegranate juice enhances healthy lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster: an exploratory study. Frontiers in public health. 2014 Dec 16; 2:245.
77. Balasubramani SP, Padmagiri G, Venkatasubramanian P, Vidyashankar R, Godbole A. Pomegranate juice improves iron status and ameliorates iron deficiency induced cellular changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics. 2015 Oct 28; 4(3):104-12.
78. Sivarajan VV, Balachandran I. Ayurvedic drugs and their plant sources. Oxford and IBH publishing; 1994. / Sivarajan VV, Balachandran I. Ayurvedic drugs and their plant sources. In: Mohan P, editor. Oxford7 IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.; 1994.
79. Shekokar S, Thombare C. A Phytopharmacological Review of Dadim-Punica granatum Linn. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research. 2019 Jul 12:21-31.
80. Muddgal D. Dravyagun Vijnana. Ayurvedic hindi pustak bhandar. 2nd edition 2019.
81. Sharma PV. Dravyagun Vigyan. Chaukambha Bharti Academy, Varanasi. 2019.
82. Sawant MV. Dadim–Pomagranate (Punica granatum Linn.)–An Advantageous Fruit. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2020 Dec 21;9(11):72-73.
83. Rahman AH, Alam MS, Khan SK, Ahmed F, Islam AK, Rahman MM. Taxonomic studies on the family Asteraceae (Compositae) of the Rajshahi division. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2008; 4(2):134-40.
84. Ali K, Khan S, Khan N, Khan W, Rahman IU, Ullah F, Nisar M. Ethnobotanical and ecological study of Punica granatum in Dir district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems. 2017; 4(8):656-661.
85. Qasim M, Abideen Z, Adnan MY, Ansari R, Gul B, Khan MA. Traditional ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants from coastal areas. J coast life Med. 2014; 2(1):22-30.
86. Abbasi AM, Khan MA, Khan N, Shah MH. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2013 Jul 9; 148(2):528-36.
87. Rosas-Piñón Y, Mejía A, Díaz-Ruiz G, Aguilar MI, Sánchez-Nieto S, Rivero-Cruz JF. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of plants used in the Altiplane region of Mexico for the treatment of oral cavity infections. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jun 14; 141(3):860-5.
88. Delfan B, Bahmani M, Hassanzadazar H, Saki K, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Rashidipour M, Bagheri F, Sharifi A. Ethnobotany study of effective medicinal plants on gastric problems in Lorestan province, West of Iran. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2015(2):483-92.
89. Nasab FK, Khosravi AR. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Sirjan in Kerman Province, Iran. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2014 May 28; 154(1):190-7.
90. Dolatkhahi M, Dolatkhahi A, Nejad JB. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan–Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine. 2014 Nov; 4(6):402.
91. Jouad H, Haloui M, Rhiouani H, El Hilaly J, Eddouks M. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases in the North centre region of Morocco (Fez–Boulemane). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001 Oct 1; 77(2-3):175-82.
92. Ouhaddou H, Boubaker H, Msanda F, El Mousadik A. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of the Agadir Ida Ou Tanane province (southwest Morocco). Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2014; 84:7707-22.
93. Silva JD, Nascimento MG, Grazina LG, CASTRO KD, Mayo SJ, Andrade IM. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the community of Sobradinho, Luís Correia, Piauí, Brazil. Embrapa Meio-Norte-Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE). 2015.
94. Uzun M, Kaya A. Ethnobotanical research of medicinal plants in Mihalgazi (Eskişehir, Turkey). Pharmaceutical biology. 2016 Dec 1; 54(12):2922-32.
95. Semenya S, Potgieter M, Erasmus L. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by Bapedi healers to treat diabetes mellitus in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 May 7; 141(1):440-5.
96. Partha P, Hossain AE. Ethnobotanical investigation into the Mandi ethnic community in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy. 2007; 14(2):129-45.
97. Rahman AM, Sultana N, Islam AR, Zaman AT. Study of Medical Ethno-botany at the Village Genda under Savar Upazilla of District Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2013; 1(5):72-86.
98. Rahmatullah M, Mukti IJ, Haque AK, Mollik MA, Parvin K, Jahan R, Chowdhury MH, Rahman T. An ethnobotanical survey and pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Garo tribal community living in Netrakona district, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 2009 Sep 1; 3(3):402-18.
99. Zumbroich TJ. The ethnobotany of teeth blackening in Southeast Asia. Ethnobotany Research and Applications. 2009 Nov 16; 7:381-98.
100. Sarri M, Boudjelal A, Hendel N, Sarri D, Benkhaled A. Flora and ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the southeast of the capital of Hodna (Algeria). Arabian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2015; 1(1):24-30.
101. Kumar M, Paul Y, Anand VK. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the locals in Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2009; 2009(10):5.
102. Jain DL, Baheti AM, Jain SR, Khandelwal KR. Use of medicinal plants among tribes in Satpuda region of Dhule and Jalgaon districts of Maharashtra—an ethnobotanical survey. 2010; 9(1):151-157.
103. Tetali P, Waghchaure C, Daswani PG, Antia NH, Birdi TJ. Ethnobotanical survey of antidiarrhoeal plants of Parinche valley, Pune district, Maharashtra, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2009 Jun 22; 123(2):229-36.
104. Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2011 Apr 12; 134(3):851-64.
105. Samy RP, Thwin MM, Gopalakrishnakone P, Ignacimuthu S. Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in Southern part of Tamilnadu, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008 Jan 17; 115(2):302-12.
106. Agarwal A. Critical issues in quality control of herbal products. Pharma times. 2005; 37(6):09-11.
107. Simmler C, Graham JG, Chen SN, Pauli GF. Integrated analytical assets aid botanical authenticity and adulteration management. Fitoterapia. 2018 Sep 1; 129:401-14.
108. Wallace LJ, Boilard SM, Eagle SH, Spall JL, Shokralla S, Hajibabaei M. DNA barcodes for everyday life: routine authentication of natural health products. Food Research International. 2012 Nov 1; 49(1):446-52.
109. Hossain H, Ahmed T, Howlader MS, Dey SK, Hira A, Ahmed A, Sen R. In-vitro antioxidant potential from the leaves of Punica granatum Linn. Grown in Bangladesh. Int J Pharm Phytopharmacol Res. 2012; 2(3):160-6.
110. Boggula N, Peddapalli H. Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of in vitro anti-oxidant activity of Punica granatum leaves. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2017; 9(8):1110-8.
111. Singh RP, Chidambara Murthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002 Jan 2; 50(1):81-6.
112. Duman AD, Ozgen M, Dayisoylu KS, Erbil N, Durgac C. Antimicrobial activity of six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties and their relation to some of their pomological and phytonutrient characteristics. Molecules. 2009 May; 14(5):1808-17.
113. Bassiri-Jahromi S, Katiraee F, Hajimahmoodi M, Mostafavi E, Talebi M, Pourshafie MR. In vitro antifungal activity of various Persian cultivars of Punica granatum L. extracts against Candida species. Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. 2015; 10(3).
114. Shafighi M, Amjad L, Madani M. In vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extract of various parts of Punica granatum L. Int J Sci Eng Res. 2012; 3(12):2229-5518.
115. Pradeep BV, Manojbabu MK, Palaniswamy M. Antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. against gastro intestinal tract infection causing organisms. Ethnobotanical leaflets. 2008; 2008(1):143.
116. Choi JG, Kang OH, Lee YS, Chae HS, Oh YC, Brice OO, Kim MS, Sohn DH, Kim HS, Park H, Shin DW. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of Punica granatum peel ethanol extract against Salmonella. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011 Jan 1; 2011:1-8.
117. Wang Y, Huang M, Yang X, Yang Z, Li L, Mei J. Supplementing punicalagin reduces oxidative stress markers and restores angiogenic balance in a rat model of pregnancy-induced hypertension. The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology.2018; 22(4):409-417.
118. Kumar M, Dandapat S, Sinha MP. Hepatoprotective activity of Punica granatum leaf extract against Carbon Tetrachloride induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Balneo Research Journal. 2018 Feb 1; 9(1):24-7.
119. Gharib E, Kouhsari SM. Study of the antidiabetic activity of Punica granatum L. fruits aqueous extract on the alloxan-diabetic wistar rats. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR. 2019; 18(1):358.
120. Sudheesh S, Vijayalakshmi NR. Flavonoids from Punica granatum—potential antiperoxidative agents. Fitoterapia. 2005 Mar 1; 76(2):181-6.
121. Nasiri E, Hosseinimehr SJ, Akbari J, Azadbakht M, Azizi S. The effects of Punica granatum flower extract on skin injuries induced by burn in rats. Advances in pharmacological sciences. 2017 Jan 19; 2017.
122. Sumner MD, Elliott-Eller M, Weidner G, Daubenmier JJ, Chew MH, Marlin R, Raisin CJ, Ornish D. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease. The American journal of cardiology. 2005 Sep 15; 96(6):810-4.
123. Türk G, Sönmez M, Aydin M, Yüce A, Gür S, Yüksel M, Aksu EH, Aksoy H. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on sperm quality, spermatogenic cell density, antioxidant activity and testosterone level in male rats. Clinical nutrition. 2008 Apr 1; 27(2):289-96.
124. Forest CP, Padma-Nathan H, Liker HR. Efficacy and safety of pomegranate juice on improvement of erectile dysfunction in male patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. International journal of impotence research. 2007 Nov; 19(6):564-7.
125. Joseph MM, Aravind SR, George SK, Varghese S, Sreelekha TT. A galactomannan polysaccharide from Punica granatum imparts in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. Carbohydrate polymers. 2013 Nov 6; 98(2):1466-75.
126. Houston DM, Bugert J, Denyer SP, Heard CM. Anti-inflammatory activity of Punica granatum L.(Pomegranate) rind extracts applied topically to ex vivo skin. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2017 Mar 1; 112:30-7.
127. Ross RG, Selvasubramanian S, Jayasundar S. Immunomodulatory activity of Punica granatum in rabbits—a preliminary study. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2001 Nov 1; 78(1):85-7.
128. Riaz A, Khan RA. Anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antianemic effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) juice in rabbits. Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 2016 Apr 1; 27(3):287-93
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).