Study of Antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus emblica and its role in Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles
Objective: Phyllanthus emblica L. or amla is known for its therapeutic properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract (APE) against eight pathogenic cultures and its application in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.
Methods: APE was screened for the presence of phytochemicals and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was quantified by broth macrodilution technique, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined. Further, APE was used in the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which were characterized by an Ultraviolet–visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and Field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) techniques. The antibacterial activity of the AgNPs was screened by agar well diffusion assay.
Results: The zone of inhibition (ZOI) for APE was found to be in the range of 10.7–21.3 mm, for varying concentrations. The MIC values were in the range of 12.5% - 50% (v/v) and the MBC values indicated that a concentration of 50% (v/v) APE could kill 75% (6/8) test cultures. The presence of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and the surface-plasmon resonance peak was observed at 420 nm. The FEG-SEM analysis revealed that the most of AgNPs were spherical in shape and had 30-40 nm size range. All the test cultures were inhibited by the AgNPs and the average ZOI measured 19.25±2.7 mm.
Conclusion: Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract might have therapeutic significance against pathogens and it can be used for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.
Keywords: Phyllanthus emblica, MIC, MBC, silver nanoparticles, UV-VIS, FEG-SEM.
2. Srinivasan. Vitamin C in plants: Indian gooseberry phyllanthus emblica. Nature. 1994; 153:684-684.
3. Hutchings A, Cock IE. The Interactive Antimicrobial Activity of Embelica officinalis Gaertn. Fruit Extracts and Conventional Antibiotics against some Bacterial Triggers of Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018; 10(4):654-662.
4. Tyagi S, Kumar A, Tyagi PK. Comparative analysis of metal nanoparticles synthesized from Hibiscus rosa sinesis and their antibacterial activity estimation against nine pathogenic bacteria. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2017 10(5):323-329.
5. Wang L, Hu C, Shao L. The antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles: present situation and prospects for the future. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2017; 12:1227-1249.
6. Ashour AA, Raafat D, El-Gowelli HM, El-Kamel AH. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using cranberry powder aqueous extract: characterization and antimicrobial properties. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2015; 10:7207–7221.
7. Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy. Techniques and Experiments. 10th ed. Pune, India: Nirali Prakashan; 2006. p. 149-156
8. Senthilnath R, Balu PM, Murugesan K. Phyto-chemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Five Indian Medicinal Plants against Human Pathogens. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2013; 2(3):75-84.
9. Madduluri S, Rao BK, Sitaram B. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of five indigenous plants extract against five bacterial pathogens of human. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2013; 5(4):679-684
10. Punjabi K, Chitalia VK, Mukadam T, Sharma J, Maniar J, Vasave S, Vaidya S, Dikho Mao L. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Gooseberry and Wild Apple fruit juices of the northeast region of India. Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine. 2017; 3:1-7.
11. Balouiri, M.; Sadiki, M.; Ibnsouda, S.A. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 2016; 6, 71–79.
12. Dharajiya D, Patel P, Moitra N. Antibacterial activity of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn.) Fruits and Vitex negundo (L.) Leaves. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy. 2015: 9(4), 357-368.
13. Veljić M, Tarbuk M, Marin P, Ćirić A, Soković M, Marin M. Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts of Mosses from Serbia. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2008; 46(12):871-875.
14. CLSI, Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents. Approved Guideline, CLSI document M26-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Roadn Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087, USA, 1998.
15. Palanisamy K, Kalaiselvi PA, Gabriel M, Thangavel J, Sundaram L. Emblica officinalis leaf extract mediated green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles against human pathogens World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014; 3(3):2019-2032.
16. Singh SN, Moses A, David A. Antimicrobial Activity of Emblica officinalis extracts against selected bacterial pathogens. International journal of basic and applied research, 2019; 9(1):325-330.
17. Ramgopal M, Saisushma C, Attitalla HI, Abobaker M. A Facile Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Soap Nuts. Research Journal of Microbiology, 2011; 6:432-438
18. Nayagam V, Gabriel M, Palanisamy K. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Coccinia grandis and Phyllanthus emblica: a comparative comprehension. Applied Nanoscience. 2018; 8(3):205-219.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).