Health Risks Associated with Tobacco Consumption in Humans: An Overview

  • Shanmugam M Sakthisankaran Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India https://orcid.org/0009-0009-6537-9545
  • Devaraj Sakthipriya Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Mahalingam Swamivelmanickam Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3488-3249

Abstract

Tobacco use remains a significant public health concern globally, with over 8 million anticipated deaths annually by 2030, despite declining rates in some high-income nations. Smoking is prevalent worldwide, particularly in developing and middle-income countries, where over 80% of smokers reside. The inhalation of tobacco substances leads to various diseases, including cancer and respiratory ailments, resulting in more deaths than AIDS, tuberculosis, and other major causes combined. Secondhand smoke exposure also poses significant health risks. The economic burden of tobacco-related deaths and diseases is substantial, especially in low- and middle-income economies, where almost 80% of tobacco-related deaths occur. Lack of awareness, societal influence, and ineffective enforcement of anti-tobacco laws contribute to widespread tobacco use. Although anti-tobacco campaigns and policies have shown some success, challenges persist, particularly in rural areas where tobacco dependence is high. In India, despite declining tobacco use attributed to awareness campaigns and increased taxes on cigarettes, certain demographics, such as middle-aged individuals, illiterates, and rural residents, continue to have high tobacco consumption rates due to inadequate implementation of anti-tobacco norms and limited access to information. Quitting smoking can significantly extend life expectancy and reduce the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, nicotine addiction poses a challenge, with only a small percentage of users successfully quitting without assistance. Professional support and cessation drugs can double the likelihood of successful quitting, and nicotine replacement therapy has shown effectiveness. Overall, there is no safe level of cigarette use, emphasizing the importance of comprehensive tobacco control efforts to mitigate the global health and economic impacts of tobacco use. This review deals with the health risks associated with tobacco consumption in humans.


Keywords: Tobacco, Nicotine, Carcinogens, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Tobacco, Nicotine, Carcinogens, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases

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Author Biographies

Shanmugam M Sakthisankaran, Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

Devaraj Sakthipriya, Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

Mahalingam Swamivelmanickam, Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

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Sakthisankaran SM, Sakthipriya D, Swamivelmanickam M. Health Risks Associated with Tobacco Consumption in Humans: An Overview. JDDT [Internet]. 15May2024 [cited 17May2024];14(5):163-7. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6523