Blood Pressure in Relation to Age and Gender

  • Syed Areefulla Hussainy Department of Pharmacy Practice, MESCO College of Pharmacy, INDIA
  • Shaima Shereen Department of Pharmacy Practice, MESCO College of Pharmacy, INDIA

Abstract

Hypertension is a disease defined as persistently elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) with systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 mm Hg. Age is one the most common predictor and non-modifiable risk factor of hypertension. Hypertension is more common among older adults than adults of 40-59 years of age. Gender is another common non-modifiable risk factor of hypertension. On average, hypertension is more common among men than in women. A Prospective observational study was carried out where all the patients of either sex attending general medicine department with established hypertension above 35 years of age were included. A Chi-square test was used to find a significant association between age & gender with hypertension. A p value of or lower than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Majority of the patients 65% were males and 35% were females and common age group was ≥60 years. CNS disorders were found in majority of the patients. Diuretics were the most prescribed class of drugs. There was a steady rise in the number of hypertensive patients with increase in age. Hypertension was more prevalent among males than in females. Factors like age and gender were found to be statistically significant associated with hypertension. Clinical pharmacist at an early stage need to monitor the BP and related risk factors and achieve the therapeutic goals, thereby enhancing the quality life span of the patient.


Keywords: Hypertension, Gender, Age distribution, Clinical Pharmacist, Statistical, Blood Pressure

Keywords: Hypertension, Gender, Age distribution, Clinical Pharmacist, Statistical, Blood Pressure

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Syed Areefulla Hussainy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, MESCO College of Pharmacy, INDIA

Department of Pharmacy Practice, MESCO College of Pharmacy, INDIA

Shaima Shereen, Department of Pharmacy Practice, MESCO College of Pharmacy, INDIA

Department of Pharmacy Practice, MESCO College of Pharmacy, INDIA

References

1. Dipiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Wells BG, L Posey M, Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 9th ed. Mc Graw Hill Education; 2014.
2. Sainju NK, Shah RK, Joshi SK, Screening for hypertension and obesity in rural population of nepal, Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 2018;16(61):4-7
3. Princewel F, Cumber SN, Kimbi JA, et al., Prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension among adults in a rural setting: the case of Ombe, Cameroon, The Pan African medical journal, 2019;34:147 https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.34.147.17518 PMid:32117515 PMCid:PMC7025826
4. Li W, He Y, Xia L, et al., Association of age-related trends in blood pressure and body composition indices in healthy adults, Frontiers in Physiology, 2018;9 https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01574 PMid:30534075 PMCid:PMC6275465
5. Buford TW, Hypertension and aging, Ageing research reviews, 2016;26:96-111 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2016.01.007 PMid:26835847 PMCid:PMC4768730
6. Alhawari HH, Al-Shelleh S, Alhawari HH, et al., Blood pressure and its association with gender, body mass index, smoking, and family history among university students, International Journal of Hypertension, 2018;2018:1-5 https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4186496 PMid:30002925 PMCid:PMC5996434
7. Oparil S, Miller AP, Gender and blood pressure, Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 2005;7(5):300-309 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-6175.2005.04087.x PMid:15886533 PMCid:PMC8109735
8. Gillis EE, Sullivan JC, Sex differences in hypertension, Hypertension, 2016;68(6):1322-1327 https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.06602 PMid:27777357 PMCid:PMC5159215
9. Yazie TS, Yimer YS, Belete AM, Desta GT, Prescribing pattern of anti-hypertensive medications among hypertensive outpatients at selected hospitals of south gondar zone, amhara, ethiopia: a hospital based cross sectional study, BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2022;23(1):97 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40360-022-00635-w PMid:36585734 PMCid:PMC9801638
10. Liew SJ, Lee JT, Tan CS, Koh CHG, Van Dam R, Müller-Riemenschneider F, Sociodemographic factors in relation to hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in a multi-ethnic asian population: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, 2019;9(5):e025869 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025869 PMid:31110091 PMCid:PMC6530395
11. Singh S, Shankar R, Singh GP, Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension: a cross-sectional study in urban varanasi, International Journal of Hypertension, 2017;1-10 https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5491838 PMid:29348933 PMCid:PMC5733954
12. Awino BO, Ogonda LA, Barno GC, Magak wena G, Awareness status and associated risk factors for hypertension among adult patients attending yala sub-county hospital, siaya county, kenya, Public Health Research, 2016;6(4):99-105
13. Mamdouh H, Alnakhi WK, Hussain HY, et al., Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension and pre-hypertension among the adult population: findings from the dubai household survey, 2019, BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 2022;22(1):18 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-022-02457-4 PMid:35090385 PMCid:PMC8796637
14. Rockwood MRH, Howlett SE, Blood pressure in relation to age and frailty, Canadian geriatrics journal, 2011;14(1):2-7 https://doi.org/10.5770/cgj.v14i1.1 PMid:23251303 PMCid:PMC3516342
15. Dhungana RR, Pandey AR, Bista B, Joshi S, Devkota S, Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension: a community-based cross-sectional study in municipalities of kathmandu, nepal, International Journal of Hypertension, 2016;Article ID:1656938:1-10 https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1656938 PMid:27293880 PMCid:PMC4880705
16. Abegaz TM, Tefera YG, Abebe TB, Antihypertensive drug prescription patterns and their impact on outcome of blood pressure in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study, Integrated Pharmacy Research and Practice, 2017;6:29-35 https://doi.org/10.2147/IPRP.S124047 PMid:29354548 PMCid:PMC5774320
17. Abdalla AA, Alagib MEA, Balla SA, Socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors and awareness of adults' hypertensive population in khartoum locality, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 2019;30(8):1-9 https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2019/v30i830225
Crossmark
Statistics
66 Views | 4 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Hussainy S, Shereen S. Blood Pressure in Relation to Age and Gender. JDDT [Internet]. 15Mar.2024 [cited 18Apr.2024];14(3):39-3. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6456