Physiological changes during pregnancy: a mimic of medical disease and risk to existing ones
During pregnancy; multiple physiological adaptations are encountered. Their aim is to protect and nurture the developing fetus and prepare the mother for labor and delivery. They are mediated by an orchestra of maternal and placental hormones. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. The present review summarizes the changes in different systems of the body and its metabolism in an attempt to assist clinicians caring for pregnant women during health and disease.
Keywords: adaptations, changes, hormones, metabolism, physiology, pregnancy.
2- Hayes, Meghan; Larson, Lucia (2012). Chapter 220. Overview of physiologic changes of pregnancy. Principles and Practice of Hospital Medicine. The McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN 978-0071603898.
3- Guyton and hall (2005). Textbook of Medical Physiology (11th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 103g.
4- Medicine. The McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN 978-0071603898.
5- Rodger M, Sheppard D, Gandara E, Tinmouth A. Haematological problems in obstetrics. Best Prac Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2015; 29: 671–684.
6- Wilson M, Morganti AA, Zervoudakis I, Letcher RL, Romney BM, Von Oeyon P. et al. Blood pressure, the renin-aldosterone system and sex steroids throughout normal pregnancy. Am J Med. 1980; 68: 97–104.
7- Conrad KP. Emerging role of relaxin in the maternal adaptations to normal pregnancy: implications for preeclampsia. Semin Nephrol. 2011; 31:15-32.
8- Irani RA, Xia Y. Renin angiotensin signaling in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. Semin Nephrol. 2011; 31: 47-58.
9- Mazaki-Tovi S, Kanety H, Pariente C, Hemi R, Yissachar E, Schiff E, Cohen O, Sivan E. Insulin sensitivity in late gestation and early postpartum period: the role of circulating maternal adipokines. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011; 27: 725-731.
10- Kovacs CS. Calcium and phosphate metabolism and related disorders during pregnancy and lactation. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MD Text.com. NCBI Bookshelf (2018 update).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).