Jaceosidin: A traditional herbal medicine with its wide range of pharmacological properties
Background: Natural products of therapeutic importance are compounds derived from plants, animals, or any microorganism. Humans have been using natural products for medicinal use for ages. Jaceosidin (JAS), found in plants is used as a food and a traditional medicinal herb. In recent years, several studies noticed that the biological and pharmacological effects of JAS have attracted attention and encouraged us to review its various properties.
Objectives: This review focused on the newest scientiﬁc reports on JAS and extensively summarizes its pharmacological properties.
Methodology: Articles published by authors on JAS were analyzed for the study.
Results: JAS is known to play several pharmacological functions such as antimutagenic, angiogenesis, anti-adipogenic, immunosuppressive, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inﬂammatory properties.
Conclusion: JAS has many important applications in pharmacology. Although researchers have reported multiple pharmacological applications of this compound, further experimentations covering its effects and mechanisms of action are needed to understand and extend the scope of its application.
Keywords: Natural products, Jaceosidin, pharmacological activities
 Dua K, Sheshala R, Al-Waeli HA, Chellappan DK, Gupta G. Antimicrobial efficacy of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwashes. Recent patents on drug delivery & formulation 2015; 9(3):257-61.
 Shu L, Cheung K, Khor TO, Chen C, Kong A. “Phytochemicals: cancer chemoprevention and suppression of tumor onset and metastasis,” Cancer and Metastasis Rev, 2010; 29:483–502.
 Li JX, Yu ZY. Cimicifugae rhizoma: from origins, bioactive constituents to clinical outcomes. Curr Med Chem 2006; 13:2927-51.
 Genilloud O. Current challenges in the discovery of novel antibacterials from microbial natural products. Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery 2012; 7:189-204.
 Juneja VK, Dwivedi HP, Yan X. Novel natural food antimicrobials. Annual review of food science and technology 2012; 3:381-403
 Touil YS, Fellous A, Scherman D & Chabot GG. Flavonoid-induced morphological modifications of endothelial cells through microtubule stabilization. Nutrition and Cancer, 2009; 61:310-321.
 Caltagirone S, Rossi C, Poggi A, et al. Flavonoids apigenin and quecertininhibit melanoma growth and metastic potential. International journal of Cancer, 2000; 87:595-600.
 Miyagi Y, Om AS, Chee KM & Bennink MR. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice. Nutritional Cancer, 2000; 36:224-229.
 Ren W, Qiao Z, Wang H, et al. Flavonoids: promising anticancer agents. Medicinal Research Reviews, 2003, 23:519-534.
 Elliot Middleton JR, Chithan K & Theoharis CT. The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: Implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacological Review, 2000, 52:673-751.
 Conde E, Fang W, Hemming J, et al. Water-soluble components of Pinus pinaster wood. BioResources, 2013, 8:2047-2063.
 Ji HY, Kim SY, Kim DK, Jeong JH, Lee HS.Effects of eupatilin and jaceosidin on cytochrome p450 enzyme activities in human liver microsomes. Molecules 2010; 16; 15(9):6466-75.
 Santos DY, Salatino ML. Foliar flavonoids of Annonaceae from Brazil: taxonomic significance Phytochemistry, 2000; 55:567-573.
 Han HY, Kim HJ, Jeong SH, Kim J, Jeong SH, Kim GC, Hwang DS, Kim UK, Ryu MH. The Flavonoid Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Induces Apoptotic Cell Death and Inhibits the Akt Pathway in Oral Cancer Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2018; 13:2018:5765047. doi: 10.1155/2018/5765047.
 Tan RX, Zheng WF, Tang HQ. Biologically active substances from the genus Artemisia. Planta Med. 1998; 64: 295-302.
 Khan M, Yu B, Rasul A, Al Shawi A, Yi F, Yang H, Ma T. Jaceosidin Induces Apoptosis in U87 Glioblastoma Cells through G2/M Phase Arrest. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:703034.
 Lee SH, Lee MY, Kang HM, Han DC, Son KH, Yang DC, Sung ND, Lee CW, Kim HM, Kwon BM. Anti-tumor activity of the farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitors arteminolides, isolated from Artemisa. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003; 11:4545-49.
 Jung UJ, Baek NI., Chung HG, Bang MH, Yoo JS, Jeong TS, Lee KT, Kang YJ, Lee MK, Kim HJ, Yeo JY, Choi MS. The anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract from two variants of Artemisia princeps Pampanini in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007; 45:2022–2029.
 Park EY, Lee KW, Leeetal HW. The ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini induces p53-mediated G1phase Arrest in A172 human neuroblastoma cells. Journal of Medicinal Food, 2008; 11(2):237–245.
 Wong RS. Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 30:87 doi: 10.1186/1756-9966-30-87.
 Zhao D, Xing J, LiM, Lu D, Zhao Q. Optimization of growth and jaceosidin production in callus and cell suspension cultures of Saussurea medusa. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 2001; 67:227–234.
 Kim MJ, Han JM, Jin YY., et al. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Jaceosidin from Artemisiaprinceps Pampanini cv. Sajabal. Arch. Pharm. Res. 2008; 31(4):42-437.
 Lee TH, Jung H, Park KH, Bang MH, Baek NI, Kim J. Jaceosidin, a natural flavone, promotes angiogenesis via activation of VEGFR2/FAK/PI3K/AKT/NF-iB signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 2014; 239(10):1325–1334.
 Song WY, HY Ji, NI Baek, TS Jeong, HS Lee, In Vitro metabolism of Jaceosidin and characterization of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in human liver microsomes. Archives of Pharmacal Res. 2010; 33(12):1985–1996.
 Kim MJ, Han JM, Jin YY, Baek NI, Bang MH, Chung HG, Choi MS, Lee KT, Sok DE, Jeong TS. In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal. Arch Pharm Res. 2008; 31(4):429-37
 Min SW, Kim NJ, Baek NI, Kim DH. Inhibitory effect of eupatilin and jaceosidin isolated from Artemisia princeps on carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 ; 125(3):497-500.
 Clavin ML, Cazorla SI, Spina Z, Renata M, Sosa MA, Malchiodi EL, Martino VS, Frank FM, Muschietti LV.Antiprotozoal activity of flavonoids from Eupatorium arnottianum; Allied Academies; Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy; 2017 ; 2(1) :1-6
 Elgazar AA, Knany HR, Ali MS. Insights on the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of formula from Islamic traditional medicine: An in-silico study. J Tradit Complement Med. 2018; 9(4):353-363.
 Yin Y, Sun Y, Gu L, Zheng W, Gong F, Wu X, Shen Y, Xu Q. Jaceosidin inhibits contact hypersensitivity in mice via down-regulating IFN-γ/STAT1/T-bet signaling in T cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011; 651(1-3):205-11.
 Izushi Y, Teshigawara K, Liu K, Wang D, Wake H, Takata K, Yoshino T, Takahashi HK, Mori S, Nishibori MSoluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products attenuates inflammatory pathogenesis in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. J Pharmacol Sci, 2016; 130:226-234
 Tang FY, Fan KF, Wang KL, Bian CZ. Atractylodin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and TLR4 pathways. J Pharmacol Sci, 2018; 136: 203-211.
 Huang XL, Wei XC, Guo LQ, Zhao L, Chen XH, Cui YD, Yuan J, Chen DF, Zhang J.
The therapeutic effects of Jaceosidin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2019 Jul; 140(3):228-235.
 Park E, Kwon BM, Jung IK, JH Kim. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of jaceosidin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. J Nutr Health. 2014; 47(5):313-320.
 Jiang L, Lv L, Liu X, Jiang X, Yin Q, Hao Y, Xiao L .MiR-223 promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferation and migration by regulating FBXW7.Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(3):325-334.
 Han HY, Kim HJ, Jeong SH, Kim J, Jeong SH, Kim GC, Hwang DS, Kim UK, Ryu MH. The Flavonoid Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Induces Apoptotic Cell Death and Inhibits the Akt Pathway in Oral Cancer Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018; 12:1-9
 Nam Y, Choi M, Hwang H, Lee MG, Kwon BM, Lee WH, Suk K. Natural flavone jaceosidin is a neuroinflammation inhibitor. Phytother Res. 2013; 27(3):404-11.
 Lee SG, Kim JS, Min K, Kwon TK, Nam JO.Hispidulin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PPARγ pathway. Chem Biol Interact. 2018 Sep 25;293:89-93. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2018.07.027. Epub 2018 Jul 25.
 Nakasugi T, Nakashima M, Komai K. Antimutagens in gaiyou (Artemisia argyi levl. et vant.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000; 48:3256–3266. doi: 10.1021/jf9906679
 Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP. Substrate, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr. Med. Chem. 2009; 16:3480–3675.
 Park, JK. Korean Folk Medicine; Busan National University Publishers: Busan, Korea, 1999; p. 68.
 Lee J, Narayan VP, Hong EY, Whang WK, Park T. Artemisia Iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice: Potential Involvement of the Adiponectin-AMPK Pathway and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Assembly in the Liver Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Aug; 18(8): pii1762. doi: 10.3390/ijms18081762.
 Lee MY, Doh EJ, Kim ES, Kim YW, Ko BS, Oh SE. Application of the multiplex PCR method for discrimination of Artemisia iwayomogi from other Artemisia herbs. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(4):685-90.
 Cho SY, Jeong HW, Sohn JH, Seo DB, Kim WG, Lee SJ. An ethanol extract of Artemisia iwayomogi activates PPARδ leading to activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33815. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033815.
 Ryu JH, Ahn H, Kim JY, Kim YK. Inhibitory activity of plant extracts on nitric oxide synthesis in LPS-activated macrophages. Phytother Res. 2003; 17 (5):485-9.
 Ahn H, Kim JY, Lee HJ, Kim YK, Ryu JH. Inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression from Artemisia iwayomogi. Arch Pharm Res. 2003; 26(4):301-5.
 Hwang JS, Chung HK, Bae EK, Lee AY, Ji HJ, Park DW, Jung HJ, Cho CW, Choi HJ, Lee DS, Lee KR, Youn HJ. The polysaccharide fraction AIP1 from Artemisia iwayomogi suppresses apoptotic death of the mouse spleen cells in culture. Arch Pharm Res. 2003; 26(4):294-300.
 Lee HI, Seo KO, Yun KW, Kim MJ, Lee MK. Comparative study of the hepatoprotective efficacy of Artemisia iwayomogi and Artemisia capillaris on ethanol-administered mice. J Food Sci. 2011 Nov-Dec; 76(9):T207-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02385.x.
 Wang JH, Choi MK, Shin JW, Hwang SY, Son CG. Antifibrotic effects of Artemisia capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi in a carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatic fibrosis animal model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Mar 6; 140(1):179-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.007.
 Kim AR, Zou YN, Park TH, Shim KH, Kim MS, Kim ND, Kim JD, Bae SJ, Choi JS, Chung HY. Active components from Artemisia iwayomogi displaying ONOO (-) scavenging activity. Phytother Res. 2004; 18(1):1-7.
 Chung EY, Byun YH, Shin EJ, Chung HS, Lee YH, Shin S. Antibacterial effects of vulgarone B from Artemisia iwayomogi alone and in combination with oxacillin. Arch. Pharm. Res.2009; 32:1711–1719.
 Moscatelli V, Hnatyszyn O, Acevedo C, Megías J, Alcaraz MJ, Ferraro G. Flavonoids from Artemisia copa with anti-inflammatory activity. Planta Med. 2006; 72(1):72-4.
 Gorzalczany S1, Moscatelli V, Ferraro G. Artemisia copa aqueous extract as vasorelaxant and hypotensive agent. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 148(1):56-61.
 Miño J ,Moscatelli V , Hnatyszyn O , Gorzalczany S , Acevedo C , Ferraro G. Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of Artemisia copa extracts. Pharmacological Res. 2004; 50(1):59-63
 Yang C, Hu DH, Feng Y.. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement. Mol Med Rep. 2015 Oct; 12(4):5762–5770.
 Sun Y, Li YH, Wu XX, Zheng W, Guo ZH, Li Y, Chen T, Hua ZC, Xu Q. Ethanol extract from Artemisia vestita, a traditional Tibetan medicine, exerts anti-sepsis action through down-regulating the MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways. Int J Mol Med. 2006 May; 17(5):957-62.
 Flora of China (1994-00-00) http://flora.huh.harvard.edu.china
 Yin Y, Gong FY, Wu XX, Sun Y, Li YH, Chen T, Xu Q.Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effect of flavones isolated from Artemisia vestita. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 120(1):1-6.
 Ahad S, Tanveer S, Nawchoo IA, Malik TA.Anticoccidial activity of Artemisia vestita (Anthemideae, Asteraceae) - a traditional herb growing in the Western Himalayas, Kashmir, India. Microb Pathog. 2017; 104:289-295.
 Wang J, Sun Y, Li Y, Xu Q. Aqueous extract from aerial parts of Artemisia vestita, a traditional Tibetan medicine, reduces contact sensitivity in mice by down-regulating the activation, adhesion and metalloproteinase production of T lymphocytes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005; 5(2):407-15.
 Wang JL, Li CS, Dun Z, Zhou HY. Immunosuppressive effect of Tibetan medicine, Artemisia vestita Wall Extract. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006; 37 (6):908-12
 Long A, FU J, Hu Y, Luo Y. Annphenone from Artemisia vestita Inhibits HepG2 Cell Proliferation. Asian Journal of Chemistry; 2013; 25(17):9497-9502.
 Irum S, Ahmed H, Mukhtar M, Mushtaq M, Mirza B, Donskow-Łysoniewska K, Qayyum M, Simsek S. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia vestita Wall ex DC. and Artemisia maritima L. against Haemonchus contortus from sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2015; 212(3-4):451-5.
 Özcan B, Birgul EM, Coleri A, Yolcu H, Caliskan M. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of various extracts of Salvia microstegia (Boiss.) et. Bal. from Antakya, Turkey. Fresenius Environ Bull. 2009; 18:658–62.
 Cardile V, Russo A, Formisano C, Rigano D, Senatore F, Arnold NA, et al. Essential oils of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia from Lebanon: chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effect on human melanoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 126:265–72.
 Kim EJ, Jung SN, Son KH, Kim SR, Ha TY, Park MG, et al. Antidiabetes and antiobesity effect of cryptotanshinone via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Mol Pharmacol. 2007; 72:62–72.
 Kolak U, Kabouche A, Ozturk M, Kabouche Z, Topçu G, Ulubelen A. Antioxidant diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia barrelieri. Phytochem Anal. 2009; 20:320–7.
 Demirci B, Hüsnü K, Baser C, Tümen G. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia aramiensis Rech. fil. growing in Turkey. Flavour Frag J. 2005; 17:23–5.
 Delamare Longaray APL, Ivete TMP, Artico L, Atti-Serafini L, Echeverrrigary S. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia triloba L. cultivated in south Brazil. Food Chem. 2007; 100:603–8.
 Ulubelen A, Topçu G. Chemical and biological investigations of Salvia species growing in Turkey. Stud Nat Prod Chem. 1997; 20:659-718.
 Kintzios SE. Sage: the genus Salvia. Amsterdam: CRC Press, 2003.
 Imanshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H. The pharmacological effects of Salvia species on the central nervous system. Phytother Res. 2006; 20(6):427-437.
 Clavin M, Gorzalczany S, Macho A, Munoz E, Ferraro G, Acevedo C, Martino V. Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Eupatorium arnottianum.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007; 112(3):585-589
 Gorzalczany S, Caminos P, Martino V, Clavín M. Effect of Eupatorium arnottianum on Gastrointestinal Tract. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2016; 15(4):1-7.
 Gui C. H., Tang R. J. Study on antitussive active ingredients of Verbena officinalis. Bull. Chin. Mater. Med. 1985; 10:35
 Calvo MI. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 107 380–382. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.037
 Lai SW, Yu MS, Yuen WH, Chang RC. Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn. Neuropharmacology 2006; 50 :641–650.
 Speroni E, Cervellati R, Costa S, Guerra MC, Utan A, Govoni P, Berger A, Müller A, Stuppner H.. Effects of differential extraction of Verbena officinalis on rat models of inflammation, cicatrization and gastric damage. Planta Med. 2007; 73:227–235
 López V, Akerreta S, Casanova E, García-Mina J, Cavero R, Calvo M. Screening of Spanish medicinal plants for antioxidant and antifungal activities. Pharm. Biol. 2008; 46:602–609.
 Kou WZ, Yang J, Yang QH, Wang Y, Wang ZF, Xu SL, Liu J. Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 2013; 10:512–517.
 Mengiste B, Lulie S, Getachew B, Gebrelibanos M, Mekuria A, Masresha B. In vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from aerial parts of Verbena officinalis. Adv. Biol. Res. 2015; 9:53–57.
 Encalada MA, Rehecho S, Ansorena D, Astiasarán I, Cavero RY, Calvo MI. Antiproliferative effect of phenylethanoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis L. on colon cancer cell lines. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 2015; 63:1016–1022
 Kamal M, Jawaid T, Imam SA. Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Verbena officinalis Linn plant in mice. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2015; 8:308–310.
 Khan AW, Khan AU, Ahmed T. Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Sedative Activities of Verbena officinalis.Front Pharmacol. 2016; 7:499.
 Maas M, Deters AM, Hensel A. Anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatorium perfoliatum L. extracts, eupafolin, and dimeric guaianolide via iNOS inhibitory activity and modulation of inflammation-related cytokines and chemokines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 137(1):371-81.
 Hensel A, Maas M, Sendker J, Lechtenberg M, Petereit F, Deters A, Schmidt T, Stark T. Eupatorium perfoliatum L.: phytochemistry, traditional use and current applications. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 138 (3):641-51.
 Derksen A, Kühn J, Hafezi W, Sendker J, Ehrhardt C, Ludwig S, Hensel A. Antiviral activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Eupatorium perfoliatum L. against the attachment of influenza A virus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2016; 188:144-152.
 Otsuka K, Shoji J, Takido M, Cho S. A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Chinese Medical Herbs (I); Chuokoran-Sha Inc.: Tokyo, Japan, 1992.
 Guan X, Ge D, Li S, Huang K, Liu J, Li F. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Vant Essential Oils Extracted by Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction, Subcritical Extraction and Hydrodistillation. Molecules, 2019; 24(3). pii: E483. doi: 10.3390/molecules24030483.
 Huang HC, Wang HF, Yih KH, Chang LZ, Chang TM. Dual bioactivities of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi as an antimelanogenic versus antioxidant agent and chemical composition analysis by GC/MS. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(11):14679-97. doi: 10.3390/ijms131114679.
 Smith-Palmer A, Stewart J, Fyfe L. The potential application of plant essential oils as natural food preservatives in soft cheese. Food Microbiol. 2001; 18:463–470.
 Takasaki M, Konoshima T, Komatsu K, Tokuda H, Nishino H. Anti-tumor-promoting activity of lignans from the aerial part of Saussurea medusa. Cancer Lett. 2000; 158(1):53-9.
 Fan JY, Chen HB, Zhu L, Chen HL, Zhao ZZ, Yi T. Saussurea medusa, source of the medicinal herb snow lotus: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, Phytochem Rev. 2015; 14:353.
 Ahuja A, Yi YS, Kim MY, Cho JY. Ethnopharmacological properties of Artemisia asiatica: A comprehensive review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018; 220:117-128
 Jeong D, Lee J, Jeong SG, Hong YH, Yoo S, Han SY, Kim JH, Kim S, Kim JS, Chung YS, Kim JH, Yi YS, Cho JY. Artemisia asiatica ethanol extract exhibits anti-photoaging activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018; 220:57-66.
 Kim EK, Tang Y, Cha KS, Choi H, Lee CB, Yoon JH, Kim SB, Kim JS, Kim JM, Han WC, Choi SJ, Lee S, Choi EJ, Kim SH. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.J Med Food. 2015 Aug 1; 18(8):921–928.
 Grigore A, Neagu G, Dobre N, Albulescu A, Ionita L, Ionita C, Albulescu R. Evaluation of antiproliferative and protective effects of Eupatorium cannabinum L. extractsTurk J Biol. 2018; 42(4):334–344.
 Woerdenbag HJ. Eupatorium cannabinum L. A review emphasizing the sesquiterpene lactones and their biological activity. Pharm Weekbl Sci. 1986; 8(5):245-51.
 Judzentiene A, Garjonyte R, Budiene J.Variability, toxicity, and antioxidant activity of Eupatorium cannabinum (hemp agrimony) essential oils. Pharm Biol. 2016; 54(6):945-53.
 Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of eupatorium cannabinum-a review. Indo Am. J. P. Sci, 2017; 4 (01):16
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).