TRADITIONAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE OF UNANI MEDICINE AN UPDATED REVIEW
Papaver somniferum commonly known as Khashkhash /Afyon, belongs to family Papaveraceae. It is one of those traditional plants, which have a long history of usage as medicine. The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces some of the most widely used medicinal alkaloids like morphine, codeine, thebain and porphyroxine which are the most important component of this plant. Apart from these alkaloids, opium poppy produces approximately eighty alkaloids belonging to various tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolinederived classes. It has been known for over a century that morphinan alkaloids accumulate in the latex of opium poppy. According to Unani literature, it possesses most important theurapeutic values as modern literature and research studies also prove its therapeutical importance. It is used as analgesic, narcotic, sedative, stimulant as well as nutritive, etc. It is also useful in headache, cough, insomnia, cardiac asthma, and biliary colic. In this paper we have provide a review on habitate, pharmacological actions, phytochemical with special refrence to Unani Medicine. In this review, an attempt is made to explore the complete information of Papaver somniferum including its phytochemistry and pharmacology.
Key words: Khashkhash, Biliary colic, Alkaloid, phytochemistry.
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