• Xinwei Cheng Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA


The application of nanomedicines has proved to be effective for the therapy of various types of cancer compared to conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The nanomedicines can treat various cancers with the precise target without affecting the normal cells. In addition, by utilizing of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, nanomedicines can selectively targeting disease site and yield very promising therapeutic results for cancer treatment. Among all available nanomedicines, organic materials such as polymers are widely used in recent decades as biomaterials for their favorable properties like excellent biocompatibility, easy design and preparation, several types of structures and interesting biomimetic character, which warrants the further evaluations on these kinds of innovative material. Inorganic nanoparticles such nanogold also demonstrated the ability to target cancer and can be employed as both therapeutic and imaging agents. This mini-review will give a brief discussion of using inorganic and organic nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer.
Keywords: Nanomedicine, self-assembly, drug delivery, nanoparticle, nanogold, anticancer drugs


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Xinwei Cheng, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA


(1) Dave, R. H.; Shah, D. A.; Patel, P. G. Development and evaluation of high loading oral dissolving film of aspirin and acetaminophen. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacology 2014, 1, 112-122.
(2) Guo, X. K.; Sun, H. P.; Shen, S.; Sun, Y.; Xie, F. L.; Tao, L.; Guo, Q. L.; Jiang, C.; You, Q. D. Synthesis and evaluation of gambogic acid derivatives as antitumor agents. Part III. Chemistry & biodiversity 2013, 10, 73-85.
(3) Liu, Z.-l.; Zhang, R.-m.; Meng, Q.-g.; Zhang, X.-c.; Sun, Y. Discovery of new protein kinase CK2 inhibitors with 1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene core. MedChemComm 2016, 7, 1352-1355.
(4) Sun, H.; Zhu, J.; Chen, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhi, H.; Li, H.; You, Y.; Xiao, Q. Docking Study and Three‐Dimensional Quantitative Structure‐Activity Relationship (3D‐QSAR) Analyses and Novel Molecular Design of a Series of 4‐Aminoquinazolines as Inhibitors of Aurora B Kinase. Chinese Journal of Chemistry 2011, 29, 1785-1799.
(5) Cheng, X.; Lee, R. J. The role of helper lipids in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) designed for oligonucleotide delivery. Advanced drug delivery reviews 2016, 99, 129-137.
(6) Cheng, X.; Liu, Q.; Li, H.; Kang, C.; Liu, Y.; Guo, T.; Shang, K.; Yan, C.; Cheng, G.; Lee, R. J. Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with an Antisense Oligonucleotide Gapmer Against Bcl-2 for Treatment of Lung Cancer. Pharmaceutical Research 2016, 1-11.
(7) Wicki, A.; Witzigmann, D.; Balasubramanian, V.; Huwyler, J. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications. Journal of Controlled Release 2015, 200, 138-157.
(8) Heim, S.; Mitelman, F.: Cancer cytogenetics: chromosomal and molecular genetic aberrations of tumor cells; John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
(9) Yung, B. C.; Li, J.; Zhang, M.; Cheng, X.; Li, H.; Yung, E. M.; Kang, C.; Cosby, L. E.; Liu, Y.; Teng, L. Lipid Nanoparticles Composed of Quaternary Amine–Tertiary Amine Cationic Lipid Combination (QTsome) for Therapeutic Delivery of AntimiR-21 for Lung Cancer. Molecular pharmaceutics 2016, 13, 653-662.
(10) Stacey, J.: Teratologies: A cultural study of cancer; Routledge, 2013.
(11) Ding, R.; Yu, X.; Wang, P.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, Y.; Cao, X.; Tang, H.; Ayres, N.; Zhang, P. Hybrid photosensitizer based on amphiphilic block copolymer stabilized silver nanoparticles for highly efficient photodynamic inactivation of bacteria. RSC Advances 2016, 6, 20392-20398.
(12) Chen, Y.; Bian, Y.; Sun, Y.; Kang, C.; Yu, S.; Fu, T.; Li, W.; Pei, Y.; Sun, H. Identification of 4-aminoquinoline core for the design of new cholinesterase inhibitors. PeerJ 2016, 4, e2140.
(13) Butterworth, K. T.; Coulter, J.; Jain, S.; Forker, J.; McMahon, S.; Schettino, G.; Prise, K.; Currell, F.; Hirst, D. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and radiation enhancement using 1.9 nm gold particles: potential application for cancer therapy. Nanotechnology 2010, 21, 295101.
(14) Waller, A. P.; George, M.; Kalyanasundaram, A.; Kang, C.; Periasamy, M.; Hu, K.; Lacombe, V. A. GLUT12 functions as a basal and insulin-independent glucose transporter in the heart. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease 2013, 1832, 121-127.
(15) Sun, Y.; Wang, H.-p.; Zhou, Y.; YOU, Q.-d. Recent advances in non-campto-thecin DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Prog Pharm Sci 2011, 35, 385-395.
(16) Zhou, Y.; Xu, X.; Sun, Y.; Wang, H.; Sun, H.; You, Q. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and topoisomerase II inhibitory activity of lomefloxacin derivatives. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 2013, 23, 2974-2978.
(17) Flygare, J. A.; Pillow, T. H.; Aristoff, P. Antibody‐drug conjugates for the treatment of cancer. Chemical biology & drug design 2013, 81, 113-121.
(18) Wildiers, H.; Mauer, M.; Pallis, A.; Hurria, A.; Mohile, S. G.; Luciani, A.; Curigliano, G.; Extermann, M.; Lichtman, S. M.; Ballman, K. End points and trial design in geriatric oncology research: a joint European organisation for research and treatment of cancer–Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology–International Society Of Geriatric Oncology position article. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2013, 31, 3711-3718.
(19) Murdande, S. B.; Shah, D. A.; Dave, R. H. Impact of nanosizing on solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble pharmaceuticals. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 2015, 104, 2094-2102.
(20) Han, R.; Sun, Y.; Kang, C.; Sun, H.; Wei, W. Amphiphilic dendritic nanomicelle-mediated co-delivery of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin for enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Journal of Drug Targeting 2016.
(21) Song, L.; Kang, C.; Sun, Y.; Huang, W.; Liu, W.; Qian, Z. Crocetin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 2016, 40, 443-452.
(22) Mi, Y.; Zhao, J.; Feng, S.-S. Targeted co-delivery of docetaxel, cisplatin and herceptin by vitamin E TPGS-cisplatin prodrug nanoparticles for multimodality treatment of cancer. Journal of controlled release 2013, 169, 185-192.
(23) Shah, D. A.; Murdande, S. B.; Dave, R. H. A Review: Pharmaceutical and Pharmacokinetic Aspect of Nanocrystalline Suspensions. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2016, 105, 10-24.
(24) Sun, Y.; Kang, C.; Zhang, A.; Liu, F.; Hu, J.; Zhong, X.; Xie, J. Co-delivery of dual-drugs with nanoparticle to overcome multidrug resistance. European Journal of BioMedical Research 2016, 2, 12-18.
(25) Du, J.; Cullen, J. J.; Buettner, G. R. Ascorbic acid: chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Reviews on Cancer 2012, 1826, 443-457.
(26) Cha, E.; Klinger, M.; Hou, Y.; Cummings, C.; Ribas, A.; Faham, M.; Fong, L. Improved survival with T cell clonotype stability after anti–CTLA-4 treatment in cancer patients. Science translational medicine 2014, 6, 238ra270-238ra270.
(27) Shah, D. A.; Patel, M.; Murdande, S. B.; Dave, R. H. Influence of spray drying and dispersing agent on surface and dissolution properties of griseofulvin micro and nanocrystals. Drug development and industrial pharmacy 2016, 1-9.
(28) Dawidczyk, C. M.; Russell, L. M.; Searson, P. C. Nanomedicines for cancer therapy: state-of-the-art and limitations to pre-clinical studies that hinder future developments. Frontiers in chemistry 2014, 2, 69.
(29) Kang, C.; Sun, Y.; Zhu, J.; Li, W.; Zhang, A.; Kuang, T.; Xie, J.; Yang, Z. Delivery of Nanoparticles for Treatment of Brain Tumor. Current Drug Metabolism 2016, 17, 745-754.
(30) Yu, X.; Chen, X.; Chai, Q.; Ayres, N. Synthesis of polymer organogelators using hydrogen bonding as physical cross-links. Colloid and Polymer Science 2016, 294, 59-68.
(31) Korang-Yeboah, M.; Rahman, Z.; Shah, D.; Mohammad, A.; Wu, S.; Siddiqui, A.; Khan, M. A. Impact of formulation and process variables on solid-state stability of theophylline in controlled release formulations. International journal of pharmaceutics 2016, 499, 20-28.
(32) Korang-Yeboah, M.; Rahman, Z.; Shah, D. A.; Khan, M. A. Spectroscopic-Based Chemometric Models for Quantifying Low Levels of Solid-State Transitions in Extended Release Theophylline Formulations. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 2016, 105, 97-105.
(33) Maeda, H.; Nakamura, H.; Fang, J. The EPR effect for macromolecular drug delivery to solid tumors: Improvement of tumor uptake, lowering of systemic toxicity, and distinct tumor imaging in vivo. Advanced drug delivery reviews 2013, 65, 71-79.
(34) Wang, L.; Maruf, S. H.; Maniglio, D.; Ding, Y. Fabrication and characterizations of crosslinked porous polymer films with varying chemical compositions. Polymer 2012, 53, 3749-3755.
(35) Li, H.; Cheng, X.; Liu, Y.; Lee, Y. B.; Kim, D. J.; Ahn, C.-h.; Lee, R. J. Folate receptor-targeted lipid coated albumin nanoparticles (F-LCAN) for therapeutic delivery of RX-0201 (Archexin®), an antisense oligonucleotide against Akt-1. Cancer Research 2016, 76, 1322-1322.
(36) Sun, Y.; Kang, C. Self-Assembly of Peptides into Hydrogel. Journal of Organic & Inorganic Chemistry 2016, 2.
(37) Wang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Ding, Y. Photocrosslinking-induced phase separation in evaporative solvents: formation of skin layers and microspheres. Soft Matter 2013, 9, 4455-4463.
(38) Yao, Z.; Sun, Y.; Kang, C. Structure and Self-Assembly of Multicolored Naphthalene Diimides Semiconductor. Nano LIFE 2016, 6, 1642007.
(39) Li, H.; Quan, J.; Zhang, M.; Yung, B. C.; Cheng, X.; Liu, Y.; Lee, Y. B.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, R. J. Lipid-albumin nanoparticles (LAN) for therapeutic delivery of antisense oligonucleotide against HIF-1alpha. Molecular pharmaceutics 2016.
(40) Sun, Y.; Kang, C.; Yao, Z.; Liu, F.; Zhou, Y. Peptide-Based Ligand for Active Delivery of Liposomal Doxorubicin. Nano LIFE 2016, 6, 1642004.
(41) Yang, Z.; Xie, J.; Zhu, J.; Kang, C.; Chiang, C.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Kuang, T.; Chen, F.; Chen, Z. Functional exosome-mimic for delivery of siRNA to cancer: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Journal of Controlled Release 2016, 243, 160-171.
(42) Kim, M. S.; Lee, J.; Sidransky, D. DNA methylation markers in colorectal cancer. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews 2010, 29, 181-206.
(43) Hainfeld, J. F.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zhong, Z.; Slatkin, D. N.; Kalef-Ezra, J. A.; Smilowitz, H. M. Gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a murine squamous cell carcinoma. Physics in medicine and biology 2010, 55, 3045.
(44) Jin, Z.; Liu, X.; Duan, S.; Yu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hayat, T.; Li, J. The adsorption of Eu (III) on carbonaceous nanofibers: batch experiments and modeling study. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2016, 222, 456-462.
(45) Kang, C.; Sun, Y.; Wang, M.; Cheng, X. Nanosized Camptothecin Conjugates for Single and Combined Drug Delivery. European Journal of BioMedical Research 2016, 2, 8-14.
(46) Sun, Y.; Kang, C.; Liu, F.; Song, L. Delivery of Antipsychotics with Nanoparticles. Drug Development Research 2016, 77, 393-399.
(47) Chai, Q.; Yu, X.; Jiao, Y. Applications of Gold Nanoparticles in Biosensors. Nano LIFE 2016.
(48) Hainfeld, J. F.; Smilowitz, H. M.; O'Connor, M. J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Slatkin, D. N. Gold nanoparticle imaging and radiotherapy of brain tumors in mice. Nanomedicine 2013, 8, 1601-1609.
(49) Wang, T.; Jiao, Y.; Chai, Q.; Yu, X. Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Biological Applications. Nano LIFE 2015, 5, 1542007.
(50) Alhasan, A. H.; Kim, D. Y.; Daniel, W. L.; Watson, E.; Meeks, J. J.; Thaxton, C. S.; Mirkin, C. A. Scanometric microRNA array profiling of prostate cancer markers using spherical nucleic acid–gold nanoparticle conjugates. Analytical chemistry 2012, 84, 4153-4160.
(51) Liu, F.; Sun, Y.; Kang, C.; Zhu, H. Pegylated Drug Delivery Systems: From Design to Biomedical Applications. Nano LIFE 2016, 6, 1642002.
(52) Hogberg, T.; Signorelli, M.; De Oliveira, C. F.; Fossati, R.; Lissoni, A. A.; Sorbe, B.; Andersson, H.; Grenman, S.; Lundgren, C.; Rosenberg, P. Sequential adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer–results from two randomised studies. European Journal of Cancer 2010, 46, 2422-2431.
159 Views | 133 Downloads
How to Cite
Cheng X. DEVELOPING ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NANOMEDICINE FOR CANCER THERAPY. JDDT [Internet]. 15Mar.2017 [cited 18Feb.2020];7(2):1-. Available from: