Fabrication of Gelatin/Karaya gum blend microspheres for the controlled release of Distigmine bromide
This paper reports the fabrication of gelatin/karaya gum microspheres by emulsion crosslinking method for controlled release of distigmine bromide. The microspheres were crosslinked with the help of glutaraldehyde and used for controlled oral delivery of distigmine bromide. The obtained microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Drug release kinetics of the microspheres is investigated in simulated intestinal fluid pH 7.4 at 37oC. Results illustrated that microspheres was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. The drug release kinetics was analyzed by evaluating the release data using different kinetic models.
Keywords: Karaya Gum, Gelatin, microspheres, drug delivery.
2. Chao Chen, Zideng Gao, Xiaoyun Qiu and Shuwen Hu, Enhancement of the Controlled-Release Properties of Chitosan Membranes by Crosslinking with Suberoyl Chloride, Molecules, 2013; 18:7239-7252.
3. Eswaramma S., Krishna Rao K.S.V., Synthesis of dual responsive carbohydrate polymer based IPNmicrobeads for controlled release of anti-HIV drug, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2017; 156:125-134.
4. Jae Hyung Park, Mingli Ye and Kinam Park, Biodegradable Polymers for Microencapsulation of Drugs, Molecules, 2005; 10:146-161.
5. Mano J. F., Silva G. A., H. S. Azevedo, P. B. Malafaya, R. A. Sousa, S. S. Silva, L. F. Boesel, J.M. Oliveira, T. C. Santos, A. P. Marques, N. M. Neves and R. L. Reis, Natural origin biodegradable systems in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: present status and some moving trends, J. R. Soc. Interface, 2007; 4:999-1030.
6. Madhusudana Rao K, Krishna Rao K.S.V., Sudhakar P, Chowdoji RaO K, Subha MCS, Synthesis and Characterization of biodegradable Poly (Vinyl caprolactam) grafted on to sodium alginate and its microgels for controlled release studies of an anticancer drug, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2013; 3(06):061-069.
7. Anupama Singh, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Rishabha Malviya, Release Behavior of Drugs from Various Natural Gums and Polymers, Polim Med., 2011; 41(4):73-80.
8. Zhang J, Du Z, Xu S, Zhang S, Synthesis and Characterization of Karaya Gum/Chitosan Composite Microspheres, Iranian Polymer Journal, 2009; 18(4):307-313.
9. Raizaday A, Yadav HKZ, HemanthKumar S, Kasina S, M.Navya, Tashi C, Development of pH sensitive microparticles of Karaya gum: By response surface methodology, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2015; 134:353-363.
10. Shahid Mahboob, Isolation and characterization of collagen from fish waste material- skin, scales and fins of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015; 52(7):4296-4305.
11. Kajjari PB, Manjeshwar LM, Aminabhavi TM, Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogel Blend Microspheres of Gelatin and Hydroxyethyl Cellulose for Controlled Release of Theophylline, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011; 50:7833-7840.
12. Keerti V. Phadke, Lata S. Manjeshwar, and Tejraj M. Aminabhavi, Microspheres of Gelatin and Poly(ethylene glycol) Coated with Ethyl Cellulose for Controlled Release of Metronidazole, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2014; 53 6575-6584.
13. K.M. Gattàs-Asfura, E. Weisman, F.M. Andreopoulos, M. Micic, B. Muller, S. Sirpal, S.M. Pham, R.M. Leblanc, Nitrocinnamate-functionalized gelatin: synthesis and ‘‘smart” hydrogel formation via photo-cross-linking, Biomacromolecules, 2005; 6 (3):1503-1509.
14. Manuela Curcio, U. Gianfranco Spizzirri, Francesca Iemma, Francesco Puoci, Giuseppe Cirillo, Ortensia I. Parisi, Nevio Picci, Grafted thermo-responsive gelatin microspheres as delivery systems in triggered drug release, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2010; 76:48-55.
15. Rita Cortesi, Elisabetta Esposito, Maria Osti, Giacomo Squarzoni, Enea Menegatti, Stanley Spencer Davis, Claudio Nastruzzi, Dextran cross-linked gelatin microspheres as a drug delivery system, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 1999; 47:153-160.
16. Anh H.Nguyen, JayMcKinney, TobiasMiller, TomBongiorno, Todd C.McDevitt, Gelatin methacrylate microspheres for controlled growth factor release, Acta Biomaterialia, 2015; 13:101-110.
17. Obara K, Kobayashi Y, Chino D, Tanaka, Effect of distigmine on the contractile response of guinea pig urinary bladder to electrical field stimulation, Eur J Pharmacol., 2017; 809(15):209-214.
18. Ito Y, Harada T, Fushimi K, Kagawa Y, Oka H, Nakazawa H, Homma R, Kato Y, Yamada S, Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by distigmine bromide in rats, Drug Metab Pharmacokinet., 2010; 25(3):254-61.
19. Himmerich H, Szegedi A, Klawe C, Anghelescu I, Müller MJ, Distigmine bromide induced acute psychotic disorder in a patient with multiple sclerosis, Eur Psychiatry, 2003; 18(6):318-329.
20. Kulkarni R.V., Sa B, Polyacrylamide-grafted-alginate-based pH-sensitivehydrogel beads for delivery of ketoprofen to the Intestine: in vitro and in vivoevaluation, J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed., 2009; 20:235-251.
21. Anupama Setia, S. Goyal and N. Goyal, Applications of Gum Karaya in Drug Delivery Systems: A Review on Recent Research, Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2010; 2(5):39-48.
22. Alange VV, Birajdar RP, Kulkarni RV, Functionally modified polyacrylamide-graft-gum karaya pH-sensitivespray dried microspheres for colon targeting of an anti-cancer drug, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017; 102:829-839.
23. Chithambara B, Thanoo M. C. sunny and A. Jayakrishnan, Cross-linked Chitosan Microspheres: Preparation and Evaluation as a Matrix for Controlled Release of Pharmaceuticals, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 1992; 44:283-286.
24. Soﬁa Papadimitriou, Dimitrios Bikiaris Novel self-assembled core–shell nanoparticles based on crystalline amorphous moieties of aliphatic copolyesters for efficient controlled drug release Journal of Controlled Release, 2009; 138:177-184.
25. Philip L. Ritger and Nikolaos A. Peppas A simple equation for description of solute release II. Fickian and anomalous release from swellable devices Journal of Controlled Release, 1987; 5:37-42.
26. Madhusudana Rao K, Krishna Rao KSV, Ramanjaneyulu G, Chang-Sik Ha, Curcumin encapsulated pH sensitive gelatin based interpenetrating polymeric network nanogels for anti cancer drug delivery, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2015; 478:788-795.
27. Ikhuoria M Arhewoh and Augustine O Okhamafe, An overview of site-specific delivery of orally administered proteins/peptides and modelling considerations, Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research, 2004; 3(1):7–20.
28. Donbrow M, Samuelov Y, Zero order drug delivery from double-layered porous films: release rate profiles from ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol mixtures, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1980; 32:463-470.
29. Radhakant Gouda, Himankar Baishya and Zhao Qing, Application of Mathematical Models in Drug Release Kinetics of Carbidopa and Levodopa ER Tablets, Gouda et al., J Develop Drugs, 2017; 6:2-8.
30. Dash S, Murthy PN, Nath L, Chowdhury P, Kinetic modeling on drug release from controlled drug delivery systems, Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica-Drug Research, 2010; 67(3):217-223
31. Dozie-Nwachukwu S.O., Danyuo Y., J.D. Obayemi, O.S. Odusanya, K.Malatesta,W.O. Soboyejo, Extraction and encapsulation of prodigiosin in chitosan microspheres for targeted drug delivery, Materials Science and Engineering, 2017; 71:268–278.
32. Paulo Costa, and Jose´ Manuel Sousa Lobo, Modeling and comparison of dissolution profiles, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2001; 13:123-133.
33. Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas NA, Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 1983; 15:25–35.
34. Ajit P. Rokhade, Sunil A. Agnihotri, Sangamesh A. Patil, Nadagouda N. Mallikarjuna, Padmakar V. Kulkarni , Tejraj M. Aminabhavi, Semi-interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of ketorolac tromethamine, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2006; 65:243-252.
35. T.S.N Sankara Narayanan II-Song Park and Min-Ho Lee, Surface Modification of Magnesium and its Alloys for Biomedical Applications: Opportunities and challenges, Woodhead publishing series in Biomaterials; 2015. p. 29-87.
36. Madhusudana Rao K, Mallikarjuna B, Krishna Rao K. S. V., Prabhakar M. N., Chowdoji Rao K., M. Subha C. S., Preparation and characterization of pH sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol)/ sodium carboxymethyl cellulose IPN microspheres for in vitro release studies of an anti-cancer drug, Polym. Bull., 2012; 68:1905-1919.
37. Gangadharappa H. V., Rahamath-Ulla M., Pramod-Kumar T. M., and Shakeel F., Floating drug delivery system of verapamil hydrochloride using karaya gum and HPMC, Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs, 2010; 27(1):13-20.
38. Guruguntla Nagarjuna, Palla Kumara Babu, Yeggada Maruthi, Areti Parandhama, Chintha Madhavi, M. C. S. Subha, Kashayi Chowdojirao, Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogel Membranes of Karayagum and Sodium Alginate for Control Release of Flutamide Drug, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2016; 6(12):011-019.
39. Praveen B. Kajjari, Lata S. Manjeshwar , Tejraj M. Aminabhavi, Novel blend microspheres of poly(vinyl alcohol) and succinyl chitosan for controlled release of nifedipine, Polym. Bull., 2013; 70:3387-3406.
40. Jana S, Sen KK, Chitosan - Locust bean gum interpenetrating polymeric network nanocomposites for delivery of aceclofenac, Int J Biol Macromol, 2017; 102:878-884.
41. Gautam Singhvi, Mahaveer Singh, Review: In-Vitro drug release characterization models, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Studies and Research, 2011; 2:77-84.
42. Krishna Rao KSV, Ildoo Chung, KMallikarjuna Reddy K, Chang-Sik Ha, PMMA-Based Microgels for Controlled Release of an Anticancer Drug, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2009; 111:845-853.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).