Phytopharmacology of Chloroxylon swietenia: a review
The nature has provided a complete store house of remedies to use for all ailments for mankind. The knowledge on drugs has accumulated over thousands of years as a result of mans inquisitive nature. Phytomedicines or natural prescriptions, have assumed a basic part in World wellbeing for a large number of years. As per the World Health Organization (WHO), "natural medications incorporate herbs, home grown materials, home grown arrangements and completed home grown items, that contain as dynamic fixings parts of plants, or other plant materials, or blends. Chloroxylon swietenia DC. (Family: Rutaceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant used in the treatment of various ailments like fungal infection of skin, rheumatism, common cold, cough, ophthalmic infection and cataract, wounds and as an astringent. It is a tropical aromatic tree of dry deciduous forests popularly known as East Indian Satin Wood. The findings of this study will facilitate pharmacognostic standardization of the plant material and aid in the preparation of an herbal monograph for the species. Further studies on this plant must be carried out to explore some other important, necessary and unknown benefits. As the plant has multifunctional properties, this review is worthwhile and therefore it presents comprehensive analysed information on the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the botanical.
Keywords: Chloroxylon swietenia, phytomedicines, pharmacological aspects, anti-feedant, anti-bacterial activity, IUCN, vulnerable species.
2. Bartram T: Encyclopedia of herbal medicine, Grace, Dorset, 1995:1-25.
3. Yamini K, Anto Shering M, Reddy PK, Reddy LN. Pharmacognostical and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening on Leaves of Trianthema decandra Linn. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2011; 2(3):960-2.
4. Sivakumar T, Kanagasabai R, Sampathkumar R, Perumal P, Gupta PM, Mazumder UK, 11th NAPRECA Symposium Book of Proceedings. Antananarivo, Madagascar, 2008; 201-13.
5. Anand RM, Nandakuma N, Karunakara L, Ragunathan M, Murugan V. A Survey of medicinal plants in Kollimalai hill tracts. Tamil Nadu, Natural Product Radiance 2006; 5(2):139-143.
6. Venkataswam R, Mohamad MH, Doss A, Ravi TK, Sukumar M. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal plants used by Malasar tribals in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu (South India). Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences 2010; 1(2):387.
7. Reddy CS, Reddy KN, Rao KT, Pattanaik C. Ethnobotanical Studies on Medicinal Plants Used by the Chenchus of Nallamalais in Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 2007; 1:128-33.
8. Venkata Ratnam K, Venkata Raju RR. Folk remedies for Insect bites from Gundlabrahmeswaram wild Life sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, Indian. Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2008; 7:436.
9. Reddy VB. Use of Various Bio-Fencing Plants in the Control of Human Diseases by the Lambada Tribe Inhabiting Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India, Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2008; 12:520-23.
10. Palani S, Raja S, Kumar SB. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Chloroxylon swietenia (Rutaceae) on acetaminophen induced toxicity in male albino rats. International Journal of Pharmtech Research 2010; 2:162.
11. Reddy KN, Trimurthilu G, Reddy SC. Medicinal plants used by ethnic people of Medak district Andhrapradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2010; 9:184.
12. Survase SA, Raut SD. Ethnobotanical Study of some Tree Medicinal Plants in Marathwada, Maharashtra. Journal of Ecobiotechnology 2011; 3(2):17-21.
13. Kiran SR, Bhavani K, Devi P, Rajeswara Rao BR, Reddy JK. Composition and larvicidal activity of leaves and stem essential oils of Chloroxylon swietenia DC against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Bioresource Technology 2006; 97:2481–4.
14. Venkata Subbaiah KP, Savithramma N. BioProspecting And Documentation of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Itching, Psoriasis And Wounds By Ethnic Groups of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2011; 5(17):4087-93.
15. Ramachandran VS, Joseph S, Aruna R. Ethnobotanical Studies from Amaravathy Range of Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Southern India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2009; 13:1069-87.
16. Sampath Kumar GV, Anusha N, Ramadevi D. Pharmacognostic and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies on Leaf Extracts of Chloroxylon swietenia. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2014; 6(3):492-8.
17. Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996) 1998. Chloroxylon swietenia. In: IUCN 2012.IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012, 2.
18. Nilip KD and GK Dash. A review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and bioactivity of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Int J of emerging trends in pharmaceutical sciences 2013; 1(1):11-9.
19. Jayaprasad B, Sharavanan PS and Karthik K. Chloroxylon swietenia an IUCN red listed plant – medicinal uses. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Bioscience. 2014; 2(6):213-7.
20. Kiran SR, Pillay SV and KJ Reddy. Studies on mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Journal of Pharmacognosy 2012; 3(2):123-5.
21. Kiran SR, Devi PS and KJ Reddy. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem essential oils of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. World J. Microbial Biotechnol 2008; 24:1909-14.
22. Vijaya Bhasker Reddy A. Use of Various Bio-Fencing Plants in the Control of Human Diseases by the Lambada Tribe Inhabiting Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2008; 12:520-3.
23. Kiran SR, Devi PS, and Reddy JK. Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem essential oils of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. World J Microbiol Biotechno 2008; 24:1909–14.
24. Telang T, Awasthy SK and Oswal P. Antifungal activity of oxidized essential oil of Chloroxylon swietenia Roxb. Corom. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research 2013; 2(2):72-4.
25. Ranjit Kumar Harwansh, Surendra Kumar Pareta, Kartik Chandra Patra, Md. Akhlaquer Rahman. Preliminary phytochemical screening and anthelmintic activity of Chloroxylon swietenia root extract. International Journal of Phytomedicine 2010; 2:255-9.
26. Senthilraja A, Ramkumar R. Analgesic activity of Chloroxylon swietenia. Agronomy. 2003; 40:34.
27. Kumar K, Ganesh M, Baskar S, Srinivasan K, Kanagasabai R, Sambathkumar R, Kumar SS, and Sivakumar T. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity studies of Chloroxylon sweitenia in Rats. Anc Sci Life 2006; 25(3-4):33-3.
28. Palani S, Raja S, and Kumar SB. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant of Chloroxylon swietenia (Rutaceae) on acetaminophen induced toxicity in male albino rats. International J. Pharm Tech Res 2010; 2:162-70.
29. Patchimatla A, Kankanala SR, Bandaru SS, Kulindaivelu U, Jupally VR, Eggadi V. Investigation of lipid profile and occular oxidative stress of Chloroxylon swietenia on Streptozotocin-nicotinamideinduced diabetic rats Int J Green Pharm 2014;8:90-6.
30. Ramadevi D, Ganga Rao B. In vivo wound healing activity on leaf extract of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2014; 5(3):1930-2.
31. Dinesh Prabhu A, Jyothi KN, Prasuna AL, Gandhi G, Reddya Naik B. Identification of mosquito repellent compounds in Chloroxylon swietenia DC. by electrophysiological and behavioural response of Aedes aegypti. International Journal of Entomology Research 2016; 1(5):01-4.
32. Reddya Naik Bannoth, Singh Y, Swarnagowreeswari G, Satyavathi R and Ramachandra Reddy P. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2014; 5(3):580-584.
33. Kiran SR, Reddy AS, Devi SP, Reddy JK. Insecticidal, antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects of the essential oil and individual compounds from leaves of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Pest Manag Sci 2006; 62(11):1116-21.
34. Krishnappa K, Elumalai K. Larvicidal and ovicidal activities of Chloroxylon swietenia (Rutaceae) essential oils against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their chemical compositions. International Journal of Current Research in Life Sciences 2012: 1(1):003-7.
35. Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V. In vitro fungitoxic and cytotoxic efficacy of Chloroxylon swietenia DC. leaf essential oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2013; 1-6.
36. Rao GV, Rao KS, Annamalai T, Radhakrishnan N, Mukhopadhyay T. Chemical constituents and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Chloroxylon swietenia leaves. Turk J Chem 2006; 33:521-6.
37. Nagaraju B, Ramanna H, Shiva Krishna N, Bhaskar M, Venkateshwararao P. In-vitro studies on anti-diabetic and wound healing activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Linn (Rutaceae) leaf extract. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2018; 7(3):578-89.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).