Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Lannea grandis (Dennst.) Engl. Leaves Extracts
Medicinal plants can serve as a prominent source of bioactive secondary metabolites which can exert beneficial effects to combat against many human diseases. Lannea grandis (Dennst.) Engl, a member of Anacardiaceae family has several applications in the ethnomedical practices. In this study, the ethanol extract of L. grandis leaf (ELG) along with its petroleum-ether and chloroform fractions were subjected to phytochemical analysis along with the evaluation of antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, and sedative activities using standard protocols. Phytochemical screening was performed according to common phytochemical tests. Antimicrobial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method where the ethanol extract of L. grandis showed significant activity against tested bacterial species (zone of inhibitions = 10.8±0.85 to 13.8±1.84 mm). The same extract also exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Blastomyces dermatitidis (zone of inhibition = 20.5±0.35 mm). The chloroform fraction of L. grandis at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight produced a significant (p<0.05) anti-diarrheal effect with 40.69% inhibition of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. During sedative activity assay in mice, the plant extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight produced mild reduction in the time of onset of sleep and increased the length of the sleeping time induced by a sedative, phenobarbitone. In conclusion, the plant L. grandis can be considered as a base for the development of new drugs and phytomedicine.
Keywords: Lannea grandis, phytochemical, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, sedative activity.
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