Acute Toxicity Study of Anvillea Radiata Aqueous Extract in Albino Rats
Despite the popular use and the biological effects of Anvillea radiata, there are no studies or data about its safety. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of A. radiata aqueous extract in vivo. A single dose of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5 or 5 g/kg was administered to female rats by gavage. Body weight gain, general behavior and mortality were monitored for up to 2 weeks. Selected biochemical parameters, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine levels were determined, as well as, liver and kidney histology. Results showed no significant changes in body weight gain and organ indexes with no mortality during the experimentation period. A significant increase in AST and ALT levels were observed in 2.5 and 5 g/kg extract treated groups, and a significant decrease in BUN and creatinine levels in 1, 1.5, 2.5 or 5g/kg extract treated groups compared to control. Microscope examination of liver sections showed several anomalies in rats exposed to high concentrations (1.5, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) including fatty changes, glycogen accumulation and ballooning degeneration hepatocytes. Renal parenchyma anomalies were also observed in rats exposed to 2.5 and 5g / kg of plant extract including shrunken renal corpuscles with marked hypo-cellularity and atrophied glomeruli, large interstitial space, and renal tubules with dilated lumina which appear completely distorted. From this study, it can be concluded that Anvillea radiata aqueous extract at high concentration (higher than 1 g /kg b.w.) may be toxic and affect sensitive organs function such liver and kidney.
Keywords: Anvillea radiata, Acute toxicity, Biochemical parameters, Histology.
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