UROLITHIASIS (KIDNEY STONES) CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT
Kidney stones are a common condition causing significant morbidity and economic burden. The prevalence of Urolithiasis (Kidney stones) is increasing from past 20 years, worldwide 5-15% of the population affected by Urolithiasis. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed in the renal surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells. Obese people are known to have a higher risk of stone formation. Metabolic syndrome has resulted in an increasing rate of nephrolithiasis among women. The diagnosis and initial management of urolithiasis have undergone considerable evolution in recent years. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients.
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