Therapeutic Management of Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Mannosylated Chitosan Ascorbate Microspheres: Preparation and Characterization
Objective: In this study, biodegradable Chitosan Ascorbate Microsphere (CAMs) and mannosylated chitosan ascorbate microsphere (m-CAMs) prepared for targeting towards alveolar macrophages to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Significance: Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant and reported killing effect on mycobacterium by induces fenton reaction. This study enlightens the possible benefits of adding antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid with chitosan microsphere to an anti-tuberculosis regimen and mannosylation of microsphere significantly induce the targetability of antitubercular drug to alveolar macrophages.
Methods: CAMs prepared by firstly salification of chitosan by ascorbic acid then ionic gelation with STPP and m-CAMs prepared by incubation method and purified for further studies. The physicochemical, in vitro and in vivo characterizations of both formulations were carried out.
Results: The size of microspheres (both CAMs and m-CAMs) were found to be in range of 3.40-4.81µm. Evident changes were observed in crystallinity and structure of both carrier systems and depicted by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. In vitro lung deposition study of microspheres showed favourable aerodynamic properties for deep lung delivery (MMAD 2.0- 3.8 μm) and, thus, show potential for an application as inhalable tuberculosis therapy. The drug release showed the biphasic pattern of release, i.e., initial burst (30-45% up to 8 h) followed by a slower sustained release pattern (more than 80% up to 72 h) in both simulated lung fluids. Optimized formulations exhibited lower cytotoxicity and bio distribution studies demonstrated the efficiency of m-CAMs for spatial delivery of INH to alveolar tissues. CAMs and m-CAMs evidenced minor cytotoxicity on lung epithelial cells (A549 cell lines).
Conclusion: m-CAMs thus has a promising potential to be explore as an effective carrier system for delivery of antitubercular drugs regimen.
Key words: Targetability, alveolar macrophage, lung cancer A549 cells
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