Lung cancer cytology: potential pitfalls- a review
Lung Cancer, a cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages, has traditionally been classified into two major types: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). About 85 percent of all lung cancers are identified as non-small cell, and approximately 75 percent of these are metastatic or advanced at diagnosis. Recent findings have changed our understanding of the disease, and today distinct molecular subsets of lung cancer have been identified that can be classified by a biomarker profile of a patient’s tumor. In spite of advances in early diagnosis and standard treatment, non-small cell lung cancer is regularly analysed at advanced stages and has a poor prognosis. The treatment and prevention of lung cancer are major needs that can most likely be enhanced by a better understanding of the molecular process in cancer and development of cancer. However, significant progress is underway in both the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. Lung cancer therapy has now emerged as a “role model” for precision cancer medicine. Cytology is increasingly being used in the evaluation of lung lesions. There are several potential pitfalls encountered in the evaluation of respiratory cytology specimens, making interpretation of respiratory cytology challenging.
Keywords: Lung Cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, Cytology, potential pitfalls.
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