PREVALENCE OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH ANTENATAL DEPRESSION AMONGST WOMEN
Background: A prospective cross sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence rate of postpartum depression and its association with antenatal depression among women coming to the antenatal Clinic and birthing at HAHC Centenary Hospital, New Delhi.
Material & Methods: 149 women by the assistance of EPDS (Hindi version) were screened at 6 weeks of their delivery. The participants were then divided on the basis of presence and absence of depression into two groups as depressed and non-depressed women.
Results: 19 out 149 postnatal women scored â‰¥ 10 on EPDS which suggest the 12.75% prevalence rate of postnatal depression. Moreover 8(42.1 %) women among 19 depressed postnatal women and 25(19.3 %) women among 130 non-depressed postnatal women were found to have depression since their time of pregnancy thus a significant association (p-value= 0.025) was obtained.
Conclusion: PPD is a major health problem in our community. Moreover, presence of depression during pregnancy significantly predisposes the postnatal mothers to be a victim of PPD. Therefore an early screening of the perinatal women is needed to unreveal the hidden cases as well as to prevent the mothers from the cruel penalties of PPD.
Keywords: Postpartum Depression, Screening, perinatal women, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
2. Hedge S., Bhat K.S., Sharma M.S., Kamath P.S.V.N., Shetty A,K., Postpartum depression: Prevalence and Associated Factors Among women in India, Journal of women's health Issues and care; 2012; 1(1).
3. World Health Organization, Postpartum Depression: An Overview of Treatment and Prevention, 2011 [cited on 12th December 2014] Available from: http:// www.gfmer.ch/SRH-Course-2011/ maternal health/ pdf/ Postpartum depression-corey-2011.pdf.
4. Bodnar D, I., Ryan and Smith, J.E, n.d., Self-care program for women with Postpartum depression and anxiety [cited on, 2nd August 2014]. Available from: http://www.bcapop.ca/ uploads/9/9/0/1/9901389/reproductive mental healthselfcareguide.pdf>
5. Moraes I,G,S., Pinheiro Dasilvaa R.T., Hortac R, A., Sousab P, L, R., Fariab A,D. Prevalence of Postpartum depression and associated factors. (pp.1-6) Rev Saude Publica; 2006; 40(1).
6. Patel V., Rodriues M., Desouza N. Gender, Poverty and Postnatal depression: A study of mothers in Goa India, American journal of psychiatry; 2002; 159:43-47.
7. Sadock B, J, Sadock V.A. (2007) kalpana's and sadock's concise textbook of clinical psychiatry, 3rd Edition, (pp.406- 407) Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
8. Klainin P, Author D.G. Postpartum Depression in Asian cultures: A literature review, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2009; 46(10):1355-1373.
9. Gausia k., Ryda D., Ali M., Fisher C., Moran A Koblins M, ky. Obstetrical complications and psychological well-being: Experience of Bangladeshi women during pregnancy and childbirth, Journal of Health Population and Nutrition; 2012; 30(2):172-180.
10. Chandra P.S. Postpartum Psychiatric care in India: The need for integration & innovation, world Psychiatry, 2004; 3(2):99-100.
11. Doke P.P, Maternal morbidities and estimates from community studies in India, MGM Journal of Medical Sciences; 2013; 1(1):57-65.
12. Gupta S. Jugal K., Mala Y. M., Ramji S. Agarwal R. Postpartum depression in North India women: Prevalence and risk factors. The journal of obstetrics and Gynecology of India; 2010; 63(4):223-229
13. American psychological Association, Postpartum depression [Cited on 21st July2014] Available from: http://www.apa.org/pi/women/resources/reports/postpartum- depr.aspx
14. American Psychiatric Association, Postpartum Depression [Cited on 11th May 2014]. Available fromhttp://www.psychiatry.org/Postpartum depression
15. Mina S., Balhara Y, P, S., Verma R., Mathur A. Anxiety & Depression amongst the urban females of Delhi in Antepartum and Postpartum Period, Delhi Journal of Psychiatry; 2012; 15(2):347-351.
16. Lewis T.L.T., Chamberlain G,V,P. (1992). Obstetrics by 10 teachers 15th Edition, (122-128) English Language Book Society.
17. Cunninghum F.G., McDonald P.C., Gant N.F., Levono K.J., Gilstrap L.C., Hankins G.D.V and Clark, SL,(1997) Williams Obstetrics, 20th Edition, (pp.1265-1268) Prentice-Hall International, INC.
18. American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG), Depression During Pregnancy: Treatment Recommendations, 2009 [Cited on14th December 2014].
19. Arul Kumaran S., Sivanesaratnam V., Chatterjee V, Kumar P., (2011) Essentials of Obstetric 2nd Edition (pp. 510-511) Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.
20. Husain N., Bevem Im, Husain M., Chaudhary I,B., Atif N., ,Rahman A. Prevalence and Social correlates of Postnatal depression in a low income country, Archives of women's Mental Health, 2006; 9(4):197-202
21. Ozmen D., Cakmak A., Cetinkaya Ulas S,C., Ozmen, E., Association between perceived social support and Postpartum depression in Turkey, British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research; 2014; 4(10):2025-2036.
22. Kieffer,E, C., Caldwell C,H., Welmarink D, B., Welch K.B., Sinco B, R., Guzmanâ€™n J,R., 2013, Effect of the Healthy MOMs Lifestyle intervention on reducing Depressive symptoms Among Pregnant Latinas, American Journal of Community Psychology, Available from
23. Stewart D,E., Robertson E., Dennis C,L., Grace S,L., Wallington T. Postpartum Depression: Literature Review of Risk factors And Interventions, Tomato Public Health, 2003, pp. 2 Available from: http:// www.w ho. Int/ mental_ health/prevention/suicide/lit_ review-postpartum _depression.pdf [21st October 2014]
24. Blom E,A., Jansen P.W.,Verhust F.C., Hofman, A., Raat H., Jaddoe VWV,. Coolman M, et al, Perinatal complications increase the risk of Postpartum depression, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG); 2010; 117:1390-1392.
25. Freeman M.P., Cohen L.S. Postpartum depression: Help patients find the right treatment, Current psychiatry; 2012; 11(11):14-21.
26. Leigh B., Milgrom J., Risk factors for antenatal depression, Postnatal depression and parenting stress, BMC psychiatry 2008; 8(24):121-127.
27. Robertson E., Grace S., Wallington T Stewart D.E. Antenatal Risk factors for Postpartum depression: A synthesis of recent literature, General Hospital psychiatry; 2004; 26(4):289 -295.
28. Rocaht T,J., Tomlinson M., Barnighausen T., Newell M, L., Stein, A. The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa, Journal of Affective Disorders; 2011; 13(5):362- 373.
29. Sierra J. (2008). Rrisk factors related to postpartum depression in low- income Letina mothers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut. Available from :http:// digital commons, uconn.edu/ dissertations/AA 1327 9301/
30. Chandran M., Tharyan P., Moliyil J., Abraham S., Postpartum depression in a Cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu India: Incidence and risk factors, British Journal of psychiatry; 2002; 181:499-504.
31. Ocaktan M.E.,CalisKan D., On cu, B., Ozdemeir O., Kose K. Antepartum and Postpartum depression in a Primary Health Care Centre area, Journal of Ankara University Faculty of medicine, 2006; 59(4):151-157.
32. Desai N., Mehta R.Y., Ganji wala J. Study of Prevalence and risk Factors of Postpartum depression, National Journal of Medical Research; 2012; 2(2):194-198.
33. Beck C,T, Rrevision of the Postpartum depression predictors inventory Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology and Neonatal Nnursing; 2002; 31(4):394-402.
34. Roomruangwong C Epperson C,N. Perinatal depression in Asian women: Prevalence associated factors and cultural aspects, Asian biomedicine 2011; 5(2):179 -193
35. Siu BWM., Leung SSL., Patrick IP., Hung SF. OHara, M. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: A Prospective study of Chinese women at maternal and Child Health centers, BMC Psychiatry; 2012; 12(22).
36. La Monde A., (n.d) Comprehensive review of Postpartum depression for healthcare providers [CIted on 18th May 2014] Available from
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).