ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: DELIVERY OF DRUGs THROUGH INTRANASAL ROUTE

  • Sana Farooqui Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
  • Mohammad Zahid Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
  • Shahla Parveen Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
  • Zeeshan Ahmad Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
  • Prashant K Singh Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
  • Zeba Parveen Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairments. A major histopathological hallmark of AD is the presence of amyloid deposits in the parenchyma of the amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex. β-amyloid is a small piece of a larger protein called “amyloid precursor protein†(APP). The main component of amyloid is the β-Amyloid protein (Aβ), a 39.43 amino acid peptide composed of a portion of the transmembrane domain and the extracellular domain of the APP. Aβ deposition leads to synaptic degeneration and interacts with different types of central nervous system receptors; hence, it disrupts neuronal homeostasis. Moreover, Aβ deposition along the cerebral vessels alters their tonicity and triggers some of the cerebrovascular deficits. Furthermore, its accumulation disrupts intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis which ultimately reduces neuronal Ca2+ buffering capacity and increases excitotoxicity outcomes. The emerging approach is to bypass the BBB by intranasal delivery, which provides a practical, noninvasive, rapid and simple method to deliver the therapeutic agents to the CNS. This method works the unique connection between the nose and the brain that has evolved to sense odors and other chemical stimuli. On the basis of clinical trials (Phase I and II) it is reported that the intranasal route is feasible for the transport of the drug to the CNS. Intranasal delivery does not require any modification of the therapeutic agents and does not require that drugs be coupled with any carrier like in case of drug delivery across the BBB. A wide variety of therapeutic agents, including both small molecules and macromolecules can be successfully delivered, including to the CNS, using the intranasal method.

 

Key Words: Alzheimer’s disease, β-amyloid, cerebrovascular deficits, excitotoxicity
Keywords: Drug Delivery

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Author Biographies

Sana Farooqui, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
Mohammad Zahid, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Shahla Parveen, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026
Zeeshan Ahmad, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Prashant K Singh, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Zeba Parveen, Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow, India-226026

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Farooqui, S., Zahid, M., Parveen, S., Ahmad, Z., Singh, P., & Parveen, Z. (2016). ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: DELIVERY OF DRUGs THROUGH INTRANASAL ROUTE. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 6(6), 60-69. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v6i6.1348