Identification of Bacteria from Public Toilets of Modern Market (Goico) in Musanze Town, Rwanda

  • MUKANDAYISHIMIYE Julienne Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.
  • IZERE Cedrick Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.
  • ISHIMWE ALAIN PRUDENCE Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.
  • MUKASHEMA Hyacinthe Ines Ruhengeri
  • NZABANTERURA Innocent Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.
  • UWIHANGANYE Jean Chrysostome Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.
  • HABANABAKIZE Jean Baptiste Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.
  • KORINEZA Dary Lorraine Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Abstract

Background: Bacteria are present on all surfaces, to which they were carried by many direct and indirect methods of transmission. A toilet is simply a receptacle into which both solid and liquid waste of human origin, in the form of urine and excreta are discharged. In public toilets, complete strangers mix and use the same sanitary facilities, with all the related risks of bodily fluid exchange, contamination and organism transmission. Unhygienic use of the toilet’s facilities may cause urine and fecal residues after use to serve as a major reservoir or source of human pathogen, which may in turn bring about disease outbreak.


Aim: This study aimed at Identification of Bacteria from Public Toilets of Modern Market (Goico) In Musanze Town, Rwanda


Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify bacteria from GOICO market toilets. About 40 samples; 20 from male and 20 from female toilets were collected and transported to INES-clinical microbiology laboratory for microbiological analysis. Laboratory techniques including culture, gram stain, biochemical tests and antibiogram were performed.


Results: The most predominant bacteria isolated was S. aureus (31.43%), followed by S. typhi  (20%), Streptococcus(15.71%), E. coli(12.86%), P. aeuriginosa(10%), P. mirabilis(7.14%), C. freundi(1.43%), S. epidermidis (1.43%). It was noted that female toilets were more contaminated (51.43%) than male toilets (48.57%). All gram positive and gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to Gentamicin. Almost all bacteria except P. mirabilis were sensitive to Norfloxacin, gram negative showed a resistance to Vancomycin and Novobiocin.


Conclusion: These results should alert public toilets users that extreme caution must be executed while using these toilets, as they may be a source of pathogenic bacteria. The best way to keep a toilet and its seat free of bacteria is to clean it with bleach. Otherwise, keep the bacteria at bay by washing your hands, and if you just don't trust that toilet seat, wipe it down with a disinfectant or antibacterial wipe before you sit.


Keywords: Bacteria, Public toilets, E. coli, S. typhi, Urinary tract

Keywords: Bacteria, Public toilets, E. coli, S. typhi, Urinary tract

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Author Biographies

MUKANDAYISHIMIYE Julienne, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

IZERE Cedrick, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

ISHIMWE ALAIN PRUDENCE, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

NZABANTERURA Innocent, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

UWIHANGANYE Jean Chrysostome, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

HABANABAKIZE Jean Baptiste, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

KORINEZA Dary Lorraine, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda.

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Julienne M, Cedrick I, ALAIN PRUDENCE I, Hyacinthe M, Innocent N, Jean Chrysostome U, Jean Baptiste H, Dary Lorraine K. Identification of Bacteria from Public Toilets of Modern Market (Goico) in Musanze Town, Rwanda. JDDT [Internet]. 15Jun.2024 [cited 17Jul.2024];14(6):138-42. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6659

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