Comprehensive Review on Parkinson's Disease: Insights into Prevalence, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Multifaceted Treatment Approaches

  • Lalit Kumar studentResearch Scholar, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India. https://orcid.org/0009-0001-0348-056X
  • Meenakshi Malhotra Assistant professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0080-1479
  • Ajeet Pal Singh Academic Dean and Associate professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1212-5770
  • Amar Pal Singh Principal and Associate professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0027-2869

Abstract

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD), a prevalent neurodegenerative condition affecting more than seven million individuals globally, manifests through the loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to diverse motor and non-motor symptoms. This comprehensive review aims to explore PD's multifaceted nature, covering its introduction, prevalence patterns, pathophysiology, diagnostic challenges, and varied treatment strategies. Genetic and environmental influences on prevalence, brain region degeneration, Lewy body formation, and early-stage diagnostic difficulties are key focus areas. The review emphasizes the necessity of personalized approaches, innovative clinical criteria-, and subtype categorizations for effective management.


Objective: This review aims to provide a holistic understanding of Parkinson's disease, contributing to improved insights for both individuals and healthcare professionals. By consolidating knowledge on PD's various facets, it seeks to facilitate informed decision-making for better management and enhanced quality of life.


Methods: A thorough review of research literature, including studies, trials, and historical perspectives, was done. It covers prevalence, causes, diagnosis, and treatment options, including both traditional and herbal remedies, alongside conventional approaches.


Results: The review reveals the complex interplay of genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and the neurodegenerative mechanisms underlying PD. It underscores the challenges of early-stage diagnosis and the wide array of treatment options available, emphasizing the need for personalized care.


Conclusion: Understanding Parkinson's disease in its entirety is crucial for effective management. By presenting a comprehensive overview, this review advocates for a holistic approach, integrating diverse treatments and individualized strategies, thereby offering valuable guidance for improved quality of life in PD patients.


Keywords: Parkinson's, neurodegeneration, DBS, Lewy bodies, motor & non-motor symptoms, diagnosis

Keywords: Parkinson's, neurodegeneration, DBS, Lewy bodies, motor & non-motor symptoms, diagnosis

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Author Biographies

Lalit Kumar, studentResearch Scholar, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

Research Scholar, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

Meenakshi Malhotra, Assistant professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

Assistant professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

Ajeet Pal Singh, Academic Dean and Associate professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

Academic Dean and Associate professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

Amar Pal Singh, Principal and Associate professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

Principal and Associate professor, St. Soldier Institute of Pharmacy, Lidhran Campus, Behind NIT(R.E.C.), Jalandhar-Amritsar bypass NH-1 jalandhar-144011, Punjab, India.

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Kumar L, Malhotra M, Singh AP, Singh AP. Comprehensive Review on Parkinson’s Disease: Insights into Prevalence, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Multifaceted Treatment Approaches. JDDT [Internet]. 15Jun.2024 [cited 17Jul.2024];14(6):200-13. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6637