Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Malaria Co-Infections among Children in Rural Communities Around Rwasave and Cyarwa Valleys

  • UWIMANA Jeannine Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda
  • ISHIMWE ALAIN PRUDENCE Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda 
  • MUTESA Leon University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda
  • NTEZIRIZAZA Evariste Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda 
  • Tuyishime Jean De Dieu Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda

Abstract

Background: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis, schistosomiasis and malaria remain a threat in developing countries, especially to people living in rural areas near large water bodies, valleys or swamps whose daily life activities revolve around those areas. In addition, these parasites affect different groups of people especially those in contact with their breeding sites including children mostly due to their developing immunity compared to that of old people. 


Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural communities near the Rwasave and Cyarwa valleys, with 124 school-aged children participating. Stool samples were tested for the presence of STH eggs and intestinal Schistosoma parasites using the Kato Katz technique, and thick blood smears were made to aid in the identification of plasmodium species in blood. The threshold intensity of infection on STHs and Schistosoma sp. was estimated by counting their eggs microscopically, which aided in classifying infections as light, moderate, or heavy according to WHO standards. Furthermore, Plasmodium species were identified by the presence of schizonts, trophozoites, or gametocytes on Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, and parasitic density was calculated as a result.


Results: In this study, the highest prevalence of soil transmitted helminthiasis was 12.7% in Cyarwa valley compared to 12.5% in Rwasave valley. The highest prevalence of Schistosomiasis was 3.2% in Cyarwa valley compared to 1.3% in Rwasave valley. Prevalence of malaria in Cyarwa valley was 3.3% in 63 children. Where children infected were only males falling in 5-8 age group.


Conclusion: Results showed high prevalence of soil transmitted helminthiasis which was 12.7% in Cyarwa compared to 12.5% in Rwasave valley especially in children aged 5-8, this due to poor sanitation (P<0.001) that have assessed. Surprisingly, Cyarwa valley is located nearby town. Whereas malaria, intestinal schistosomiasis was low and there were not significantly associated with their risk factors with p-values 0.4, 0.092 respectively which can show that, preventive measures that have been established by government of Rwanda have positive impacts. Furthermore, there was a low prevalence of soil transmitted helminthiasis, intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria co-infection.


Keywords: soil transmitted helminthiasis, intestinal schistosomiasis, malaria.

Keywords: soil transmitted helminthiasis, intestinal schistosomiasis, malaria

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Author Biographies

UWIMANA Jeannine, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda

Kigali University Teaching Hospital, Rwanda

ISHIMWE ALAIN PRUDENCE, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda 

University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda

MUTESA Leon, University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda

University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda

NTEZIRIZAZA Evariste, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda 

Kigali University Teaching Hospital, Rwanda

Tuyishime Jean De Dieu, Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda

Ines-Ruhengeri, Faculty of Applied Fundamental Sciences, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Rwanda 

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Jeannine U, PRUDENCE I, Leon M, Evariste N, Jean De Dieu T. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Malaria Co-Infections among Children in Rural Communities Around Rwasave and Cyarwa Valleys. JDDT [Internet]. 15May2024 [cited 17May2024];14(5):102-7. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6613

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