The Vital Role of Pharmacists in Diabetes Self-care

  • Pallav Dave Regulatory Compliance Analyst, Louisville, KY, 40223, USA


The number of people affected by diabetes is projected to rise significantly by 2030. As of 2021, 537 million people were living with diabetes with the numbers projected to rise to 643 million by 2030. The growing number of patients living with diabetes means that the demand for care will likely go up. Healthcare providers provide diabetes care more so the regular follow-up required by patients living with the disease. They also work together with the patients in facilitating self-care. Diabetes self-care is instrumental for patients living with diabetes. It ensures patients achieve glycemic control and have a lower risk of having complications. However, for most patients, practicing self-care can be a challenge. Most lack the knowledge and skills that are required to practice self-care confidently. Involving healthcare providers in diabetes self-care can lead to better disease outcomes. Pharmacists can provide the regular follow-ups and other services that lead to effective self-care such as health literacy. Pharmacists-led diabetes management interventions have been shown to lead to good outcomes including better glycemic control and reduced likelihood of having high blood pressure. Therefore, the aim of this review is to explore the role of pharmacists in diabetes self-care.

Keywords: diabetes, diabetes self-care, diabetes complications, pharmacists, glycemic control

Keywords: diabetes, diabetes self-care, diabetes complications, pharmacists, glycemic control


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Pallav Dave, Regulatory Compliance Analyst, Louisville, KY, 40223, USA

Regulatory Compliance Analyst, Louisville, KY, 40223, USA


1. International Diabetes Federation. Facts & figures. 2024. Accessed May 16 2024.
2. Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, et al. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2018;138:271-81. PMid:29496507
3. Saeedi P, Petersohn I, Salpea P, et al. Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2019;157:107843. PMid:31518657
4. Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2010;87(1):4-14. PMid:19896746
5. Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus. Journal of diabetes & Metabolic disorders. 2013;12(1):1-5. PMid:23497559 PMCid:PMC3599009
6. Kent D, D'Eramo Melkus G, Stuart PM, et al. Reducing the risks of diabetes complications through diabetes self-management education and support. Population Health Management. 2013;16(2):74-81. PMid:23405872
7. Alva M, Gray A, Mihaylova B, Clarke P. The effect of diabetes complications on health‐related quality of life: the importance of longitudinal data to address patient heterogeneity. Health Economics. 2014;23(4):487-500. PMid:23847044
8. Dave P., The Role of Pharmacists in Opioid Addiction Management. Asian Journal of Dental and Health Sciences, 2024;4(1):51-56.
9. Venkataraman K, Wee HL, Leow MK, et al. Associations between complications and health‐related quality of life in individuals with diabetes. Clinical Endocrinology. 2013;78(6):865-73. PMid:22775311
10. American Association of Diabetes Educators: AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors. Diabetes Education. 2008; 34: 445-449. PMid:18535317
11. American Association of Diabetes Educators. An effective model of diabetes care and education: revising the AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors®. The Diabetes Educator. 2020;46(2):139-60. PMid:31928334
12. Ahmad F, Joshi SH. Self-Care Practices and Their Role in the Control of Diabetes: A Narrative Review. Cureus. 2023;15(7).
13. Stettler C, Allemann S, Jüni P, Cull CA, Holman RR, Egger M, Krähenbühl S, Diem P. Glycemic control and macrovascular disease in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of randomized trials. American Heart Journal. 2006;152(1):27-38. PMid:16824829
14. Afroz A, Ali L, Karim MN, Alramadan MJ, Alam K, Magliano DJ, Billah B. Glycaemic control for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh-an urgent need for optimization of management plan. Scientific Reports. 2019;9(1):10248. PMCid:PMC6629620 PMid:31308457
15. Fisher EB, Brownson CA, O'Toole ML, Shetty G, Anwuri VV, Glasgow RE. Ecological approaches to self-management: the case of diabetes. American Journal of Public Health. 2005;95(9):1523-35. PMid:16051929 PMCid:PMC1449392
16. Coyle ME, Francis K, Chapman Y. Self-management activities in diabetes care: a systematic review. Australian Health Review. 2013;37(4):513-22. PMid:24018058
17. Norris SL, Lau J, Smith SJ, Schmid CH, Engelgau MM. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(7):1159-71. PMid:12087014
18. Bell J, Dziekan G, Pollack C, Mahachai V. Self-care in the twenty-first century: a vital role for the pharmacist. Advances in Therapy. 2016;33:1691-703. PMid:27535290 PMCid:PMC5055554
19. Ishak NH, Yusoff SS, Rahman RA, Kadir AA. Diabetes self-care and its associated factors among elderly diabetes in primary care. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2017;12(6):504-11. PMid:31435286 PMCid:PMC6694907
20. Kirwan JP, Sacks J, Nieuwoudt S. The essential role of exercise in the management of type 2 diabetes. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017;84(7 Suppl 1):S15. PMCid:PMC5846677 PMid:28708479
21. American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee, American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee: 5. Facilitating behavior change and well-being to improve health outcomes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2022. Diabetes Care. 2022;45(Supplement_1):S60-82. PMid:34964866
22. Zahalka SJ, Abushamat LA, Scalzo RL, et al. The Role of Exercise in Diabetes. [Updated 2023 Jan 6]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.;
23. Hamman RF, Wing RR, Edelstein SL, et al. Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Sep;29(9):2102-7. PMid:16936160 PMCid:PMC1762038
24. Reynolds A, Mitri J. Dietary Advice For Individuals with Diabetes. [Updated 2024 Apr 28]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000.
25. Forouhi NG, Misra A, Mohan V, Taylor R, Yancy W. Dietary and nutritional approaches for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. BMJ. 2018;361. PMid:29898883 PMCid:PMC5998736
26. Webber D, Guo Z, MAnn S. Self-care in health: we can define it, but should we also measure it?-Selfcare Journal. 2015.
27. Tefera YG, Gebresillassie BM, Emiru YK, et al. Diabetic health literacy and its association with glycemic control among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231291. PMid:32267893 PMCid:PMC7141656
28. Dave P, Recommendations for Pain Management in Cancer Patients Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. 2024; 12(2):7-12. DOI:
29. Schillinger D, Grumbach K, Piette J, et al. Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. JAMA. 2002;288(4):475-82. PMid:12132978
30. Sari Y, Upoyo AS, Isworo A, et al. Foot self-care behavior and its predictors in diabetic patients in Indonesia. BMC Research Notes. 2020;13:1-6. PMid:32005281 PMCid:PMC6995081
31. Canavan RJ, Unwin NC, Kelly WF, Connolly VM. Diabetes-and nondiabetes-related lower extremity amputation incidence before and after the introduction of better organized diabetes foot care: continuous longitudinal monitoring using a standard method. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(3):459-63. PMid:18071005
32. Mathew TK, Zubair M, Tadi P. Blood Glucose Monitoring. [Updated 2023 Apr 23]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024. Accessed May 16 2024.
33. Weinstock RS, Aleppo G, Bailey TS, et al. The role of blood glucose monitoring in diabetes management. ADA Clinical Compendia 2020;2020(3). PMid:33411424
34. Kao CC, Hsieh HM, Lee DY, Hsieh KP, Sheu SJ. Importance of medication adherence in treatment needed diabetic retinopathy. Scientific Reports. 2021;11(1):19100. PMCid:PMC8476599 PMid:34580364
35. Xie Z, Liu K, Or C, Chen J, Yan M, Wang H. An examination of the socio-demographic correlates of patient adherence to self-management behaviors and the mediating roles of health attitudes and self-efficacy among patients with coexisting type 2 diabetes and hypertension. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1-3. PMCid:PMC7424981 PMid:32787809
36. Dasappa H, Prasad S, Sirisha M, Prasanna SR, Naik S. Prevalence of self-care practices and assessment of their sociodemographic risk factors among diabetes in the urban slums of Bengaluru. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2017;6(2):218-21. PMid:29302521 PMCid:PMC5749060
37. Nam S, Chesla C, Stotts NA, Kroon L, Janson SL. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2011;93(1):1-9. PMid:21382643
38. Chin MH, Cook S, Jin L, et al. Barriers to providing diabetes care in community health centers. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(2):268-74. PMid:11213877
39. Powers MA, Bardsley JK, Cypress M, et al. Diabetes self-management education and support in adults with type 2 diabetes: a consensus report of the American Diabetes Association, the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of PAs, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, and the American Pharmacists Association. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 2020;60(6):e1-8. PMid:32527704
40. Sørensen M, Groven KS, Gjelsvik B, Almendingen K, Garnweidner-Holme L. The roles of healthcare professionals in diabetes care: a qualitative study in Norwegian general practice. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. 2020;38(1):12-23. PMid:31960746 PMCid:PMC7054922
41. Bukhsh A, Tan XY, Chan KG, Lee LH, Goh BH, Khan TM. Effectiveness of pharmacist-led educational interventions on self-care activities and glycemic control of type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Patient Preference and Adherence. 2018:2457-74. PMCid:PMC6254657 PMid:30538430
42. Pousinho S, Morgado M, Falcão A, Alves G. Pharmacist interventions in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy. 2016;22(5):493-515. PMCid:PMC10397609 PMid:27123912
43. Elnaem MH, Nuffer W. Diabetes care and prevention services provided by pharmacists: Progress made during the COVID-19 pandemic and the need for additional efforts in the post-pandemic era. Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy. 2022 ;6:100137. PMid:35469121 PMCid:PMC9020490
44. Wubben DP, Vivian EM. Effects of pharmacist outpatient interventions on adults with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2008;28(4):421-36. PMid:18363526
45. Dave P. Hepatitis Screening in Community Pharmacies as a Measure of Reducing the Rate of Infections. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2024;14(3):234-39.
46. Yaghoubi M, Mansell K, Vatanparastc H, Steeves M, Zeng W, Farag M. Effects of pharmacy-based interventions on the control and management of diabetes in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2017;41(6):628-41. PMid:29224636
47. Iqbal MZ, Khan AH, Iqbal MS, Sulaiman SA. A review of pharmacist-led interventions on diabetes outcomes: an observational analysis to explore diabetes care opportunities for pharmacists. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences. 2019;11(4):299-309. PMid:31619911 PMCid:PMC6791080
48. Presley B, Groot W, Pavlova M. Pharmacy-led interventions to improve medication adherence among adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2019;15(9):1057-67. PMid:30685443
49. Jamshed SQ, Siddiqui MJ, Rana B, Bhagavathula AS. Evaluation of the involvement of pharmacists in diabetes self-care: a review from the economic perspective. Frontiers in Public Health. 2018;6:354013. PMid:30234088 PMCid:PMC6129588
50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health and economic benefits of diabetes interventions. 2022. Accessed May 16 2024.
41 Views | 5 Downloads
How to Cite
Dave P. The Vital Role of Pharmacists in Diabetes Self-care. JDDT [Internet]. 15May2024 [cited 24Jun.2024];14(5):234-8. Available from: