Ziabetus (Prediabetes): A Harbinger of Critical Stage in the Continuum of Glucose Metabolism Disorder: A Review

Abstract

Background: Prediabetes is a metabolic condition characterized by blood glucose levels higher than normal but below the threshold for diabetes mellitus. It represents a critical stage in the progression towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and other complications. The two major pathophysiologic defects responsible for losing glucose tolerance are insulin resistance and β-cell glucose insensitivity, both appearing in subjects of Intermediate Hyperglycaemia. In classical literature, Unani physicians have described the initial symptoms and factors leading to the pathology, the risk factors are described in terms of ‘Su-e-mizaj’ as per the concept of Tibb. So, it is considered in the context of Ziabetus which is described as a disease that develops due to Sue-mizaj haar (abnormal hot temperament). The symptoms mentioned in Unani medicine are increased frequency of micturition (ants and flies are attracted to urine), increased thirst, nocturia, dryness of mouth and whole body, fatigue, loss of weight, malaise, and cramps in lower extremities. The modern drug-based approach for the management of Intermediate Hyperglycaemia is associated with inherent drawbacks, including toxicity, tolerability, cost, and efficacy. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth understanding of prediabetes concerning the classical literature of Greek medicine based on the analysis of certain parameters like etiopathophysiology, current diagnostic criteria, risk factors, and evidence-based management strategies. By synthesizing findings from epidemiological studies, and clinical trials, this paper aims to enhance understanding of prediabetes and facilitate effective preventive measures and interventions.


Keywords: Prediabetes, Intermediate hyperglycaemia, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Fasting Glucose, Insulin Resistance.

Keywords: Prediabetes, Intermediate hyperglycaemia, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Fasting Glucose, Insulin Resistance

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Author Biographies

Rafat Afzal, P.G Scholar, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, AKTC, AMU, Aligarh, India

P.G Scholar, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, AKTC, AMU, Aligarh, India

Asia Sultana, Professor & HOD, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, AKTC, AMU, Aligarh, India

Professor & HOD, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, AKTC, AMU, Aligarh, India

Mohammad Shoaib, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, AKTC, AMU, Aligarh, India

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Ilaj Bit Tadbeer, AKTC, AMU, Aligarh, India

Hamid Ashraf, Associate Professor, Rajiv Gandhi centre for Diabetes & Endocrinology, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh, India

Associate Professor, Rajiv Gandhi centre for Diabetes & Endocrinology, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh, India

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Afzal R, Sultana A, Shoaib M, Ashraf H. Ziabetus (Prediabetes): A Harbinger of Critical Stage in the Continuum of Glucose Metabolism Disorder: A Review. JDDT [Internet]. 15May2024 [cited 24Jun.2024];14(5):229-33. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6543