Profile of pathogenic bacteria isolated from cow's milk in N'Djamena: associated risk factors and antibiotic resistance

  • Mbaïgolmem Valery Beral Food Sciences and Nutrition Research Unit (LaRSAN), Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise Laboratory (Labo-ReDES), University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad;
  • Bessimbaye Nadlaou Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Human Health Sciences (FSSH), Laboratory of Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise (Labo-ReDES, University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1479-3227
  • Tidjani Abdelsalam Food Sciences and Nutrition Research Unit (LaRSAN), Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise Laboratory (Labo-ReDES), University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad;

Abstract

Raw milk and its derivatives are foodstuffs vulnerable to contamination by microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria and failure to comply with hygiene rules.


The objective of this study was to determine the profile of pathogenic bacteria isolated from cow's milk and to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics commonly used in veterinary and human medicine against these bacteria in Chad.


This was a prospective and analytical study based on bacteriological examination including 180 milk samples collected in 10 districts of N'Djamena. The isolation, identification and testing of sensitivity of isolated bacteria to antibiotics were carried out under standard food bacteriology conditions.


Among 180 milk samples which were screened by bacteriological examination, 71 (34.44%) cases were positive. The bacterial strains isolated were: Staphylococcus aureus (38.03%), Streptococcus agalactiae (18.31%), Staphylococcus hyicus (11.27%), Streptococcus uberis (7.04%), Escherichia coliO157H7 (7.04%), Streptococcus pyogenes (5.63%), Aeromonas hydrophila (5.63%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.22%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2.81%). The risk factors most frequently associated with milk contamination were hand milking (100%) followed by unsanitary environment (65%), 35% of milks were sold in reused bottles and 58% of vendors and producers were uneducated.


The antibiogram of the 69 isolated bacterial agents showed reduced sensitivities to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides, and varied resistance to cyclins and fluoroquinolones. Streptomycin remains an aminoglycoside most sensitive to all strains of pathogenic bacteria with an average level of 95.7%. Staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus) developed an average resistance of 80.15% to methycillin, 80.1% to vancomycin and all bacteria showed an average resistance of 85% to metronidazole. Streptococci strains (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus pyogenes) were very sensitive (76.3%) to vancomycin. The isolated Listeria monocytogenes strains were 100%sensitive to aminoglycosides and beta-lactams.


The two-strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis detected by GeneXpert had a profile of 50%sensitivity and 50%resistance to rifampicin.


This study not only made it possible to know the high rate and frequency of pathogenic bacteria in cow's milk as well as the associated risk factors, but also showed a reduction in sensitivity of bacteria to aminopenicillins and aminoglycosides, a strong resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to methicillin and vancomycin and a high sensitivity of streptococci to vancomycin.

Keywords: Cow's milk, pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic resistance, risk factor, N'Djamena

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Author Biographies

Mbaïgolmem Valery Beral, Food Sciences and Nutrition Research Unit (LaRSAN), Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise Laboratory (Labo-ReDES), University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad;

Food Sciences and Nutrition Research Unit (LaRSAN), Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise Laboratory (Labo-ReDES), University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad;

Bessimbaye Nadlaou, Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Human Health Sciences (FSSH), Laboratory of Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise (Labo-ReDES, University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad.

Food Sciences and Nutrition Research Unit (LaRSAN), Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise Laboratory (Labo-ReDES), University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad;

Tidjani Abdelsalam, Food Sciences and Nutrition Research Unit (LaRSAN), Research, Diagnostics and Scientific Expertise Laboratory (Labo-ReDES), University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad;

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Human Health Sciences (FSSH), University of N’Djamena BP 1117 N’Djamena/Chad.

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1.
Beral MV, Nadlaou B, Abdelsalam T. Profile of pathogenic bacteria isolated from cow’s milk in N’Djamena: associated risk factors and antibiotic resistance. JDDT [Internet]. 15May2024 [cited 17May2024];14(5):68-7. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6535