Evaluation of Interleukin 4, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Activity of Alanine Transaminase Among Cooks in Nnewi

  • Augustine Chinedu Ihim Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9991-0714
  • Joy Chiemeka Iloka Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria
  • Christian Ejike Onah Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria
  • Patrick Chinedu Obi Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University Teaching Hospital Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
  • N Osakue Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria
  • Ejiofor Christopher Agbo Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria
  • JC Awalu Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Evangel Akaeze Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Abstract

Soot arises from burning wood, oils, tires, and other hydrocarbon or organic compounds. Soot is widespread and has a massive detrimental effect on human health, climate, and air quality. The serum levels of Interleukin 4, High sensitivity C-reactive protein, and alanine transaminase activity were evaluated. This cross–sectional study recruited 90 participants consisting of 45 participants exposed to soot (test group) and 45 participants not exposed to soot (control group). The Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology Ethics Committee at Nnamdi Azikiwe University granted ethical approval, and participants’ informed consent was acquired. Interleukin 4 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were determined using the Sandwich ELISA method while the activity of alanine transaminase was determined using the spectrophotometric method. Questionnaires were used to obtain the socio-demographic data of the participants and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated using weight (kg)/height2 (m2). Independent t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis and significance was set at p<0.05. The results showed that the mean serum activity of alanine transaminase (9.30 ± 0.28) was significantly lower in the participants exposed to soot compared with the control (9.48 ± 0.37) (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the mean serum levels of Interleukin 4 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein of participants exposed to soot compared with the control (p>0.05). Hence, exposure to soot through the use of firewood did not predispose cooks to systemic inflammation, or cardiovascular and hepatic dysfunctions.


Keywords: Soot, alanine transaminase, Interleukin 4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, inflammation

Keywords: Soot, alanine transaminase, Interleukin 4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, inflammation

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Augustine Chinedu Ihim, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Joy Chiemeka Iloka, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Christian Ejike Onah, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Patrick Chinedu Obi, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University Teaching Hospital Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University Teaching Hospital Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

N Osakue, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra, Nigeria

Ejiofor Christopher Agbo, Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

JC Awalu, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Evangel Akaeze Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Evangel Akaeze Ebonyi State, Nigeria

References

1. Nyebuchi J, Achonnwo KC, Roseline E, Josephine O, “Soot and carcinogenesis in Rivers State” J. Cancer Tumor Int, 2022;12(2):16-22. https://doi.org/10.9734/jcti/2022/v12i230172
2. Wang Y, Chung SH, "Soot formation in laminar counterflow flames" Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 2019; 74:152-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2019.05.003
3. Offer S, Hartner E, Di Bucchianico S, Bisig C, Bauer S, Pantzke J, Zimmermann EJ, Cao X, Binder S, Kuhn E, Huber A, Jeong S, Käfer U, Martens P, Mesceriakovas A, Bendl J, Brejcha R, Buchholz A, Gat D, Hohaus T, Rastak N, Jakobi G, Kalberer M, Kanashova T, Hu Y, Ogris C, Marsico A, Theis F, Pardo M, Gröger T, Oeder S, Orasche J, Paul A, Ziehm T, Zhang ZH, Adam T, Sippula O, Sklorz M, Schnelle-Kreis J, Czech H, Kiendler-Scharr A, Rudich Y, Zimmermann R, "Effect of Atmospheric Aging on Soot Particle Toxicity in Lung Cell Models at the Air-Liquid Interface: Differential Toxicological Impacts of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOAs)" Environ Health Perspect. 2022; 130(2):27003. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9413
4. Martin JW, Pascazio L, Menon A, Akroyd J, Kaiser K, Schulz F, Commodo M, D'Anna A, Gross L, Kraft M, "π-Diradical Aromatic Soot Precursors in Flames" J Am Chem Soc. 2021; 143(31):12212-12219. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05030
5. Zhao F, Yang W, Yu W, "A progress review of practical soot modelling development in diesel engine combustion" J. Traffic Transp. Eng. (Engl. Ed.), 2020; 7(3):269-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2020.04.002
6. Szatyłowicz E, Skoczko I, "Evaluation of the PAH content in soot from solid fuels combustion in low power boilers" Energies, 2019; 12(22):4254. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224254
7. Owhor GA, Rejoice Chigbo C, Chinemelum Iwendi G, Ogunkola I, germanos O, Ateb R, Iriagbonse Uba B, “Black Soot: A Threat to the Environment and Population’s Health in Rivers State Nigeria” The Nig Health J. 2023; 23(1):577-9. https://www.tnhjph.com/index.php/tnhj/article/view/631
8. Niranjan R, Thakur AK, "The Toxicological Mechanisms of Environmental Soot (Black Carbon) and Carbon Black: Focus on Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways" Front Immunol. 2017; 8:763. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00763
9. Yakubu OH, "Particle (soot) pollution in Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria—double air pollution burden? Understanding and tackling potential environmental public health impacts" Environments, 2018; 5(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments5010002
10. Dandajeh HA, Ladommatos N, Hellier P, "Influence of unsaturation of hydrocarbons on the characteristics and carcinogenicity of soot particles" J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 2020; 151:104900. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2020.104900
11. Al Housseiny H, Singh M, Emile S, Nicoleau M, Wal RLV, Silveyra P, "Identification of Toxicity Parameters Associated with Combustion Produced Soot Surface Chemistry and Particle Structure by in Vitro Assays" Biomedicines. 2020; 8(9):345. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090345
12. Fang Q, Zhao Q, Chai X, Li Y, Tian S, "Interaction of industrial smelting soot particles with pulmonary surfactant: Pulmonary toxicity of heavy metal-rich particles" Chemosphere. 2020; 246:125702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125702
13. Li R, Zhang M, Wang Y, Yung KKL, Su R, Li Z, Zhao L, Dong C, Cai Z, "Effects of sub-chronic exposure to atmospheric PM2.5 on fibrosis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the livers of rats" Toxicol Res (Camb). 2018; 7(2):271-282. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7tx00262a
14. Alhamdow A, Lindh C, Albin M, Gustavsson P, Tinnerberg H, Broberg K, "Cardiovascular Disease-Related Serum Proteins in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons" Toxicol Sci. 2019; 171(1):235-24. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfz142
15. Leonard E, Aminuddin M, "The effect of soot particulate towards vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (Vcam-1) expression in the mechanism of cardiovascular system disruption" Med. Legal Update. 2020; 20(2):830-835.
16. VoPham T, "Environmental risk factors for liver cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" Curr Epidemiol Rep. 2019; 6(1):50-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40471-019-0183-2
17. Zheng Z, Zhang X, Wang J, Dandekar A, Kim H, Qiu Y, Xu X, Cui Y, Wang A, Chen LC, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q, Zhang K, "Exposure to fine airborne particulate matters induces hepatic fibrosis in murine models" J Hepatol. 2015; 63(6):1397-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2015.07.020
18. Guo B, Guo Y, Nima Q, Feng Y, Wang Z, Lu R, Baimayangji, Ma Y, Zhou J, Xu H, Chen L, Chen G, Li S, Tong H, Ding X, Zhao X; China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) collaborative group, "Exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease" J Hepatol. 2022; 76(3):518-525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.10.016
19. Nwaogu LA, Onyeze GOC, Nwabueze RN, Adieze IE, "Changes in Liver, Kidney and Atherogenic Indices of Women in Ebocha, Niger-Delta, Nigeria due to Gas Flaring". J. Phys. Sci. Environ. Stud. 2021; 7(5):59-64. https://doi.org/10.36630/jpses_21011
20. Kwaśniak K, Czarnik-Kwaśniak J, Maziarz A, Aebisher D, Zielińska K, Karczmarek-Borowska B, Tabarkiewicz J, "Scientific reports concerning the impact of interleukin 4, interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β on cancer cells" Cent Eur J Immunol. 2019; 44(2):190-200. https://doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2018.76273
21. Gärtner Y, Bitar L, Zipp F, Vogelaar CF, "Interleukin-4 as a therapeutic target" Pharmacol. Ther. 2023; 242:108348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2023.108348
22. Egholm C, Heeb LEM, Impellizzieri D, Boyman O, "The Regulatory Effects of Interleukin-4 Receptor Signaling on Neutrophils in Type 2 Immune Responses" Front Immunol. 2019; 10:2507. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02507
23. Raza F, Babasyan S, Larson EM, Freer HS, Schnabel CL, Wagner B, "Peripheral blood basophils are the main source for early interleukin-4 secretion upon in vitro stimulation with Culicoides allergen in allergic horses" PLoS One. 2021; 16(5):e0252243. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252243
24. Anovazzi G, Medeiros MC, Pigossi SC, Finoti LS, Souza Moreira TM, Mayer MP, Zanelli CF, Valentini SR, Rossa-Junior C, Scarel-Caminaga RM, "Functionality and opposite roles of two interleukin 4 haplotypes in immune cells" Genes Immun. 2017; 18(1):33-41. https://doi.org/10.1038/gene.2016.47
25. Junttila IS, "Tuning the Cytokine Responses: An Update on Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 Receptor Complexes” Front Immunol. 2018; 9:888. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00888
26. Sproston NR, Ashworth JJ, "Role of C-Reactive Protein at Sites of Inflammation and Infection” Front Immunol. 2018; 9:754. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00754
27. Luan YY, Yao YM, "The Clinical Significance and Potential Role of C - reactive protein in Chronic Inflammatory and Neurodegenerative Diseases" Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1302. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01302
28. Akinshipe BO, Yusuf EO, Ehiaghe AF, Egunjobi TO, Yusuf OA, “Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein among apparently healthy adults with concomitant prediabetes and latent tuberculosis infection in Nigeria” Int J Res Med Sci. 2021; 9(2):338-46. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20210407
29. Banait T, Wanjari A, Danade V, Banait S, Jain J, "Role of High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (Hs-CRP) in Non-communicable Diseases: A Review" Cureus. 2022; 14(10):e30225. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.30225
30. Patil VC, Avhad AB, Kulkarni AR, Pandere KA, "High-sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with coronary artery disease" J Nat Sc Biol Med. 2020; 11(1):39-44. https://doi.org/10.4103/jnsbm.JNSBM_159_19
31. Yadav S, Jangra R, Sharma BR, Sharma M, "Current Advancement in Biosensing techniques for determination of Alanine aminotransferase and Aspartate aminotransferase-a Mini Review" Process Biochem. 2022; 114:71-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2022.01.010
32. Moriles KE, Azer SA, “Alanine Amino Transferase” In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022.
33. Chen ZW, Chen LY, Dai HL, Chen JH, Fang LZ, "Relationship between alanine aminotransferase levels and metabolic syndrome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2008; 9(8):616-622. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0720016
34. Ihim AC, Habeeb Y, Manafa PO, Nwobodo EI, Edward UC, Obi PC, "Effect of Exposure to Soot on Activities of Alanine Transaminase, Gamma Glutamyl Transferase and Lipase among Cooks in Nnewi" JDDT, 2023;13(4):37-1. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v13i4.5793
35. Gao N, Xu W, Ji J, Yang Y, Wang ST, Wang J, Chen X, Meng S, Tian X, Xu KF, "Lung function and systemic inflammation associated with short-term air pollution exposure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Beijing, China" Environ Health. 2020; 19(1):12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-0568-1
36. Kalinauskaite-Zukauske V, Janulaityte I, Januskevicius A, Malakauskas K, "Serum levels of epithelial-derived mediators and interleukin-4/interleukin-13 signaling after bronchial challenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients with allergic asthma" Scand J Immunol. 2019; 90(5):e12820. https://doi.org/10.1111/sji.12820
37. Alhamdow A, Lindh C, Albin M, Gustavsson P, Tinnerberg H, Broberg K, "Early markers of cardiovascular disease are associated with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons" Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):9426. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09956-x
38. Pilz V, Wolf K, Breitner S, Rückerl R, Koenig W, Rathmann W, Cyrys J, Peters A, Schneider A; KORA-Study group, "C-reactive protein (CRP) and long-term air pollution with a focus on ultrafine particles" Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018; 221(3):510-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.016
39. Huang WH, Yen TH, Chan MJ, Su YJ, "Environmental carbon monoxide level is associated with the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in peritoneal dialysis patients" Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(26):e181. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000181
40. Elbarbary M, Oganesyan A, Honda T, Morgan G, Guo Y, Guo Y, Negin J, "Systemic Inflammation (C-Reactive Protein) in Older Chinese Adults Is Associated with Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution" Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Mar 22; 18(6):3258. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063258
41. Ramdhan DH, Kurniasari F, Tejamaya M, Fitri A, Indriani A, Kusumawardhani A, Santoso M, "Increase of Cardiometabolic Biomarkers Among Vehicle Inspectors Exposed to PM0.25 and Compositions" Saf Health Work. 2021; 12(1):114-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2020.08.005
42. Dey T, Gogoi K, Unni B, Bharadwaz M, Kalita M, Ozah D, Kalita M, Kalita J, Baruah PK, Bora T, "Role of environmental pollutants in liver physiology: special references to peoples living in the oil drilling sites of Assam" PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123370. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123370
43. Zhang Z, Guo C, Chang LY, Bo Y, Lin C, Tam T, Hoek G, Wong MC, Chan TC, Lau AK, Lao XQ, "Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and liver enzymes in adults: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan" Occup Environ Med. 2019;76(7):488-494. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2019-105695
44. Maglione GA, Kurtz ML, Orona NS, Astort F, Brites F, Morales C, Berra A, Tasat DR, "Changes in extrapulmonary organs and serum enzyme biomarkers after chronic exposure to Buenos Aires air pollution" Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020;27(13):14529-14542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07996-x
45. El-Tamawy MS, Zaki MA, Rashed LA, Esmail EH, Mohamed SS, Osama W, "Oligoclonal bands and levels of interleukin 4, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in idiopathic intracranial hypertension Egyptian patients" Egypt J Neurol Psychiatry Neurosurg. 2019; 55:88. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41983-019-0134-3
46. Ebrahimi M, Heidari-Bakavoli AR, Shoeibi S, Mirhafez SR, Moohebati M, Esmaily H, Ghazavi H, Saberi Karimian M, Parizadeh SM, Mohammadi M, Mohaddes Ardabili H, Ferns GA, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, "Association of Serum hs-CRP Levels With the Presence of Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors" J Clin Lab Anal. 2016; 30(5):672-676. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcla.21920
Crossmark
Statistics
65 Views | 5 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Ihim A, Iloka JC, Onah CE, Obi PC, Osakue N, Agbo EC, Awalu J. Evaluation of Interleukin 4, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Activity of Alanine Transaminase Among Cooks in Nnewi. JDDT [Internet]. 15Mar.2024 [cited 19Apr.2024];14(3):54-9. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/6439