Fecal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistant gene in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from food-producing animals and humans
This study seeks to determine the feacal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from food-producing animals and humans. A total of three hundred (300) fecal samples were collected using sterile universal containers from food-producing animals namely (Chicken , Pig  and humans (100) from Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State and analyzed for the presence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica using standard microbiological techniques. Phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) were done by disc diffusion and Double Disk Synergy Test. Molecular characterization for ESBL and fluoroquinolone-resistant genes were done by PCR with specific primers. The result shows that non-typhoidal Salmonella species (NTS) accounted for 25 % and 17 % in poultry and pig fecal sample respectively while 60 % and 40% were phenotypic ESBL producers respectively. When compared statistically there is significant difference among isolates confirmed ESBL-positive (P˂ 0.05). Also, none of the 16 (58 %) NTS isolated from humans harbored ESBL phenotype. PCR analysis with β-lactam specific primer detected the presence of blaOXA 50 % and 50 %, blaSHV 36 %, and 64 %, blaTEM 43 % and 57 %, blaCTX-M 36 % and 64 % in poultry and pig respectively. Fluoroquinolone resistant gene QnrA was present in 0 and 100 % of poultry and pig respectively. QnrB was 40 % and 60 % in poultry and pig isolates respectively. QnrS was present in 64 % isolates of poultry and 13 % isolates in pig. The high prevalence of genes encoding beta-lactamases and fluoroquinolone resistance (TEM, SHV, CTX-M and OXA, (qnrA, qnrB and qnrS) were present more in poultry and pig than in humans and demonstrate a significant public health threat from consumption of food-producing animal harboring such pathogenic resistant genotype if not properly controlled.
Keywords: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase, Fluoroquinolone, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, feacal carriage
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