An overview of green synthesis mediated metal nanoparticles preparation and its scale up opportunities


Nanoparticles in different field of science have a wide range of utility. They come in different forms. Among these, metal nanoparticles (MNP) have become an emerging tool for diagnostic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Metal nanoparticles are nano-sized particles made up of inorganic metals or their metal oxides. Various methods are available for the preparation/production of metal nanoparticles. In addition to the existing physical and chemical methods, green synthesis is an area that has drawn the attention of researchers in the decade and continues to be a potential area of research. The following review introduces about metal nanoparticles and discusses in details about the plant extract mediated metal nanoparticles synthesis, the principle of metal nanoparticle formation, various process parameters that are important for its synthesis, characterization of metal nanoparticles and the scope for commercialization are elaborated. Metal nanoparticles at research, employing plant extract mediated green synthesis have been extensively reviewed. This review tries to bring into light the feasibility of commercializing the green synthesis by using plant extracts.

Keywords: Green synthesis; Plant extract; One-step synthesis; Characterization; Process parameters; Scale-up

Keywords: Green synthesis, Plant extract, One-step synthesis, Characterization, Process parameters, Scale-up


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Anupama Singh, Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Soldevanahalli, Hesergatta Road, Benagluru-560107, Karnataka, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Soldevanahalli, Hesergatta Road, Benagluru-560107, Karnataka, India

BLR Madhavi, Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Soldevanahalli, Hesergatta Road, Benagluru-560107, Karnataka, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Soldevanahalli, Hesergatta Road, Benagluru-560107, Karnataka, India

M N Nithin Sagar, Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Soldevanahalli, Hesergatta Road, Benagluru-560107, Karnataka, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, Acharya & BM Reddy College of Pharmacy, Soldevanahalli, Hesergatta Road, Benagluru-560107, Karnataka, India


[1] Soares S, Sousa J, Pais A, Vitorino C. Nanomedicine: principles, properties, and regulatory issues. Frontiers in chemistry. 2018 Aug 20;6:360.
[2] Ventola CL. The nanomedicine revolution: part 1: emerging concepts. Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2012 Sep;37(9):512.
[3] Patra JK, Das G, Fraceto LF, Campos EV, del Pilar Rodriguez-Torres M, Acosta-Torres LS, Diaz-Torres LA, Grillo R, Swamy MK, Sharma S, Habtemariam S. Nano based drug delivery systems: recent developments and future prospects. Journal of nanobiotechnology. 2018 Dec;16(1):1-33.
[4] Parveen S, Misra R, Sahoo SK. Nanoparticles: a boon to drug delivery, therapeutics, diagnostics and imaging. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. 2012 Feb 1;8(2):147-66.
[5] Rout GK, Shin HS, Gouda S, Sahoo S, Das G, Fraceto LF, Patra JK. Current advances in nanocarriers for biomedical research and their applications. Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology. 2018 Nov 5;46(sup2):1053-62.
[6] KurzydŁowski KJ. Structure and properties of metals. ActaPhys Pol A. 1999;96(1):69–79.
[7] BBC. Metallic structure and bonding. Available from: (Accessed on 30th January,2021)
[8] Tsuzuki T. Commercial scale production of inorganic nanoparticles. International journal of nanotechnology. 2009 Jan 1;6(5-6):567-78.
[9] Barui AK, Kotcherlakota R, Patra CR. Medicinal applications of metal nanoparticles. InMetal Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Applications in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2018 Jan 3 (pp. 101-153). Wiley.
[10] Scientia ricerca. Biogenic-Biosynthesis Metallic nanoparticles(MNPs) for pharmacological, biomedical and environmental Nanobiotechnology Applications. Available from: (Accessed on 20th February,2021)
[11] Akram M, Farooq QH, Shafiq MI, Awan AS. Synthesis and characterization of some important metal nanoparticles and their applications. SciInt (Lahore). 2016;28:4049-59.
[12] Narayan N, Meiyazhagan A, Vajtai R. Metal nanoparticles as green catalysts. Materials. 2019 Jan;12(21):3602.
[13] Mandal R, Baranwal A, Srivastava A, Chandra P. Evolving trends in bio/chemical sensor fabrication incorporating bimetallic nanoparticles. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2018 Oct 15;117:546-61.
[14] Nakamoto M. Microelectronics Packaging by Metal Nanoparticle Pastes. InNanoparticle Technology Handbook 2018 Jan 1 (pp. 647-650). Elsevier.
[15] Klębowski B, Depciuch J, Parlińska-Wojtan M, Baran J. Applications of noble metal-based nanoparticles in medicine. International journal of molecular sciences. 2018 Dec;19(12):4031.
[16] Dupoint. Gold Nanoparticles- Properties, Application. AZO Nano 2013 April. Available from: (Accessed on 21st February 2021).
[17] Selim HM, Mohamed DS, Eskander HM. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, medical application, and toxicity effects. International Journal of Nanotechnology and Allied Sciences. 2017 Dec 13;1(1):45-53.
[18] Xu L, Wang YY, Huang J, Chen CY, Wang ZX, Xie H. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, medical applications and biosafety. Theranostics. 2020;10(20):8996.
[19] Sánchez-López E, Gomes D, Esteruelas G, Bonilla L, Lopez-Machado AL, Galindo R, Cano A, Espina M, Ettcheto M, Camins A, Silva AM. Metal-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: an overview. Nanomaterials. 2020 Feb;10(2):292.
[20] Niska K, Zielinska E, Radomski MW, Inkielewicz-Stepniak I. Metal nanoparticles in dermatology and cosmetology: Interactions with human skin cells. Chemico-biological interactions. 2018 Nov 1;295:38-51.
[21] DuPont. Titanium Oxide (Titania, TiO2) Nanoparticles – Properties, Applications. AZoNano. 17 April 2021.Available from:,oxide%20must%20still%20be%20conducted. (Accessed on 22nd February 2021.)
[22] Jamkhande PG, Ghule NW, Bamer AH, Kalaskar MG. Metal nanoparticles synthesis: An overview on methods of preparation, advantages and disadvantages, and applications. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2019 Oct 1;53:101174.
[23] Zhang D, Ma XL, Gu Y, Huang H, Zhang GW. Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Potential Applications to Treat Cancer. Frontiers in Chemistry. 2020;8.
[24] Sugar chemistry. Available from: (accessed on 30th JANUARY ,2021)
[25] Iqbal P, Preece JA, Mendes PM. Nanotechnology: The “Top‐Down” and “Bottom‐Up” Approaches. Supramolecular chemistry: from molecules to nanomaterials. 2012 Mar 15.
[26] Charitidis CA, Georgiou P, Koklioti MA, Trompeta AF, Markakis V. Manufacturing nanomaterials: from research to industry. Manufacturing Review. 2014;1:11.
[27] Tsuzuki T. Commercial scale production of inorganic nanoparticles. International journal of nanotechnology. 2009 Jan 1;6(5-6):567-78.
[28] Gahlawat G, Choudhury AR. A review on the biosynthesis of metal and metal salt nanoparticles by microbes. RSC advances. 2019;9(23):12944-67.
[29] Narayanan KB, Sakthivel N. Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles by microbes. Advances in colloid and interface science. 2010 Apr 22;156(1-2):1-3.
[30] Yadi M, Mostafavi E, Saleh B, Davaran S, Aliyeva I, Khalilov R, Nikzamir M, Nikzamir N, Akbarzadeh A, Panahi Y, Milani M. Current developments in green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts: a review. Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology. 2018 Nov 12;46(sup3):S336-43.
[31] Singh J, Dutta T, Kim KH, Rawat M, Samddar P, Kumar P. ‘Green’synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: applications for environmental remediation. Journal of nanobiotechnology. 2018 Dec;16(1):1-24.
[32] Gour A, Jain NK. Advances in green synthesis of nanoparticles. Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology. 2019 Dec 4;47(1):844-51.
[33] Salunke BK, Sawant SS, Lee SI, Kim BS. Microorganisms as efficient biosystem for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles: current scenario and future possibilities. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2016 May 1;32(5):88.
[34] Iravani S. Bacteria in nanoparticle synthesis: current status and future prospects. International scholarly research notices. 2014;2014.
[35] Yadav A, Kon K, Kratosova G, Duran N, Ingle AP, Rai M. Fungi as an efficient mycosystem for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles: progress and key aspects of research. Biotechnology letters. 2015 Nov;37(11):2099-120.
[36] Li J, Ma G, Liu H, Liu H. Yeast cells carrying metal nanoparticles. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2018 Mar 1;207:373-9.
[37] Manimaran M, Kannabiran K. Actinomycetes‐mediated biogenic synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles: progress and challenges. Letters in applied microbiology. 2017 Jun;64(6):401-8.
[38] Siddiqi KS, Husen A. Fabrication of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by algae and their toxic effects. Nanoscale research letters. 2016 Dec;11(1):1-1.
[39] Ishak NM, Kamarudin SK, Timmiati SN. Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles via plant extracts: an overview. Materials Research Express. 2019 Oct 4;6(11):112004.
[40] Tangahu BV, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M. A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2011 Oct 1;2011.
[41] Marchiol L. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles in living plants. Italian Journal of Agronomy. 2012 Aug 6:e37-
[42] El ShafeyAM. Green synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles from plant leaf extracts and their applications: A review. Green Processing and Synthesis. 2020 Jun 18;9(1):304-39.
[43] Silva LP, Reis IG, Bonatto CC. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles by plants: current trends and challenges. InGreen processes for Nanotechnology 2015 (pp. 259-275). Springer, Cham.
[44] Dauthal P, Mukhopadhyay M. Noble metal nanoparticles: plant-mediated synthesis, mechanistic aspects of synthesis, and applications. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2016 Sep 14;55(36):9557-77.
[45] Jadoun S, Arif R, Jangid NK, Meena RK. Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 2020 Aug 13:1-20.
[46] Kharissova OV, Kharisov BI, Oliva González CM, Méndez YP, López I. Greener synthesis of chemical compounds and materials. Royal Society open science. 2019 Nov 6;6(11):191378.
[47] Rafique M, Sadaf I, Rafique MS, Tahir MB. A review on green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their applications. Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology. 2017 Oct 3;45(7):1272-91.
[48] Roy P, Das B, Mohanty A, Mohapatra S. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antimicrobial study. Applied Nanoscience. 2017 Nov;7(8):843-50.
[49] Rautela A, Rani J, Das MD. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Tectona grandis seeds extract: characterization and mechanism of antimicrobial action on different microorganisms. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology. 2019 Dec;10(1):1-0.
[50] Padalia H, Moteriya P, Chanda S. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from marigold flower and its synergistic antimicrobial potential. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2015 Sep 1;8(5):732-41.
[51] Pethakamsetty L, Kothapenta K, Nammi HR, Ruddaraju LK, Kollu P, Yoon SG, Pammi SV. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros sylvatica. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2017 May 1;55:157-63.
[52] Yugandhar P, Haribabu R, Savithramma N. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial properties of green-synthesised silver nanoparticles from stem bark extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. 3 Biotech. 2015 Dec;5(6):1031-9.
[53] Ghaffari-Moghaddam M, Hadi-Dabanlou R. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Crataegus douglasii fruit extract. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 2014 Mar 25;20(2):739-44.
[54] Kim TY, Cha SH, Cho S, Park Y. Tannic acid-mediated green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Archives of pharmacal research. 2016 Apr 1;39(4):465-73.
[55] Ahmad T, Bustam MA, Irfan M, Moniruzzaman M, Asghar HM, Bhattacharjee S. Mechanistic investigation of phytochemicals involved in green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous Elaeis guineensis leaves extract: Role of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Biotechnology and applied biochemistry. 2019 Jul;66(4):698-708.
[56] Banerjee P, Satapathy M, Mukhopahayay A, Das P. Leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from widely available Indian plants: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial property and toxicity analysis. Bioresources and Bioprocessing. 2014 Dec;1(1):1-0.
[57] Vijayaraj R, Kumar KN, Mani P, Senthil J, Kumar GD, Jayaseelan T. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from ethanolic seed extract of Acranythesaspera (Linn.) and its anti-inflammatory activities. Int J Pharm Ther. 2016;7:42-8.
[58] Gavamukulya Y, Maina EN, Meroka AM, Madivoli ES, El-Shemy HA, Wamunyokoli F, Magoma G. Green synthesis and characterization of highly stable silver nanoparticles from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Annona muricata. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. 2020 Apr;30(4):1231-42.
[59] Petla RK, Vivekanandhan S, Misra M, Mohanty AK, Satyanarayana N. Soybean (Glycine max) leaf extract based green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles.
[60] Mason C, Vivekanandhan S, Misra M, Mohanty AK. Switch grass (Panicum virgatum) extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering. 2012 Jun 1;2(2):47.
[61] Rajabi HR, Sajadiasl F, Karimi H, Alvand ZM. Green synthesis of zinc sulfide nanophotocatalysts using aqueous extract of FicusJohannis plant for efficient photodegradation of some pollutants. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2020 Nov 1;9(6):15638-47.
[62] Balasubramani G, Ramkumar R, Krishnaveni N, Pazhanimuthu A, Natarajan T, Sowmiya R, Perumal P. Structural characterization, antioxidant and anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract (decoction) of Antigononleptopus Hook. &Arn. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2015 Apr 1;30:83-9.
[63] Selim YA, Azb MA, Ragab I, Abd El-Azim MH. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Deverratortuosa and their cytotoxic activities. Scientific reports. 2020 Feb 26;10(1):1-9.
[64] Ahmed S, Saifullah, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica aqueous leaf extract. Journal of radiation research and applied sciences. 2016 Jan 1;9(1):1-7.
[65] Aritonang HF, Koleangan H, Wuntu AD. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of medicinal plants’(Impatiens balsamina and Lantana camara) fresh leaves and analysis of antimicrobial activity. International journal of microbiology. 2019 Jul 1;2019.
[66] Shnoudeh AJ, Hamad I, Abdo RW, Qadumii L, Jaber AY, Surchi HS, Alkelany SZ. Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Metal Nanoparticles. InBiomaterials and Bionanotechnology 2019 Jan 1 (pp. 527-612). Academic Press.
[67] Rao K, Roome T, Aziz S, Razzak A, Abbas G, Imran M, Jabri T, Gul J, Hussain M, Sikandar B, Sharafat S. Bergenin loaded gum xanthan stabilized silver nanoparticles suppress synovial inflammation through modulation of the immune response and oxidative stress in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2018;6(27):4486-501.
[68] Wang L, Xu J, Yan Y, Liu H, Karunakaran T, Li F. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from Scutellaria barbata and its anticancer activity in pancreatic cancer cell (PANC‐1). Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology. 2019 Dec 4;47(1):1617-27.
[69] Xin Lee K, Shameli K, Miyake M, Kuwano N, Bt Ahmad Khairudin NB, Bt Mohamad SE, Yew YP. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit peels. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2016 Sep 1;2016.
[70] Wu S, Rajeshkumar S, Madasamy M, Mahendran V. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Cissus vitiginea and its antioxidant and antibacterial activity against urinary tract infection pathogens. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology. 2020 Jan 1;48(1):1153-8.
[71] Khandel P, Yadaw RK, Soni DK, Kanwar L, Shahi SK. Biogenesis of metal nanoparticles and their pharmacological applications: present status and application prospects. Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry. 2018 Sep;8(3):217-54.
[72] Kuppusamy P, Yusoff MM, Maniam GP, Govindan N. Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant derivatives and their new avenues in pharmacological applications–An updated report. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2016 Jul 1;24(4):473-84.
[73] Jeevanandam J, Chan YS, Danquah MK. Biosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. ChemBioEng Reviews. 2016 Apr;3(2):55-67.
[74] Chokkareddy R, Redhi GG. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles and its reaction mechanisms. Green Metal Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Application; Kanchi, S., Ahmed, S., Eds. 2018 Oct 16:113-39.
[75] Malik P, Shankar R, Malik V, Sharma N, Mukherjee TK. Green chemistry based benign routes for nanoparticle synthesis. Journal of Nanoparticles. 2014;2014.
[76] Kulkarni VD, Kulkarni PS. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum leaf extract. Int J Chem Stud. 2013;1(3):1-4.
[77] Tahir K, Nazir S, Ahmad A, Li B, Khan AU, Khan ZU, Khan FU, Khan QU, Khan A, Rahman AU. Facile and green synthesis of phytochemicals capped platinum nanoparticles and in vitro their superior antibacterial activity. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2017 Jan 1;166:246-51.
[78] Banu KS, Cathrine L. General techniques involved in phytochemical analysis. International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science. 2015 Apr;2(4):25-32.
[79] Visweswari G, Christopher R, Rajendra W. Phytochemical screening of active secondary metabolites present in Withaniasomnifera root: role in traditional medicine. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research. 2013 Jul 1;4(7):2770. 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.4(7).2770-76
[80] Paul S, Dhinakaran I, Mathiyazhagan K, Raja M, Sasikumar CS, Varghese JC. Preparation of nanogel incorporated with silver nanoparticles synthesized from pongamiapinnata. L root. Int J Sci Res Knowl. 2015;3:314-25.
[81] Ramaswamy M, Solaimuthu C, Duraikannu S. Antiarthritic activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Moringa concanensis Nimmo leaves against FCA induced rheumatic arthritis in rats. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2019 May 15;9(3):66-75.
[82] Kiranmai M. Biological and non-biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: Scope for current pharmaceutical research. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 Oct 31;79(4):501-12. 10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000256
[83] Shah M, Fawcett D, Sharma S, Tripathy SK, Poinern GE. Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles via biological entities. Materials. 2015 Nov;8(11):7278-308.
[84] Parida UK, Das S, Jena PK, Rout N, Bindhani BK. Plant mediated green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: Challenges and opportunities. InFabrication and self-assembly of nanobiomaterials 2016 Jan 1 (pp. 149-177). William Andrew Publishing.
[85] Patra JK, Baek KH. Green nanobiotechnology: factors affecting synthesis and characterization techniques. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2014 Jan 1;2014.
[86] Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG, Lightfoot DA. Phytochemicals: Extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Plants. 2017 Dec;6(4):42.
[87] Hariram M, Vivekanandhan S. Phytochemical process for the functionalization of materials with metal nanoparticles: current trends and future perspectives. ChemistrySelect. 2018 Dec 28;3(48):13561-85.
[88] Akhtar MS, Panwar J, Yun YS. Biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by plant extracts. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 2013 Jun 3;1(6):591-602.
[89] Latif MS, Abbas S, Kormin F, Mustafa MK. Green synthesis of plant-mediated metal nanoparticles: The role of polyphenols. Asian J. Pharmaceut. Clin. Res. 2019;12(7):75-84.
[90] Mathur M. Properties of phtyo-reducing agents utilize for production of nano-particles, existing knowledge and gaps. Int J Pure ApplBiosci. 2014;2(2):113-30.
[91] Makarov VV, Love AJ, Sinitsyna OV, Makarova SS, Yaminsky IV, Taliansky ME, Kalinina NO. “Green” nanotechnologies: synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. ActaNaturae (англоязычнаяверсия). 2014;6(1 (20)).
[92] Lade BD, Shanware AS. Phytonanofabrication: methodology and factors affecting biosynthesis of nanoparticles. InSmartNanosystems for Biomedicine, Optoelectronics and Catalysis 2020 Jan 21. IntechOpen.
[93] Vijayaraghavan K, Ashokkumar T. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles: a review of literature, factors affecting synthesis, characterization techniques and applications. Journal of environmental chemical engineering. 2017 Oct 1;5(5):4866-83.
[94] Anigol LB, Charantimath JS, Gurubasavaraj PM. Effect of concentration and ph on the size of silver nanoparticles synthesized by green chemistry. Org. Med. Chem. Int. J. 2017;3:1-5.
[95] Singh AK, Srivastava ON. One-step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using black cardamom and effect of pH on its synthesis. Nanoscale research letters. 2015 Dec 1;10(1):353.
[96] Rao B, Tang RC. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract. Advances in natural sciences: Nanoscience and nanotechnology. 2017 Mar 2;8(1):015014.
[97] Kredy HM. The effect of pH, temperature on the green synthesis and biochemical activities of silver nanoparticles from Lawsonia inermis extract. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2018 Aug 1;10(8):2022-6.
[98] Seifipour R, Nozari M, Pishkar L. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Tragopo goncollinus leaf extract and study of their antibacterial effects. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. 2020 Jan 11:1-1.
[99] Ahmad T, Irfan M, Bustam MA, Bhattacharjee S. Effect of reaction time on green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using aqueous extract of Elaise guineensis (oil palm leaves). Procedia engineering. 2016 Jan 1;148:467-72.
[100] Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: a green expertise. Journal of advanced research. 2016 Jan 1;7(1):17-28.
[101] Patanjali Research Institute [online] available from : (Accessed on 17th February, 2021)
[102] Chen J, Li Y, Fang G, Cao Z, Shang Y, Alfarraj S, Alharbi SA, Li J, Yang S, Duan X. Green synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and anti-human ovarian cancer activities of Curcumae kwangsiensis leaf aqueous extract green-synthesized gold nanoparticles. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021 Mar 1;14(3):103000.
[103] Chang Y, Zheng C, Chinnathambi A, Alahmadi TA, Alharbi SA. Cytotoxicity, anti-acute leukemia, and antioxidant properties of gold nanoparticles green-synthesized using Cannabis sativa L leaf aqueous extract. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021 Feb 11:103060.
[104] Liu Q, Wu F, Chen Y, Alrashood ST, Alharbi SA. Anti-human colon cancer properties of a novel chemotherapeutic supplement formulated by gold nanoparticles containing Allium sativum L. leaf aqueous extract and investigation of its cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021 Feb 2:103039.
[105] Muniyappan N, Pandeeswaran M, Amalraj A. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Curcuma pseudomontana isolated curcumin: Its characterization, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2021 Jan 30.
[106] Li S, Al-Misned FA, El-Serehy HA, Yang L. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of MenthaLongifolia leaf and investigation of its anti-human breast carcinoma properties in the in vitro condition. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021 Feb 1;14(2):102931.
[107] Alkhalaf MI, Hussein RH, Hamza A. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Nigella sativa extract alleviates diabetic neuropathy through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020 Sep 1;27(9):2410-9.
[108] Dhar SA, Chowdhury RA, Das S, Nahian MK, Islam D, Gafur MA. Plant-mediated green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021 Jan 22.
[109] Sharma R. Synthesis of Terminalia bellirica fruit extract mediated silver nanoparticles and application in photocatalytic degradation of wastewater from textile industries. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021 Feb 19.
[110] Filip GA, Florea A, Olteanu D, Clichici S, David L, Moldovan B, Cenariu M, Scrobota I, Potara M, Baldea I. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sambucus nigra L. fruit extract for targeting cell death in oral dysplastic cells. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2021 Feb 15:111974.
[111] Wang Y, Chinnathambi A, Nasif O, Alharbi SA. Green synthesis and chemical characterization of a novel anti-human pancreatic cancer supplement by silver nanoparticles containing Zingiber officinale leaf aqueous extract. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021 Feb 21:103081.
[112] Jahan I, Erci F, Isildak I. Facile microwave-mediated green synthesis of non-toxic copper nanoparticles using Citrus sinensis aqueous fruit extract and their antibacterial potentials. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020 Oct 29:102172.
[113] Sathiyavimal S, Vasantharaj S, Veeramani V, Saravanan M, Rajalakshmi G, Kaliannan T, Al-Misned FA, Pugazhendhi A. Green chemistry route of biosynthesized copper oxide nanoparticles using Psidiumguajava leaf extract and their antibacterial activity and effective removal of industrial dyes. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2021 Jan 6:105033.
[114] Dou L, Zhang X, Zangeneh MM, Zhang Y. Efficient biogenesis of Cu2O nanoparticles using extract of Camellia sinensis leaf: Evaluation of catalytic, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and anti-human ovarian cancer properties. Bioorganic Chemistry. 2021 Jan 1;106:104468.
[115] Asghar MA, Zahir E, Asghar MA, Iqbal J, Rehman AA. Facile, one-pot biosynthesis and characterization of iron, copper and silver nanoparticles using Syzygiumcumini leaf extract: As an effective antimicrobial and aflatoxin B1 adsorption agents. PloS one. 2020 Jul 2;15(7):e0234964.
[116] Iliger KS, Sofi TA, Bhat NA, Ahanger FA, Sekhar JC, Elhendi AZ, Al-Huqail AA, Khan F. Copper nanoparticles: Green synthesis and managing fruit rot disease of chilli caused by Colletotrichum capsici. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021 Feb 1;28(2):1477-86.
[117] Ekennia A, Uduagwu D, Olowu O, Nwanji O, Oje O, Daniel B, Mgbii S, Emma-Uba C. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Alchornealaxiflora and its tyrosinase inhibition and catalytic studies. Micron. 2021 Feb 1;141:102964.
[118] Chinnathambi A, Alahmadi TA. Zinc nanoparticles green-synthesized by Alhagimaurorum leaf aqueous extract: Chemical characterization and cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and anti-osteosarcoma effects. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2021 Feb 22:103083.
[119] Park JK, Rupa EJ, Arif MH, Li JF, Anandapadmanaban G, Kang JP, Kim M, Ahn JC, Akter R, Yang DC, Kang SC. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from Gynostemmapentaphyllum extracts and assessment of photocatalytic properties through malachite green dye decolorization under UV illumination-A green approach. Optik. 2021 Jan 5:166249.
[120] Ghaedi M, Naghiha R, Jannesar R, Mirtamizdoust B. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of flower extracts of Urticadioica, Chamaemelumnobile and Salvia officinalis: Effects of Zn [OH] 2 nanoparticles and Hp-2-minh on their property. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 2015 Dec 25;32:353-9.
[121] Umamaheswari A, Prabu SL, John SA, Puratchikody A. Green synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Raphanussativus L var. and evaluation of their anticancer property in A549 cell lines. Biotechnology Reports. 2021 Feb 5:e00595.
[122] Korde P, Ghotekar S, Pagar T, Pansambal S, Oza R, Mane D. Plant extract assisted eco-benevolent synthesis of selenium nanoparticles-a review on plant parts involved, characterization and their recent applications. Journal of Chemical Reviews. 2020 Apr 23:157-68.
[123] Mulla NA, Otari SV, Bohara RA, Yadav HM, Pawar SH. Rapid and size-controlled biosynthesis of cytocompatible selenium nanoparticles by Azadirachtaindica leaves extract for antibacterial activity. Materials Letters. 2020 Apr 1;264:127353.
[124] Kirdat PN, Dandge PB, Hagwane RM, Nikam AS, Mahadik SP, Jirange ST. Synthesis and characterization of ginger (Z. officinale) extract mediated iron oxide nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2020 Dec 30.
[125] Ardakani LS, Alimardani V, Tamaddon AM, Amani AM, Taghizadeh S. Green synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles using Chlorophytumcomosum leaf extract: methyl orange dye degradation and antimicrobial properties. Heliyon. 2021 Feb 1;7(2):e06159.
[126] Biswas A, Vanlalveni C, Lalfakzuala R, Nath S, Rokhum L. Mikaniamikrantha leaf extract mediated biogenic synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Characterization and its antimicrobial activity study. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021 Feb 16.
[127] Yetisgin AA, Cetinel S, Zuvin M, Kosar A, Kutlu O. Therapeutic nanoparticles and their targeted delivery applications. Molecules. 2020 Jan;25(9):2193.
[128] Sood R, Chopra DS. Regulatory approval of silver nanoparticles. Applied Clinical Research, Clinical Trials and Regulatory Affairs. 2018 Aug 1;5(2):74-9.
115 Views | 2 Downloads
How to Cite
Singh A, Madhavi B, Nithin Sagar MN. An overview of green synthesis mediated metal nanoparticles preparation and its scale up opportunities. JDDT [Internet]. 15Nov.2021 [cited 1Dec.2021];11(6):304-1. Available from: