Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Spathodea campanulata leaves
Peptic disorders like Gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastritis, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer, etc., are the common in today’s life style. This may be due to stressful life style or improper balance diet. The pathology behind these disorders may be discrepancy between offensive and defensive mechanisms either by excess secretion of acid and pepsin or diminished ability of the gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier to protect against stomach acid-pepsin secretion. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of the most commonly used medicines and proven to be effective for certain disorders. Some people use NSAIDs on daily basis for preventive purpose. But a variety of severe side effects can be induced by NSAIDs. Studies have shown that edible natural ingredients exhibit preventive benefit of gastric ulcer. Therefore present study was designed to evaluate antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Spathodea campanulata (S. campanulata) leaves in rats. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The in vivo anti-ulcer activity of ethanolic extract was assessed against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Depending on the model, outcome measures were volume and pH of gastric fluid, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as well as percent inhibition of ulcer index. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols & tannins, saponin. Further ethanolic extract of 200 and 400mg/ kg /p.o reduced the gastric volume, pH, ulcer number, ulcer index, free acidity and total acidity in aspirin induced ulcer models in rats. The findings of this study confirmed that S. campanulata extract has anti-ulcer pharmacologic activity due to one or more of the secondary metabolites present in it. Therefore, this study validates its anti-ulcer use in Indian folk medicine. Further investigations on isolation of specific phytochemicals and elucidating mechanisms of action are needed.
Keywords: Spathodea campanulata, Phytochemical constituents, Antiulcer, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Aspirin-induced gastric ulcer.
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