Human papillomavirus is the cause of human prostate cancer

  • Ilija Barukčić

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the present meta-analysis study is to investigate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) serves as a cause or as the cause of human prostate cancer (PC).  


Methods: The PubMed database was searched for suitable articles. Previously published expert reviews and systematic meta-analysis were used as an additional source to identify appropriate articles. Articles selected for this meta-analysis should fulfill the following inclusion criteria: (a) no data access barrier, (b) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA based identification of HPV. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to prove the hypotheses whether being married is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of PC. In other words, without being married no PC. The method of the conditio per quam relationship (sufficient condition) was used to prove the hypotheses if HPV is present in human prostate tissues then PC is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to prove the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between HPV and PC. Significance was indicated by a p-value (two sided) of less than 0.05.


Results: In to more than 33 studies were considered for a meta-analysis. Several studies support the hypotheses without being married no PC. All the studies considered for a re-analysis support the null-hypotheses if HPV then PC, while the cause effect relationship between HPV and PC was highly significant.


Conclusions: HPV is the cause of PC.


Keywords: Human papillomavirus, prostate cancer, causality

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Author Biography

Ilija Barukčić

Internist, Horandstrasse, DE-26441 Jever, Germany

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How to Cite
1.
Barukčić I. Human papillomavirus is the cause of human prostate cancer. JDDT [Internet]. 20Aug.2019 [cited 14Jun.2021];9(4-s):577-88. Available from: https://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3385