Anti-Trypanosomal Activity of Guiera senegalensis on Trypanosoma brucei Infected Mice
Aqueous decoction of Guiera senegalensis leaves was studied orally and intraperitoneally for its antitrypanosomal activity on mice infected experimentally with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. After a phytochemical screening followed by an acute toxicity study on mice, the extract of plant was administered once daily for 2 days at doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg / kg orally and 15, 30 and 60 mg / kg intraperitoneally after infection. Then, parameters of parasitaemia, packed cell volume (PCV), mean survival time and body weight of the mice treated with the extract were measured and compared with positive (diminazene aceturate) and negative (distilled water) controls for 7 days in a row. Results indicate that the aqueous extract of G. senegalensis leaves contains tannins, flavonoids, saponosides, reducing compounds and anthocyanosides, alkaloids and coumarins. LD50 of the extract are 1264.49 mg / kg by oral route and 316.22 mg / kg by intraperitoneal route. The doses of 240 mg / kg by oral route and 15 and 60 mg / kg by intraperitoneal route of aqueous extract showed a mean survival time (5 days) comparable to the positive control. Parasitaemia level increased in all mice tested except in mice treated with diminazene aceturate during the post-infestation period. During this period, PCV and body weight of all mice decreased by both routes of administration. These results of the study show the pharmacological utility of G. senegalensis leaves in the control of TAA by herders / pastoralists and suggest continuing further bio-guided studies to isolate the active components of the plant in order to improve their efficiency.
Keywords: In vivo test; Trypanosoma brucei brucei; Guiera senegalensis leaves; phytochemical screening; acute toxicity.
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