Investigation of phytoconstituents of Cardiospermum halicacabum and its efficacy as a potential anti-cancer drug candidate
On the basis of the traditional knowledge of treating solid tumor using Cardiospermum halicacabum gained attention to carry out the present work. The preliminary screening for determination of cytotoxicity of successive extract of C halicacabum (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol) was performed through brine shrimp lethality assay and yeast growth rate cytotoxicity assay. Among the extracts, chloroform extract of C halicacabum exhibited highest cytotoxicity which was further investigated for anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity property in A-549 lung cancer cell line. Correspondingly, dose dependent effects on reduction of cell proliferation with prominent morphological abnormalities of A-549 cells were observed under treatment with chloroform extract. Hemocompatibility assessment of chloroform extract, by hemolysis assay, revealed its compatibility towards RBC which in turn may prevent heamolytic anemia (myelosuppression) the most adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy. Phytoconstituents of chloroform extract responsible for the cytotoxicity, anti-proliferative and hemocompatibiltiy was assessed by several chromatographic methods such as TLC, Column chromatography and HPLC which revealed the presence of flavonoids in chloroform extract of C halicacabum. Apparently the isolated flavonoids, in consistence with chloroform extract, exhibited similar effect on inhibition of proliferation of tumor cell line A-549. Therefore it could be evidenced from the current study that the C halicacabum, with its predisposed flavonoids, possesses anti-cancer property with least adverse effect on heamolysis. However detailed investigation on regulation of tumor cell proliferation and hemocompatability is required to bring C halicacabum as a potential candidate for cancer therapy.
Keywords: C halicacabum, Anti-cancer, Toxicity, Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, Hemolysis.
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