Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> editor.jddt@gmail.com (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) editor.jddt@gmail.com (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Tue, 15 Sep 2020 03:43:19 -0500 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Evaluation of Protein, Lipid and Inflammatory Profiles in Patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Western Region of Algeria http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4335 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is part of the lympho-proliferative syndromes, it is a heterogeneous group of tumors whose incidence has been increasing in recent years. A disruption of protein and lipid profiles is verified during this pathology as well as an increase in the levels of specific markers of inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Our study aims to explore protein and lipid profiles and highlight an inflammatory syndrome via the assay of parameters of acute inflammation in patients with NHL and healthy subjects in western Algeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A case-control study comprising 100 patients with NHL and 40 healthy subjects was carried out. Protein and lipid profiles were respectively studied by assays for total protein and globulins and analysis of cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The inflammatory status was demonstrated by studying two parameters: C reactive protein (CRP) and sedimentation rate (VS).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our results demonstrated an increase in alpha1-globulin and a decrease in gamma-globulin in patients compared to controls (p &lt;0.05). The lipid profile study showed no significant difference for cholesterol but a significant increase in triglycerides in patients with NHL (p &lt;0.05). A highly significant difference in CRP and VS levels between our two groups (p &lt;0.01) with a marked increase in patients demonstrated the presence of acute inflammatory syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study allowed us to highlight the alterations in protein and lipid profiles found in NHL and the presence of an inflammatory state, involved in the pathophysiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in particular.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> non-Hodgkin lymphoma, protein profile, lipid profile, CRP, VS.</p> Meriem Rabia Zahzeh, Touria Zahzeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4335 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Epidemiological, Clinical, Histological, Serological and Therapeutic Study of Children Celiac Disease in Western Algeria Region http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4344 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To determine the epidemiological, clinical, histological, serological and therapeutic profile of celiac disease in children in Western Algeria region.<strong>Methods</strong>: 250 patients over a period of three years (2016 - 2019) from the pediatric department of the University Hospital of Oran (West Algeria) were included in our retrospective study.<strong>Results</strong>: We noticed a female predominance with a sex ratio F/M = 1.57. Symptoms were defined by typical (73.2%) and atypical (26.8%) forms, digestive disorders (47.2%), extra digestive disorders (14.4%). Anemia was noted at 73.6%, and the association with autoimmune diseases at 14.8%. Seropositivity was present in 77.6% of cases and histology revealed partial grade villous atrophy at 54%. We noticed a significant link between the histological grade and the serology (p = 0.001), between age and histological grade (p&lt;10<sup>-3</sup>), between bone age and body mass index (p = 0.017), between the age of onset of the disease and the age of food diversification (p = 0.030), and with the age of breastfeeding (p = 0.026). In addition, we found an excellent correlation between anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium autoantibodies during diagnosis and under diet (p&lt;10<sup>-3</sup>), and between serology during diagnosis and serology under diet (p = 0.002)<strong>Conclusion</strong>: Celiac disease (CD) of children in western Algeria is characterized by a variety of clinical symptoms. The gluten-free diet remains the only therapy for these affected children.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: celiac disease, children, epidemiology, serology, histology, associated diseases, treatment.</p> Dounia zad EL MEHADJI, Khalida ZEMRI, Hayet MEHIDA, Noria HARIR, Djamila YEKROU, Karim Bouziane NEDJADI, Charef LATROCH, Siheme OUALI, Zahira BENAISSA ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4344 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Curcuma longa Aqueous Extract on Male Fertility in Aluminum Exposed Wistar Rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4275 <p>To assess the effects of <em>Curcuma longa </em>aqueous extract (CE) on fertility in male rats exposed to Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), Twenty four male rats, 3 months old, divided into 4 groups (n=6) were used. Animal from the first group received, by the oral route, water-containing AlCl3 at the dose of 34 mg/kg body weight (BW). Rats from the second group received both AlCl3 at the same dose in combination with oral treatment of CE at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW. The third group received only an oral administration of CE with the same dose. Rats from the fourth group, without any treatment, served as control. After 4 weeks of experimentation, AlCl3 exposure showed a significant decrease in sperm concentration (4.58±0.65 × 106 cells /ml), and percentage of viability (61.53±23.63 %), and an increase of morphological abnormalities (26.11±17.84 %). A significant decreased in serum testosterone levels (0.31±0.26 ng/ml) and an increase of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) level (0.16±0.015 μM/g) were also observed. Histological examination of the testes showed degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, germ line cells, and interstitial cells. However, CE treatment concomitant to AlCl3 showed that the rate of morphological abnormalities (19±2.65 %) is significantly decreased compared to AlCl3 group, with a significant increase in serum testosterone (1.17±0.24 ng/ml) and a significant decrease in MDA (0.11±0.003μM/g) level. Microscopic examination revealed a significant regeneration of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells. This study demonstrated an ameliorative effect of <em>Curcuma longa </em>aqueous extract in testicular tissue and sperm quality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Curcuma longa, </em>Aluminum, fertility, testosterone, malondialdehyde (MDA), sperm.</p> Farouk BOUDOU, Malika BENDAHMANE-SALMI, Mokhtar BENABDERRAHMANE, Amal BELAKREDAR, Abdelkrim BENALIA, Benali BEGHDADLI, Bader dine Abdelkrim KANDOUCI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4275 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Algerian Men: Clinical-Biological and Evolutionary Analysis of 19 Algerian Men http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4334 <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> the aim of our study was to precise the epidemiological, clinicobiological, immunological, and evolutionary profile of systemic lupus erythematosus in Algerian men.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A retrospective multicenter study was carried out on 19 Algerian male lupus patients, diagnosed according to the ACR and SLICC criteria and followed between 2006 and 2019 on a total of 203 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in western Algeria.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: 203 SLE patients were included, 19 men (9.4%) and 184 women (90.6%) with F/ M sex ratio of 9.68 / 1. The mean age at diagnosis was 33 ± 9.49 years. The most frequent clinical manifestations were joint involvement (84.2%), cutaneous (68.4%) and hematological disorder (63.2%). 15.8% had lupus nephropathies with the predominance of class IV; Raynaud's syndrome and neuropsychiatric involvement were found in 26.3%. Comparison of these results with those of 184 lupus women showed a significant frequency of mucosal ulcer (p=0.000011) and neuropsychiatric damage in men (p=0.011), while alopecia in women (p=0.021). As well, hypocomplementemia (p=0.0004), anti-Sm antibodies (p=0.053) and anti Ribosome (p=0.028) were more frequent in men; while anti-SSA (p=0.003) and anti-SSB (p=0.011) antibodies were more frequent in women. Survival of lupus men was equal to 100% throughout the studied period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Male lupus is rare. The Algerian man suffers from SLE in a less severe form compared to other data in the literature, which is manifested by a lower frequency of organ damage and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Male lupus, epidemiology, clinical polymorphism, evolutionary profile, western Algeria.</p> Naima Rania Belmokhtar, Khalida Zemri, Khedoudja Kanoun, Noria Harir, B.M. Bachaoui, Sid Tadj Hebri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4334 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Identification and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus 16S rRNA gene isolated from different Food Specimens from South Indian Region http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4340 <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (<em>S. aureus</em>) associated food-borne diseases have global impact on human health. Genome wide analyses have shown that <em>S. aureus</em> contains specific endotoxin expressing gene and produce toxic proteins which is responsible for food contamination. Appropriate detection of pathogens is one of the major tool to avoid infection rate and reduce the health and socio-economic burden to human being. In addition, inappropriate handing the specimens, misdiagnosis and limited standard medical support could directly influence the infection rate.</p> <p>The objective of this study was to identify <em>S. aureus</em> from different food specimens from Hyderabad, India. A total of 70 random bacterial nutrient agar medium pure plates were made based on different morphological appearance of bacterial colonies. Preliminary identification of <em>S. aureus</em> based on standardized morphological method showed specific golden yellow colonies. Biochemical assay also verified bacterial specimens. Furthermore, molecular characterization was performed on the basis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of <em>S. aureus. </em>Newly sequenced 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 100% homology to <em>S. aureus</em>, analyzed using NCBI-BLAST tool.</p> <p>The phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide base composition studies performed using 39 sequences of 16S rRNA gene from different isolates of <em>Staphylococcus</em>, including <em>Staphylococcus aureus. </em>For the purpose, 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from the NCBI in FASTA format. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using Maximum Likelihood method and revealed the relationships and percent similarity of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> 16S rRNA gene<em>. </em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Food-borne diseases; 16S rRNA gene; Maximum Likelihood; Phylogenetic analysis;<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em>.</p> Mondeddu Kiran Kumar, Charu Tyagi, Arjun Sahu, Nalini Desai, Jayanand Manjhi, Kakarla Chandra Mohan, Yugandhar P. Reddy, Santosh Kumar Tiwari, Lomas Kumar Tomar, Varun Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4340 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Herbal Remedies Used to Treat Skin Disorders in Arasankulam Region of Thoothukudi District in Tamil Nadu, India http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4277 <p>As lacking in attention given to the ethnomedicinal plants to be used for the treatment of skin diseases in many areas, an ethnomedicinal study was carried out to enumerate the traditional uses followed to treat skin diseases among the people living in Arasankulam and Kottarakurichi villages located in Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu. The medicinal uses of 24 species belonging to 20 families were reported from the study area. Euphorbiaceae was noted as largest families comprising of 3 species each. Herbs (50.0%) were found more in number than other life forms of plants. Leaves (50.0%) were the mostly used plant part to prepare the medicine and paste (61.54%) was the dominant mode to treat the skin ailments. By this research work, it was also noted that a total of 6 plants were used to heal wound, 4 plants for the treatment of cut, 3 plants each to cure boil and eczema, 2 plants to treat heel crack and 1 plant each for abrasion, chicken pox, dandruff, itch, leprosy, lip crack, scabies, skin allergy, small pox and tumor. Further studies on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of these plants will contribute new dimensions to these medicinal plants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Medicinal plants, Skin diseases, Arasankulam region, Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu.</p> A Sundari, R Jayakumararaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4277 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Alkanna tinctoria aerial part Extracts http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4349 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Evaluation of the polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents of different aqueous extracts of the aerial part of <em>Alkanna tinctoria </em>and their antioxidant activities.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Three extracts;&nbsp; decoction, macerate and infusion of the aerial part of <em>Alkanna tinctoria </em>were prepared. The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins of the extracts was carried out and antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH (2,2’-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), β-carotene bleaching and iron chelation tests.</p> <p><strong>Results&nbsp;: </strong>The results showed that Infusion (Inf) was the richest in total polyphenols (189.66 ± 30.77 mg EGA / g of dried extract) and flavonoids (26.80 ± 8.37 mg EQ / g of dried extract). While the content of tannins is almost the same for Dec and Inf (40.27 ± 15.00, 40.25 ± 18.27 mg ETA / g of dried extract). Moreover, the two extracts Inf (IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.09 ± 0.0015 mg / ml) and Dec (IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.17 ± 0. 031 mg / ml) showed a very strong anti-radical activity towards the radical DPPH. In the β-carotene bleaching test, Inf and Dec showed a significant inhibitory activity of peroxidation with values ​​of 100% and 99.8% and are more effective compared to BHT (98.15%). Dec and Mac showed strong chelating activity with IC<sub>50</sub>s of 0.003 ± 0.0002 mg / ml and 0.005 ± 0.00008 mg / ml respectively. These chelating activities remain higher than EDTA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It may be concluded that the extracts of the aerial part of <em>Alkanna tinctoria </em>exhibit significant both content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Alkanna tinctoria</em>, polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity<strong>.</strong></p> Thoraya Guemmaz, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmene Baghiani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4349 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of hydro-ethanol extract from Phlomis bovei De Noé areal parts http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4339 <p>The plants of the genus <em>Phlomis</em> are native to Turkey, North Africa, Europe and Asia.&nbsp; <em>Phlomis bovei </em>De Noé (Lamiaceae) is a rare Algerian endemic plant, commonly known as Kayat El Adjarah. The objective of this study is to quantify the polyphenol content and to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract (EthE) of <em>Phlomis </em><em>bovei </em>De Noé. The plant extract was prepared by macerating 100 g of ground material in 1000 ml of 85 % ethanol for 72 h, then the filtrate was evaporated using a rotary evaporator at a temperature of 45C and the filtrate was dried. The total content in polyphenols was determined using Folin Ciocalteu method. Flavonoid content in extracts was determined using Aluminum trichloride assay and the total content of tannins was determined according to Bate Smith method. The antioxidant activity was investigated <em>in vitro </em>by the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl), ABTS and iron chelating assays. The results indicate that the ethanol extract was rich in polyphenols and has an important capacity of scavenging the DPPH and ABTS free radical with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 0.05 and 0.018 mg/ml, respectively. However, in the ferrous ions chelating ability test, PBEE extract showed moderate chelating activity (IC<sub>50</sub> = 1.59 ± 0.05 mg/ml). To conclude, the obtained results may contribute to add possible scientific data to use <em>Phlomis bovei</em> industrially as herbal medicine and as supplementary sources for natural antioxidant drugs in food.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>antioxidant activity, ethanol extract,<em> Phlomis </em><em>bovei </em>De Noé, polyphenol content.</p> Hind Amira, islem Amira, Fatima Benchikh, Hassiba Benabdallah, Walid Mamache, Smain Amira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4339 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 The therapeutic effect of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil against hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure to lead and manganese in developing Wistar rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4361 <p>The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of <em>Cinnamomum cassia</em> essential oil (CCEO) on hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure to lead acetate (Pb) (2.84mg/ml) and manganese chloride (Mn) (4.79mg/ml) in developing Wistar rats. After weaning, rats exposed to Pb-Mn received injections of <em>Cinnamomum cassia</em> essential oil (0.1 ml/kg) for 21 days. Extraction by hydrodistillation yielded 1.10% of OECC and the characterization of this oil by GC-MS indicates that the major components of this oil are: E-cinnamaldehyde (85.77%), linalool (3.70%), Z-cinnamaldehyde (3.22%) and B-phellandréne (1.19%). The concentration of lead and manganese in hepatocyte tissues was significantly increased compared to control rats. However, levels of hepatic markers such as Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in blood in Pb-Mn poisoned rats. Pb-Mn-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue was indicated by decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase respectively. Histologically, the liver showed several tissue alterations such as hepatocyte necrosis and the presence of steatosis foci. Administration of OECC considerably attenuated previous biochemical alterations as well as histological and cellular changes in liver tissue. In this study, we can conclude that the <em>Cinnamomum cassia</em> essential oil showed a hepatoprotective effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Essential oil, <em>Cinnamomum cassia</em>, CG/MS, Hepatotoxicity, Lead acetate, Manganese chloride.</p> Djallal Eddine Houari Adli, Mostapha Brahmi, Khaled Kahloula, Wafaa Arabi, Bakhta Bouzouira, Mustapha Talatizi, Miloud Slimani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4361 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of molecular interaction on the antiplasmodial efficacy of lumefantrine in amorphous polymethacrylate-urea solid solution http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4279 <p>Malaria, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing world, with children aged under 5 years, accounts for 61% of all the global malaria deaths. The World Health Organization approved fixed-dose first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) – artemether-lumefantrine for effective malaria treatment, is challenged by poor aqueous solubility and inadequate bioavailability leading to treatment failures and emergence of resistant strains. This study focuses on evaluating novel lumefantrine (LF) polymethacrylate-urea solid solutions comprising of a retarding polymer for enhanced anti-plasmodial efficacy comparable with existing artemether-lumefantrine combination therapy. Lumefantrine polymethacrylate-urea solid solutions were prepared by solvent evaporation and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dissolution studies. <em>In vivo </em>anti-plasmodial activity was determined by measuring the schizonticidal activity of <em>Plasmodium berghei</em>-infected mice using the Peter’s 4-day curative test and the safety of the solid solutions was tested in major organs implicated in malaria. The solid state characterizations confirmed the formation of amorphous lumefantrine polymethacrylate-urea solid solutions. There was greater drug release from the matrix polymer in acidic than basic biorelevant media, with release kinetics following the Higuchi order. Interestingly, the reduction in parasitaemia caused by the lumefantrine polymethacrylate-urea formulations (72.3 and 81.27 %) for ternary and quaternary systems, batches SDA3 and SDB3, respectively) were significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) and more sustained than lumefantrine pure powder, but with comparable efficacy to the commercial brand-Coartem<sup>®</sup>. The formulation was stable over a period of 6 months. Thus, this study provides useful information on developing sustained lumefantrine formulation with improved solubility and antiplasmodial efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Solid dispersion, lumefantrine, solubility, parasitaemia reduction, eudragit polymer, Urea.</p> Adaeze Chidiebere Echezona, Mumuni Momoh, Paul Achile Akpa, John Dike Ogbonna, Joy Nneji Reginald-Opara, Frankline Chimaobi Kenechukwu, Samuel Wisdom Uzondu, Chinazom Precious Agbo, Kenneth Chibuzor Ofokansi, Anthony Amaechi Attama ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4279 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Phytochemical study and antimicrobial activity of Algerian Marrubium vulgare leaf and stem extracts http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4353 <p><em>Marrubium vulgare</em> is used worldwide as a source of food flavor and for medicinal purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate polyphenol and flavonoid contents of <em>M. vulgare</em> extracts and their antimicrobial activities. Extraction was conducted using methanol and hexane. The determination of polyphenol content was realized with folin ciocalteu method and flavonoids using AlCl<sub>3</sub>. Rouph characterization of these compounds was done with HPLC method. Activity against bacteria and fungi was also studied. Results showed that methanolic extracts of leaves (LME) and stems SME) contain relatively high levels of polyphenols ad flavonoids.&nbsp; Except for hexane extract, all extracts from leaves and stems possess antibacterial and antifungal effects especially against <em>Staphyloccocus aureus</em> and <em>Candida albicans</em>. This finding suggests that <em>M. vulgare </em>methanolic extracts could serve as a basic material for the preparation of antimicrobial drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Marrubium vulgare, polyphenols, flavonoids, antibacterial, antifungal activities.</p> Nadia BENZIDANE, Ridha SMAHI, Boudjemaa ZABOUCHE, Abdelhalim MAKROUF, Lekhmici ARRAR ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4353 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Qualitative Analysis of Phytocompounds of Liagora divaricata and Trematocarpus flabellatus http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4355 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Phytocompounds are a powerful chemical group obtained from natural resources that exhibit a range of biological activities. <strong>Objective: </strong>This study explored the phytocompounds constituents of two species of Rhodophyta, <em>Liagora divaricata </em>and <em>Trematocarpus flabellatus </em>in order to give a preliminary view of qualitative diversity of potentially bioactive compounds. <strong>Methods: </strong>Approximately 200g of each species were hand-picked at in Chongoene, Mozambique, during a low spring tide. Voucher specimens were identified and stored at the LMU <em>herbarium </em>in the Department of Biological Science, University of Eduardo Mondlane. Samples were cleaned and dried at 50°C for 72 hours before grounding using an electric mixer. Powdered samples were extracted with methanol solvent. Phytocompounds samples were analysed using the GC-MS and identified based in NIST mass spectral library. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 42 phytocompounds were identified. The common identities from both seaweeds species include Cholesterol, Desmosterol, Heptadecane, Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Neophytadiene and Phytol. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Due to the relevance of these phytocompounds in different industries such as pharmacy, nutrition, agriculture and cosmetic, the identified seaweeds might be good candidates for further research in terms of isolating and validating their activity. Particular attention should focus on Neophytadiene due to its strong bioactive compound in several applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytocompounds, <em>Liagora divaricata, Trematocarpus flabellatus, </em>Neophytadiene</p> Valera Dias, Mauro Uqueio, Amós Nhaca, Helena Salência ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4355 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Antituberculosis: Synthesis and theoretical study of New Schiff base ligand; 2,2'-{(5-amino-1,3-phenylene) bis[nitrilo(E)methylylidene]}dibenzene-1,4-diol http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4360 <p>The ability to breathe and generate adenosine triphosphate is necessary to the persistence, physiology and pathogenesis of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </em>that causes TuB. By doing a theoretical study of a chemical compound, Schiff Base 2,2'-{(5-amino-1,3-phenylene) bis[nitrilo(E)methylylidene]}dibenzene-1,4-diol, where almost all biological activities have been studied theoretically exploiting a computer software PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) for enhancing Computer Aided Drug Designing, as well as studying the class of toxicity in the human body by GUSAR software, which showed biological activity against the tuberculosis epidemic that killed many people, and a protocol was proposed for prepared and study of the properties of this compound.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: GUSAR software, Synthesis, Schiff base, Tuberculosis, Toxicity, PASS prediction.</p> Kamel Mokhnache, Salim Madani, Noureddine Charef ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4360 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Screening of Aerial Parts of Kigelia Pinnata for its Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Antimicrobial Activity http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4364 <p>The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH Scavenging activity method and Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity method. Ascorbic acid was taken as standard in both methods. DPPH and Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity methods of 100µg/ml extracts shows better % inhibition as compared to control and 50 µg/ml extracts. In DPPH Scavenging activity % inhibition of 100µg/ml methanolic extracts was 60.72% and in Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity it was found to be 26%. Wound healing activity was performed by Incision wound model and Excision wound model. In incision wound healing model, the tensile strength of the 4% test group and the Neosporin ointment treated group were comparable to each other. Tensile strength of 2% extract ointment showed lesser 3.38 gm/mm<sup>2</sup> but significant increase in tensile strength compared to the control group 2.91 gm/mm<sup>2</sup>. The tensile strength of 4% test group was found to be 3.44 gm/mm<sup>2</sup>. Thus both concentrations of the extract as well as the standard drug showed a significant increase in tensile strength on the 9<sup>th</sup> day. In excision models the animals treated with the 4% w/w KPME ointment were shown to healed completely as compared to 2%w/w which was also at the complete healing stage as compared to control treated and the standard drug (Neosporin) treated group. The epithelization period of standard group and treated group was less in comparison with that of simple ointment base treated groups. The percentage of wound contraction was much more with the 4% w/w extract was similar to that of Neosporin treated group. 2%w/w treated group of animals showed significant wound contraction. In antimicrobial activity, both antibacterial and antifungal potentiality was evaluated. In mic of antibacterial methanolic extract of <em>Kigelia pinnta </em>inhibit strains of <em>E.coli </em>and strain of <em>Shigella boyelii</em>, <em>Salmonella aureus </em>and <em>Baccilus subtitis </em>were found to be completely resistant. In mic of antifugal activity, all the fungal strain were inhibited by methanolic extract of <em>Kigelia pinnata</em>. These findings may provide a lead for further investigation of the overall pharmacological aciotns of <em>Kigelia pinnata </em>methanolic extract in more appropriate model.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Kigelia pinnata, </em>DPPH, Anti-oxidant, DMSO, ANOVA</p> Prashant Kaushik, Vishal Shrivastava, Parul Mehata, Janki Prasad Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4364 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Annual study of Leptocybe invasa gall’s number Fisher & La Salle 2004 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) in the North-East of Algeria http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4384 <p><em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em> is an essence of the family Myrtaceae. It resists a certain salt content and the sea wind. Despite that, it subject to many factors of degradation as parasitic and harmful insects. In the last years, an insect is detected on the foliage of <em>Eucalyptus&nbsp; camaldulensis</em> trees in Algeria (North-East region). The results made it possible evidence the presence of one harmful species <em>Leptocybe invasa </em>Fisher &amp; La Salle 2004 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), this parasite has been detected in 2006, The Chronology of Gall’s emergence of <em>Leptocybe&nbsp; invasa </em>and its field infestation rate were followed since 2010, in <em>Eucalyptus</em> plantation in the North-East Region. Some statistical methods of Gall’s emergence of this pest is reviewed and discussed. First, after exploration, we selected the most affected trees, second, we organized the samples of each tree, we respected the orientation (North-South-East-West). For each study site 10 trees were marked. 30 leaves of each tree were removed, so it is 300 leaves for each site, which were analyzed. We used the method of time series that connects the time with the number of galls. This study is based on the number of galls observed, on both sides of the leaves. In order to highlight the degree of attack of pests. The outputs were made from October 2012 to October 2013, due to two outputs per month.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Eucalyptus, gall wasps, Eulophidae, gall inducers, Algeria.</em></p> Abdelmalek Oulmi, Noureddine Laadel, Farida Benia, Sofiane Guettaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4384 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development and Evaluation of Matrix Type Transdermal Patches of Torasemide http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4274 <p>TDDS manufacture has numerous benefits over other routes like oral delivery. It avoids limitations linked with g.i.t. absorption, enzyme effect, interaction with drug and food. This route is suitable when patient is suffering from vomiting and diarrhea. Torasemide is a loop diuretic; it comes under category of sulfonyl urea. It is prescribed in the treatment of edema, CHF, and hypertension.&nbsp; Whenever it is used by oral route, it is associated with many side effects like vomiting, nausea, anorexia, and increased appetite. All transdermal patches were transparent and free from any particle. Release profile of twelve batches of Torasemide was done by the means of Franz cell for 7 hrs. Maximum release was shown by MTP6 (71.28±0.19) and least in formulations of batch code MTP7(24.47±0.04). <em>In-vitro</em> release data were plotted in 2 different models i.e. first and Korsemeyer peppas. It was observed that release was governed by the diffusion process. On basis of different properties MTP1 batch was found to be optimum. Study concludes that by the means of patches Torasemide can be administered efficiently.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Torasemide, transdermal patches, HPMC, <em>in-vitro</em> release, stability studies, TDDS.</p> Ashish Kumar, Kapil Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4274 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Contribution to the study of xylophagus insects and their role in the decline of Alep pine (Pinus halepensis mill.) in El Ouldja’s Megsem forest (Setif - Algeria) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4385 <p><em>Pinus halepensis</em> Mill., is an essence from the Pinaceae family. This importance is attributed to its economic and aesthetic values. Despite its robustness, this tree is subject to many degradation factors including, for some time, that of wood-boring insects which for the most part are fatal. The purpose of this investigation is to classify these insects, define their role in pine decline and evaluate the damage caused by them in the Megsem forest. The result of the study shows that members of the Curculionidae, Cerambycidae and Buprestidae families could be held responsible for the majority of the damage observed on the pine</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Pinus halepensis</em><strong>, </strong>decline, <em>Megsem, wood-boring insects, Algeria</em></p> Noureddine Laadel, Farida Benia, Abdelmalek Oulmi, Sofiane Guettaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4385 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development and Validation of Advanced UV-Spectrophotometric Methods and a RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Beclomethasone Dipropionate and Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4382 <p>The presented research work aims to develop and validate UV-Spectrophotometric as well as RP-HPLC methods for the simultaneous estimation of Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) and Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate (FFD). These methods offer a higher degree of sensitivity than the already present methods of analysis. By implementing advanced spectroscopic techniques such as Dual Wavelength Method and First Derivative Spectroscopy it is found that the sensitivity of the methods is increased. The linearity of both the methods was in the range of 10µg/ml to 50µg/ml for BDP and 1µg/ml to 5µg/ml for FFD, with an r<sup>2</sup> value of 0.999 and 0.9988 respectively for Dual Wavelength Method and First Derivative Method. The LOD values of Dual Wavelength Method and First Derivative Method were found to be 0.127µg/ml and 0.016µg/ml respectively. A RP-HPLC Method has also been developed and validated for this combination having a linearity in range of 50µg/ml to 250µg/ml for BDP and 1.5µg/ml to 7.5µg/ml for FFD. The r<sup>2</sup> value of BDP and FFD was found to be 0.9995 and 0.994. The application of this RP-HPLC Method may also be extended for the simultaneous estimation of a triple combination of Beclomethasone Dipropionate, Formoterol Fumarate and Glycopyrronium Bromide (GPB).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Beclomethasone, Formoterol, Glycopyrrolate, Dual-Wavelength-Method, First-Derivative, Spectroscopy, RP-HPLC</p> Rajashree Mashru, Manthan Trivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4382 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Chemical investigation, the antibacterial and antifungal activity of different parts of Capparis spinosa extracts http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4388 <p><em>Capparis spinosa</em> (<em>Capparidacea</em>), is one of the most used medicinal plants worldwide. It is used for the treatment of various diseases because of its biological and pharmacological effect, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antibacterial. Phytochemical analysis of the plant showed that it is a rich source of bioactive constituents, including alkaloids, glucosinolates, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols, which have led to <em>C. spinosa</em> being considered as a promising medicinal plant. Our study aims to detail the chemical profiles of the present bioactive responsible for the pharmacological effects of <em>C. spinosa</em>; it also aims to experimentally demonstrate the presence of polyphenols in different parts of the plant as well as their antimicrobial effects. For this, we used methanolic and aqueous extracts of the different parts of the plant picked in <em>Beni Aziz</em> in the <em>Sétif </em>region (North-east of <em>Algeria</em>). The extracts subjected to TLC and HPLC showed that they were rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. This led to find that rutin was the most dominant compound in most of our extracts. On the other hand, the antimicrobial effect was tested by the disk diffusion method on three bacterial strains: <em>E. coli,</em> <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>S. aureus</em> and two fungi: <em>C. albicans</em> and <em>A. flavus</em>. <em>Candida albicans’s</em> antifungal effect of our extracts was absent. While the same extracts showed a slight inhibitory activity against <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>. As for the antibacterial effect, it exists only for the methanolic extract of the twigs against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. While the other extracts only showed a slight inhibitory activity against the same strain. The other strains of bacteria were resistant to all extracts at any used concentration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Capparis spinosa</em>, Pharmacological effect, Chemical investigation, antibacterial activity, phenolic compounds, antifungal activity.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nadia Benzidane, Ridha Aichour, Sofiane Guettaf, Noureddine Laadel, Seddik Khennouf, Abderrahmane Baghiani, Lekhmici Arrar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4388 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Acute Toxicity Study of Anvillea Radiata Aqueous Extract in Albino Rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4289 <p>Despite the popular use and the biological effects of <em>Anvillea radiata</em>, there are no studies or data about its safety. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of <em>A. radiata</em> aqueous extract in vivo. A single dose of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5 or 5 g/kg was administered to female rats by gavage. Body weight gain, general behavior and mortality were monitored for up to 2 weeks. Selected biochemical parameters, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine levels were determined, as well as, liver and kidney histology. Results showed no significant changes in body weight gain and organ indexes with no mortality during the experimentation period. A significant increase in AST and ALT levels were observed in 2.5 and 5 g/kg extract treated groups, and a significant decrease in BUN and creatinine levels in 1, 1.5, 2.5 or 5g/kg extract treated groups compared to control. Microscope examination of liver sections showed several anomalies in rats exposed to high concentrations (1.5, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) including fatty changes, glycogen accumulation and ballooning degeneration hepatocytes. Renal parenchyma anomalies were also observed in rats exposed to 2.5 and 5g / kg of plant extract including shrunken renal corpuscles with marked hypo-cellularity and atrophied glomeruli, large interstitial space, and renal tubules with dilated lumina which appear completely distorted. From this study, it can be concluded that <em>Anvillea radiata</em> aqueous extract at high concentration (higher than 1 g /kg b.w.) may be toxic and affect sensitive organs function such liver and kidney.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Anvillea radiata</em>, Acute toxicity, Biochemical parameters, Histology.</p> Amal BELAKREDAR, Kadda HACHEM, Farouk BOUDOU, Yasmina BENABDESSLEM, Aicha MEGHERBI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4289 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Study of the physico-chemical quality of Curcuma longa (powder and rhizome) marketed in the town of Sétif http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4294 <p>Over the past two to three decades, renewed interest has been shown in the <em>Curcuma longa</em> plant because of the multiple properties attributed to its spice, properties that are traditionally recognized or empirically observed over hundreds of years of use.&nbsp; <em>Curcuma longa</em> is a herbaceous plant belonging to the <em>Zingiberaceae</em> family, cultivated in India and Southeast Asia and considered a coloring spice. Turmeric, especially its rhizome (the underground part), has been used not only as a food spice, but also as a medicinal plant since time immemorial in China and India. The recognition of its medicinal properties is therefore recent in the West. The history of Curcuma is also being written in the future, as much scientific research is being carried out, particularly on the effects of one of its main components, curcuma, in the prevention and treatment of certain cancers. It is in this context that the aim of this work is to evaluate certain parameters of the physicochemical quality of this plant, such as the level of impurity, ash content, moisture content, soluble and insoluble ashes in water, coloring power and chromatography on thin layers on the basis of the standards dictated by the French official journal (JORF).This study was carried out on the two rhizome and powder forms of <em>Curcuma longa</em> marketed. For this, five spice shops (2 samples / shop) were selected at random in the town of Sétif. Analyses of the samples taken were carried out with the collaboration of two laboratories: one INSFP (National Institute for Specialized Professional Training Hadadi Cherif el Hidhab Setif) and the other ERIAD (Riad Setif). The results obtained vary from one type to another and from one store to another.&nbsp; The analysis of the variance of impurity levels, moisture content, acid insoluble ash and TLC is significant whereas it is not for other parameters such as: total ash, water insoluble ash and colouring power.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; <em>Curcuma longa</em>, Rhizome and powder, city of Sétif, Physicochemical parameters, TLC.</p> N Tedjari, N Douadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4294 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 New Analytical Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4296 <p>A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvirin pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Kromosil C<sub>18</sub>(150mm x 4.6 mm, 5mm)in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer andacetonitrile(70:30v/v). The buffer is prepared by adding 1.41gm of sodium dihyrogen ortho phosphate in a 1000ml of volumetric flask add about 900ml of milli-Q water added and degas to sonicate and finally make up the volume with water then pH adjusted to 3.5 with dil. orthophosphoric acid solution. The flow rate was 1.0ml/ min and effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention times of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvirwere found to be 2.404min and 2.986 min, respectively. The linearity for Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvirwere in the range of 40-240µg/ml and 10-60 µg/ml respectively. The recoveries of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvirwere found to be 99.64% and 99.25%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvirin combined tablet dosage forms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir, Validation, Buffer and ICH Guidelines.</p> T. Hanuman, T. Sivakkumar, S. Sridhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4296 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Fixed Dose Oral Dispersible Tablet of Bitter Drug Using Okra Mucilage: Formulation and Evaluation http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4393 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The solid oral dosage forms containing bitter drugs need improved palatability for administration. Formulation scientists have given attention to the improvement of taste masking technologies and utilised various strategies.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present work aimed to mask the bitter taste of Promethazine Hydrochloride by formulating Oral Dispersible Tablets using Okra mucilage as a taste-masking agent.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The Okra mucilage was extracted from Okra by the aqueous extraction process. An emulsion solvent diffusion technique was used for masking the bitter taste of Promethazine Hydrochloride by using Okra mucilage. The Oral Dispersible Tablet was prepared by the wet granulation method. The mucilage and the formulation were characterized and evaluated by standard methods and protocols.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Taste masking of the bitter drug was successfully achieved by Okra mucilage. The DSC and FTIR study revealed that the drug molecule was compatible with okra mucilage and drug entrapment efficacy was found to be 94.76%. The palatability test asserted that masking of the bitter taste of the drug.&nbsp; The <em>In vitro</em> drug release study showed that the F7 tablet batch has a better drug release rate and followed non- fickian mechanism of drug release.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Thus, taste masking with Okra mucilage was successful and this opens opportunities for application of common edible substances in formulation development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fast disintegrating tablet; Natural polymer; Mouth dissolving tablet; Promethazine Hydrochloride; Taste masking</p> Pintu Dhar, Himangshu Sarma, Hemanta Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4393 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 In-house preparation, development and evaluation of herbal cosmetics face pack using various natural powders http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4314 <p>An eco- friendly product has been the primary agenda of 21st century of the global scientists. Herbal cosmetics have growing demand in the global market. The aim of present work is to In-house preparation, development and evaluation of herbal cosmetics face pack using various natural powders for glowing skin by using natural Ingredients. The natural powders used are shade dried commercial turmeric, rice flour, gram flour, rose powder, tomato powder, orange peel powder. Sandalwood powder, milk powder, camphor powder were purchased form local market in the form of dried powder, all powdered natural ingredients were sieved using #120 mesh, weighed accurately and mixed geometrically for uniform preparation and evaluated for parameters including macroscopical, Physiochemical, irritancy, antimicrobial tests along with stability studies. Thus, in this work we formulate herbal face pack by using easily available ingredients. After evaluation, we found good flow properties, free from skin irritation and maintained proper stability storage conditions. Results of this study scientifically verified that herbal face pack having enough potential to give efficient glowing effect on skin. The overall study is useful to substantiate product claims due to its benefits on the human being.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> herbal cosmetics, turmeric, Sandalwood powder, orange peel powder</p> V Anilkumar, R Kalyani, B Padmasri, D Prasanth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4314 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extracts of Pineapple http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4397 <p>Traditional medicines are originated from plants that do not form the constituent of routein diet. Beside this most of the medicinal plants have not received much attention / screening. <em>Ananas comosus</em> is one such plant traditionally used for treatment of various ailments. The pineapple (<em>A. comosus</em>) is the edible member of family Bromeliaceae; Phytochemical screening of the <em>A. Comosus</em> leaves extract shows presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Phytosterols, Glycosides and Phenols. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of crude extract of pineapple leaves (PAL) for antioxidant activity. The value of inhibition of 3 extracts of <em>A. comosus</em> on 2, 2 Diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays at a concentration of 99µg/mL was obtained. Result shows highest inhibition which is obtained by hydro alcoholic solution (56.40) and lowest by ethanolic extract (42.86) respectively. Ascorbic acid as positive control shows 96.5% antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bromeliaceae, Flavonoids, Memory enhancement, Antioxidant, DPPH.</p> Diksha Sahu, Bhavana Yadav, Shivanki Verma, Abhay Pratap Yadav, Vijay Kumar Tilak, Sheo Datta Maurya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4397 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 In-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Plumeria indica Linn flowers http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4301 <p>Inflammation is a reaction of a living vascularised tissue to an injury. Conventional or synthetic drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases are inadequate, it sometimes have serious side effects. So, number of herbal medicines is recommended for the treatment of inflammation that has no side effects. Hence our study focused to investigate the physicochemical, qualitative phytochemical analysis of bioactive compounds and <em>In-vitro</em> and <em>In-vivo</em> anti-inflammatory activity of <em>Plumeria indica</em> Linn (<em>P. Indica</em>) flowers extract which has boundless medicinal properties. The physicochemical evaluations carried out in terms of loss on drying, ash value, extractive values and acid insoluble ash value ect. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of <em>P. Indica</em> flowers was screened for <em>in-vivo </em>anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema in rat model and <em>in-vitro</em> anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids ect. Ethanolic extract showed best <em>in vitro</em> anti-inflammatory activity was screened for <em>in vivo </em>anti-inflammatory activity at the dose level of 250 and 500mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent anti-inflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of <em>P. Indica</em> flowers as an anti-inflammatory drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Plumeria indica</em> Linn, Anti-inflammatory activity, Carrageenan, Human red blood cells membrane</p> Narendraa Yadav, Sourabh Jain, Karunakar Shukla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4301 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Mucoadhesive microspheres based formulation development of ziprasidone hydrochloride for nasal delivery http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4309 <p>The purpose of research work was to develop and optimize mucoadhesive microspheres of Ziprasidone hydrochloride for nasal delivery with the aim to enhance the residence time and improve therapeutic efficacy. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are those that provide intimate contact of the drug with the mucosa for an extended period of time. In our present work, mucoadhesive chitosan microspheres were prepared by emulsification method using liquid paraffin as external phase. Ten different formulations were developed. Results show that as the concentration of polymer increases it affects the particle size, production yield, encapsulation efficiency, swelling index, in-vitro mucoadhesion and in-vitro drug release of mucoadhesive microspheres. The in vitro mucoadhesion of microspheres was investigated using freshly isolated goat nasal mucosa. The mucoadhesion for M0, M1, M2, and M9 was tested. The mucoadhesion property was satisfactory. The M2 exhibited lowest mucoadhesion of 68.9%, and M0 displayed highest mucoadhesion of 87.5%. The In Vitro release studies it revealed that 84.1% of drug release from formulation M1 at 7hrs. The 50% of the drug was released from the formulation M2 and 70.67% from formulation M9.This formulations were further used for SEM for particles size analysis, mucoadhesion test and in-vitro drug release. The In-vitro % drug release data suggest that the maximum and sustained drug release was obtained for formulation M1.The present study showed that Ziprasidone hydrochloride chitosan microspheres can deliver intanasally which can improve the therapeutic outcome for the Epileptic seizure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ziprasidone hydrochloride, Mucoadhesive microspheres, Nasal drug delivery, Drug Entrapment efficiency.</p> Yogita Sahu, Sourabh Jain, Karunakar Shukla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4309 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and evaluation of gas powered systems of cefdinir tablets for controlled release http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4310 <p>The&nbsp; present&nbsp; work&nbsp; is&nbsp; aimed&nbsp; to&nbsp; formulate&nbsp; Cefdinir&nbsp; floating&nbsp; tablets&nbsp; using different&nbsp; hydrophilic&nbsp; and&nbsp; hydrophobic&nbsp; polymers&nbsp; like&nbsp; HPMC,&nbsp; Ethyl&nbsp; cellulose, Xanthum gum, guar gum and gas generating agent Sodium bicarbonate. The develop gastro retentive dosage form thatcould&nbsp; retain&nbsp; the&nbsp; agent&nbsp; namely &nbsp;Cefdinir&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; stomach&nbsp; for&nbsp; longer periods of time delivering the drug to the site of action, i.e., stomach. HPMC&nbsp; is&nbsp; used&nbsp; as&nbsp; a&nbsp; swelling&nbsp; agent,&nbsp; Guar&nbsp; gum&nbsp; and&nbsp; Xanthum&nbsp; gum&nbsp; is used as binding agent. Ethyl cellulose is used as matrix form agent.&nbsp; PVP is used as a suspending agent. Sodium bicarbonate is used as a gas forming agent. MCC is used as a disintergrant and diluent. Magnesium stearate is used as a lubricant. The&nbsp; prepared&nbsp; Cefdinir&nbsp; tablets&nbsp; will&nbsp; be&nbsp; evaluated&nbsp; for&nbsp; drug&nbsp; content,&nbsp; entrapment efficiency, post compression studies, In-vitro buoyancy studies, swelling index studies, in-vitro dissolution studies, release kinetics, stability studies.All these parameters were found to be within the pharmacopoeial limits. Formulation F5 was selected for drug release and stability study on the basis of appropriate results of post compression study.In vitro dissolution study was carried out and showed controlled release pattern.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Gas Powered Systems, Cefdinir, Controlled release, Floating drug delivery.</p> Manoj R. Chincholikar, Jagdish Rathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4310 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Development and Characterization of Barbaloin Gel for the Safe and Effective Treatment of Psoriasis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4299 <p>Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease which cause inflammation to the skin and generally the symptoms includes white or red colour of irregular skin; the patches are developed and they are commonly itchy and scaly to the skin. Barbaloin is an herbal phytoconstituent which is obtained from the plant <em>aloe vera</em> leaf part. In the present study hydrogels formulation batches from F1 to F10 were prepared by using carbopol 934, Xanthan gum, carbopol 940, and carbopol 71G NF as a gelling agent. The prepared formulations from F1 to F10 were evaluated for their physical appearance, Grittiness, spreadability, Homogeneity, viscosity, pH, swelling index and microscopical evaluation. The changes in each evaluation parameter were examined at multiples concentration of each polymer. The effects of gelling agent in each formulation were observed and it will help us to justify the suitable range of polymer as a single or in combination with other gelling agent. From these studies it was found to be formulation F2, F4, F7 and F10 showing good gelling properties and further these four formulations are selected for <em>In Vitro</em> drug release studies. By <em>In Vitro</em> drug release kinetics study formulation F2 and F10 showed higher release as compared to F4 and F7. Furthermore, formulation F2 and F7 had good kinetic release study and showed non fickian drug release as the n value was between 0.8-0.9. Therefore, from the above release study parameters formulation F2 and F10 show the best optimized release characterstics as compare to the selected optimized formulations F4 and F7.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Psoriasis, Barbaloin, Hydrogel, Formulation and Evaluation.</p> Navdeep Singh, Kamya Goyal, Shivi Sondhi, Shammy Jindal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4299 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Drug Utilization Study on Oral Contraceptives provided from Social Security, Buenos Aires-Argentina: Risk and cost analysis according to the type of combination used http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4315 <p>Oral contraceptive pill is the most prescribed option to avoid birth-rate around the world. It is a combination of estrogens/progestin. Unfortunately, new combinations raise the risk of thrombosis. To determine the prescription profile and the incidence of thrombotic events associated to oral contraceptive use, we developed the present study.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Method</strong>: It is a drug utilization study among beneficiaries of Buenos Aires Social Security Organization. Variables studied were age, sex, combination consumed, doses, co-morbidities, thrombotic events.<strong>Results</strong>: 69,653 women were enrolled in the study. 66,043 of them (94.84%) used new progestogen generation combination (desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone,) while 3610 (5.18%) used either levonorgestrel or norgestrel as progestin. The number of thrombotic events (either depth vein thrombosis of lower limbs, thromboembolism or arterial thrombosis) was 77 (75 with new progestin and 2 using 1<sup>st</sup>/2<sup>nd</sup> generation options). Adjusting these values to 100,000 users; the occurrence of thrombotic events were doubled with new generation progestins when compared to older options. The price of the new generation combinations were 10.2 times more expensive that the safer ones. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Among the beneficiaries of Buenos Aires State Social Security, the users of oral contraceptives with new generation progestin denote a greater risk of thrombotic events when compared with users of levonorgestrel or norgestrel. Public reproductive health policies that provide contraceptives to the population are crucial in guaranteeing rights such as avoiding unwanted pregnancies and reproductive planning. However, the combinations provided should not expose population to additional and unnecessary risks.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: oral contraceptives, thrombosis, progestin, risk, public health</p> Lupe Marin, Luis Blanco, Gina Marin, Sergio Agüero, Mariana Pagnotta, Gustavo H. Marin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4315 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 The In vivo and in vitro antioxidant and anti-hemolytic effect of Algerian Centaurea calcitrapa L. extracts http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4402 <p>In the present study, aerial part of <em>Centaurea calcitrapa</em> L. were extracted with solvent of varying polarity allowed their separation into three main subfractions, the analysis of methanol crud (CrE), chloroform (ChE) and ethyl acetate (EaE) extracts, showed that the EaE contains the highest amount of flavonoids (50,71 ± 0,65 mg Eq / Quercetin g dry extract and 31,96 ± 0,39 mg Eq Rutin / g dry extract). Using DPPH assay, the highest activity was observed with EaE (IC<sub>50</sub> = 0,037 ± 0,0006 mg / ml). The β-carotene / linoleic acid bleaching assay revealed that the extracts have a very important antioxidant activity. The results showed that CrE has the highest antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the CrE is confirmed by an <em>in vivo</em> assay in mice, using two doses: CrD<sub>1</sub> (50 mg/kg/day) and CrD<sub>2</sub> (100 mg/kg/day) during 21 days. Total antioxidant capacity of plasma and red blood cells was measured. The half-life (HT<sub>50</sub>), which corresponds to 50% of cell lysis was calculated, the results showed that both groups treated with plant extract had a protective effect against erythrocytes hemolysis (CrD<sub>2</sub>: HT<sub>50</sub>= 167,3 ± 3,72 min). The CrD<sub>2</sub> group showed a strong scavenging activity using DPPH assay (51,64 ± 5,24 %), higher than that of Vit C group (38,92 ± 1,72 %). All results confirmed that the extracts have a dose dependent effect on the growth of overall antioxidant defenses. These results support the use of this plant against anti-inflammatory diseases in traditional medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Centaurea calcitrapa </em>L., <em>in vivo</em>-antioxidant activity, DPPH, hemolysis, flavonoids.</p> Hayat Trabsa, Abderrahman Baghiani, Naouel Boussoualim, Imane Krache, Lekhmici Arrar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4402 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Thymoquinone as Prophylactic Treatment Against CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity on Antioxidants Status http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4401 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present study aims to study the effect of thymoquinone as prophylactic treatment against CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced hepatotoxicity on antioxidants status.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 3 ml/kg, 1:1 (V/V) mixture of CCl<sub>4</sub> and olive oil after treatment for 7 days with TQ, using two doses. The method consists of studying the antioxidant effect of thymoquinone pretreatment by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, with reduced glutathione level in both plasma and liver homogenate.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results revealed that hepatotoxicity is accompanied by significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) of SOD and CAT activities with GSH level, in both plasma and liver homogenate. While prophylactic treatment using TQ at doses of 02.5 and 05 mg/kg increase significantly the status of the antioxidants, as dose dependent manner, in both plasma and liver homogenate.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of this study show that thymoquinone has an antioxidant effect when it used as prophylactic treatment against CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced hepatotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Thymoquinone, hepatotoxicity, CCl<sub>4</sub>, prophylactic and antioxidant.</p> Hanane KHITHER, Asma MOSBAH, Soraya MADOUI, Kamel MOKHNACHE, Widad SOBHI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4401 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Anti-Inflammatory Potential Evaluation (In-Vitro and In-Vivo) of Arthrophytum scoparium Aerial Part http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4409 <p><em>Arthrophytum scoparium</em> is plant commonly used in folk medicine in Algeria to treat numerous human diseases especially infectious, Rheumatism, diabetes and cancer. However, its anti-inflammatory activity and the underlying mechanisms have not been studied systematically. The present study aims to assess both the <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity of the plant. Results showed that <em>A. scoparium </em>chloroform extract (ChE) contains the largest amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. <em>In-vitro</em>&nbsp;bioassay consisted of investigating the effect of the plant extracts against protein denaturation (BSA and egg albumin).&nbsp;<em>In-vivo</em>&nbsp;anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the percentage inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema after oral administration of the extracts. Results showed that inhibition of protein denaturation was maximum in case of <em>A. scoparium crude extract</em> (CrE) with dose dependant manner. Similarly in the&nbsp;<em>in-vivo</em>&nbsp;study, carrageenan induced inflammation was significantly antagonized by&nbsp;CrE with inhibition of 87.02% at 400 mg/kg. CrE extracts showed the highest scavenger effect against hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide. The CrE&nbsp;showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in both the conditions&nbsp;<em>in vivo</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>. In conclusion different <em>A. scoparium</em> extracts scavenged reactive oxygen species efficiently; it may be due to the presence of its flavonoids and polyphenols. These results support the traditional use of this plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Arthrophytum scoparium, </em>polyphenols, anti-inflammatory activity, radical scavenging activity.</p> Sabrina Manel Kaddour, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4409 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Body Mass Index and Factors Related to Overweight among Algerian Women http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4317 <p>Overweight is responsible for a wide range of health problems, and there is no report on its magnitude among Algerian women. This survey aims to provide valuable information to determine the influence of age categories, marital, parity and professional status on weight gain among a women random sample (115 participants). The comparison of candidates’ body mass indexes (BMIs) according to their age categories show that weights and BMIs increased with increasing age. Women over 35 years old have the highest BMI (29.48±6.84 kg/m²) and belong to the overweight category compared to the other age categories. Marital status analysis showed a significant increase in BMI of married women (27.44±9.62 kg/m²) compared to unmarried participants, while no direct relationship was observed between increasing BMI and parity status. Whereas, the data on the professional status of the participants indicate that housewives have the highest BMI (27.75±11.83 kg/m²) compared to working women or students (25.51±6.09 and 22.54±2.75 respectively). From this study, we can conclude that the prevalence of overweight is directly related to the age, martial and professional status of Algerian women.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Algerian women, Body weight, BMI, Overweight, Age, Marital status, Professional status.</p> Messaouda BENHAMZA, Farouk BOUDOU, Amal BELAKREDAR, Malika BENDAHMANE-SALMI, Khadidja BENALLAL, Sarra GHEFFARI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4317 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Zooplankton Diversity in the Bay of Tabounssou: The Case of Faban Estuary, Guinea http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4318 <p>On the Guinean coast, about 218 planktonic species are encountered among which, 184 species of zooplankton belonging to 60 families have been identified and copepods alone represent 63%<strong><em>.</em></strong> In the Faban estuary, fish larvae are the only group generally exploited. Fishing is carried out by men using the hawk net with small meshes. Women are the most involved in this activity, they ensure the processing and marketing of the products.</p> <p>A total of twenty-seven (27) zooplankton and water samples were collected and analyzed. The various field observations and laboratory analyses revealed 21 taxa, fourteen (14) of which belonged to the Crustacean phylum, two (2) to the Chaetognathes phylum, one (1) to the Cnidaria phylum and four (4) to the Vertebrate phylum. In terms of abundance, copepods are the most represented (57%) followed by Zoes (20%) and jellyfish (10%). The zooplankton population is unevenly distributed across the stations and this distribution is governed by environmental parameters.</p> <p>The analysis of water samples taken has identified variations in certain environmental parameters. In contrast to salinity, which averaged 14.23 g/l, temperature and turbidity decreased from upstream to downstream, with averages of 26.86°C and 33.47 NTU respectively, while the highest values for pH (7.92) and dissolved oxygen (6.71) were observed in September at Stations 2 and 3, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Zooplankton Diversity, Bay of Tabounssou, environmental parameters, pH, dissolved oxygen</p> Pé 2 Goumou, Lanan Wassy Soromou, Mama Agnès Tea, Yighiwoï Koivogui, Mohamed Keyra, Hoinsoudé Segniagbeto ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4318 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Phytocompounds and Chemical Elements Present In Selected Species of Seaweeds, to Sustain Future Quantitative Analysis for Bioactive Compounds http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4422 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The specific physiological capacity of marine organisms, including seaweeds, to survive in extreme environmental conditions is associated to the production of secondary metabolites. Seaweeds are known as powerful source of a broad range of bioactive compounds. <strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to investigate the phytocompounds and chemical elements present in eight species of seaweeds which occur around Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Specifically, <em>Halimeda cuneata</em>, <em>Pseudorhizoclonium africanum</em>, <em>Pseudocodium </em><a href="https://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=24317&amp;sk=0&amp;from=results"><em>devriesii</em>,</a> <em>Dictyota suhrii</em>, <em>Gracilaria salicornia</em>, <em>Hypnea rosea</em>, <em>Laurencia natalensis </em>and <em>Jania adhaerens</em>. <strong>Methods: </strong>For phytocompounds and chemical elements screening, seaweeds samples were dried, ground to powder and extracted using methanol as solvent. The analyses were performed using GC-MS analysis, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, and colorimetric protocols for phytocompound analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 82 phytocompounds were identified. Phytol and Z-8-Methyl-9-tetradecenoic were present in all samples analysed, while Cetene, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-methyl ester, Desmoterol, Octadecanoic acid, and Oleic acid were the less common phytocompound identified. Campesterol, gama-Sitoesterol, Cholest-5-en-ol, 24-propylidene-(3.beta) are phytosterols only identified in green seaweeds. The concentration of chemical elements among the seaweeds species was different. However, Ca, Cl and K were presented in high concentration in some of the seaweeds analysed. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Overall, the seaweeds analysed in this study, seems to be good candidate for further biotechnological application and deserve further investigation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>seaweeds, methanolic extracts, phytocompounds, minerals, Inhaca Island.</p> Valera Dias, Salomão Bandeira, Eutilério Chaúque, Maurício Lipassula, Aidate Mussagy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4422 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Novel Formulation for Diabetes Induced Hypertension using Modified Innate Superdisintegrant http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4412 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Diabetes is a chronic disease and is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high levels of sugar in blood (hyperglycemia). Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The objective of this research is to formulate Fast dissolving tablets of Pioglitazone and Cilnidipine for the effective treatment of diabetes induced hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Six formulations were prepared by direct compression technique by using <em>Opuntia ficus-indica</em> as an innate superdisintegrant.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong> All the formulations were subjected for precomprression, post compression parameters and shows all the data within the specific limits. F5 formulation with the mixture of polymers <em>viz.</em> Opuntia <em>ficus indica</em>, SSG, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, DiCOM showed comparatively fast disintegration and best release of drug than that of all other formulation. The tablets of F5 formulation disintegrated within 18.53 seconds can provide fast relief in the body. The <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution results revealed that the drug release of F5 formulation tablets was more than 90% for Pioglitazone and near to 70% for Cilnidipine within 30 minutes. Stability studies were performed on F5 formulation tablets showed no significant changes in color, disintegration time and <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution which showed that appearance of tablets was having no effect.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Fast dissolving tablets of Pioglitazone and Cilnidipine can be successfully prepared using direct compression technique and it will enhance the drug dissolution, which will further increase absorption and bioavailability of both drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pioglitazone, Cilnidipine, diabetes induced hypertension, fast dissolving tablets, direct compression.</p> Vinay Pandit, Dipanker Kashive, Tarun Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4412 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 In-vitro anti-malarial activity of Chikadoma plant from the rainforest of Southern Nigeria http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4322 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Malaria remains a life-threatening tropical disease. Due to the development of resistance to the commonly available orthodox antimalarials which of course, poses a great challenge in malaria-controlling-program, alternative and complementary approach becomes imperative thereby making phytotherapy a research focus. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To investigate the effect of chikadoma plant using its methanol leaf extract against a plasmodium-mediated tropical disease, malaria. <strong>Materials and</strong> <strong>Methods</strong>: The culture samples of <em>Plasmodium (P.) falciparum</em> from 20 symptomatic adult outpatients were used in the antimalarial <em>in-vitro</em> test. For cultivation of <em>P. falciparum</em>, the culture medium employed was Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640. Optical microscopy was used for parasite quantification in the performance of antiplasmodial <em>in-vitro</em> assays. The leaf extract of chikadoma dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) was the treatment, prepared into 7 different levels of concentration (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL) while culture medium with the malarial parasite alone served as negative control. Micromalarial culture preceded by culture synchronized with sorbitol 5%, were divided into “control” and “treated groups”, followed by incubation in CO<sub>2</sub> candle jar at 37<sup>0</sup>C for 72 h. The percentage of parasitemia was measured 8 h, showing the activity of the extract on <em>P. falciparum</em> stages of proliferation. Thin blood smear from the erythrocytes layer was made and stained with 10% Giemsa for 30 mins to estimate the parasitemia. The antimalarial activity of the extract was calculated using Probit analysis by counting the 50% growth inhibition (IC<sub>50</sub>). <strong>Results</strong>: The growth of <em>P. falciparum</em> was inhibited by the extract on mature schizont stage; and the IC<sub>50</sub> of the extract after 40 h incubation was 3.0 mg/mL. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The leaf extract of chikadoma significantly has antimalarial effect <em>in-vitro</em> against <em>P. falciparum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Chikadoma<em>; Lupinus arboreus; </em>antimalarial activity; tropical disease; Nigeria<em>.</em>&nbsp;</p> CE Okolo, LK Eban, LU Amazu, LC Chukwu, SC Ohadoma, FN Osuala ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4322 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluating the effect of the porous and non-porous colloidal silicon dioxide as a stabilizer on amorphous solid dispersion http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4323 <p>Advancement in the discovery of drugs has led to many highly lipophilic compounds with very low water solubility. Amorphous solid dispersion is one of the emerging technologies to increase the solubility of these drugs. The stability of these systems is critical since the high energy system tends to recrystallize, which negates the benefits of these systems. In this paper, we are evaluating the use of colloidal silicon dioxide as a potential stabilizer to stabilize the amorphous solid dispersions. Two types of colloidal silicon dioxide are used: porous colloidal silicon dioxide -Syloid 244 Fp and nonporous fumed silica – Aerosil 200. These silicon dioxides have a high surface area. Two methods of incorporation are used to incorporate silicon dioxide into the solid dispersion. The spray drying method is used to make amorphous solid dispersion. It was found that porous silicon dioxide is better to increase stability as well as increasing dissolution rate and % release of the drug. The addition of silicon dioxide internally to the dispersion increases the dissolution rate, and the addition of silicon dioxide externally increases the stability of the solid dispersion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> colloidal silicon dioxide, stabilizer, amorphous solid dispersion, low water solubility</p> Smruti P. Chaudhari, Mittal Bhadiyadra, Rutesh H. Dave ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4323 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Disintegrant Properties of Native Starches obtained from Cassava, Sweet Potato and Corn in Ibuprofen Tablet Formulations http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4324 <p>This study is aimed at evaluating the disintegrant properties of starches obtained from cassava (<em>Manihot esculenta</em>), sweet potato (<em>Ipomoea batatas</em>) and yellow corn (<em>Zea mays</em>). Matured tubers of cassava and potato were peeled, cut into smaller pieces, wet milled and their slurries washed severally with distilled water to obtain cassava and potato starches respectively. Matured seeds of yellow corn were steeped in distilled water for 24 h, wet milled and washed to separate the starch from the cellulose. The starches were dried at 50 ˚C after which they were characterized using standard methods. The starches at 10 % w/w were applied as disintegrants in the formulation of metronidazole tablets using wet granulation technology. Corn starch (British Pharmacopoeia) at 10 % w/w was used as comparing standard. The ibuprofen granules were evaluated for their micromeritic properties and thereafter compressed into ibuprofen tablets. Evaluation of the ibuprofen tablets for their physical properties, assay and dissolution studies were done using British Pharmacopoeia methods. Results showed that the materials extracted were starches, and they had a poor flow. The ibuprofen granules were flowable and compressible. Ibuprofen tablets compressed from these granules had good physical properties: minimal weight variation (604.00 ± 0.04 – 606.00 mg ± 0.03%), hardness (5.32 ± 0.41 – 6.33 ± 0.64 kgF), disintegration time &lt; 15.00 min and friability &lt; 1.00%. Assay and dissolution of metronidazole from the tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeia criteria. Cassava, potato, and yellow corn starches served as good disintegrants in ibuprofen tablet formulations.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Disintegrant, starch, cassava, potato, corn, ibuprofen tablets</p> Nkemakolam Nwachukwu, Edwin Aboje Ubieko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4324 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 2-(4-(3 (Substituted Phenyl) Acryloyl) Phenoxy)-N, N Diphenylacetamides http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4326 <p>Recently a series of Schiff bases of diphenylamine derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic both Gram-positive bacteria B. subtitles and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli using ciprofloxacin as standard drug at conc. of 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. Literature review revels that chalcones possesses various biological activities like antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and sedative etc. Therefore the present study was designed on synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 2-(4-(3 (Substituted Phenyl) Acryloyl) Phenoxy)-N, N Diphenylacetamides. Target compound was synthesized by reaction of chloroacetylchloride with diphenylamine to afford 2-chloro-N, N-diphenylacetamide which further by reaction with substituted Chalcones and characterized following recrystallization and evaluated for anti-microbial potential through cup-diffusion method. In results, the target compounds were tested for activity against <em>B. Subtilis, E.Coli</em> and <em>C. albicans.</em> The chalcones having the lipophilic 4-chloro group (RKCT2) showed the greatest antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition 20 &amp; 22 mm against. <em>B. subtilis,</em> E<em>. Coli</em>, <em>C. Albicans</em> respectively. It suggests further researchers to go through anti-microbial evaluations against a more varieties of bacteria and fungi.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Schiff bases of diphenylamine derivatives, antibacterial activity, Gram-positive bacteria, 2-(4-(3 (Substituted Phenyl) Acryloyl) Phenoxy)-N, N Diphenylacetamides</p> Rohit Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Mohammad Asif Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4326 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness of Unani regimen in management of over active bladder: An open labelled, single arm clinical study http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4418 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To study the efficacy of Unani pharmacopoeial formulations viz <em>Jawarish Zarooni, Majoon Kundur</em> and<em> Arq e Badiyaan as a treatment regimen </em>in patients of overactive bladder and evaluate its effect on their quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: This open labeled, single arm clinical study was conducted at Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Srinagar. Patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after signing the informed consent form. <em>Jawarish Zarooni</em> and<em> Arq e Badiyaan</em> were prescribed orally in the dosage of 7g and 30 ml respectively twice a day along with 7g single oral dose of <em>Majoon Kundur</em>. The duration of treatment was for 82 days. The patients were followed up on first, fourth, eighth and twelfth week. The results were expressed as Mean ± SEM. Symptomatic relief was assessed as percentage change in terms of presence of any symptom at baseline and at 82<sup>nd</sup> day.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 36 patients enrolled 31 patients completed the study. The study demonstrated highly significant results (p&lt;0.001) for nocturia and QOL as measured by patients perception of bladder control (PPBC), urinary incontinence and daytime micturation whereas very significant results were observed (p&lt;0.01) for urgency.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The Unani regimen was highly effective in managing the symptoms of OAB as the regimen has an array of phyto-constituents which demonstrated muscuranic antagonism, Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel blocking, K channel opening, neuro-protection, neuro-toning and anxiety relieving properties. About 50% of the ingredients of the regimen were Ca<sup>2+</sup> blockers. The synergism of these phyto-constituents probably made Ca<sup>2+</sup> blockers effective in OAB.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Over Active Bladder, Ca<sup>2+</sup> blocker, antimuscuranics</p> Shaista Urooj, Arjumand Shah, , Huma, Kauncer Shah, Nighat Ara, Anirban Goswami, Salma Sultana, Anirban Rej, Umar Jahangir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4418 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Influence of the quality of pond waterfish farms on the growth of Heterobranchus isopterus in the peri-urban area of N'Zérékoré, Guinea http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4328 <p>To promote the breeding of <em>Heterobranchus isopterus</em> in the peri-urban area of ​​N'Zérékoré, a study of the effect of the water quality of two fish ponds on the growth of <em>Heterobranchus isopterus</em> was carried out from October 15, 2019 to March 10, 2020. This study covered on two (2) E1 and E2 ponds of average depth (1.5 m) and respective surfaces of 4 ares and 11 ares.. The quantities of fish (fry) on loading are 80 for E1 and 220 for E2. The fish were fed by rice bran, oil decant, cassava leaf and potato. Pig slurry and goat droppings were used as pond fertilizers.The parameter measurements (temperature, dissolved oxygen and saturation) were performed at two depth levels (30 cm and 90 cm) of each pond and at the following times: 7:30 am, 12:30 pm and 5:30 pm. The evaluation of the growth of the 4 month old fish was based on measurements of weight, size, height and width of the fins. The results obtained showed that the parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen and turbidity) of the two ponds E1 and E2 are relatively the same and remain favorable. the development of <em>H. isopterus</em> at a depth of 90 cm, but the results of the E1 pond are more recommended for a traditional fish farming. The average weights of the fish in both ponds increased from 26.5 g to 722.5 g, with an average daily increase of 3.865 g. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Breeding, Water Quality, Growth of <em>Heterobranchus isopterus</em></p> Pascal BILIVOGUI, Youssouf SIDIME, Lanan Wassy SOROMOU, Cé 2 ZOTOMY, Yamoussa BANGOURA, Ansoumane SAKOUVOGUI ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4328 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Equisetum ramosissimum http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4413 <p><em>Equisetum ramosissimum (</em>Roxb. Ex Voucher) Hauke commonly known as field horsetail is a plant with wide prospectus, In folk medicine, <em>Equisetum ramosissimum</em> is used for tuberculosis, as a catarrh in the kidney and bladder regions, as a hemostatic for profuse menstruation, nasal, pulmonary and gastric hemorrhages, for brittle fingernails and loss of hair, for rheumatic diseases, for CNS system, for diuretics, HIV and immune system, for cytotoxic, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective, cosmetics, astringents and anti-cancer disease, swelling and fractures and for frostbite (PDR for herbal Medicines) etc. The plant is reported to contain a number flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic proteins, triterpenoids, saponins, phytosterols; the present review is an attempt to generate interest among the masses regarding its immense potential in preventing and treating several disorders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords </strong><em>Equisetum ramosissimum,</em> Diabetic, flavonoids, Plant</p> Mohd Yusuf, Alankar Shrivastav, Mayur Porwal, Najam Ali Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4413 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4327 <p>Psoriasis is an auto-immune disorder of the skin. It is characterized by the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes.&nbsp; Severity of the disease depends on the body area affected. Both genetic as well as environmental factors are responsible for it. It affects around 2-3% of world’s population. Psoriasis not only causes physical problems, it also affects mental and social well being of the patient. It may also lead to some Comorbidities like heart problems, diabetes, psychological problems, Crohn’s disease , etc.&nbsp; Keeping in view the impact it creats in the patient’s life, steps should be taken to create awareness of psoriasis. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive view on the psoriasis. It includes the various forms of psoriasis with their specific features, causes of psoriasis, diagnosis and assessment tools used, treatments available for its management including topical as well as systemic therapy and associated problems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Plaque, Psoriasis, Pustules</p> Purnima Tripathi, Peeyush Bhardwaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4327 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Pharmacological Activities of Lupeol and its Triterpene Derivatives http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4280 <p>Lupeol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid commonly distributed in the plant kingdom and is found in edible fruits and vegetables. It is a naturally occurring triterpene that is used to reduce the inflammatory responses and also have immunomodulating properties. Lupeol and its derivatives have a great potential to act as an anti- inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, anti-angiogenic, anti-protozoal, and cholesterol-lowering agent. Various studies have shown that anti-inflammatory activity of lupeol through the modulation of p-38 pathways inhibits neuroinflammation in the cerebellum and induces neuroprotection. It has been also found effective on lung cancer (i.e A427 cancer cells and normal MRC-5 cells). Observation of inhibiting the growth of lung cancer cells is checked by MTT assay. Lupeol and its ester lupeol linoleate have been used to reduce the levels of hypercholesterolemia in the rats and decrease the activities of such enzymes namely Na+, K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and Mg2+. Lupeol also decreases the levels of calcium-oxalate and has cytoprotective action against free-radical-induced damage and also decreases the level of cadmium in the kidney.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Lupeol, anti- inflammatory, anti-protozoal, triterpenoids</p> Nitika Sharma, Priyankul Palia, Amit Chaudhary, , Shalini, Kritika Verma, Inder Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4280 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Concept of process capability indices as a tool for process performance measures and its pharmaceutical application http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4288 <p>The main objective of the present study is to present the concept of process capability and to focus its significance in pharmaceutical industries. From a practical view point, the control charts (such as X and R hart) sometimes are not convenient summary statistics when hundreds of characteristics in a plant or supply base are considered. In many situations, capability indices can be used to relate the process parameters. The resulting indices are unit less and provide a common, easily understood language for quantifying the performance of a process. Process capability indices (PCIs) are powerful means of studying the process ability for manufacturing a product that meets specifications. Several capability indices including <em>Cp</em>, <em>Cpu</em>, <em>Cpl </em>and <em>C</em>pk have been widely used in manufacturing industry to provide common quantitative measures on process potential and performance. The formulas for these indices are easily understood and can be directly implemented. A process capability analysis compares the distribution of output from an in-control process to its specifications limits to determine the consistency with which the specifications can be met. The process capability is also having a significant role in pharmaceutical industry. Process capability indices can be a powerful tool by which to ensure drug product quality and process robustness. Determining process capability provides far more insight into any pharmaceutical process performance than simply computing the percentage of batches that pass or fail each year.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Process capability; Cp/Cpk; Pp/Ppk; Pharmaceutical quality, process robustness, specification</p> Abikesh Prasada Kumar Mahapatra, Jianwu Song, Zhibo Shao, Tang Dong, Zihong Gong, Basudev Paul, Indira Padhy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4288 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Laconic Review on Extraction, Biological Activities of Herbal Formulations of Berberine: A Traditional Drug http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4300 <p>Herbal formulation dosage form consists of one or more herbs processed in specified quantities to provide specific nutritional, cosmetic benefits use to diagnose the disease. Herbal formulations contain an active substance and preparation in combination of one or more herbal compounds. <em>Berberis aristata</em> is one of herbs of an ancient Ayurveda medicine and different properties along with various treatment of illness. Berberine, is a type of alkaloid which is quarternary protoberberine, is one of the known bioactive compounds scattered extensively in a number of clinically significant medicinal plants such as&nbsp;<em>Hydrastis canadensis</em>&nbsp;L., <em>Phellodendron amurense</em>&nbsp;R. ,<em>Coptis japonica</em>&nbsp;M.,&nbsp; and&nbsp; Berberine containing plants have been used in traditional and folk medicine around the globe for centuries. It has been used for a, anti-pyretic diarrhea, bitter tonic, and eye infections.&nbsp;In the past three eras, Berberine has been studied intensively in over thousands cases because of its therapeutics, physicochemical effects, pharmacological, and physiological effects such as cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, anti leshmanial, and&nbsp; anti- secretory, effects. Berberine act as a phytoconstituents in formulations and available in ayurveda, allopathy, and homeopathy medicines. With this review, we will evaluate the various traditional and medicinal use of Berberine and their isolation and extraction procedure. We will also review the potential of this plant as various dosage forms for the treatment of various diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Berberine; Extraction Method; Isolation method; Skin problems</p> Shivi Sondhi, Navdeep Singh, Kamya Goyal, Shammy Jindal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4300 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Pharmacological Aspects of Pyrimidine Derivatives http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4295 <p>Pyrimidine&nbsp;is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine. One of the three diazines (six-membered heterocyclics with two&nbsp;nitrogen atoms in the ring), it has the nitrogens at positions 1 and 3 in the ring. Pyrimidines are typically synthesized by the “Principal Synthesis” involving cyclization of beta-dicarbonyl compounds with N-C-N compounds. Reaction of the former with amidines to give 2-substituted pyrimidines, with urea to give 2-pyrimidiones, and guanidines to give 2-aminopyrimidines are typical. Pyrimidines can be prepared via the&nbsp;biginelli reaction. Many other methods rely on&nbsp;condensation&nbsp;of&nbsp;carbonyls&nbsp;with diamines for instance the synthesis of 2-Thio-6-methyluracil from&nbsp;thiouria&nbsp;and&nbsp;ethyl acetoacetate&nbsp;or the synthesis of 4-methylpyrimidine with 4, 4-dimethoxy-2-butanone and&nbsp;formamide. Pyrimidine derivatives show antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antidiabetic, and analgesic activity.<sup>1</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pyrimidine derivatives, Synthesis, derivatives and pharmacological activities.</p> Vishal Verma, Chandra Prakash Joshi, Alka Agarwal, Sakshi Soni, Udichi Kataria ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4295 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 HING (Ferula foetida Regel): A potent Unani Herb with its descriptive parameters of pharmacognosy and pharmacology: A Review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4372 <p>Hing (Family- Umbelliferae) or asafoetida is the latex obtained from living rootstocks or taproots of several species of <em>Ferula</em>, e.g.<em> F. alliacea</em> Boiss, <em>F. rubricaulis Boiss</em>, <em>F. assafoetida</em> Linn and <em>F. narthex</em> Boiss found in central Asia. Asafoetida occurs in three forms, viz Tears, Mass and Paste. Hing has shown diverse biological and pharmacological activities. It has been used in Unani Medicine (Tibb-e-Unani) and other Traditional Systems of Medicine from time immemorial and it is described as diuretic, anti-diabetic, emmenagogue etc. The present review highlights the botanical description, traditional uses, pharmacognositcal features, pharmacological properties and pharmacological studies conducted on this Medicinal plant used in Unani system of medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Hing</em>; Ferula foetida; Unani Medicine; Traditional Uses; Pharmacological Properties</p> Rasikh Javaid, Ghazala Javed, Raheela javaid, , Anju, Farah Ahmed, Asim Ali Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4372 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Hair Growth Regulator http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4406 <p>This review presents an overview on plants identified to possess hair growth activity in various ethno-botanical studies and surveys of tradition medicinal plants. There are various causes for hair loss and the phenomenon is still not fully understood. The treatments offered include both natural or synthetic products to treat the condition of hair loss (alopecia), nonetheless natural products are continuously gaining popularity mainly due to their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies for natural product extracts. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. This review covers information about different herbs and herbal formulation that are believed to be able to reduce the rate of hair loss and at the same time stimulate new hair growth. A focus is placed on their mechanism of action and the review also covers various isolated phytoconstituents possessing hair growth promoting effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Alopecia, ayurveda, hair, herbal formulation.</p> Manu Bharti, Alankar Shrivastav, M. Abid, Najam Ali Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4406 Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Herbal Plants used in Brain Ischemic and Reperfusion Injury http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4415 <p>A stroke causes serious and long term brain disability due to disruption in the blood flow to the brain. Clinically major changes occur in brain functions are seen after brain ischemia and reperfusion. Patients show emotional, behavioural, and cognitive alterations during retrieval time. Cerebral injury by transient ischemia distresses the number of patients globally with death or long term disability. In recent years a great deal of research has been carried out to find the effectiveness of the herbal drug for the treatment of stroke. Both thrombolytic and neuro-protective activities of herbal drugs may be a new strategy for effective stroke treatment. This article reviews the list of universally used plants effective for brain stroke therapies. The purpose of this article was to collect the herbal drugs useful in brain stroke therapies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>ischemia-reperfusion, brain injury, stroke, herbal drugs,&nbsp;tissue</p> Simran Singh, Shayan Shafi, Alankar Shrivastav, Shahbaz Khan, Tanzeel Ahmad, Najam Ali Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4415 Sun, 20 Sep 2020 10:15:38 -0500