Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> editor.jddt@gmail.com (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) editor.jddt@gmail.com (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Fri, 15 Feb 2019 04:16:50 -0600 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Molecular docking of fisetin as a multi-target drug in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2232 <p>Fisetin is found in various fruits and vegetables. It is reported to have neurotropic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and also other health benefits. Fisetin has been proved to have neuroprotective effect against Parkinson’s disease (PD).&nbsp; Elucidation of the molecular interaction of fisetin with various anti-parkinsonian drug targets leads to better understanding mode of action of the drug. The present study is aimed to study the molecular interaction of fisetin with molecular targets having potential role in PD. The molecular properties and drug likeness model score were first analysed for flavonoid fisetin, which was found to be 0.76. The structures of the molecular drug targets, such as MAO A (2BXR), MAO B (2BYB), COMT (2AVD) and tyrosine hydroxylase (2XSN), was extracted from RCSB-Protein Data Bank. Molecular docking was performed using AUTO DOCK-4.2. The docking scores were evaluated by analyzing the minimum binding energy for the first five runs for all the target proteins. The minimum binding energy for MAO A (2BXR), MAO B (2BYB), COMT (2AVD), tyrosine hydroxylase (2XSN) were -10.22 kcal/mol, -9.68 kcal/mol, -7.45 kcal/mol and -6.67 kcal/mol respectively. Out of the 4 potential PD drug targets, MAO A and MAO, genes responsible for oxidative deamination of dopamine, are predicted to have the least minimum binding energy and best interaction with fisetin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fisetin, docking, multidrug targets, autodock, MAO A, MAO B, COMT, Tyrosine hydroxylase</p> Rajendran Malathi, K Prashanthi, J. Karthikeyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2232 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Solanum tuberosum extract mediated synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2238 <p>In the present study, the potential of aqueous extract of <em>Solanum tuberosum</em> for synthesis of Iron Oxide nanoparticles (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) was evaluated. An eco-friendly synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles and characteristics of the obtained Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoparticles were studied using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The synthesized Iron oxide nanoparticles were effectively utilized for the antibacterial activity and antioxidant studies. The rapid biological synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using the extract of <em>S. tuberosum</em> provides an environment friendly, simple and efficient route. From the results, it is suggested that synthesized Iron Oxide could be used effective in future biomedical engineering.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Iron oxide (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) nanoparticles, <em>Solanum tuberosum.</em></p> GC Madhu, Kannaiyan Jaianand, K Rameshkumar, Muthukumarasamy Eyini, Paulraj Balaji, Veeramani Veeramanikandan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2238 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and evaluation of albendazole nanoparticle http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2239 <p>Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative novel drug delivery formulations of albendazole to improve its intestinal absorption and also to reduce its side effects during regular therapy. The Albendazole nanoparticles were prepared by hot homogenization method under high magnetic stirring using stearic acid as lipid and poloxamer 188 was used as surfactant. Initial pre-formulation studies using FTIR spectroscopy reveals that there are no interactions between Albendazole and other excipients and hence they can be used for the preparation of nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiencies varied from a minimum of 43.56 ± 0.95 % to a maximum of 85.1 ±0.58% and it can be concluded that higher amount of lipid is necessary for obtaining a good entrapment efficiency. The drug content of albendazole nanoparticles for all formulation ranges from 65.8% to 98.1%. A spherical shape was observed for the particles and the particles had a smooth morphology when examined under SEM. <em>In vitro</em> release studies of the formulations carried out in pH 7.4 PBS showed that the total amount of drug is released for 9hrs with sustained effect. That the formulations showed a drastic increase in size when stored at room temperature where the size of particles increased from an initial to 343.7 ±7.9 nm at the end of 1 month to 898.1 ± 5.8 nm at the end of 2 months. Entrapment efficiency of the formulation was determined at each interval to ensure that the drug molecules didn’t undergo any degradation during storage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Albendazole, Nanoparticles, Particle size, Entrapment efficiency.</p> Yerikala Ramesh, Koorapati Balasaradhi, Kaki Rohan Abhilash ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2239 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Sprouts as functional food- an approach towards the identification of natural antibiotic resistance breakers http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2240 <p>Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Investigation studies related to discovery of novel antibiotics to deal with antibacterial resistance from natural edible food products have been one of the significant research interests in recent years. The main objective of the study is to identify the bioactive compounds having the natural antibiotic resistance breaking property, by giving scientific validation to the existing bioactive compounds present in the sprouts and recommending the horse gram and mixed sprouts as a natural dietary supplement, a measure for the management of the disease, Shigellosis. Qualitative screening of the phytoconstituents (using different solvent extracts) and quantitative analysis of the primary and secondary phytoconstituents were carried out in methanol and aqueous extracts of the horse gram and mixed sprouts (fresh and dried) using standard protocols in two different samples- horse gram sprouts (<em>Macrotyloma uniflorum </em>(Lam.)&nbsp;Verdc.) and mixed sprouts of combination (<em>Cicer arietinum </em>L. (Chick pea), <em>Macrotyloma uniflorum </em>(Lam.)&nbsp;Verdc. (horse gram) and <em>Vigna radiata </em>(L.). Antibacterial activity of both the samples against human pathogens namely <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>e and <em>Shigella flexneri </em>were studied. In horse gram and mixed sprouts, maximum zone of inhibitions were shown by <em>Shigella flexneri</em>, a food and water borne pathogen leading to outbreaks of Shigellosis, a major public health concern. Ciprofloxacin is a broad spectrum of antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinolones. The bactericidal action of Ciprofloxacin is by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication. Phytochemical characterization (FTIR and GC-MS) and antibacterial studies proved the presence of essential phytoconstituents like terpenoids, fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. Several bioactive compounds obtained from GC-MS analysis were screened for Ciprofloxacin antibiotic resistance. The specific phytoconstituents, DL-Proline from horse gram sprouts and Geranyl geraniol from mixed sprouts was tend to act as novel antibiotic resistance breakers which was proved through <em>in silico </em>docking.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Valli. S Abiraami, S. Uma Gowrie ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2240 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography method for determination of related substances in (7-{4-[4-(1-Benzothiophen-4-YL] Butoxy} Quinolin-2(1H)-one) dosage form http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2241 <p>A sensitive HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of related substances in Brexpiprazole in drug Product. The developed method is found to be specific, reproducible, and stability indicating. Kromasil100-5 C18 (150x4.6mm), 5μ column was used and mobile phase consisted of mixture of phosphate buffer of p<sup>H</sup>5.2 and ACN in gradient program is used at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min at a wave length of 215 nm. The detector linearity was established from concentrations ranging from LOQ-150% of specification level with a correlation co-efficient of 0.999. The method was also validated for specificity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, robustness, precision. The method is proved to be robust with respect to change in flow rate, pH, organic phase composition and column temperature. The proposed method is found to be sensitive, precise, rapid, reproducible, and offers good column life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: RP-HPLC; Stability indicating method; Brexpiprazole; validation.</p> B. Karuna Kumar, K.B Chandra Shekar, V. Guna Sekaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2241 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Effectual qualitative chemical evaluation of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. by using fluorescence analysis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2248 <p><strong>Objective</strong> -Plants contain numerous biologically active compounds, many of these have been shown to exhibit therapeutic and antimicrobial properties and therefore they were in use as antimicrobial drugs in traditional medicines. <em>Euphorbia neriifolia </em>Linn. belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Assessment of medication implies affirmation of its personality and assurance of its quality and virtue and recognition of nature of debasement. Throughout the years the nature and level of assessment of rough medications has experienced an efficient changes. Hence, in the present study an attempt has been made for effectual qualitative evaluation of dried powdered leaves and stem of <em>Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. </em>by fluorescence analysis.</p> <p><strong>Design &amp; Intervention-</strong> The dried powdered sample of <em>Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. </em>leaves and stem has been used to perform fluorescence analysis under the visible day light and UV light of short wavelength (254 nm) and long wavelength (365 nm) for their characteristic colour.</p> <p><strong>Main outcome measures-</strong> The ultra violet light creates fluorescence in numerous common items, which don't noticeably fluoresce in sunshine. In the event that the substances themselves are not fluorescent, they may frequently be changed over into fluorescent subordinates or disintegration items by applying diverse reagents. The hues created by these reagents speak to the nearness of dynamic constituents.</p> <p><strong>Results-</strong> The fluorescence character of any powdered character of any powdered medication is exceptionally particular and supportive distinctive highlights for the assurance of a medication.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion-</strong> The dried powder and herbal extracts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. leaves and stem showed varied fluorescence character which is an essential parameter for standardization of herbs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Euphorbia neriifolia </em>Linn., Standardization, Fluorescence analysis, Evaluation, Euphorbiaceae.</p> Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Meenakshi Dhanawat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2248 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of theophylline sustained release tablet http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2252 <p>The aim of present study was to prepare sustained release tablet of Theophylline so as to prolong its elimination time and at the same time to keep cost of the formulation minimum. In this study ethyl cellulose and Eudragit are used in the formulation to sustain the release of Theophylline. Ethyl cellulose and Eudragit are added at the granulation step to form a sustained release coating around each granule. Different batches were designed one after another on trial and error basis to get the optimum drug release upto 12 hours.</p> <p><em><strong>Keywords</strong></em><strong>:</strong> Theophylline, ethyl cellulose, Eudragit, sustained release, coating, tablet.</p> Ravi U Gaware, Sujit T Tambe, Shankar M Dhobale, Suresh L Jadhav ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2252 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Moderate incidence of lost follow-up and risk factors among adult HIV patients on second-line ART regimens in Amhara region hospitals, Ethiopia http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2253 <p><strong>Background and Objectives</strong>: Loss to follow-up is a common problem of most patients on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. Second-line antiretroviral therapy is the drug that would be used when the first-line therapy fails.&nbsp; Thus this study intends to determine the incidence and risk factors of time to losses to follow up among&nbsp; Human&nbsp; Immunodeficiency&nbsp; Virus (HIV) patients on second line regimens of&nbsp; Antiretroviral Therapy(ART) in Amhara region Hospitals, Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Institutional based retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Amhara region hospitals from February to March 2016. A total of 1246 patient from eight hospitals in Amhara region were selected using simple random sampling method and data were extracted from patient charts.&nbsp; The log rank test was used to assess presence of significant difference in time to losses to follow among levels of categorical variables. Both bi-variiable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors that affect the time to losses to follow up.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The cumulative incidence of loss to follow up was 5.41% over the entire (eight) years of follow-up. The cumulative incidence rates of death and transfer out were 10.99%,10.02 %, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, ambulatory functional status (AHR=0.1967, 95% CI: 0.049- 0 .794), male gender (AHR=2.135, 95% CI: 1.053- 4.330),&nbsp; adherence to ART (AHR=0.442, 95% CI: 0.198- 0.989) were significant predictors of time to losses to follow up. The use of 2a, 2e and 2g types of second line regimen reduced the risk of&nbsp; loss to follow up.</p> <p><strong>Interpretations and Conclusions:</strong> The incidence of loss to follow up in Amhara region hospitals was low. Loss to folow up was negatively&nbsp; associated with female gender, ambulatory&nbsp; baseline functional status, adherence, &amp; types of second line regimen types. Further research on the effect of&nbsp; types of drug is recommended by acertaining whether the reduction in loss to follow up&nbsp; for patients who took drug types of 2a, 2e, and 2g is associaed with improved or worsened health outcomes by trafcking lost patients closely.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ahmed Mohammed, Saed Abdi, S Palani, Nisha Mary Joseph ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2253 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and evaluation of floating microspheres of losartan potassium using sodium alginate and HPMC by solvent evaporation method http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2263 <p>Hollow multі-unіt mіcrospheres were prepared by a solvent dіffusіon technіque іn emulsіon wіth a drug and an acrylіc polymer. These were dіssolved іn a mіxture of ethanol-dіchloromethane and poured іnto an aqueous solutіon of PVA wіth stіrrіng to form emulsіon droplets. The rate of drug release іn mіcro balloons was controlled by changіng the ratіo of polymer to drug. The mіcroballoons were floatіng іn vіtro for 12-24 hours when submerged іn aqueous medіa. Radіographіc studіes showed that mіcroballons admіnіstered orally to humans were dіspersed іn the upper part of the stomach and were held there for 3 hours agaіnst perіstaltіc movement. Floating Microspheres of Losartan potassium were formed by Solvent Evaporation method .The formulas LP7 of Losartan Potassium Floating Microspheres shows a very good drug release profiles and shown better sustained action till the end of last hour (24th hrs). It will improve patient compliance and increase in bioavailability which give better approach to treat hypertensive condition and the angiotensin receptor blocking action of Losartan lower the long term complications of Hypertension and reduce the risk of heart failure, CHF, Myocardial Infarction and also vascular damage in blood vessels and kidney.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Losartan Potassium, Floating microspheres, Drug Entrapment, In-vitro drug release.</p> Kapil Purohit, Navneet Garud ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2263 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Screening of diverse phytochemicals with Aurora Kinase C protein: An In Silico approach http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2249 <p>Aurora Kinase C, a vital serine-threonine protein Kinase, is an important member of the Aurora Kinase protein family which plays an important role in mitosis is a part of Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC).&nbsp; Aurora Kinase C over expression is found to be linked with several cancer cell lines which demonstrate its oncogenic involvement and activity. Aurora C over expression in certain cancer types makes it an important target to be considered for cancer therapeutics. The present research work focuses on the Aurora Kinase C as an important target for computational studies. The protein model of&nbsp; Aurora Kinase C, as a proten target on docking with 1500 natural compounds (phytochemicals) reveals&nbsp; the binding of the natural&nbsp; ligand 3-beta,23,28-trihydroxy-12-oleanene 23-caffeate belonging to the terpenoid class with highest docking score. This best bound ligand with the protein Aurora Kinase C was chosen for further understanding their protein-ligand interactions at the the molecular level using the molecular dynamic simulation approach. Stability of the protein-ligand complex and its conformation helps in disclosing the potentiality of the best bound ligand to be further chosen as an important small molecule inhibitor that would help playing a lead role in further drug discovery process</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aurora Kinase C, Cancer, Phytochemicals, Docking, Molecular Dynamics</p> Pujan N Pandya, Archana U Mankad, Rakesh M Rawal, Kumar S Prasanth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2249 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Post-auricular leech therapy reduced headache & migraine days in chronic migraine http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2345 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Migraine is an exceedingly common disorder that causes substantial pain, disability and societal burden. Unfortunately, conventional treatments are insufficient, inadequate, or associated with significant risks, such as overuse, abuse or addiction. The Unani system of Medicine has been treating migraine since centuries. Leech therapy (<em>Irsale Alaq</em>) has been employed successfully in severe persistent headache, mania and insomnia since decades.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of post auricular leech therapy in migraine and to collect data to warrant further clinical trials.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We conducted a case series on 7 patients who had failed conventional oral treatments for the migraine. After informed consent, post auricular leech therapy was done. &nbsp;Patients were asked to keep detailed headache calendars, documenting the number of headache days, migraine days, the intensity of headaches/ migraines and analgesic usage. We compared these parameters before and after 2 months of therapy.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We observed a reduction in the number of headache &amp; migraine days and amount of painkillers used without any adverse effects. (<em>P</em>≤ 0.01) Improvement in quality of life was also observed.</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>We reviewed the literature related to the medicinal leeches (<em>Hirudo medicinalis</em>), used for the treatment in these cases. Leech saliva contains certain potent anesthetic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator substances, suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in these cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The preliminary findings indicate the safe and potential therapeutic role of leech therapy. So further trials should be carried out to explore the therapeutic potential of this therapy in chronic migraine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<em>:</em></strong> Chronic Migraine, leech therapy, hirudo medicinalis, headache, Unani Medicine, complementary Medicine.</p> Shabnam Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2345 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Pharmaceutical study & preliminary analysis of Sheetala Parpati http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2233 <p>The <em>Parpati kalpana</em> is a thin flake form of mercurial preparation which is unique in the field of <em>Rasashastra</em>. It is one among the <em>Chaturvidha Rasayana </em>and <em>Agnisthayi Murchita Parada</em> <em>Bandha</em> i.e., <em>Pota Bandha</em> of <em>Parada</em>.<em> Sheetala parpati </em>is an Ayurvedic medicine that comes under <em>Parpati kalpana</em>, used in the treatment of difficulty in urination, urinary calculi, dyspepsia, etc. There are two different references of <em>Sheetala Parpati</em> where the ingredients and method of preparation are different. In the present work an attempt has been made to prepare both the varieties of <em>Sheetala parpati</em> along with its analytical study. It is mainly indicated in <em>Mutrakricchra </em>(Dysurea) and other diseases like <em>Amlapitta </em>(Hyperacidity)<em>, Udarashoola</em> (Abdominal pain)<em>, Ajeerna </em>(Indigestion)<em>, Yakritvikara </em>(Hepatic disorder)<em>, </em>etc.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Parpati kalpana, Chaturvidha Rasayana, Sheetala Parpati, Mutrakricchra </em>(Dysurea)</p> Namitha R. Chandra, Satish P. Karjagi, Gazala Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2233 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Extracts of Ailanthus excels an Essential Medicine in Ayurveda: Pharmacological evaluationand preliminary screening of phytochemicals http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2243 <p><em>Ailanthus excels </em>belongs to family <em>Simaroubaceae </em>known as tree of Heaven and Mahanimba commonly found in the India and China. The present study involves preliminary screening, qualitative analysis and pharmacological evaluation of extract. The preliminary photochemical screening performed using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extract. Analytical techniques like; TLC, FTIR and HPTLC also performed for qualitative and quantitative determination. Various chemical tests also performed for qualitative determination of alkaloids, flavanoids, phenols, terpenoids, steroids and saponins in plant extracts. Plant extract finally subjected to antibacterial and antifungal activities and findings of study suggested that plant extracts possesses potent antibacterial and antifungal activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ailanthus excelsa, </em>antibacterial, antifungal, preliminary screening, TLC, HPTLC.</p> Sapna Malviya, P. Dwivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2243 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Structural and quantum chemical studies on aryl sulfonyl piperazine derivatives http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2264 <p>The optimized molecular structure and electronic features of aryl sulfonyl piperazine derivatives <strong>1-4</strong> have been investigated theoretically using Gaussian 09 software package and DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The reactivity of the title molecules was investigated and both the positive and negative centers of the molecules were identified using molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis which the results illustrate that the regions reveal the negative electrostatic potential are localized in sulfamide function while the regions presenting the positive potential are localized in the hydrogen atoms. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals and LUMO-HOMO energy gap are measured to explain the electronic transitions. Global reactivity parameters of the aryl sulfonyl piperazine derivatives molecules were predicted to find that the more reactive and softest compound is the compound <strong>3</strong>. Mulliken’s net charges have been calculated and results show that 3N is the more negative and 33S is the more positive charge, which Indicates extensive charge delocalization in the entire molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization (π→π transitions) has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Fist hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its importance in non-linear optics and the results show that the studied molecules have not the NLO applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> sulfamide; density functional theory; computational chemistry; electronic structure; quantum chemical calculations.</p> Tahar Abbaz, Amel Bendjeddou, Didier Villemin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2264 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Senecio graciliflorus http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2265 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Among natural products, essential oils and their contituents represent a structurally diverse group of organic compounds with significant antibacterial activity. This&nbsp; study&nbsp; is&nbsp; oriented&nbsp; to&nbsp; assess&nbsp; the&nbsp; therapeutic&nbsp; potential&nbsp; of&nbsp; plant constituents as new antimicrobial drugs.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Aerial parts of <em>Senecio</em><em> graciliflorus</em> was steam distilled and analysed by GC and GC-MS for the volatile constituents. Essential oil was studied for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results revealed that α-pinene and α-thujene are the major constituents of <em>S. graciliflorus</em> oil. In vitro studies showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> This study demonstrated that the oil significantly inhibits the growth of baceria. <em>S. graciliflorus</em> would be another alternative for developing new pharmaceuticals for prevention bacterial diseases and provide a direction for the study of naturally derived drugs.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Asteraceae,<em> Senecio</em><em> graciliflorus,</em> Essential oil, α-Pinene, Antibacterial activity.</p> B.C. Joshi, Vinod Kumar, Bhuwan Chandra, N.D. Kandpal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2265 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Preparation and evaluation of fast dissolving sublingual film of lisinopril http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2342 <p>see PDF</p> Swathi Palepu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2342 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Comparative Phytochemical investigation and Antioxidant study of Narcicuss tazetta, Nymphaea mexicana zucc. And Indigofera heterantha. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2270 <p>The study was intended to investigate the presence of phytoconstituents in the bulbs of <em>Narcicuss tazetta</em>, flowers of the plant <em>Nymphaea mexicana,</em> and roots of <em>Indigofera heterantha</em>. The present study provides evidence that methanolic extracts of <em>Narcicuss tazetta, Nymphaea mexicana and Indigofera heterantha</em> contain important compounds with marked bioactivity. Maximum phenolic content was observed in <em>Nymphaea mexicana</em> and maximum flavonoid content was observed in extract of <em>Indigofera heterantha</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Phytoconstituents, Antioxidant, <em>Nymphaea mexicana, Narcicuss tazetta, Indigofera heterantha</em></p> Saba Sabreen, Mubashir Hussain Masoodi Mubashir Hussain Masoodi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2270 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Dermal application of lactic acid based cream of a non pathogenic Kocuria marina (BMKO1) strain against Epidermophyton floccosum (MTCC 613) symptomatic excision mice model http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2271 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of <em>Kocuria marina</em> (BMKo1) derived Lactic acid against <em>Epidermophyton floccosum</em> (MTCC-613) infections induced on male Swiss Albino mice model (<em>Mus musculus</em>).&nbsp; For this purpose, the isolated strain was subjected to ‘flask fermentation’ and the Lactic acid produced as fermentation product, was quantified and analysed. Prior to preclinical test, healthy mice models of approximately 8 weeks old and 25-30 gm (weight) were subjected to intra-dermal administration for a period of 15 days to test for toxicity. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes were continually monitored. Then the mouse models were inoculated with 100 µl/ml (V/V) of <em>E. floccosum </em>(MTCC-613) spore suspensions following ‘Excision model’. After induction of the infection, the symptomatic mice groups were subjected to topical application of <em>Kocuria</em> lactic acid cream based formulation at a concentration of 1µl/ml (V/V). The naked eye observations were made on the infected lesions till the absolute deduction of infection of excised skin surfaces. The degrees of deduction of infection were converted into scores and the percentages (%) of deduction of infection were calculated and the average value was derived. There were inclusion of positive control (Fluconazole) and negative control (group with infection induced excision, but without any drug application) mice groups for the sake of comparison. Further, with absolute deduction of infection score observed in mice group, applied with <em>Kocuria</em> derived Lactic acid was akin to Fluconazole activity. However, the infection induced mice group was found to be with substantial increase of degree of infection. This study have curtain raised about the anti <em>Epidermophyton </em>infection activity of a cream based&nbsp; Cell free Lactic acid derived from a non pathogenic strain of <em>Kocuria marina</em> on mouse models.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Kocuria marina</em>, <em>Epidermophyton floccosum</em>, Lactic acid</p> Soumya S Dash, Smaranika Pattnaik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2271 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Preliminary phytochemical screening of Iris kashmiriana Baker collected from Budgam, Kashmir, India http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2272 <p>The present study was intended to discover the preliminary phytochemicals of <em>Iris kashmiriana</em> Baker collected from Kashmir region, India. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted in methanolic and aqueous extracts which showed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, phytosterols, saponins, diterpenes, cardiac glycosides. Among the various phytochemicals studied, alkaloids and proteins were found to be absent in both methanolic and aqueous extracts. From the results, it was noted that the extracts of Iris kashmiriana Baker was found to be a rich source of variety of active secondary metabolites. This report will lead to the further isolation and characterization of these active secondary metabolites for bioefficacy and bioactivity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytochemical, Bioactive compounds, Iris kashmiriana, Mazar mund, Kashmir.</p> Saeema jouFarooqnal, Roohi Mohi-ud-din, Zulfiqar Ali Bhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2272 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 In silico approach of receptor-ligand binding and interaction: Established phytoligands from Tagetes errecta Linn. against bacterial β-glucosidase receptor http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2246 <p>The medicinal plant,<em> Tagetes errecta</em> Linn. is a common ornamental plant and leaves of this plant are containing phytochemicals (volatile oil) that inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi and known natural antimicrobial agents. The objective of the present study was to detect receptor-ligand binding energy and interaction through molecular docking for phytoligands established in the leaves of <em>T. errecta</em> against β-glucosidase receptor (PDB ID: 3AHZ). Molecular docking was performed by using PyRx (Version 0.8) for the structure-based virtual screening and visualized the interaction in the molecular graphic laboratory (MGL) tool (Version 1.5.6). Among 25 phytochemicals and 2 synthetic compounds (Carbendazim and 2-Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol), binding energy value was obtained highest in Bicyclogermacrene (-6.4 Kcal/mol) and lowest in Octanol (-4.4 Kcal/mol) and Carbendazim and 2-Amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol showed -6.7 Kcal/mol and -3.5 Kcal/mol all of these showed no hydrogen bonding. The binding interaction of target protein with this phytocompound found binding at the mouth of the active site may be treated as competitive inhibitor. In conclusion, phytocompound Bicyclogermacrene can be alternative of synthetic fungicide as per binding energy value and interaction. It is suggesting further pharmacological and toxicological assay with this phytocompound after isolation from ornamental plant (<em>T. errecta</em>).</p> Partha Talukdar, Soumendra Nath Talapatra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2246 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Design Development and Evaluation of Agomelatine Microemulsion for Intranasal Delivery http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2274 <p>The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize microemulsion containing agomelatine for intranasal delivery. Agomelatine, an antidepressant drug, has absolute bioavailability of only 5% due to high first pass metabolism. Agomelatine microemulsion and were prepared by titration method. Ternary phase diagram gave the microemulsion region and the concentration of oil; Smix and water were selected from ternary phase diagram. Based on solubility study, oleic acid, tween 80 and propylene glycol were selected as oil, surfactant and co surfactant respectively. Microemulsions were prepared using water titration method. 1:1% v/v ratio (Tween 80: Propylene glycol) was selected for formulation development. The prepared microemulsions were optimized optical transparency, viscosity measurement, phase separation, determination of pH, measurement of globule size, measurement of zeta potential, drug content, <em>In vitro</em> diffusion study, stability studies. The optimized batch was further characterized for optical transparency, viscosity measurement, phase separation, determination of pH, measurement of globule size, measurement of zeta potential, drug content, <em>In vitro</em> diffusion study, stability studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Depression, Intranasal, Microemulsions, Agomelatine</p> B. R. Halde, A. B. Darekar, R. B. Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2274 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Pharmacognostical standardization and preliminary phytochemical explorations on Salvia hispanica L. seeds http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2375 <p><em>Salvia hispanica</em> L. famous as ‘chia’ is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to family Labiatae, is a richest source of alpha linolenic fatty acid.&nbsp; A detailed examination on chia seeds was performed. The microscopic investigationsshowed the presence of lignified fibres, epidermis cells, aleurone grains, fatty oil globules and lignified sclerides etc. Physicochemical assessment of chia seeds revealed foreign organic matter (0.76%), loss on drying (8.09%), pH (4.39), moisture content (8.96%), swelling index (8.36), foaming index (&lt;100), total ash (7.09%), water soluble ash (1.09%), acid insoluble ash (0.48%), sulphated ash (0.94%),relative density (0.892), refractive index (1.462), acid value (1.862), saponification value (194.29), peroxide value (4.680), acetyl value (169.28) and iodine value (74.62). Elemental analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy various heavy metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cd) and other elements (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg) all were within limits. Chia seeds crude material as well as its extract showed no microbial contamination. High performance thin layer chromatographyfingerprinting profile of chia seeds fixed oil showed the presence of alpha linolenic acid. Work on standardization assumes imperative consequence. However,wide-ranging literature survey on this plant revealed that, more research work is required to update the standardization parameters. Therefore, findings of this study will facilitate quality control and presence of the various phytoconstituents in plant seed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Salvia hispanica</em>, Standardization, Pharmacognostical, Physicochemical, HPTLC fingerprint<em>s</em>.</p> sumitra singh, Akash Sehrawat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2375 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Comparative bioavailability study of phenytoin in healthy Nepalese volunteers http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2376 <p>Our study aimed to assess and compare the bioavailability of Eptoin 100 mg and Epileptin 100mg tablets in Nepalese healthy volunteers. A randomized, two-treatment cross-over study with two weeks’ wash-out period was conducted in 12 healthy non-smoker and non-alcoholic Nepalese male volunteers over a period of 6 months in the department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal after approval from the Institutional Review Committee. The participants were randomized using sealed envelope system and received a single 100 mg oral tablet of either of the formulations with a two week washout period. Blood samples were collected predose and at regular intervals postdose upto 72 hours. Plasma phenytoin levels were estimated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The analytical method was validated prior to the start of study. C<sub>max</sub> (Peak Plasma Concentration), T<sub>max</sub> (Time to achieve maximum Plasma Concentration), AUC<sub>0-72</sub> (Area under plasma concentration time curve 0 to 72 hours), AUC<sub>0-∞</sub> (Area under plasma concentration time curve 0 to ∞) and T<sub>½</sub> (Elimination half-life) and K<sub>el</sub> (Elimination rate constant) were calculated and 80-120% margin (90% confidence interval) was used to assess bioequivalence. ANOVA test was used to analyze the data at P-value of 0.05. All volunteers completed the study. The log-transformed values of C<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, AUC<sub>0-t</sub>, and AUC<sub>0-∞</sub> of the both formulations were within the specified limits and were bioequivalent according to the regulatory definition of bioequivalence based on the rate and extent of absorption. Both products can be considered equally effective in medical practice.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, healthy volunteer, Nepal, phenytoin sodium.</p> DIllisher Rai, Gajendra Prasad Rauniar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2376 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Smoking of tobacco is the cause of human lung cancer http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2273 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study is to re-evaluate the relationship between smoking and lung cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In order to clarify the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer, a review and meta-analysis of appropriate studies with a total sample size of n = 48393 was conducted. The p-value was set to p &lt; 0,05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was not possible to reject the null-hypothesis H<sub>0</sub>: <em>without</em> smoking <em>no</em> lung cancer. Furthermore, the null-hypothesis H<sub>0</sub>: No causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer was rejected.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Compared to the results from previous studies, the results of this study confirm previously published results. According the results of this study,<em> without</em> smoking <em>no</em> lung cancer. Smoking is the cause of lung cancer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Smoking, lung cancer, causal relationship</p> Ilija Barukčić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2273 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some New Rhodanine Analogues as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors (ARIs) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2284 <p>Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting long-term secondary complication. Aldose reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway, plays a key role in the treatment of diabetic complications. Appropriately, inhibition of this enzyme is emerging as a major therapeutic strategy for the pathogenesis of secondary complication. In this study, we describe a series of 5 aryl benzylidene -thiazolidine, 4-dione derivatives,&nbsp;F3 synthesized as aldose reductase inhibitors. Besides inhibiting efficiently the target enzyme, F4 and F5 showed additional AR inhibitory as well as hypoglycaemic activity (146.15 and 175.20 mg/dl ) thus emerging as novel dual acting compounds. The bezylidene derivative&nbsp;F3, the most promising of the whole series, showed a well-balanced, consisting of ALR2 inhibitory efficacy (83.00% at 10µg/mL), similarly, F3 have lower blood glucose level in the range of 131.11 mg/dl at 15 mg/kg body weight. This compound show robust in vitro and in vivo efficacy, and could be considered as promising dual target antidiabetic drug candidates.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, Aldose reductase inhibitors</p> Neelam Khan, Girendra Gautam, Arun K. Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2284 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Simultaneous estimation of Doxofylline and Sertreline tablet dosage form by using RP-HPLC http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2285 <p>see PDF</p> Anil Goud Kandhula, Ashwin Kumar Tulasi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2285 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Design expert assisted mathematical optimization of solubility and study of fast disintegrating tablets of Lercanidipine Hydrochloride http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2406 <p>90% of drugs being researched today, posses poor solubility setback which inturn renders&nbsp; the drug with slower rate of absorption from the buccal route; hence dissolution is the rate limiting step for such lipophilic drugs. So, there is a need to keep a check on the dissolution profile of these drugs to ensure maximum therapeutic utilization. The dissolution rate therefore becomes a primary factor which governs the rate and extent of its absorption. Enormous work is being performed in the field of enhancement of solubility and dissolution behaviour of such drugs. Advancements and innovations have developed solid dispersion (SD) technique as the novel method for the solubility enhancement. Precision of dosing and patient's compliance is a crucial prerequisite for the management of chronic Antihypertensive treatment, So there arised a need to formulate a system which should resolve the difficulties associated with conventional tablets. This issue can be better tackled with the formulation of orally fast disintegrating tablets. The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Lercanidipine hydrochloride (LRH) by formulating a solid dispersion with Polyvinyl pyrollidine (PVP-K30) and Guargum. Full Factorial designs are exploited to learn and research the effects of different variables on the quality determinant parameters. An appropriate statistical model was selected for the scrutiny of the enhanced dissolution pattern. Finally, these solid dispersions were incorporated into fast disintegrating tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Lercanidipine Hydrochloride, Solid dispersion, Statistical design approach, Melt fusion method, Fast disintegrating tablet, <em>In vivo</em> studies</p> Seema Saini, Rajeev Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2406 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Assessment of anti bacterial screening of Pongamia pinnata stem against bacterial species: An In-vitro approach http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2303 <p>Numerous studies have shown that aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of diverse nutrient and non-nutrient molecules which protect the human body against various pathogens. Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and a large number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. Herbal medicine is the oldest known healthcare system known to mankind. India has rich medicinal plants of nearly 7500 species. Many medicinal plants were with a long history of use in folk medicine against a variety of diseases. Recently, many researchers have taken a great interest on medicinal plants for their phytochemical constituents and biological activities including anti microbial activity. The anti bacterial activity of the ethanolic crude stem extract of <em>Pongamia pinnata</em> against four bacterial species (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>and<em> Escherichia coli</em>) was investigated, using agar diffusion technique. At concentrations ranging from 10-40 mg/mL, the ethanolic crude extract showed activity against the four bacteria (<em>Pseudomonas</em><em> aeruginosa</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>and <em>E. coli</em>) from 2 mm-20 mm, after 24 hours incubation. The present study showed the effectiveness of the crude plant extract against the tested bacterial strains and indicates the potential use of the extract as anti bacterial agent for the control of infectious diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; <em>Pongamia pinnata</em>, anti bacterial activity, agar diffusion technique, bacterial strains, chloramphenicol.</p> Adithya Gadeela Manish, Nerella Mounika, Bakshi Vasudha, Boggula Narender ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2303 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 OPTIMISATION OF STARCH OXALATE AS A NOVEL SUPERDISINTEGRANT IN FAST DISSOLVING SYSTEMS OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2385 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs by using 2<sup>3</sup> factorial design in the formulation of fast dissolving tablets by employing starch oxalate as a superdisintegrant.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Starch oxalate was synthesized by gelatinization process. The physical and micromeritic properties were performed to evaluate the synthesized starch oxalate. By using 2<sup>3</sup> factorial design, atenolol fast dissolving tablet was prepared by employing starch oxalate as a superdisintegrant in different proportions in each case by direct compression method. In the evaluation of fast dissolving tablets the drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time and other dissolution characteristics were utilized.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The starch oxalate prepared was found to be fine, free-flowing completely amorphous powder. The compatibility between atenolol and starch oxalate were studied and showed no interaction. The drug content, hardness, and friability have been effective with regard to all the formulated fast dissolving tablets employing starch oxalate. The optimised formulation F8 has the least disintegration time i.e., 24±0.06s. The <em>In–vitro </em>wetting time was less (i.e., 28s) in optimized formulation F8. The water absorption ratio of the formulated tablets was found to be more in F8 formulation 94.42±0.18%. The cumulative drug dissolved in the optimized formulation F8 was found to be 98.70±0.24% in 5 min.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The dissolution efficiency of atenolol was enhanced when starch oxalate was found to be a superdisintegrant when combined with sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone and, hence to provide immediate release of the formulated fast dissolving tablets contained drug it could be used.</p> SANTOSH KUMAR RADA, T. Naga Satya Yagnesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2385 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaves extract of Phyllanthus niruri (L.) and their antibacterial properties http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2304 <p>In recent times, plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has garnered wide interest owing to its inherent features such as rapidity, simplicity, eco-friendliness and cheaper costs. For the first time, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using <em>Phyllanthus niruri</em> leaf extract in the current investigation. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer and the characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak was identified to be 423 nm. The morphology of the silver nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size of the silver nanoparticles was found to be 10-50 nm, with an average size 15 nm. &nbsp;FTIR analysis was done to identify the functional groups responsible for the synthesis of the AgNPs. The antibacterial potential of synthesized AgNPs was compared with that of aqueous extracts of <em>P</em>.<em>niruri</em> by well diffusion method. The AgNPs at 50µl concentration significantly inhibited bacterial growth against <em>A.hydrophila </em><strong>(</strong>16 ± 0.09 mm<strong>)</strong>. Thus AgNPs showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity at lower concentration and may be a good alternative therapeutic approach in future.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Phyllanthus niruri, </em>AgNps,<em> Aeromonas hydrophila,</em> Antibacterial Activity.</p> G Amalorpavamary, G Dineshkumar, K Jayaseelan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2304 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Development and validation of stability indicating UPLC method for the estimation of ticagrelor in bulk and its tablet dosage form http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2305 <p>The objective of the method was to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive, precise, accurate and validated Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic (UPLC) method for the estimation of Ticagrelor in tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an acquity UPLC BDS C8 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5m) column with a mobile phase composed of Buffer 0.1% OPA (2.2 pH) and&nbsp; Acetonitrile &nbsp;in the ratio of 60:40&nbsp;&nbsp; at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and 1 μl injection volume. The effluents were detected at a wavelength of 240 nm using TUV detector. The retention time of Ticagrelor was&nbsp; found to be at 0.942 min. %RSD of the Ticagrelor was found to be 0.7&nbsp; The method was validated with respect to specificity, accuracy, linearity, precision, robustness. The correlation coefficient for Ticagrelor was found to be 0.999. Recovery of Ticagrelor in formulation was found to be 99.51% . LOD, LOQ values obtained from regression equations of Ticagrelor were 0.45, 1.35 respectively.&nbsp; Due to simplicity, high precision and rapidness the method can be successfully applied for&nbsp;&nbsp; estimation of Ticagrelor in tablet dosage form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic, Ticagrelor, Tablet dosage form.</p> J Omaima, , Shyamala, J V C Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2305 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Spectrophotometric analysis of tablets of nalidixic acid using melted niacinamide as solvent http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2323 <p>In the current attempt of research, novel method for spectrophotometric estimation of nalidixic acid in tablets using melted niacinamide as solvent was developed. The main objective behind research is to show “SOLIDS ALSO POSSESS SOLUBILIZING POWER”. The current study deals with novel spectrophotometric analytical technique for quantitative estimation of nalidixic acid in tablets using melted niacinamide as solvent. According to the theory proposed by Maheshwari, each &amp; every substance possesses solubilising power; substance may be a gas, solid or liquid. Niacinamide imbibes large solubilizing power to nalidixic acid and having approximate solubility more than 80 mg per gm of melted niacinamide (135<sup>°</sup>C) whereas aqueous solubility of nalidixic acid is 0.21mg/ml at room temperature. Calibration curve of nalidixic acid was plotted by recording the absorbances of standard solutions of drug. The absorbances were observed at 330 nm against respective reagent blanks. The percentage label claims were found very close to 100 (100.93± 1.303 and 99.08±1.764) indicating accuracy of the proposed method. Percentage recoveries estimated by the proposed method are close to 100 (99.91±1.303 and 101.74±1.663) with significant low values of percentage deviation and standard error. Thus, it may be concluded that proposed method is simple, safe and precise and excludes use of toxic organic solvents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Mixed Solvency, Solubilizing Power, Spectrophotometric Analysis, Niacinamide, Nalidixic Acid.</p> R.K. Maheshwari, Apeksha Apte, Om Prakash Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2323 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and evaluation of matrix transdermal patches of meloxicam http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2326 <p>The present study deals with the formulation and evaluation of transdermalpatches of meloxicam towards enhance its permeation through the skin and maintain the plasma levelconcentration. Transdermal patches were prepared by using polymers like Chitosan, HPMC 15cps and EC 20cpsat various concentrations by solvent casting technique employing dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer and isopropylmyristate as permeation enhancer. The transdermal patches were evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and <em>in-vitro </em>drug release. The transdermal patches were found to be transparent and smooth in texture. Amongthe formulations studied, at the end of 12th hour, the minimum and maximum <em>in-vitro </em>drug release was observedfor the formulations F12 and F4<em>i.e.</em> 80.012 ± 2.012 % and 98.365±3.012%. The mechanism of drugrelease was found to be Non-Fickian diffusion controlled. FT-IR studies revealed theintegrity of the drug in theformulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Transdermal Patches, Meloxicam, Chitosan, HPMC 15cps, EC 20 cps, <em>in-vitro </em>diffusion studies.</p> Sumit Chourasia, Tripti Shukla, Surendra Dangi, Neeraj Upmanyu, Nidhi Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2326 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Tuberculosis’ Total Health care system and patient side diagnosis and Treatment Delay and Associated Factors Among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients At Hadiya Zone Public Health Facilities, Southern Ethiopia. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2327 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong>Delay in TB treatment is significant to both disease prognoses at the individual level and within the community. Even though studies conducted in TB treatment delay there is result inconsistencies due to differences in culture, environment and infrastructure.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: the aim of the study is to assess the tuberculosis treatment Delay and associated factor among pulmonary tuberculosis patients.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: Facility based cross sectional study triangulated by Qualitative study was employed on 340 PTB patients in Hadiya zone public health facilities. Three woredas and health facilities were selected by Simple random sampling method. DOTS user at the beginning of data collection was consecutively recruited in to the study until the intended sample size was fulfilled. Multivariable binary Logistic regression was used. A P-value &lt; 0.05 at 95 % CI was considered statistical significance between dependent and predictors variables.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Among 340 PTB patients enrolled in the study, of which 49.1% experienced patient delay, 30% health system delay and 49.8% total delay. Unable to read and write, Poor knowledge of TB (AOR 3.96, 95% CI (2.28&nbsp;&nbsp; 6.86), self-treatment (AOR: 2, 95% CI (1.14, 3.93), financial constraint (AOR: 2.092, 95% CI (1.11, 3.945) , Visiting two or more health care providers (AOR: 3.40, 95% CI (1.910 – 6.07), prolonged referral (AOR: 3.004, 95% CI (1.59, 5.67) were independent predictors of delay.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Nearly half of the total delay was contributed by patient delay. Unable to read and write, Poor knowledge of TB, self-treatment, financial constraints, prolonged referral, several visit of health care provider of two or more and ever used other drugs rather than Anti-TB drugs were found to have association with patient delay and health system delay.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tuberculosis treatment delay, PTB, patient delay and health system delay, Hadiya zone, Ethiopia.</p> Gedeyon Getahun, Tilahun Beyene, Lakew Abebe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2327 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation development of methylprednisolone dispersible tablets using quality by design approach http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2328 <p>The objective of this study was to enhance the solubility of Methylprednisolone by choosing micronized form of drug and to enhance patient compliance by formulating it as dispersible tablets using quality by design (QbD) approach. Dispersible tablets of Methylprednisolone were developed by 2<sup>3</sup> factorial design. In this study independent variables were concentrations of MCC 102, CCS and Magnesium stearate and dependent variables were disintegration time, hardness and dissolution. The resulting data was fitted into Design Expert Software (Trial Version) and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The response surface plots were generated to determine the influence of concentration of MCC 102, CCS and magnesium stearate on responses. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method by choosing micronized form of drug and formulations were evaluated for the standard of dispersible tablets. Results showed that no significant drug-polymer interactions in FTIR studies. According to QbD suggestion the formulation O<sub>1 </sub>(Desirability- 0.73) with MCC-38mg, CCS-3.5mg and magnesium stearate-2.5mg was formulated and evaluated. The disintegration time was found to be 69 seconds, hardness was found to be 64N and <em>in vitro</em> dissolution with in 30minutes. Optimized O<sub>1</sub> formulation was within the limits of standards of dispersible tablets with increased water solubility and better patient compliance. Stability study on optimized O<sub>1</sub> formulation showed that there is no significant changes during study period. Thus, O<sub>1</sub> formulation was found to be stable. The study indicates that formulation of Methylprednisolone dispersible tablets by using QbD approach is a promising formulation development method.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dispersible tablets, Methylprednisolone, Direct compression, Quality by Design and ANOVA.</p> J Nandhini, AN Rajalakshmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2328 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A Study on Establishment of Phytochemical Analysis of Quality Parameters and Fluorescence Analysis of Costus spicatus- rhizome extract Medicinal Plants a Well Known Tropical Folklore Medicine http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2329 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of <em>Costus spicatus</em> in rhizomes extract along with their physico-chemical parameters and fluorescence analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy, Powder microscopy, rhizome constant, fluorescence analysis and Preliminary phytochemical investigation.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The fluorescence characteristics of rhizome powdered extracts were determined under UV radiation of long and short wavelengths and ordinary visible light. When the powdered drug and extracts were treated with different reagents and observed under UV and ordinary light, they emitted various colour radiations. The colour change for the rhizome powder and individual extract were distinctive and reproducible revealing the solvent properties to the phytoconstituents and data is present. The moister content was calculated through the loss on drying method and was found to be 1.43%. The swelling and foaming index values were recorded. The phytochemical investigation indicates the presence of the organic phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, carbohydrate, flavonoids, protein, amino acids, phenols, tannin, glycosides, steroids and inorganic constituents like iron, phosphate, sulphate and chlorides.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Various pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of the species.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Costus spicatus,</em> Physico-Chemical parameters and fluorescence analysis.</p> S Azhagumadhavan, S Senthilkumar, M Padma, P Sasikala, T Jayaseelan, S Ganesan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2329 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and Evaluation of Chlorpheniramine Maleate Mouth Dissolving Films http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2417 <p>The present investigation was aimed at preparation and evaluation of mouth dissolving films (MDFs) of an anti-histamine drug, Chlorpheniramine Maleate (CPM) to enhance convenience and compliance to the elderly and paediatric patients. The MDFs were prepared using wet film applicator and evaluated for physicochemical and physicomechanical properties. MDFs were prepared with 0.6% and 0.8% w/w CPM. The MDFs with 0.8% w/w drug load showed re-crystallisation within 10 days, while the MDFs with 0.6% w/w CPM load were transparent with no re-crystallization. The effect of film formers, film thickness, film modifiers, saliva stimulating and soothing agents on the physicomechanical properties and CPM release from MDFs were evaluated. MDFs casted at 30mil thickness containing poly ethylene glycol (PEG-400) as plasticizer showed superior CPM release rates along with good physicomechanical properties. MDFs with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) E3 as film former gave superior CPM release rate when compared to E5 and E15 formulations. MDFs with poly vinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30) gave superior drug release properties when compared to MDFs without PVP K30. The MDFs with citric acid (CA) and xylitol gave superior CPM release than the other MDFs. Release kinetics data reveals diffusion as drug release mechanism.</p> D Teja, E Jasvanth, B Mounika, Buchi N Nalluri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2417 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Extraction, Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites of Corchorus Olitorius http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2340 <p>Jute (Corchorus spp.) leaf has long been used as a remedy in many cultures. Jute leaf products, which include the leaf juice, fried leaf and some time whole green leaf are used, among other reasons, as laxatives, in creams for skin care, and as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, respectively. The heterogeneous nature of jute leaf products may contribute to the diverse biological and therapeutic activities that have been observed. The aim of the present study is to examine <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>whole plant for phytochemical profile. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The present study provides evidence that successive solvent extracts of <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the use of plant species as traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids was carried out by aluminium chloride method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oil and fats. The total flavonoids content of whole plant extracts was found to be chloroform- 0.505, ethyl acetate-1.300, methanol-2.050, aqueous-1.785 mg/100mg.The present study concluded that the crude extract of <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>is a potential source of various activates and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Corchorus olitorius, </em>Qualitative, Quantitative analysis, Total flavonoids</p> D K Patil, Alok Pal Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2340 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Extraction, Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites of Coccinia Indica Fruits http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2341 <p>In the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Medicinal plants continue to be an important therapeutic aid for alleviating ailments of humankind. <em>Coccinia Indica</em> (<em>C. indica,</em> cucurbitaceae) is found in warmer and humid part of India. It is also known as Kundru, Bimbi, Lindora. The various extracts of fruit, root juice &amp; leaves of the plant have been reported to be anti-diabetic, dysentery, vomiting, mouth ulcers and bronchitis, asthma and gastrointestinal disturbance. The phytochemicals of this plant include saponin, flavonoid, glycosides and polysaccharides, xyloglucan, taraxerol, carotenoids, cryptoxanthin. The aim of the present study is to examine <em>C. indica</em> fruits for phytochemical profile. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Quantitative analysis of phenolic and flavonoids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent method and aluminium chloride method respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oil and fats. The total phenolics content of fruits ethanolic extract was (4.3524 mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (5.0900mg/100mg). The present study concluded that the crude extract of <em>C. indica</em> is a rich source of secondary phytoconstituents which impart significant antioxidant potential. This work also contributes significantly to support the claim about the use of this herb in folk medicines. Further investigation regarding isolation and purification of a number of phytoconstituents from fruits, leaves, stem, flowers and seeds of <em>C. indica</em> may yield optimal combinations of therapeutic alternates.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Coccinia indica, </em>Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis, TPC, TFC, Folins Ciocalteau</p> Rachna Shrivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2341 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Extraction, Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites of Aerial Parts of Clematis heynei and Solanum virginianum http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2346 <p>The increasing interest in powerful biological activity of secondary metabolites outlined the necessity of determining their contents in medicinal plants. In the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. <em>Clematis heynei </em>(<em>C. heynei, </em>Ranunculaceae) is commonly known as <em>Deccan clematis,</em> Murhar, Morvel, Ranjaee and it is a somewhat woody climber very sparsely distributed in deciduous forests of Western Ghats, India. In the Indian system of medicine ‘Ayurveda’ this plant is used to eliminate malarial fever and headache. Different plant parts were used for treating various diseases. <em>Solanum virginianum</em> L. (<em>S. virginianum,</em> Solanaceae, Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. &amp; H. Wendl.) is a diffuse and very prickly under shrub. It is found growing commonly in various regions of the world on sandy soils and is distributed throughout India. The plant is used traditionally to treat asthma, chest pain, leucoderma, scorpion bite, and sterility in women. The aim of the present study is to examine <em>C. heynei</em> and <em>S. virginianum</em> aerial parts of plant for phytochemical profile. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Quantitative analysis of phenolic and flavonoids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent method and aluminium chloride method respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oil and fats. The total phenolics content of methanolic and aqueous<em> extract of C. </em><em>heynei </em>was (0.592, 0.292 mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (1.371, 0.723mg/100mg) respectively. The total phenolics content of methanolic extract of <em>S. virginianum</em> was (0.345mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (0.978mg/100mg). The present study concluded that the crude extract of <em>C. </em><em>heynei</em> and<em> S. virginianum </em>is a rich source of secondary phytoconstituents which impart significant antioxidant potential. The findings of the present study will be helpful to phytochemists, pharmacologists and pharmaceutical industries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pravin Morankar, Alok Pal Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2346 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Method Development and Validation of Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Escitalopram Oxalate and Clonazepam in Bulk and its Pharmaceutical Formulations http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2347 <p>This article refers to simple isocratic reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) developed for the simultaneous quantification of Escitalopram Oxalate (EST) and Clonazepam (CZP) in active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceuticals. The separation of the two drugs was attained using a C₁₈ column (250mm×4.6mm, 5µ) as a stationary phase. The mobile phase was used as a mixture of methanol; acetonitrile; and 0.05M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 4 adjusted by orthophosphoric acid) with an isocratic ratio of 40:20:40 v/v. Detection was made by using PDA detector at 210 nm. Escitalopram Oxalate (RT= 4.428 minutes) and Clonazepam (RT= 6.532 minutes) were separated in a single chromatographic run with resolution of 8.719. The calibration plot indicated good linear relationship with <em>r<sup>2 </sup></em>= 0.998 for Escitalopram Oxalate in concentration range of 32 µg/ml - 48 µg/ml and <em>r<sup>2 </sup></em>= 0.999 for Clonazepam in concentration range of 16 µg/ml - 24 µg/ml. The retrievals for Escitalopram Oxalate and Clonazepam were found to be 99.75% and 99.00%, respectively. The established analytical method was validated and found acceptable as per ICH guidelines for linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, robustness and stability. Escitalopram Oxalate and Clonazepam individually as well as in combination were exposed to different stress conditions like acid, base, thermal, photolytic and oxidation degradation and peaks of a degraded product were well determined from peaks of pure drug. This method is modest, quick and appropriate for routine quality control analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Reverse Phase – HPLC; Escitalopram Oxalate; Clonazepam; Validation; Degradation study.</p> Bindusar Kalia, Uttam Singh Baghel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2347 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Traditional remedial plants utilized in the Paliyar’s tribe handling of different skin diseases from Sadhuragiri hills, Tamil Nadu, india http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2348 <p>An ethnobotanical exploration, an attempt has been made to survey the indigenous knowledge on herbal medicines used as a therapy for skin disorders by the <em>Paliyar </em>tribes of Sadhuragiri hills. The purpose of this study is to assess traditional knowledge on medicinal plants which forms a baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies, to identify the vital species used for skin medicine, finding out methods for various preparations, and calculate the % informants in relation to medicinal plant use. In this study frequent field trips were made for the collection of plant specimens and information on medicinal aspects from traditional healers and women folk through questionnaire and interviews. The information of herbal preparation, parts used, mode of administration and local name was also taken during the study period. The present study has resulted in the documentation of 50 medicinal plant species belonging to 26 families and 41 genera used by the <em>Paliyar </em>for treatment of different skin ailments, <em>viz</em>. Scabies, Skin allergy, eczema, Wound swelling, Ring worm, itches, Heal crack, Burn wounds, Poison bite infection. The findings of present study shows documentation of 20 plant species which are found little known or less reported in available published literature. The <em>Paliyar</em> tribe lives interiorly in the forest localities and Government is making policies to rehabilitate them outside of forest areas, it is necessary to tap their rich heritable traditional knowledge on medicinal plants within time before it become vanished due to modernization. A inclusive detailed search and report on the pattern of utilization of medicinal plants by this tribe has not evidenced in the earlier publications. Therefore, present attempt has been made to document traditional knowledge of <em>Paliyar </em>tribe used to treat different skin disorders by production various herbal preparations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Paliyar </em>tribe, Herbal medicines, Skin disorders, Indigenous knowledge, Sadhuragiri hills.</p> Kamatchi Aadhan, SubramaniamParvathi Anand ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2348 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Prevalence of impaired renal function in patients of liver cirrhosis with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2349 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Renal Impairment (RI) is a common complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) a complication in cirrhosis further aggravates and worsens the scenario. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio (BCR) is one of the common laboratory tests used to distinguish prerenal azotemia (PR) from acute tubular necrosis and proves to be handy in absence of other tests.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To find the prevalence of renal impairment in the patients of liver cirrhosis with or without SBP.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> and <strong>Setting: </strong>Observational, prospective, single centre study.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Cirrhotic patients with SBP or low Ascitic fluid protein were enrolled. RI was considered if the serum creatinine or urea or both were above the reference range. BCR was obtained for each patient and divided based on BCR &lt;20 and BCR&gt;20. Assessment of variability of BCR values was done by further dividing them into eight subgroups (&lt;10, 10–15, 16–20, 21–25, 26–30, 31–35, 36-40 and &gt;40).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>34 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups. Group A with 22 patients with SBP and group B with 12 patients with low ascitic fluid protein. Group A had 77.27% patients with RI and group B had 58.33%. Majority of the patients had BCR&gt;20 group denoting a RI of PR type. Three patients had BCR&gt;40 indicating towards a probable gastrointestinal haemorrhage.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study gives an idea about the common occurrence of renal impairment in the patients of liver cirrhosis and ascites which needs early intervention to improve the prognosis.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Renal Impairment; Renal failure; Blood urea nitrogen creatinine ratio; BCR Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis; Liver cirrhosis</p> Siddhartha Dutta, Shalini Chawla, Siddharth Srivastava, Poonam Loomba, Vandana Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2349 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Evaluation of phytochemical, antioxidant, and In-vitro antidiarrhoeal, activity of Euphorbia hirta http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2352 <p><strong>Background</strong>:&nbsp; The current study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and <em>In-vitro </em>antidiarrheal properties of <em>Euphorbia hirta</em></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Extracts were obtained using cold extraction, hot extraction and autoclave extraction methods using Methanol, Chloroform, Petroleum ether and distilled water as solvents<em>. </em>Crude extracts were screened for different phytochemical constituents like sugars, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and glycosides etc. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using spectrophotometric method. The <em>in-vitro</em> antidiarrheal activity was elucidated by the antimicrobial activity using agar diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Methanol proved to be a good solvent for extraction<em>. In-vitro</em> antidiarrheal activity was shown by all extracts on <em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, </em>and <em>Salmonella typhi </em>bacteria which are mainly responsible for diarrhea.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the phytochemical screening it shows presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins. The plant also shows antioxidant activity, methnolic extracts shows higher activity and it shows <em>In-vitro</em> antidiarrhoeal activity which clearly indicates that the plant can be used for the treatment of diarrhea. Further studies should be done to isolate the compound responsible for activity in the experimental animals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Euphrobia hirta,</em> autoclave extraction, antidiarrheal, phytochemicals.</p> Suhail Ahmad Mir, Mudasir Maqbool, Khursheed Ahmad Sheikh, Ahsan Ullaha Bhat, Ghulam Nabi Bader ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2352 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Development of Tizanidine HCl transdermal patches: In-vitro and Ex-vivo characterization http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2431 <p>The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate matrix type transdermal patches of Tizanidine hydrochloride using Hypromellose (HPMC E15) as polymer, dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer and citral as permeation enhancer. The DSC and FTIR results showed the compatibility of the excipients with the drug. These transdermal drug delivery systems were characterized for their thickness, folding endurance, content uniformity, tensile strength and <em>in-vitro</em> release studies of the drug from the polymeric matrix.<em> In-vitro </em>release studies and <em>ex-vivo</em> permeation were carried out with modified Franz diffusion cell using pH 5.8 &amp; pH 7.4 phosphate buffers as receptor medium and it showed controlled release of drug. The results suggest that the formulation of TIZ may be useful in the development of a therapeutic system to deliver TIZ across the skin for a prolonged period, i.e. 24 hr.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tizanidine Hydrochloride, Transdermal patch, HPMC E15, <em>in-vitro</em> &amp; <em>ex-vivo.</em></p> Dr. Shayeda, Nusrat Ayesha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2431 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A novel topical phytotherapy for normalization of aberrant leg-anatomical and biochemical risks in failed spine surgery associated with knee-osteoarthritis: A unique case study http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2244 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of the study was to normalize the aberrant leg-anatomical and biochemical parameters, to relieve pain syndromes and to improve quality of life without revision of failed spine surgery (FSS) and surgical intervention of coexisted knee-osteoarthritis (KOA) correlated with radiological images by specialized topical phytotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: &nbsp;A 45year-old gentleman was advice to undergo revision of FSS and surgical intervention for KOA. He refused to do the further surgeries and treated in OPTM Health Care during January-February 2018. Anatomical measurements included &nbsp;bilateral: the gap at the knee joint between the short head of the biceps femoris and the level of the bed in supine, diameters of muscles at the thigh, the calf, 4cm above and below the patella, angles of straight leg raising, knee flexion and extension in &nbsp;supine, and biomarkers (Interleukin-10, Tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, Creatine kinase-muscle&nbsp; and Aldolase-A) were measured pre- and post-treatment using appropriate protocols. The patient was treated for 12-week with phytoextracts of established seven medicinal plants.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The percentages of improvements for all the above-mentioned abnormal leg-anatomical and biochemical parameters were observed at post-treatment: 63.81, 2.28, 0.81, 5.22, 0.82, 160.00,73.75 and 50.00 respectively for right leg and 69.60, 5.79, 2.79, 9.93, 0.82, 290.00, 85.33 and 54.55 for left leg in case of leg-anatomical features and 87.72, 66.39, 77.27, 22.77 and 48.41 respectively for biomarkers and that for international acclaimed pain parameters under VAS, WOMAC, ODI, LEFS, KPS and BMI were highlighted in the earlier study and the same under KOOS were recorded as pain(86.11), symptoms(89.29), ADL(79.42), Sport &amp; Recreation(75.00) and QOL(68.75) with improved radiological images both lumbar and knee-joints as assessed by KL-grading scales(≥2).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results showed the deranged leg-anatomical and biochemical risks, together-with impaired international pain parameters during FSS associated with KOA can be normalized by specialized topical phytotherapeutic treatment within 12-week.</p> Apurba Ganguly ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2244 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of Trema orientalis (L.) Bl. methanol extract in rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2353 <p>The medicinal plants find wide applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and food industry. <em>Trema orientalis</em> has emerged as a good source of phytomedicine. <em>T. orientalis</em> has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates that it has potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases.&nbsp; The present study was undertaken to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of methanol powder extract of aerial part of <em>Trema orientalis</em>. There were no major changes in the body weight of animal treated with plant extract. The biochemical parameters like ALP, SGPT, SGOT, total protein, globulin, albumin and bilirubin were within the normal limit in the plant extract treated groups of animals. The present study shows that the methanolic extract of <em>Trema orientalis</em> is safe in lower dose for pharmaceutical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Acute toxicity, biochemical parameters, Sub-acute toxicity, Trema orientalis</em></p> T Hemalatha, D Ahino Mary, A Saravana Ganthi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2353 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and evaluation of almotriptan controlled release pellets http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2355 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate Almotriptan pellets. Almotriptan controlled release pellets were prepared by Solution layering technique by using croscarmellose and povidone in former case and three different polymers HPMC K 100, Ethyl cellulose and Eudragit RS 100 as rate controlling polymer in three different ratios like 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2 to achieve desired release in later case. Evaluation was performed according to the Pharmacopoeia standards including Drug excipients compatibility, Percentage yield, Particle size distribution, Drug content analysis and <em>in-vitro</em> release study. The best results were found to be using Almotriptan and Eudragit RS 100 in 1:2 ratios. A broad variety of drug release pattern could be achieved by variation of polymers ratios which was optimized to match the target release profile. In comparison of <em>in-vitro</em> release studies for different controlled release formulations, F9 releases 98.54% of drug at the end of 12<sup>th</sup> hour and was considered as best formulation. Stability study has shown no significant change in the drug content analysis and <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution study of best formulation even after 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Almotriptan, Controlled release, Dissolution profile, <em>in-vitro</em> drug release, Stability studies.</p> Yerikala Ramesh, Abhilash Kaki Rohan, Balasaradhi Koorapati, P. Sudarsanam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2355 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography method development and validation for estimation of efavirenz by Quality by Design approach http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2357 <p>Quality by design (QbD) refers to the achievement of certain predictable quality with desired and predetermined specifications. A very useful component of the QbD is the understanding of factors and their interaction effects by a desired set of experiments by using software (design expert 8). The present study describes the development of a comprehensive science and risk based HPLC method which is given by design expert 8 and subsequent validation for the analysis of Efavirenz active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) using a quality by design approach. An efficient experimental design based on systematic scouting of all four key components of the RP‐HPLC method (column, pH, mobile phase and flow rate) is presented. The described method was linear. R<sup>2</sup>=0.9998. The precision, ruggedness and robustness values were also within the prescribed limits (&lt;1% for system precision and &lt;2% for other parameters). Chromatographic peak purity results indicated the absence of co‐eluting peaks with the main peak of Efavirenz. The proposed method can be used for routine analysis of Efavirenz in quality control laboratories.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Quality by design, HPLC, Efavirenz, design expert 8.</p> Santosh A Waghmare, Arun M Kashid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2357 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Design of Experiments for the Establishment of the Dissolution Test Conditions of Rupatadine Fumarate 10 mg tablets http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2359 <p>Design of Experiments (DoE) is a statistical model that aims to determine if the factors under study affect the response, and if so, it determines the conditions under which this variable of interest can be optimized. In terms of pharmaceutical technology, independent variables are usually factors of the formulation, while dependent variables are properties of the product or parameters that indicate the performance of the process. Precisely, the dissolution test is a tool of interest for the developers of medicines since it allows them to evaluate the performance of a formulation designed in a solid pharmaceutical form, such as tablets. The present investigation used the design of experiments to establish and optimize the conditions of the dissolution test of a 10 mg Rupatadine fumarate tablets formulation, resulting in the use of HCl 0,1 N (pH 1) dissolution medium and a rotation speed of 100 rpm for the apparatus II USP, which allow the analysis of the product in a reproducible and reliable way.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Analysis of variances, Design of experiments, Dissolution test, Factorial design, Rupatadine Fumarate, Tablets, Test conditions.</p> Castillo Henríquez Luis, Madrigal Redondo German, Vargas Zúñiga Rolando, Carazo Berrocal Gustavo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2359 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Extraction and wound healing potential of Nerium Indicum M, Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam, Murraya Koenigii L, Punica Granatum L on albino rats using burn wound model http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2360 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of present work was to extract the active constituents and evaluate the wound healing potential of <em>Nerium indicum</em>, <em>Artocarpus heterophyllus,</em> <em>Murraya koenigii,</em> <em>Punica granatum on </em>albino rats using burn wound model. Poly-herbal ointment and gel formulation was developed and compare with the extract of all plants. These plants has shown anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-leukemic, anti-mycobacterial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiviral, anticancer, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Solvent extraction method has been utilized for the separation of the active constituents of interest by using 70% ethanol as a solvent. Poly-herbal ointment and gel formulations has been prepared by mixing the extract of <em>Nerium Indicum</em>, <em>Artocarpus heterophyllus,</em> <em>Murraya koenigii and Punica granatum </em>in different ratio with the ointment base (10-15%) contains PEG and for gel formulation Carbapol-940 base (10-15%)<em>. </em>Burn wound model of albino rats has been utilized for the assessment of wound healing potential of the plant extract as well as developed formulations. <strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>The studies on burn wound healing model reveals that F2 poly-herbal ointment formulation show better burn wound healing potential in comparison to all other formulations, F-1 ointment formulation as well as extracts of all plants. There was no mortality observed in the tenure of study. <strong>Discussion:</strong> These data has indicated that ointment and gel poly-herbal formulation of <em>Nerium Indicum, Artocarpus Heterophyllus, Murraya Koenigii and Punica Granatum </em>has been utilized for wound healing purpose and it is safer for topical application. No toxicity and mortality has been observed during the experimental tenure.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Wound healing, <em>Nerium indicum, Murraya koenigii, Punica granatum, Artocarpus heterophyllus</em>, burn wound model.</p> Renuka Shukla, Varsha Kashaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2360 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A short review and study on antimicrobial activity of Unani drug - Ushba (Smilax ornata) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2361 <p>The study was planned to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Alcoholic and Aqueous extract of <em>Smilax</em> <em>ornata, </em>and brief information about this medicinal herb was also reviewed. Result was compared statistically and it showed significant p&lt;0.001antimicrobial as compared to control (Plain water) and standard Ciprofloxacin (for gram positive strains) and gentamicin (for gram negative strains).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antimicrobial activity, <em>Smilax</em> <em>ornata,</em> Extract, Strain</p> Reesha Ahmed, Naeem Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2361 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 04:22:52 -0600 Knowledge regarding Hepatitis B among staff nurses http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2364 <p>Hospital is a place to get cured from the suffering. Among the members of health team the nurses spend most of their time at the bed side and they are usually considered as angels at the mission of comforting patients. Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening viral infection caused by Hepatitis B virus. It can create both acute and chronic diseases and, deemed as a major and serious health problem in the developing countries like India. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The descriptive survey approach adopted in the study aimed to assess the knowledge regarding Hepatitis B infection and its prevention among staff nurses. Self administered structured knowledge questionnaire was developed on the basis of objectives of the study by reviewing the literature of relevant topics and discussion with experts. <strong>Result</strong>: The data obtained from 100 staff nurses indicated that majority of the subjects (61%) were in the age group of 21-28 years, 84% were females and 16 % males. More than half of the subjects (55%) were with B. Sc qualification 63% were having 1-5 year experience and 62% of subjects were having monthly income between Rs 10,001-20,000. Only 36% of the subjects acquired information from college/friends. Distribution of staff nurses according to their knowledge showed that 86% had adequate knowledge, 12% had moderate knowledge, and 2%had poor knowledge. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Nurses have major role in preventive aspect than in curative aspects Nurse through the scientific knowledge and skills are able to collect the data from public. The study results will help the investigators as well as the public to update their knowledge by organizing education programme.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hepatitis B, Prevention, Staff nurses.</p> Anitta Augustine, Anumol George, T.P. Aswathy, B. V Nithyashree, Devina E Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2364 Wed, 20 Feb 2019 08:17:31 -0600 Novel Algorithm of CPU-GPU hybrid system for health care data classification http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2445 <p>Due to advancements in portable health monitoring technology, such systems have become more and more economical &amp; efficient. This in turn has resulted in a huge amount of data being generated every moment by millions of users of such portable devices. Such voluminous data may include audio, video, and image, and text representing blood pressure, temperature, vocal activity, ECG, sugar level etc. In the Proposed algorithm, first step is assignment, where clusters are assigned to a patient data and the&nbsp; second step is update, which takes the mean of the coordinates of all the data in its cluster.&nbsp; Medical practitioners and service providers can use such data to discover various patterns and useful insights. Such insights can be very useful on understanding various trends during epidemics, such as Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya and other such outbreaks. A faster and economical way to get such insights is of paramount importance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> health monitoring; GPU; ECG; epidemics; data mining</p> Safdar Tanweer, Naseem Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2445 Thu, 21 Feb 2019 08:35:43 -0600 Fast Pattern Discovery in Healthcare Data Using Graphics Processors http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2446 <p>The mobile medical diagnosis and health monitoring system helps in managing the various chronic diseases like asthma, blood pressure and heart diseases etc. in consultation with the remotely available physicians by initiating the emergency call automatically on the physician’s mobile phone and providing the on-line vital medical parameters captured by the body area sensor network of the patient. We observed that a GPU based solution can outperform a CPU based solution by more than 30% in terms of speed up, while giving same accuracy of results, divided among healthy, normal and unhealthy patients. Finally, key parameter to model our health care data likestandard deviations of {1, 0.5, 0.5}, means of {(1, 1), (0, 0), (-1,-1)} are used to study healthy persons and unhealthy patients.</p> <p>Keywords: Healthcare ; GPU; EEG; PCG; datastructure</p> Naseem Rao, Safdar Tanweer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2446 Thu, 21 Feb 2019 08:37:16 -0600 Performance Analysis of Healthcare data and its Implementation on NVIDIA GPU using CUDA-C http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2447 <p>In this paper we show how commodity GPU based data mining can help classify various healthcare data in different groups faster than traditional CPU based systems. In addition such systems are cheaper than various ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) based solutions. Such faster clustering of data could provide useful insights for making successful decisions in case of emergency and outbreaks. Finally, we present conclusion based on our research done so far. In our work we used NVIDIA GPU for implementing an algorithm for healthcare data classification. Speech dissiliency and stuttering assessment can also be addressed through classification audio/speech samples using ANN, k-NN, SVM etc4. Such a faster and economical way to get such insights is of paramount importance.&nbsp; Specifically as a proof-of-concept we have implement k-means algorithm on health care related data set.</p> <p>Keywords: NVIDIA; GPU; ECG; CPU; ANN.</p> Naseem Rao, Safdar Tanweer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2447 Thu, 21 Feb 2019 08:38:36 -0600 Carbamazepine Induced Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2330 <p>Stabilizes inactivated state of sodium channels, thereby making neurons less excitable&nbsp;may reduce activity of nucleus ventralis of the thalamus or decrease synaptic transmission or summation of temporal stimulation leading to neuronal discharge.A adult of 68 years old patient came to dermatology department with chief complaints of neuralgia over scalp to relieve the symptoms physician prescribed carbamazepine 200mg Po OD. During his 2<sup>nd</sup>week of treatment patient developed pain,fever,sore throat followed by skin rash.Better vigilance is necessary for implementation of safe and effective treatment for each individual patient.in order to&nbsp; prevent serious adverse drug reactions of this drug,close monitoring drug treatment course, creating awareness, recognition&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;problem and&nbsp;careful&nbsp;management&nbsp;of&nbsp;all&nbsp;the&nbsp;patients who&nbsp;receive medication are&nbsp;essential,because&nbsp;use&nbsp;of&nbsp;carbamazepine&nbsp;causes&nbsp;thrombocytopenia,&nbsp;leukopenia, leukocytosis,&nbsp;eosinophilia,&nbsp;anemia,&nbsp;pruritic and&nbsp;erythematous&nbsp;rashes,&nbsp;urticaria,&nbsp;photosensitivity reactions, alterations in skin pigmentation, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme and nodosum, purpura, aggravation of disseminated lupus erythematosus,Abnormalities in liver function tests, cholestatic and hepatocellular jaundice, hepatitis; very rare cases of hepatic failure, Pancreatitis ,Pulmonary hypersensitivity characterized by fever, dyspnea, pneumonitis, or pneumonia</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Carbamazepine, Induced Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms, adverse drug reaction.</p> S Naga Subrahmanyam, D. Tagoore Vijaya Lakshmi, G.V. Naga Raju, G.V. Pavan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2330 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Infection of Mycobacterium mageritense at surgical site: A first case report of India http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2386 <p>A 27 years old non diabetic, normotensive, female had undergone lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) with tubular ligation. She complained discharge at left side of stitch line after about 5 weeks of operation, and was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. As she did not improve, first and second debridement was done in January and February 2017 and pyogenic cultures sent were sterile. Later she was advised &nbsp;for Multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) in March 2017, which revealed accumulations in pre-peritoneal space of urinary bladder posteriorly and reached to anterior wall of uterus. This pus was from multiple sinuses and were sent for mycobacterial cultures which showed growth of MOTT- M.mageritense further identified by MALDI-TOF and supported by molecular technologies. After identification of this Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). She was treated for the same and recovered completely after seven months of anti-NTM treatment. This is the first reported case of M. mageritense in skin and soft tissue in India. Literature also reports a few cases around the globe.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MANDAVA V RAO ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2386 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Peptide Conjugated Lipid Nanoparticles for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2331 <p>Peptide Conjugated Lipid Nanoparticles and their role on Cancer Drug Delivery are reviewed here. The benefits of nanotechnology and combination style of medicine delivery are still hindered without the active ligands needed for treatment efficacy. This work analyzes the role of peptide ligands in different forms of cancer treatments targeting cells and tissues.</p> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> Wei Xiao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2331 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 The Effectiveness of Combined Drug Delivery Systems http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2266 <p>Treatment of tumors with nanoparticles and combined drugs tend to turn effective as it can sustain for a longer time in the recipient’s body and also improve the impact. The conjugates that have proven to have high cytotoxicity are suggested in this report. Pegylation is an advanced drug delivery system that maximizes the immunity of the patient and helps in the correct targeting of the affected cells.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tumors, Nanoparticles, Drug targeting</p> Zhengwei Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2266 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Role of Inhibitors in Controlling the Diseases http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2269 <p>Inhibitors are those particular molecules that have unique properties to control the function of a disease-causing agent. The review sheet discusses the list of inhibitors for every disease and the ideal mechanism to excite the same for a better application and impact. Most of the inhibitors in this report are noncompetitive which means that they can survive and give an efficient result to the disease on its own without the need for an external inhibitor.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Inhibitors, disease-causing agent, enzymes activity</p> Xiaochai Zhu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2269 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Application of Nanoparticles for Brain and Lung Cancer Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2337 <p>Nanotechnology is and will be the future of several fields and medicine is one of them. The use of nanoparticles in the treatment of psychotic and cancer problems is analyzed in this report. Psychotic treatment has been effective due to specific nanoparticles like haloperidol and RISP, and these combinations are linked with other nanoparticles to treat other diseases. Nanoparticles have extended applications with a high degree of effectiveness to treat cancer cells due to the quick delivery, and targeted process and the same is detailed in the review sheet. Oligonucleotides combined with nanoparticles have greater efficiencies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nanotechnology, drug targeting, cancer treatment</p> Xialin Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2337 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Peptide-based Drug Delivery for Curing Cancer http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2338 <p>Peptides have numerous advantages as the chains help treat cancer, tumor and several complex diseases. The review details on the different structures of peptides that can ensure actual and efficient delivery of therapy to tumor and cancer cases. The co-delivery system mainly aims to improve the therapeutic delivery process regarding manufacturing, targeting, and impact.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nanotechnology, Peptide-based Drug Delivery, cancer</p> Wenzhe Huang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2338 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Traditional Chinese medicine understanding of ulcerative colitis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2286 <p>In recent years,the incidence of ulcerative colitis has been increasing both at home and abroad,therefore,more and more attention has been paid to its recognition and treatment. The pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear in modern medicine,we can discuss from the Chinese medical and hope to better understand ulcerative colitis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ulcerative colitis; traditiona Chinese medical; Discuss</p> Teng Huang, Junlu Chen, Lina Zhang, Bin Hao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2286 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 An updated review on pharmacosomes, a vesicular drug delivery system http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2234 <p>Novel drug delivery system mainly consents about achieving the targeted concentration to release the drug at targeted site by using carrier system, altering the structure and microenvironment around the drug. Especially drugs which are having narrow therapeutic window are difficult to formulate, with the advantage of novel drug delivery systems like particulate, polymeric carrier, macromolecular and cellular carriers. They are used to reduce complications as well as release the drug in a determined fusion at targeted site. In vesicular drug delivery system drug binds covalently to the lipid molecule by which the drug release is in a controlled manner and also drugs which are of hydrophilic or lipophilic nature can be delivered by using vesicular drug delivery systems. The release of drug from the vesicles depends on the physicochemical properties of both the drug and carrier. Vesicular drug delivery includes liposomes, niososmes, transferosomes, pharmacosomes, electrosomes, ethosomes etc. Of all these drug delivery systems pharmacosomes are having more advantages like no leakage or loss of drug, stability, high entrapment efficiency etc, pharmacosomes may be hexagonal aggregates , ultrafine vesicular and micellar forms. Both synthetic and natural drugs which are facing difficulties like low solubility and low permeability can be effectively formulated and can achieve required pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. Pharmacosomes are prepared by hand shaking method, ether injection, solvent evaporation method, anhydrous co-solvent lyophilyzation, supercritical fluid approach and other alternative methods they are characterized by complex determination, surface morphology, drug entrapment, solubility, drug lipid compatibility, crystal state measurement, dissolution studies and <em>in vitro</em> drug release rate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pharmacosomes, covalently, vesicular drug delivery system, hexagonal aggregates, micellar, ultrafine.</p> Bommala Supraja, Saritha Mulangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2234 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Application of polymeric nanoparticles in oral delivery of recombinant human erythropoietin: A review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2336 <p>Recombinant Human Erythropoietin drugs are known as&nbsp;erythropoietin stimulating agents which stimulate the bone marrow to produce more&nbsp;red blood cells in the body. It is used an antianemic in the treatment of renal anemia and chemotherapy induced anemia. It also use in treatment of HIV, cerebral malaria and neurological disease like schizophrenia. The recombinant human erythropoietin dosage form currently available in the market is parenteral dosage form that is ready for injection liquid vial (syringe), which is usually administered 2-3 times weekly. To achieve a therapeutic effect of parenterally administered EPO, cumulative doses are required that significantly exceed levels of endogenous EPO. These high serum levels result in prolonged circulation times of EPO and unspecific binding to non-targeted tissue, which may lead to severe undesired side effects i.e. growth of tumor and also increased risk of death. By using the nanotechnology, side effects and toxicity related to high dose of erythropoietin should be reduces and prolong drug release. this will achieve by reducing administration frequency and lowering dosage of erythropoietin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Recombinant Human Erythropoietin, Nanoparticle, Prolong drug release, Anemia</p> Pankaj Rajendra Dhapake, Jasmine G Avari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2336 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Active targeting of nanoparticles: An innovative technology for drug delivery in cancer therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2356 <p>In nanomedicines, currently a wide array of reported nanoparticle systems is being explored by targeting schemes which suggests great potential of targeted delivery to revolutionize cancer therapeutics. This review&nbsp; gives insight into recent&nbsp; challenges in modification of nanoparticle systems for enhanced cancer therapy&nbsp; acknowledged by researchers to date and also outlines different major targeting strategies of nanoparticle systems that have been utilized for the delivery of therapeutics or imaging agents, targeting ligand and cross-linking agent to cancer&nbsp; which was divided into three sections: 1) Angiogenesis associated targeting, 2) Uncontrolled cell proliferation targeting and 3) Tumor cell targeting.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> nanoparticles, tumor cells, active targeting, targeting strategies, targeting ligands</p> Rupalben Kaushalkumar Jani, Gohil Krupa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2356 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Quality by Design: A new practice for production of pharmaceutical products http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2370 <p>This is the advanced approach for development of pharmaceutical product with full range and specified limits of variables during procurements, storage and manufacturing process with a qualification, at desired level of quality within the limits of low and higher values of variables to ensures &nbsp;the Pharmaceutical product Quality by design (QbD) of manufacturing a finished product. The Quality by Design is depicted and a portion of its components recognized and process parameters with quality characteristics are identified for every unit activity. Advantages, openings and steps engaged with Quality by Design of Pharmaceutical items are depicted. The point of the pharmaceutical advancement is to plan a quality item and it’s assembling procedure to reliably convey the proposed execution of the item. Quality can't be tried into items however quality ought to be worked in by outline. It incorporates the Quality target item profile, basic quality traits and key parts of Quality by Design. It likewise gives correlation between item quality by end item testing and item quality by Quality by Design. The establishment of Quality by Design is ICH Guidelines. It depends on the ICH Guidelines Q8 for pharmaceutical improvement, Q9 for quality hazard administration, Q10 for pharmaceutical quality frameworks. It moreover gives utilization of Quality by Design in pharmaceutical improvement and assembling of pharmaceuticals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Quality by Design, Design Space, Target Product Quality Profile, Critical Quality Attributes</p> anuj malik, Gourab Gochhayat, Md Shamshir Alam, Manish Kumar, Preeti Pal, Raj Singh, Vipin Saini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2370 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A Review on anti-epileptic activity of seaweed Ecklonia cava http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2335 <p>The Present study was undertaken to investigate the Anticonvulsant activity of sea weed extract of <em>Ecklonia cava </em>on electrically and chemically induced seizures in wistar rat. The methanolic seaweed extract was studied for its anticonvulsant activity by using experimental paradigms like Maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES). Expected to exhibited protection against tonic convulsions induced by MES in wistar rats. Objective of these studies were designed to screen the antiepileptic activity of the seaweed <em>Ecklonia cava</em> in experimental laboratory animals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antiepileptic Activity, <em>Ecklonia cava </em>(E.C), seizures, Flexon, Hind Limb Extension, Electroencephalography (EEG)</p> Samiat Abimbola Owoalade, Diana Moria Martin Lou, Kashikant Yadav, Sumitra Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2335 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Insulin Resistance and Polycystic ovary Syndrome: A Review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2275 <p>Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, yet complex, endocrine disorder affecting women in their reproductive years and is a leading cause of infertility. This disease appears to be multifactorial and polygenic in nature involving multisystem dysfunction, namely reproduction, endocrine and metabolic. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance appear to be central cause to the pathophysiology of the disease. The glucose and insulin metabolism pathways have been studied and debated to understand whether Insulin Resistance is due to a defect in insulin action or a primary defect in β-cell function or decreased hepatic clearance of insulin, or a combination of all these factors. Numerous studies have demonstrated that obese, normal weight and thin women with PCOS have a form of insulin resistance that is unique and intrinsic to the disorder. Moreover obese women with PCOS possess an additional burden of insulin resistance resulting from their excess adiposity. Hyperinsulinemia leads to increase in androgen production directly by acting as a co-gonadotropin, augmenting Luteinizing Hormone activity within the ovary, and indirectly by increasing serum LH pulse amplitude. Whereas Androgens may in turn contribute at least partially to the insulin resistance state linked with PCOS.&nbsp; In this review, we will briefly study the role of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, Hyperandrogenism.</p> Mudasir Maqbool, Mohmad Amin Dar, Imran Gani, Mohammad Ishaq Geer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2275 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Inulin: A promising carrier for controlled and targeted drug delivery system http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2398 <p>The delivery of a drug to the preferred site of action is referred to as drug targeting. The benefits of drug targeting are a reproducible and controlled release rate of the therapeutic compound, which forestalls overdose. Due to the potential to treat colonic diseases with minimum side effects, colon targeting has become of high interest over the last decades. Inulin was investigated for its potential as encapsulation material regarding its enzymatic degradability and its drug release behaviour. Inulin is a polysaccharide with a widespread range of therapeutic uses such as a carrier in a drug delivery vehicle, as a diagnostic/analytical tool or as a dietary fibre with additional health benefits. In the main, much research has focused on inulin as a drug delivery carrier for colon-specific drug delivery. The justification for this is its potential to survive in the stomach’s acidic environment. This unique stability and strength are utilized in many ways to deliver drugs safely to the colon, where they can be easily absorbed through the gut epithelium into the blood. There are also some proofs that inulin’s prebiotic features also lead to health benefits, mainly for patients with inflammatory bowel disease or in the prevention of colonic cancer. Inulin based hydrodynamic research will be useful to discover the potential of inulin.</p> Wasim Akram, Ramakant Joshi, Navneet Garud ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2398 Thu, 14 Feb 2019 21:33:58 -0600 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: an overview http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2287 <p>Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including both traditional non-selective NSAIDs and the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, are widely used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. NSAIDs are a necessary choice in pain management because of the integrated role of the COX path way in the generation of inflammation and in the biochemical recognition of pain. NSAIDs are the competitive inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme which mediates the bioconversion of arachidonic acid to inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs). Their use is associated with the side effects such as gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. They are the most commonly employed first line drugs for all these conditions and many others-like musculoskeletal trauma, minor aches and pains, and dysmenorrhoea. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDs is produced by the inhibition of COX-2, while the undesired side effects arise from inhibition of COX-1 activity. Thus, it was though those more selective COX-2 inhibitors would have reduced side effects. Based upon a number of selective COX-2 inhibitors (Rofecoxib, Celecoxib <em>etc</em><em>.</em>) were developed as safer NSAIDs with improved gastric safety profile. Several newer applications like prophylaxis of stroke with aspirin are now common place. Use of these drugs for the prophylaxis of conditions like Alzheimer’s disease and colorectal cancer is being evaluated. Unfortunately, they have several toxicities ranging from minor heartburn to severe gastrointestinal haemorrhage and perforation. Therefore, newer NSAIDs have been introduced in recent years to circumvent this problem. In preliminary studies, these have shown better safety, efficacy, and tolerability but the full spectrum of adverse reactions of these drugs is yet to be fully known. This review can be used for further research as well as clinical purpose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase inhibitors, prostaglandins, aspirin.</p> Kasturi Jahnavi, Palla Pavani Reddy, Bakshi Vasudha, Boggula Narender ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2287 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 The era of pharmacovigilance and the need of pharmacovigilance in psychiatry: A review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2397 <p>According to WHO, Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is defined as “any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or for the modifications of physiological function”. Adverse drug reactions occur almost daily in every health care institution and can adversely affect a patient’s quality of life&nbsp;(QOL), often causing considerable morbidity and mortality. With the setting up of the Pharmacovigilance Program in India, it is important for all psychiatrists, pharmacist and nurses&nbsp;to familiarize themselves with the key principles of this science, and to apply the principle of Pharmacovigilance for the welfare of our patients and the entire health care&nbsp;community.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Adverse drug reaction (ADR), prophylaxis, diagnosis, patient’s quality of life&nbsp;(QOL)</p> Dhanya Dharman, Parimala Krishnan, K G Ravikumar, Shaiju S Dharan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2397 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Polyherbal Formulation Concept for Synergic Action: A Review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2339 <p>Formulations restrain 2 or more than 2 herbs are called polyherbal formulation. Drug formulation in Ayurveda is based on 2 principles: Use as a single drug and use of more than one drug. The last is known as polyherbal formulation. The idea of polyherbalism is peculiar to Ayurveda even though it is tricky to explain in term of modern parameters. The <em>Ayurvedic</em> literature <em>Sarangdhar Samhita</em> tinted the idea of polyherbalism to attain greater therapeutic efficacy. Polyherbal formulation has been used all around the earth due to its medicinal and therapeutic application. It has also recognized as polyherbal therapy or herb-herb combination. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are inadequate to attain the desirable therapeutic effects. When polyherbal and herbo-mineral formulations combining the multiple herbs in a meticulous ratio, it will give an enhanced therapeutic effect and decrease the toxicity. The active constituents used from individual plant are inadequate to provide attractive pharmacological action. There are evidences that crude plant extracts often have greater potency rather than isolated constituents. In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. Due to synergism, polyherbalism confers some benefits which are not accessible in single herbal formulations. Polyherbal formulations express high effectiveness in numerous diseases with safe high dose. Based on the nature of the interaction, there are 2 mechanisms on how synergism acts (<em>i.e.</em>, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic). In words of pharmacokinetic synergism, the capacity of herb to ease the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of the other herbs is focused. Pharmacodynamics synergism on the other hand, studies the synergistic effect when active constituents with similar therapeutic activity are targeted by diverse mechanism of action. The present review encompasses all the significant features of polyherbal formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Polyherbal formulation, Ayurveda, Active constituents, Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetic</p> Sarita Karole, Sarika Shrivastava, Shefali Thomas, Bhawana Soni, Shifa Khan, Julekha Dubey, Shashi P. Dubey, Nushrat Khan, Deepak Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2339 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Concise review: Therapeutic potential of flupirtine maleate http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2350 <p>Flupirtine is a non-opioid analgesic without antipyretic or antiphlogistic properties. Flupirtine is a centrally acting analgesic but the analgesic action of flupirtine does not depend on any central opioid effect. The fact behind this statement is that the pain-relieving property of flupirtine is not reduced by the opioid antagonistic drug naloxone. Flupirtine has been reported for its neuro-protective properties and possess a selective neuronal potassium channel opener that also has NMDA receptor antagonist properties. Flupertine is transformed into two primary derivatives, 4-fluoro-hippuric acid and the Nacetylated analogue D13223. Both derivatives of are flupirtine pharmacologically active with 30% of the analgesic potency of the parent drug and further oxidized and then conjugated with glycine to form inactive&nbsp; metabolites, Recently, Flupirtine maleate&nbsp; has been introduced in Indian market in oral, intravenous and rectal dosage forms. The half life of flupirtine following intravenous administration was 1.8 hours, while the plasma elimination half life in healthy young volunteers following single dose administration of flupirtine by the intravenous, oral and rectal routes was 8.5, 9.6 and 10.7 hours respectively. There is plenty of literature available on the effect of Flupirtine maleate on chronic and acute pain management. These preliminary finding require confirmation in further comparative studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Flupirtine maleate,&nbsp;Naloxone, Opioid, NMDA</p> Nisha Kumari Yadav, Tripti Shukla, Neeraj Upmanyu, Sharad Prakash Pandey, Mohammad Azaz Khan, Deepak Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2350 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Animal Models in Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2351 <p>Diabetes mellitus is defined as a state in which homeostasis of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is improperly regulated by insulin. This results primarily in elevated fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. If this imbalanced homeostasis dose not returns to normalcy and continues for a protracted period of time, it leads to hyperglycemia, which in due course turns into a syndrome called diabetes mellitus. Several animal models have been developed for studying diabetes mellitus or testing anti-diabetic agents. These models include chemical, surgical (pancreatectomy) and genetic manipulations in several animal species to induce diabetes mellitus. The diabetogenic drugs used include: Alloxan monohydrate, Streptozotocin with or without nicotinamide, Ferric nitrilotriacetate, Ditizona and Anti-insulin serum. The selection of these models to use for investigating the antidiabetic properties of a new compound may be a very difficult task especially for young researchers. The aim of the present review is give a brief idea about various experimental models developed for studying diabetes mellitus, assess the merits and demerits of each model and highlight the precautions needed to avoid erroneous results during the applications of these models.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes Mellitus, Animal models, Alloxan, Streptozotocin.</p> Mudasir Maqbool, Mohmad Amin Dar, Imran Gani, Suhail Ahmad Mir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2351 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 An overview about Hedychium spicatum: a review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2429 <p>The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) serves as tremendous repository of plant biodiversity which is derived from extreme altitudinal gradients and phenomenal geographic provinces and has been proved as the richest reservoir of medicinal plants and aromatic plants. The lavish range of plant biodiversity in IHR is supported by various landscape features that provide myriad of habitats. <em>Hedychium spicatum</em> Buch-Ham (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as spiked ginger lily, is found in the entire Himalayan region. Rhizome contains about 4% of essential oil and its phytochemical investigations have shown the presence of a variety of terpenoids (monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids).Traditionally, the rhizomes are used in the treatment of respiratory disorders, fevers, tranquilizer, hypotensive, antispasmodic, CNS depressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, pediculicidal and cytotoxic activities. The family Zingiberaceae well known for its immense medicinal values is distributed widely throughout the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. Zingiberaceae family is an important natural resource that provides many useful products for food, spices, medicines, dyes, perfume and aesthetics. Ethnobiologically, H. spicatum is not commonly popular throughout the Indian Himalayan region, but multifarious uses are practised specifically in different regions. In this review, we will briefly explain about the various multi-faceted aspects about H<em>edychium spicatum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Hedychium spicatum</em>, Chemical composition, Rhizomes, Zingiberaceae.</p> Shafiqa Rasool, Mudasir Maqbool ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2429 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Drug utilization studies among ENT patients in various clinical settings: A comprehensive review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2354 <p>Drug utilization research is thus an all important part of pharmacoepideminology as it explains the extent, nature and determinants of drug exposure. A drug utilization study is a tool for determining the effectiveness of drug use. They have tendency to create sound economic bases for health care. It focuses on various factors related to prescribing, dispensing, and administration of medication and associated events. It is a study which is used for analyzing or describe-quantitatively and qualitatively- the population of users of a given drug (or class of drug) and/or the condition of use (for example, indication, duration of treatment, dosage, previous or associated treatment and compliance). ENT problems have been counted as prominent as well as commonly occurring medical problem for our society. It is a problem of most concern. Drug utilization studies can play a major role to identify the nature of therapy used in their treatment and also helps to promote the rationality and minimizing the errors in the drug therapy. Such kind of studies can be helpful for healthcare practitioners as well as to the society against such health issues. Drug utilization research developed quickly during the following 30 years and soon became a respectable subject for consideration at international congresses in pharmacology, pharmacy and epidemiology. Successful research in drug requires multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, clinical pharmacologists, pharmacists and epidemiologists. Without the support of the prescribers, this research effort will fail to reach its goal of facilitating the rational use of drugs. In this review, we will briefly list various Drug utilization studies in ENT Clinical settings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Drug utilization studies, ENT, Prescribing patterns, Rational prescribing,&nbsp; Pharmacoepideminology</p> Shafiqa Rasool, Mudasir Maqbool, Yogesh Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2354 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Agastya Haritaki Rasayana: A Critical Review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2283 <p><em>Rasayana</em> is a specialized section of Ayurveda, which mainly deals with the prevention of disease and promotion of the health. <em>Agastya Haritaki Rasayana</em> is a popular <em>Avaleha kalpana</em>, used in <em>the&nbsp; pranavaha sroto vikaras</em> like <em>Kasa, Shwasa, Hikka, Kshaya</em>, etc. &nbsp;The study was taken with a view to enlist the ingredients of <em>Agastya Haritaki Rasayana</em>&nbsp; from different Classical text of Ayurveda and critical analysis was done based on the properties of ingredients and their indications. A thorough and comprehensive review of <em>Agastya Haritaki Rasayana</em> from different Ayurvedic classical texts, contemporary texts, online journals, articles and internet materials has been done. Most of the ingredients of <em>Agastya Haritaki Rasayana</em> are having -<em>Tikta, Kashyaya, Madhura rasa</em>, <em>laghu, ruksha, tikshna guna, katu vipaka, ushna veerya</em> and <em>having kaphavata shamaka</em> properties.&nbsp; Thus, <em>Agastya Haritaki Rasayana</em> is used in the management of diseases which are mainly <em>vatakapha pradhana</em>. <em>Agastya Haritaki Rasayana</em> is indicated as main line of treatment in <em>Shwasa, Kasa roga</em> as well as used as the <em>Naimittika Rasayana</em> in various other diseases like grahani, aruchi, arsha etc.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Agastya Haritaki Rasayana, Rasayana</em>,&nbsp; Naimittika Rasayana, <em>Shwasa, Kasa</em></p> Santosh Poudel, , Pradeep, Mahendra Prasad Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2283 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Oral dissolving films: an effective tool for fast therapeutic action http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2395 <p>The oral route is most familiar route as it has low cost of therapy and helps in the ease of administration of therapeutic agents which lead to high levels of patient compliance. The most known oral solid dosage forms are tablets and capsules. Many patients’ particularly pediatric and geriatric patients find it difficult to swallow tablets and hard gelatin capsules and do not take their medicines as prescribed. Difficulty in swallowing or dysphagia is identified to afflict nearly 35% of the general population. To reduce these difficulties, the growth of several fast dissolving drug delivery systems has been produced. Oral dissolving film is relatively a new dosage form in which thin film is prepared using hydrophilic polymers, which rapidly dissolves on tongue or buccal cavity. The film overcomes the danger/fear of choking. An ideal film should have the characteristics like pleasant taste, high stability, ease of handling and administration, no water necessary for administration. The present review focuses on hydrophilic polymers, plasticizers, sweeteners, flavors and colors etc which are used in the formulation of oral dissolving films including the manufacturing&nbsp; aspects of oral dissolving film like solvent casting method, rolling method, extrusion method and solid dispersion method and evaluation parameters like disintegration, dissolution, tensile strength, thickness, folding endurance, elastic modulus for oral dissolving films.</p> Rada Santosh Kumar, T. Naga Satya Yagnesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2395 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A review on experimental pharmacology http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2242 <p>In this era where the pharmaceutical companies and products are hiking in its need and production it is inevitable to document the safety and toxicity along with the indications of the same. This is where the experimental study has a vital role to play. Experimental pharmacology is the science where the drug interaction with different receptors and target sites in living organism are explained. This article reviews about the different aspects of experimental pharmacology and its uses.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Experimental pharmacology, products, dosage</p> Devika Balagopalan, Gazala Hussain, M M Nidhin, Sruthi Nambiar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2242 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A review on Indole and Benzothiazole derivatives its importance http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2358 <p>In recent years heterocyclic compounds analogues and derivatives have attracted wide attention due to their useful biological and pharmacological properties. Indole, Benzothiazole and its analogs are versatile substrates, which can be used for the synthesis of numerous heterocyclic compounds. Indole, Benzothiazole and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis and they are used in evaluating new product that possesses different biological activities. Hence, their extensive structural modification has result in different analogues of Indole and Benzothiazole derivatives depicting wide range of biological and pharmacological activities such as antiviral, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and anticancer. This review article literature survey summarizes the synthesis and pharmacological activities of Indole, Benzothiazole and its derivatives.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Indole, Benzothiazole, antiviral, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and anticancer</p> Shaheen Sulthana, P. Pandian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2358 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Critical Review on Ksharaplota and its Therapeutic Aspects http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2247 <p><em>Kshara </em>is a very important therapeutic approach of Ayurveda <em>ShalyaTantra</em> with minimal invasion. The utilization of <em>Kshara</em> contributes significantly towards the management of ulcer and wound. <em>Kshara</em> application may be two types <em>Pratisarneeya</em> and <em>Paaneeya</em>. <em>Ksharaplota</em> is one of the <em>Pratisarneeya</em> type parasurgical methods of Ayurveda involving use of <em>Kshara</em> to treat various anorectal disorders. <em>Ksharaplota </em>not only clean wound but also covers it and removes debris. <em>Ksharaplota</em> is safe, economic and easy to use for the management of fistula-in-ano &amp; hemorrhoids, etc. The aim of this review article is to summarize all aspect of <em>Ksharaplota</em> therapy to explore therapy for upcoming researchers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Infected wound, <em>Vrana-Shodhana</em>, <em>Ksharaplota, Dushta Vrana, </em>Alkaline Medicated Gauze.</p> Anantkumar V. Shekokar, Vijay P. Ukhalkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2247 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 An appraisal of Unani fundamentals in the management of Humma (fever) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2430 <p>The fever has been described in Unani System of Medicine in a very elaborative manner. Besides controlling raised body temperature, the management also comprises other measures to achieve holistic treatment. The basic modes of treatment viz. <em>Ilaj bil Ghiza </em>(dietotherapy)<em>, Ilaj bil Tadbeer </em>(regimenal therapy) <em>and Ilaj bil Dawa </em>(pharmacotherapy) are taken into account as per the basic principles of treatment in Unani medicine. Use of cold water and other drinks (<em>mashroob)</em> reduces body temperature, while use of easily digestible and <em>jayyadul kemoos</em> diet like <em>maul asl, ma’ul shaeer, kashak-us-shaeer</em>, <em>aash-e-jau</em> etc. are given in small amounts, just to provide strength to <em>tabiát</em> and to avoid further increase in morbid matter. Various types of drug used to manage different kinds of fever are <em>Dafe Humma, Muarriqat, Musaffiyat wa Muaddilat, Mubarridat wa Musakkinat, Mudirrat, Muqawwi Kabid and Mufarrehat</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Humma, </em>Fever, Unani, Management, Basic Principles</p> MD. WASI WASI AKHTAR, Mursaleen Naseer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2430 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Canna indica L. (Cannaceae): A review on phytochemical, medicinal, pharmacological and biological studies http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2363 <p>This review article aims to supply in order which is necessary to assert and look at its pharmacognostic, biological and pharmacological profile. Every part of <em>Canna </em>has valuable properties that can serve humankind so the whole plant can be extensively studied for further research aspects. Considering the extensive uses of <em>C. indica </em>L. roots, leaves and rhizomes, the present article work is an attempt to explore phyto-compounds present in <em>Canna indica </em>L. roots leaves, and rhizomes possibly answerable for unusual pharmacological activities exhibited and thereby therapeutic uses predictable to them. This article mainly emphasized on phytoconstituents present in various parts of <em>Canna indica </em>L. and their corresponding biological and pharmacological activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Canna indica </em>L., origin, phytoconstituents, biological and pharmacological activities</p> Prashant Kumar Yadav, S.S. Sisdia o ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2363 Fri, 15 Feb 2019 04:15:54 -0600