Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Thu, 15 Aug 2019 03:15:18 -0500 OJS 60 OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION OF Ulva SP. HYDROLYSATE BY NOVEL YEAST Cyberlindnera jadinii MMS7 FOR ENHANCEMENT OF POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY <p>This study is aimed to evaluate the total phenols (TP) content and antioxidant activity of green alga <em>Ulva </em>sp. hydrolysate by aerobic fermentation using novel yeast <em>Cyberlindnera jadinii </em>&nbsp;MMS7. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the ultrasound assisted hydrolysate preparation from <em>Ulva </em>sp and found that the ultrasound power density of 0.35 WmL<sup>-1</sup> at 15 min as optimum for hydrolysate preparation by ultrasonic pretreatment. The maximum TP of 35.75 ± 0.12 mg PGE g<sup>-1</sup> observed in these condition, hence, it was used for further investigation for enhancing the TP content of hydrolysate. By the classical method of optimization pH 5.5, temperature 35<sup>o</sup>C and agitation speed 150 rpm were found to be the optimum physical parameters for improving TP content (44.59±0.06 mg PGE g<sup>-1</sup>) of <em>Ulva </em>sp. hydrolysate fermentation by <em>C .jadinii</em> MMS7. At these optimum conditions, 3.26 fold DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in fermented extract than unfermented extract. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the RSM is an adequate approach for optimization of ultrasound assisted hydrolysate preparation from <em>Ulva </em>sp. In addition to this, the novel yeast strain <em>C. jadinii</em> MMS7 considered as potential candidate for fermentation of <em>Ulva </em>sp. hydrolysate for enhanceing TP content and antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: &nbsp;</strong>Antioxidant activity, <em>Cyberlindnera jadinii</em>, fermentation, hydrolysate, RSM, total phenols, <em>Ulva </em>sp.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> D Murali, Krishnan Dhandayuthapani, Mazhar sulatan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxybutyrate from Giant Reed Grass Hydrolysate and Evaluation of its Drug Releasing Profiles <p>The cost of biopolymer production is one of the most important factor restricting the industrial application of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The main aim of this present study is to explore suitable low-cost novel substrate for PHB production. In this study, giant reed grass (GRG) biomass was pretreated with different concentration of NaOH (1-3%) at various conditions like room temperature, microwave irradiation high temperature and pressure (HTP). Among these three conditions, at the HTP pretreatment with 2% NaOH, the maximum fermentable glucose of 79.32% was obtained after removal of llignin by SC/AA treatment. Further, this pretreatment condition was used for hydrolysate preparation for PHB biosynthesis using <em>B. subtilis </em>RNM. Under optimized condition, the maximum PHB of 46.21±0.2 gL<sup>-1 </sup>was obtained from GRG hydrolysate. This result indicates that the GRG hydrolysate could be a novel low-cost substrate for PHB biosynthesis. This is the first attempt we made to use GRG hydrolysate as feedstock for PHB biosynthesis. Moreover, the produced PHB was characterized by <sup>1</sup>H NMR, FTIR and thermal amalysis (DSC and TGA) techniques. The characterized results were very similar to characters of commercial PHB. Further, the produced PHB was used for doxorubicin - PHB microparticles preparation with 93.21±0.15 % of encapsulation efficiency and found its anticancer drug delivery efficiency as 98%. Hence, this study demonstrates that the PHB biosynthesized from GRG hydrolysate could be a best biodegradable polymer for anticancer drug doxorubicin encapsulation and delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>B. subtilis, </em>Biosynthesis, giant reed grass, hydrolysate, microparticles, drug releasing, PHB</p> T. Revadhi, R. Nanthini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Analgesic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Leave Extract of the Putranjiva roxburghii. <p><strong>Background: </strong>this study was aimed to assess the possible analgesic activity of <em>Putranjiva Roxburghii</em> in albino’s Wister rats.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Rats were divided in 5 groups of 6 animal each, I group served as control, II group as standard (Pentazocin) while group III, IV and V were treated with leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva Roxburghii</em> at doses of 20,100,200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The statistical analysis of results were carried out using and one way (ANOVA) followed by students t-test.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong> the analgesic activity was determined based on the reaction time. The effect of the hydroalcoholic leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva Roxburghii </em>and references also evaluated. The hydroalcoholic leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva Roxburghii </em>administered orally the four different doses produced significant analgesic activity and reduced Pentazocin induced reaction time (analgesic effect) in dose dependent manner. The effect of 400 mg/kg (p.o.) having better activity than 100 and 200 mg/kg was similar to that of reference drug Pentazocin (5 mg/kg, p.o.).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>the results showed that hydroalcoholic leave extract of <em>Putranjiva Roxburghii </em>has a 400 mg/kg act as significant for analgesic activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Analgesic, Pentazocin, reaction time.</p> Prevesh Kumar, Munesh Mani, Navneet Varma, Shivansh Yadav, Pawan Singh, , Diksha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antimicrobial activities of Chaetomorpha antennina dichloromethane extract against isolated urinary tract infection pathogens <p>During the treatment of infectious diseases, upon repeated administration of an antibiotic, most microbial pathogens generate resistance to that antibiotic. Multiple drug resistance is also a widespread problem. Thus, it is the need of the hour to identify alternative antibacterial drugs. Seaweeds are one of the major repositories of numerous pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. The goal of this investigation is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of <em>Chaetomorpha antennina</em> dichloromethane (DCM) extract against isolated urinary tract infection pathogens from urinary tract infection (UTI) infected patients. Antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum bactericidal or candicidal concentration (MBC/MCC) and biofilm inhibition activity of <em>C. antennina </em>extract was observed against the 7 isolated microbial strains: <em>Enterococcus avium,</em> <em>Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli</em> and<em> Candida albicans </em>(yeast). All isolated strains from UTI infected patients were later sequenced, identified and submitted in PubMed. The crude DCM extract of C<em>. antennina </em>showed remarkable inhibitory effects ranging between 2mm and 9mm, and its activity was recorded in the following order of <em>E. coli &gt;E. avium&gt; E. cloacae </em>and<em> S</em>. <em>hominis</em> &gt;S. epidermis &gt; P. aeruginosa &gt; <em>P. mirabilis &gt; C. albicans. </em>The MIC ranged between 500 to 750µg/ml, and the MBC was recorded in the range of 750 to 1000µg/ml. The crude DCM extract of <em>C. antennina </em>was also observed to have biofilm inhibitory activity at different concentrations against isolated UTI pathogens. This investigation elucidates that <em>C. antennina </em>DCM extract possesses antimicrobial activity against isolated UTI pathogens.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antimicrobial activities, <em>Chaetomorpha antennina, </em>Minimum inhibitory concentrations and Urinary tract infection.</p> S.S. Maithili, G. Ramanathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Matrix tablets containing Chitosan Based Polyelectrolyte Complex with Natural Gum for Prolonged Release of Diltiazem HCl <p>The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the matrix tablets containing chitosan based polyelectrolyte complex microsphers of natural gum to overcome the problem of dose dumping and&nbsp; prolonged release of Diltiazem HCl . Microspheres of diltiazem were prepared using emulsion–crosslinking technique. The prepared microsphers were converted into matrix tablets by direct compression method and evaluated. Interaction of drug with polymers was examined by FT-IR spectroscopy, results indicated absence of chemical interactions between drug and the polymer. Differential Scanning Calorimetry studies indicated amorphous dispersion of Diltiazem HCl particles into the polymer matrix. The %encapsulation efficiencies were found between 36.5% and 84.8%. The average particle size of the prepared microspheres ranged from 9.3 to 16.87 μm when observed under optical microscope using stage micrometer. <em>In-vitro </em>dissolution profiles of all formulations were carried in acidic buffer (pH 1.2) for initial two hours, followed by alkaline buffer (pH 7.4) for 10 h. The drug release was found to be dependent on %encapsulation efficiencies and the concentrations of chitosan and xanthan gum used. The drug release pattern was in accordance with Higuchi’s model for diffusion because, it showed the maximum correlation coefficient in most of the formulations. Further the pre-compression and post-compression parameters for the tablet blend and the compressed tablets were found to be well within the compendial limits&nbsp; and drug release study showed&nbsp; zero order release up to 12 hours.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Microspheres, matrix tablets Diltiazem hydrochloride, Chitosan, Xanthan Gum, polyelectrolyte complex, crosslinking.</p> Rudragouda Patil, Rakesh K Jat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Synthesis of furano[2,3-c] /pyrrolo[2,3-c]coumarins and synthesis of 1(H)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-b][1]benzopyrano[3’,4’-d] furan-7(H)-ones /1(H)-[1]benzopyrano[3,4-b][1]benzopyrano [3’,4’-d]pyrrole-7(H)-ones <p>A series of synthesis of various 1-aryl-furano[2,3-<em>c</em>] and 1-phenyl-2-methyl-furano [2,3-<em>c</em>]coumarins;1-aryl-pyrrolo[2,3-<em>c</em>]and1-phenyl-2methylpyrrolo[2,3<em>c</em>]coumarins; 1aryl1<em>H</em>1] benzopyrano[3,4,-<em>b</em>][1]benzpyrano [3’,4’-<em>d</em>]furan-7<em>H</em>-ones and 1-aryl-1<em>(H)</em>-[1]benzopyrano[3,4,-<em>b</em>][1]benzpyrano[3’,4’-<em>d</em>]pyrrole-7<em>(H)</em>-ones. 1-Aryl-furano [2,3-<em>c</em>]coumarins and 1-phenyl-2-methyl-furano[2,3-<em>c</em>]coumarin have been synthesized by reacting 3-hydroxy coumarin with various 2-aryl-1-nitro-ethenes and 1-phenyl-2-nitro-propene respectively in the presence of piperidine and methanol as solvent. 1-Aryl-pyrrolo [2,3-<em>c</em>]coumarins and 1-phenyl-2-methyl-pyrrolo[2,3-<em>c</em>] coumarin also have been synthesised by reacting 3-amino coumarin with&nbsp; various 2-aryl-1-nitro-ethenes and 1-phenyl-2-nitro-propene respectively in the presence of piperidine and methanol. The formation of furan and pyrrole nucleus in all above compounds follows Nef reaction mechanism. Using the Nef reaction, synthesis of various 1-aryl-1<em>(H)</em>-[1]benzopyrano[3,4,-<em>b</em>][1]benzpyrano[3’,4’-<em>d</em>]furan-7<em>(H)</em>-ones have been carried out&nbsp; by reacting various 4-hydroxy coumarins with various 3-nitro-2-aryl-2<em>H</em>-[1]benzopyrans in the presence of piperidine and methanol. Similarly synthesis of various 1-aryl-1<em>(H)</em>-[1]benzopyrano[3,4,-<em>b</em>][1]benzpyrano [3’,4’-<em>d</em>]pyrrole-7<em>(H)</em>-ones also have been carried out by reacting various 4-hydroxy coumarins with various 3-nitro-2-aryl-2H-[1]benzopyrans in the presence of ammoniun acetate&nbsp; and acetic acid.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Furan, Pyrrolo,Coumarin, Benzopyrano.</p> Mahesh K. Pandya, Mehulsinh R. Chhasatia, Nileshkumar D. Vala, Tapan H. Parekh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Application of Silica Supported Aluminium Hydroxide as a Low Cost Green Catalyst for the One Pot MCR Sythesis via Thermal Method <p>The catalysis is the first and active side they are good yield with good reusability. The sequence of time. They are the time of reaction is smaller, it saves the energy and time consummation, another thing is the good catalyst is intelligent for the dynamic yield but are focused on the design the catalyst they have good effectiveness as well as good reusability with green chemistry concept. In today times much, research is being carried out on Nano particles green catalysis we have eco-friendly make an endeavoured for designing new catalyst from waste aluminium foil to new catalyst. So our catalyst is designed from waste aluminium foil and transformed into good and reusability catalyst. They are continuing produced the same yield up to 7-8 reaction cycle.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ketone, Aromatic aldehydes &amp; ammonium hydroxide hydrochloride, green path with help of silica supported catalyst.</p> Jayaveersinh Mahida, Ravi B. Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antibacterial Screening of Aqueous, Alcoholic and Hydroalcoholic extracts of a Unani drug Abhal (Fruits of Juniperus communis) <p>Abhal is the dried ripe fruit of <em>Juniperus communis </em>Linn. It has long been using in Unani Medicine to treat many ailments including genitourinary infectious diseases. In the present study, the aqueous, alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Abhal berries were screened for their antimicrobial activity against both gram positive (<em>Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium xerosis </em>and <em>Bacillus cereus</em>) and gram negative (<em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>) bacterial strains compared with the standard Drug: Ciprofloxacin (SD060) 5µg/disk for gram positive bacterial strains and Gentamicin (SD016) 10µg/disk for gram negative bacterial strains using Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) with the help of Agar well method and&nbsp; Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) &amp; Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) with the help of Nutrient Broth method. The data was analysed using Gpad INSTAT software, one way ANOVA and post-test named Bonferroni. Alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extract showed significant antibacterial activity than the aqueous extract but not up to the mark as compared to standard group indicating that the alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extract has the capability of extracting more phytochemicals than aqueous extract which are responsible for their antimicrobial activity. It could be concluded that the present drug possesses antimicrobial property. <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antimicrobial, Abhal, <em>Juniperus communis</em>, MIC, MBC.</p> Sada Akhtar, Abdur Rauf, Sumbul Rehman, Mohd. Zakir Siddiqui ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Development and evaluation of Zotepine loaded mucoadhesive microemulsion for intranasal delivery <p>Mania and bipolar illness are the major problems in the schizophrenia treatment, zotepine, atypical antipsychotic drug used for this condition. The aim of present investigation was to develop mucoadhesive microemulsion of zotepine for intranasal delivery by phase titration method. The developed formulations were evaluated for its size, zeta, PDI and invitro release studied. The optimized formulation, containing 5% Oleic acid, 40% Tween 80: PEG400 (3:1) and 55% water. The globule size (53.1±0.31), zeta potential (-32.1±0.2),PDI (0.13±0.23).0.5% chitosan was added to the optimized formulation to prepare mucoadhesive formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Zotepine; Microemulsion; pseudoternary phase diagram; solubility;</p> Anilgoud Kandhula, Anjali Devi Nippani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Ex-vivo skin permeation studies of sumatriptan succinate using different solvent systems and its comparison with PLGA nanoparticles <p>Sumatripatan succinate<strong> (</strong>SS) is a 5-HT<sub>1D</sub> agonist used in migraine therapy. Its low oral bioavailability (~15 %) is due to extensive pre-systemic metabolism and low biological half-life. The frequent administration of SS is required to maintain effective plasma concentration. In the present investigation, polymeric nanoparticles of SS (SS-NPs) were prepared by W<sub>1</sub>/O/W<sub>2</sub> double emulsion solvent evaporation method followed by probe sonication. Poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poloxamer 188 were used as polymer and surfactant respectively to formulate SS-NPs. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, percent entrapment efficiency of SS-NPs were found to be 126 nm, 0.06, (-) 24.1 mV, 32.52 ± 2.34 % respectively. Characterization of lyophilized SS-NPs revealed formation of drug entrapped amorphous SS-NPs. <em>Ex-vivo</em> skin permeation studies of SS were conducted using distilled water, ethanol (EtOH), propylene glycol (PG) and their binary combinations. The lag time, flux, permeability and steady state permeability coefficient and enhancement ratio were determined. The <em>ex-vivo</em> permeation profiles of SS in different solvent systems were compared with SS-NPs in distilled water. The maximum flux of 345.8 µ<sup>-2</sup>.h<sup>-1</sup> was obtained with solvent system comprising 33% PG in EtOH. The minimum lag time and a comparable flux value was obtained in <em>ex-vivo</em> diffusion studies of SS-NPs. Hence, it can be concluded that SS-NPs can be administered in transdermal drug delivery system using a solvent system comprising 33%PG in EtOH. The present investigation indicated that using suitable solvent system and PLGA nanoparticles, the skin permeation of SS can be enhanced.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Migraine, sumatriptan succinate, poly-(lactide-co-glycolide), nanoparticles, transdermal patch</p> Pramod Shridhar Salve, Rashi Rakesh Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and GC-MS Analysis of Fresh Rose Petals Aqueous Extract of Rosa damascena Mill L. <p>A rose (<em>Rosa damascena</em>) is a woody perennial plant of the genus Rosa within the family Rosaceae. The leaves of the plant are alternate to each other on the stem. Best known for its ornamental values, most of the rose plants are deciduous except a few from the South East Asia that are evergreen. The aggregate fruit of the rose is a pot-like structure containing the seeds in it called the rose hip. The sharp objects along the stem of a rose plant are outgrowths of the epidermis called as prickles. The flowers to prepare a drink which acts as an energy stimulant, blood tonic and also works in case of digestive irregularities. The extract of rose plant especially act as an antidepressant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, antiinflammatory, digestive stimulant, kidney tonic and menstrual regulator. The maximum DPPH˙ radical and superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>˙-</sup>) radical scavenging activities of fresh rose petals aqueous extract were 52.84±0.20% and 89.36±0.31% at 120 µg/mL concentration. The IC<sub>50</sub> values of DPPH˙ radical and superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>˙-</sup>) radical scavenging activities were 113.55 µg/mL and 40.62 µg/mL concentration respectively. The maximum Mo<sup>6+ </sup>reduction and Fe<sup>3+</sup> reduction of fresh rose petals aqueous extract were 82.52±0.13% and 81.54±0.42% at 120 µg/mL concentration and the RC<sub>50 </sub>values of Mo<sup>6+ </sup>reduction and Fe<sup>3+</sup> reduction were 46.67 µg/mL 32.25 µg/mL concentration respectively. The fresh aqueous extract of <em>Rosa damascena</em> possessed active molecules such as E,E-6,8-Tridecadien-2-ol, acetate, 8-Carbethoxy-1-methyl-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydropyrrolo [2,3-b]azepin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid and 9-Octadecynoic acid, methyl ester exhibiting antioxidant, antimicrobial activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Rosa damascena</em>, Antioxidant, Free radical, DPPH<strong>˙</strong>, Antibacterial activity, GC-MS.</p> C Sivaraj, R Abhirami, M Deepika, V Sowmiya, K Saraswathi, P Arumugam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Influence of Growth Hormone and Additives on In vitro Shoot Initiation from Apical and Axillary Meristems of Commiphora wightii <p><em>Commiphora wightii</em> is an important plant species of immense medicinal value and pharmaceutically used for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to develop an efficient protocol for micropropagation of <em>Commiphora wightii</em> from apical and nodal meristems and to study the influence of additives on the enhancement of bud breaking, number of shoot per explant and shoot length. MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) basal media supplemented with various concentrations of 6- Benzyl amino purine (BAP: 0.5-5.0 mg/l) alone or in combinations with kinetin (KN: 0.5-1.0 mg/l) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA: 0.5-1.0 mg/l) and additives like ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA), adenine sulphate (AS) and activated charcoal (AC). The highest shoot initiation was reported in T13 (MS + 4.0BAP + 1.0 NAA mg/l + Additives) i.e. 0.80 ± 0.07 with highest number (1.57 ± 0.15) of shoots per explants. Treatment T12 (MS + 3.0BAP + 1.0 NAA+1.0 KN mg/l + Additives) highest shoot length (1.13) was recorded followed by T13 (MS + 4.0BAP + 1.0 NAA mg/l Additives) and T14 (MS + 5.0BAP + 1.0 KN) having mean value 1.07 and 0.90 respectively. MS basal medium (control) devoid of growth regulators did not support the shoot induction. The shoot induction protocol developed in current study provides a basis for germplasm conservation and for further investigation of medicinally active constituents of the elite medicinal plant</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong><em>Commiphora wightii,</em> 6- Benzyl amino purine, kinetin, naphthalene acetic acid, additives.</p> Manisha Bhardwaj, Aparna Alia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Bilayer Matrix Tablets of Nebivolol Hydrochloride and Valsartan <p>The present study is an attempt to develop bilayer matrix tablets of Nebivolol Hydrochloride and Valsartan with immediate release for Nebivolol Hydrochloride and sustained release for Valsartan. Superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate and Crosscarmellose sodium were evaluated for immediate release of Nebivolol Hydrochloride and polymers HPMC K100M and K4M for sustained release of Valsartan. Preformulation studies were performed prior to compression. The compressed bilayer tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content and in vitro drug release using USP dissolution apparatus type 2 in 0.01N HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. All the pre and post compression parameters were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results of dissolution show that the formulations B3 was the best of all immediate and sustained release layer batches. The release kinetics of Valsartan was subject to curve fitting analysis in order to identify the best fit kinetic model. The regression analysis proves that the best formulations follow zero order release and drug release by diffusion process based on Fick’s law of diffusion. The data for stability studies infer no considerable change in drug content and dissolution rates as per ICH guidelines. The best formulation B3 was subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rabbit model. In vitro, In vivo correlation (IVIVC) showed considerable linearity. Hence a novel bilayer tablet formulation of Nebivolol Hydrochloride and Valsartan was successfully developed by combining both immediate (IR) and sustained (SR) release layers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bilayer tablets, fixed unit dosage form, Nebivolol hydrochloride, Valsartan, LC-MS analysis.</p> Selvi Arunkumar, L. Srinivas, D. Satyavati, C. Emmanuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Anti-Osteoclastic Effect of Zinc Studied in MCF-7 Induced Osteoclastogenesis <p>Bone which a key structural support of the body, undergoes dynamic micro structural remodelling all over life to control automatic stress and calcium requirement in the body. A number of risk factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis and abnormal intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> metabolism have been postulated to play a function in the inception and progress of bone osteolysis. Cancer cells establish a tight relationship with the host tissue, secreting factors that stimulate or inhibit bone cells, receiving signals generated from the bone remodelling activity, and displaying some features of bone cells. This interplay between tumour and bone cells alters the physiological bone remodelling, leading to the generation of a vicious cycle that promotes bone metastasis growth. Zinc is one of the most relevant minerals to human health, because of its antioxidant properties. The present study was aimed to investigate protective role of zinc against bone metastasis. In the present study, TRAP positive multinucleated cell count was low compared to CM treated cells. Zinc treatment suppressed MCF-7 induced mRNA levels of cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1), TRAP and Cathepsin-K. Hence, it can be concluded that zinc decreases osteoclastogenesis induced by MCF-7 cells.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Oxidative stress; Metastasis; Bone remodelling; Zinc.</p> K Nagalakshmi, S Shila, P Rasappan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Herbal Toothpaste for Treatment of Oral Disease <p><em>Streptococcus mutans </em>is the most common cause of tooth decay. Parabens and other commonly used as anti-<em>Streptococcus </em>agents in toothpaste industry have numerous side effects such as discoloration of teeth. The herbal extract of all three plants gives antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity and prevent and reducing the tooth decay, dental caries and given to freshness of mouth. The aim of present work was development and evaluation of herbal antimicrobial toothpaste containing Bark of <em>Acacia nilotica, Acacia catechu </em>and flower buds of<em> syzygium aromaticum</em> as herbal ingredients. Different types of formulations (F1-F6) were formulated using calcium carbonate as abrasive and Glycerine as humectant in varied concentrations. All the formulations were evaluated for various parameters like dryness, color, appearance, consistency, washability, pH, spreadability and foaming power. Polyherbal toothpaste containing hydroalcoholic extract of plants was tested for antimicrobial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>with different concentrations of toothpaste were used (25, 50and 100 mg/ml). Among the tested bacteria used <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>was found to be most sensitive to the formulated toothpaste as seen by zone of inhibition (19-24 mm) followed by <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>(13-18 mm). The results showed that the formulated polyherbal toothpaste is promising antimicrobial effects against both organisms. It may be safer compared to fully synthetic toothpaste. Further studies are warranted to prove safety and efficacy of the formulated polyherbal toothpaste.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Streptococcus mutans, Acacia nilotica, Acacia catechu, syzygium aromaticum,</em> polyherbal toothpaste</p> Kavita Varma Shukla, Deepika Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 In-Vivo Studies on Anti-Diabetic Potential of Leucas Aspera in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats <p>Nanotechnology is being a utilized in medicine for diagnosis, therapeutic drug delivery and for the development of treatment for many ailments and disorders specifically in the areas of drug delivery, as medical diagnostic tools, and as diseases cure agents. During the past decades, the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has received considerable attention due to the growing need to develop environmentally sociable technologies in material synthesis. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of <em>Leucas aspera</em> leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats and, serum creatinine, blood urea, protein content, enzymatic antioxidant, and non-enzymatic antioxidant was estimated.&nbsp; This study evidenced the efficacy of the anti-diabetic potential of <em>Leucas aspera</em> leaf extract in the <em>in-vivo</em> model.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Diabetes mellitus, Iron oxide nanoparticles,</em> <em>Leucas aspera, Streptozotocin (STZ).</em></p> GC Madhu, Kannaiyan Jaianand, K Rameshkumar, Paulraj Balaji, Veeramani Veeramanikandan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation of Effective Microbial Consortium and Its Application for Industrial Wastewater Treatment <p>The present study was conducted for auto mobile industry, food industry and pharmaceutical industries waste water treatment using effective microbial consortium. The effective microorganisms like <em>Acinetobacter pittii, Escherichia coli, Fictibacillus nanhaiensis, Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus </em>and<em> Planococcus maritimus</em> were isolated from respective sources. The microbial consortium was formulated using molasses as medium at pH 3.8 and incubated at 37°C for 3 days. The results showed that the formulated consortium was efficient for industrial waste water treatment and thereby it reduced the environmental impact.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Bio-remediation, Microbial consortium, Industrial waste water, Heavy metals</em></p> A Mahilarasi, Kannaiyan Jaianand, K Rameshkumar, Paulraj Balaji, Veeramani Veeramanikandan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PRASUGREL HYDROCHLORIDE FLOATING TABLETS <p>The objective of the present work was to formulate and characterize floating drug delivery system of Prasugrel hydrochloride that releases the drug slowly up to 8 h in order to minimize its potential side effect bleeding and to improve the bioavailability with enhance patient compliance. Prasugrel floating tablets were prepared&nbsp; by effervescent approach with melt granulation and direct compression techniques alone and in combination using Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K100M and Compritol 888 ATO at different concentrations (20%, 30% and 40% w/w) alone and in combination. Sodium bicarbonate at concentration 10% w/w was optimized as gas generating floating agent. Evaluations were carried out on physical parameters, floating behavior and influence of type of polymer on drug release rate. All the formulations were subjected to various quality control and&nbsp;<em>in-vitro</em>&nbsp;dissolution studies and corresponding dissolution data were fitted to popular release kinetic equations in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. All the prasugrel floating tablet formulations followed zero order kinetics. As per Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, the release exponent “n” ranged 0.550-0.776 indicating that drug release from all the formulations was by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Based on the results, prasugrel hydrochloride floating tablets prepared by employing combination of 15% w/w HPMC K100M and 15% w/w Compritol 888 ATO offered desired in-vitro floating time and drug dissolution profile.</p> Rama Koteswararao Kotharapu, Srinivas Lankalapalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF NANOPARTICLES BASED TRANSDERMAL PATCH OF AGOMELATINE FOR THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION <p>Agomelatine (AGM) is an antidepressant drug. Its extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism coupled with low biological half-life shows 5% absolute bioavailability on oral administration.&nbsp; Polymeric nanoparticles of drug (AGM-PNPs) with PLGA polymer were prepared by nano-precipitation method followed by solvent evaporation. The particle size, &nbsp;polydispersity index, zeta potential and % entrapment efficiency of the optimized formulation was found to be 104.5 ±3.98 nm, 0.135 ±0.02, (-) 13.3 ±0.48 mV and 83.6 ±4.12%&nbsp; respectively. DSC, FT-IR and XRD methods of instrumental analysis confirmed the formation of AGM-PNPs. In scanning electron microscopy study uniform spherical polymeric nanoparticles were observed. Matrix–type transdermal patch containing AGM (formulation TP1) and AGM-PNPs &nbsp;(formulation TP2) were prepared by a solvent evaporation method using a film former machine. The folding endurance, moisture uptake values were found to comply with standards. In the drug release studies, Korsmeyer-peppas release kinetics was found to be the best fit model. In <em>ex-vivo</em> skin permeation studies, transdermal patch formulation containing AGM-PNPs shown least lag time as compared to transdermal patch containing agomelatine. Permeability coefficient (Kp) values for formulations transdermal patch formulation containing AGM and AGM-PNPs were found to be 5.26 and 8.24 (cm/h×10<sup>3</sup>) respectively. Enhancement ratio (ER) for formulations TP1 and TP2 were found to be 1 and 1.57 respectively. In the seven-day skin irritation study, transdermal patch as test formulation (TP 2) showed skin irritation score of less than 1</p> Pramod Salve ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Floating and Mucoadhesive Tablets Containing Rosiglitazone <p>In this present study, floating mucoadhesive tablets of Rosiglitazone were formulated to improve the gastric retention time and overall bioavailability. Different mucoadhesive polymers like HPMC K200 M, Na CMC, Carbopol 974P, Karaya gum, Chitosan and Xanthan gum were selected to formulate the tablets. Various formulations were prepared by using these polymers in different concentration. The pre-compression blend of Rosiglitazone mucoadhesive tablets were characterized with respect to angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, carr’s index and hausner’s ratio and all the results indicated that the blend was having good flow property and hence better compression properties. The swelling studies were performed for the formulations and the results depicted that all the formulations have a good swelling index. The drug release studies depicted that the formulations release the drug in first order. So based on the results, formulation RF13 was found to be an optimized formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Mucoadhesive tablets, Rosiglitazone, Bioadhesive polymers.</p> Jagdish K Arun, Dharmajit Pattanayak, Ramesh Adepu, C.M Hossain, B. Shrivastava, Ramya Sri Sura ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 An Approach to Evaluate Anti-arthritic and Thrombolytic Activity of Different parts of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae) and Smilax zeylanica L. (Liliaceae) <p>Phytochemical screening of chloroform and methanolic extracts of different parts of <em>Solanum torvum</em> and <em>Smilax zeylanica</em> was done. In vitro thrombolytic and anti-arthritic activities were assessed using the clot lysis method and egg albumin denaturation technique respectively. Between the chloroform and methanolic extracts, Chloroform extracts of both plants showed higher clot lysis activities (at 100 ppm solution). On the other hand, extracts of both plants performed better in terms of anti-arthritic activities (at 500 ppm solution). In the case of thrombolytic activity, between the plant extracts, the performance of <em>S. torvum</em> is higher compared to<em> S. zeylanica</em> plant. Among chloroform extracts of different plant parts, stem of <em>S. torvum </em>and root of<em> S. zeylanica </em>showed the highest, 35.44±1.89 % and 33.63±0.83 % activities respectively. Whereas, among the methanolic extracts of the plants, the root extracts of both plants showed the highest activities, 31.96±2.86 % for <em>S. torvum</em> and 32.01±1.46 % for <em>S. zeylanica</em>. In the case of anti-arthritic activity, the performance of <em>S. zeylanica</em> plant extracts is higher compared to that of<em> S. torvum</em>. Methanolic extract of leaf of <em>S. zeylanica</em> samples showed the best protein denaturation activity (52.38±2.12 %) followed by the Methanolic extract of stem sample of <em>S. torvum</em>&nbsp; (44.29±2.14 %).</p> Md. Samsur Rahaman, Md. Saifur Rahaman, Md. Abdul Bari, Rajesh Barua, Jahid Md. Mahbub Islam, Md. Siddiqul Islam, Mubarak Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Simultaneous Estimation of Racecadotril and Ofloxacin by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms. <p><strong>Background: </strong>Racecadotril and Ofloxacin (RACIGYL- O) drug combination are used for the treatment of diarrhea. The drugs have been estimated individually in formulations but no method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of these two drugs as combination.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To develop and validate a high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous estimation of Racecadotril and Ofloxacin in tablet dosage form.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A WATERS C<sub>18</sub> column (250 x 4.6mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol and water 40:40:20v/v (pH adjusted to 2.7 of water with <em>ortho </em>phosphoric acid). The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and effluents were monitored at 210nm.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The retention time of RAC and OFL was 4.666 min and 2.551 min respectively. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The method show good reproducibility and recovery with %RSD less than 2. So the proposed method was found to be simple, rapid, precise and accurate and useful for the determination of RAC and OFL in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>RP-HPLC, Racecadotril, Ofloxacin, ICH guidelines.</p> Komal Gupta, Deepika Sharma, Pooja Chawla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Cytoprotection Alternatives for Cancer Treatment: In-vitro Evaluation of Alpinia Zerumbet as a Radioprotective Agent <p>Cancer radiotherapy and modern synthetic medicine are critical for the treatment of cancer patients, but on the other hand they may have tremendous harmful side effect from the point of view of a weakened immune system. The focus of current research efforts in the industry and academia is not only to find affordable treatment methodologies but also to discover sources that mitigates or prevents the negative impact of these treatments on the patient’s immune system. This review will provide details of optimal methodology involving Invitro application of techniques such as phytochemical analysis, thin layer chromatography, cytogenetic analysis that were adopted to assess the efficacy of Alpinia Zerumbet extracts as a radioprotector. These methodologies provide a holistic evaluation technique for assessing any potential cytoprotective agent, especially if it’s from the herbal domain. As a case study, analytical and inferential results summary of the research conducted to assess radioprotective property of Alpinia Zerumbet, a herbal and readily available derivative, will be presented. The key findings from the research indicate that the Alpinia Zerumbet extract has potential to be an effective radioprotector, with minimal side effects as compared to synthetic chemical cytoprotective agents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Radioprotection; cancer; herbal; Alpinia Zerumbet</p> Ritwiz Bhardwaj Shukla, N Ganesh, M.L. Kori ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of Cassia sophera (L.) leaf and bark extracts <p><strong>Background:</strong><em> Cassia sophera</em> (L.), or kasundi, is an&nbsp;important&nbsp;plant in traditional medicinal system&nbsp;belonging&nbsp;to&nbsp;family&nbsp;caesalpiniaceae. The leaves extract of this plant is known for various pharmacological activities including, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, purgative property etc.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential of methanolic leaf and stem bark extracts of <em>C. sophera</em> (L.).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We measured and compared antioxidant potential by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging, ferric reducing power antioxidant capacity and total antioxidant capacity assay;&nbsp; and through determination&nbsp; of&nbsp; total&nbsp; phenol&nbsp; and&nbsp; flavonoid&nbsp; content determination.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Preliminary phytochemical&nbsp; study&nbsp; revealed&nbsp; the&nbsp; presence&nbsp; of&nbsp; alkaloid, glycoside, tannin, saponin&nbsp; and&nbsp; flavonoid&nbsp; in&nbsp; both&nbsp; extracts. The extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the IC<sub>50</sub> value of the leaf and bark extracts was 204.44 µg/ml and 297.37 µg/ml, respectively, whereas IC<sub>50</sub> value for the reference ascorbic acid was 19.08 µg/ml. Furthermore, both the extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity in Ferric reducing power and Total antioxidant capacity assay.&nbsp; In&nbsp; addition,&nbsp; the bark&nbsp; extract&nbsp; exhibited&nbsp; higher&nbsp; amount&nbsp; of&nbsp; flavonoid and phenolic content&nbsp; compared&nbsp; to the leaf&nbsp; extract, &nbsp;which were expressed&nbsp; as&nbsp; Quercetin and Gallic &nbsp;Acid equivalent respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on these findings, it can be concluded that both the extracts&nbsp; possesses&nbsp; equitable antioxidant potential of which methanolic stem bark extract of <em>C. sophera </em>is more promising one and possess higher antioxidant potential.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong><em>Cassia sophera</em>, <em>In-vitro</em>, Antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical, IC<sub>50</sub>, Reducing power, Flavonoid.</p> Senjuti Majumder, Ishrat Jahan Afia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 FORMULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF BI-LAYER TABLET OF ANTI HIV DRUG <p>In the last decade, interest in developing a combination of two or more Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in a single dosage form (bi-layer tablet) has increased in the pharmaceutical industry, promoting patient convenience and compliance. The Bi-layer tablets have been developed to achieve controlled delivery of different drugs with pre-defined release profiles. Bi-layer tablets can be a primary option to avoid chemical incompatibilities between API by physical separation, and to enable the development of different drug release profiles (immediate release with extended release). Despite their advantages, due to the use of different materials and complex geometric boundaries between the adjacent layers, the mechanical structures of this drug delivery system have become quite intricate, requiring complicated tablet architectures as well as patient-friendly. Bi-layer tablets offer definite advantages over conventional release formulation of the same drug. Several pharmaceutical companies are currently developing bi-layer tablets. For a variety of reasons: patent extension, therapeutic, marketing to name a few. To reduce capital investment, quite often existing but modified tablet presses are used to develop and produce such tablets.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Bi-layered tablet, API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients), adjacent layer, conventional release, insufficient hardness.</p> Reena Malviya, Dharmendra Singh Rajput, Sailesh Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Aug 2019 12:13:46 -0500 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LIQUISOLID COMPACTS OF OLANZAPINE <p>The Main objective of the present study was to enhance the dissolution rate of olanzapine by liquisolid compact method. Olanzapine is practically insoluble in water. Solubility of olanzapine was estimated in different nonvolatile solvents. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of various formulation parameters like Drug concentration and Excipient ratio on angle of repose and % drug release using 3<sup>2 </sup>&nbsp;full factorial design. Quality control tests were done to evaluate each batch of tablets. &nbsp;Liquisolid compact powder was subjected to angle of repose, Carr’s index, and hausner’s ratio to determine flow property. Hardness, friability, disintegration time, drug content, dissolution rate are determined. Fourier transforms infrared analysis, x-ray diffraction studies also performed. All the formulations showed acceptable flow property and better drug release. The optimized batch was subjected to stability studies for 30 days. The dissolution profile of optimized batch was compared with direct compressed tablet and with marketed preparation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy conformed that drug does not interact with excipients which are added in the formulation. X-ray diffraction study proved that olanzapine (crystalline form) converted into amorphous form. From this study it was concluded that liquisolid compact technique improves dissolution rate of olanzapine.</p> Devarshi Hemantbhai Shah, Madhabhai M Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE NANOSUSPENSION LOADED IN SITU MUCOADHESIVE OCULAR GEL <p>Currently, a variety of ophthalmic products illustrate low bioavailability after topical administration because of anatomical and physiological barriers of eye. Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) is a BCS class I, potent anti-inflammatory drug. The rationale of present work was to design and develop KT nanosuspension loaded <em>in situ</em> gel with sustained effect and greater permeability for ocular drug delivery through increased ocular residence time of drug. KT nanosuspension loaded <em>in situ</em> gel was designed by using 3<sup>2</sup>factorial design. Polymers and surfactant were optimized through trial batches exhibiting better drug content (%), <em>In Vitro</em> trans-corneal permeation (%) and corneal hydration (%).Optimized formulation was evaluated for clarity, pH, gelling capacity, rheological behavior, drug content (%), <em>Ex-vivo</em> trans-corneal permeation, corneal hydration, HET CAM assay and physical stability. The resultant formulations revealed optimum viscosity, pH and drug content; as well as higher trans-corneal permeability when compared to the marketed eye drop. Optimized formulation was found as nonirritant to eye with sustained effect and good stability. So, current system can be considered as an efficient ocular drug delivery system for the treatment of postoperative inflammation, which would improve patient compliance and ocular bioavailability.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ketorolac tromethamine, <em>in situ</em> gel, corneal hydration, mucoadhesive, trans-corneal permeability</p> Pankaj Ashok Jadhav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Cytotoxic Anti-Cancer Activity of Certain Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Poly (Ester-Amides) Containing 2, 6-Bis (Benzylidene)Cyclohexanone Moiety in the Main Chain <p>Five thermotropic liquid crystalline poly(ester-amides) were synthesized by polycondensation method. The poly(ester-amides) were synthesized from varying dicarboxylic acids with a common diamine namely 4,4'-diaminobenzene and a common diol namely 2,6-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene))cyclohexanone. For qualitative characterization, viscosity measurements and solubility data were used for these synthesized poly(ester-amides). The spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR were performed to investigate the microstructural features of these synthesized poly(ester-amides). The thermal phase transition behavior of these poly(ester-amides) were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Hot-stage Optical Polarized Microscopy (HOPM). The degree of crystallinity was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) technique was used to illustrate the morphology of these poly(ester-amides). The copolymer synthesized was subjected into <em>in vitro </em>anti-cancer activity studies against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bisbenzylidenecyclohexanone; poly(ester-amides); polycondensation; thermotropic liquid crystalline properties; cytotoxicity, anticancer.</p> Kavitha Erra Kalappa, N. Ramalakshmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites for Enhancement of Solubility and Dissolution Rate of BCS Class II Drug <p>Dissolution and diffusion through the gastrointestinal membrane are the mechanisms by which drugs get absorbed on oral administration. The major challenge in the case of most of the drugs is poor water solubility. Hence the main aim of the present study is to develop Nanocomposites by microwave-assisted technique to enhance solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble drug Fenofibrate. Synthetic polymers such as PVP K30 was selected for Nanocomposites preparation based on it's wetting and surface active agent property. Nanocomposites were prepared by Microwave-assisted technique and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The solubility and dissolution enhancing the performance of Nanocomposites were assessed by In-vitro solubility and dissolution studies. It was demonstrated that the dissolution of Fenofibrate enhanced with an increase in polymer concentration. The optimized ratio of drug and polymer for the entire composite was found to be 1:9 Nanocomposites with PVP K30. The Microwave-assisted technique employed in this study as a green and cost-effective method for Nanocomposites formation. Enhancement in the solubility might be because of the generation of drug dispersion at nanoscale levels. So the development of Nanocomposites is a promising approach to increase solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nanocomposites, BCS class II drug Solubility, Polymers, Dissolution, Microwave assisted technique.</p> Vanashri Nawale, Avinash Darekar, Ravindranath B Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Aug 2019 12:35:25 -0500 Design Formulation and Evaluation of Soluble Soft Gel Ocular Insert of Ketorolac Tromethamine using Modified Locust Bean Gum <p>A &nbsp;major &nbsp;problem&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp; &nbsp;ocular &nbsp;therapeutics&nbsp; &nbsp;is&nbsp;&nbsp; the &nbsp;attainment&nbsp;&nbsp; of &nbsp;optimal&nbsp;&nbsp; drug concentration at the site of action which is compromised mainly due to precorneal&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; loss&nbsp; resulting in&nbsp; only a &nbsp;small&nbsp; fraction&nbsp; of the drug being ocularly absorbed.&nbsp; The effective dose administered may be altered by increasing the retention time of medication into the eye by using ocular inserts for treating various ocular diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate novel Ocular inserts of Ketorolac Tromethamine with polymers like HPMC K4M, PVA, Locust Bean Gum and Modified Locust Bean Gum with Glycerol as plasticizer by film casting method. Nine formulations of ocular inserts based on Comaprision Study On the basis of <em>In vitro </em>release studies &amp; physicochemical parameters, the formulation MOG sustained with maximum cumulative of 97.244% for a period 12 hr and it was found to be better than other formulations; hence MOG 2% was selected as optimized formulation. <em>In vitro </em>drug release kinetic data revealed that all formulation followed near to zero order release kinetics, involving in the all formulation drug release by Super Case-II type of diffusion. Optimized formulation (MOG 12%) passed the test for sterility and in stability studies no change of physiological properties. &nbsp;On the basis&nbsp; of the present&nbsp; study,&nbsp; the ocular &nbsp;inserts&nbsp; of Ketorolac Tromethamine &nbsp;gives &nbsp;promising&nbsp; future &nbsp;for &nbsp;the &nbsp;ophthalmic &nbsp;drug&nbsp; delivery system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ketorolac Tromethamine, Ocular inserts, HPMC K4M, PVA, LBG, MOG</p> Vijeta Banerjee, Priyanka Joshi, Amit Upadhyay, Vinay Jain, Ashish Mangal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Aug 2019 12:41:55 -0500 BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM SEAWEED Caulerpa taxifolia AGAINST VECTOR BORNE DISEASE Culex quinquefasciatus <p>Globally, mosquitoes are transmitting agents for diseases like dengue, malaria, filaria and Japanese encephalitis. In this study, the larvicidal activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from seaweed <em>Caulerpa taxifolia </em>extract against the larvae of <em>C</em><em>ulex</em> <em>quinquefasciatus</em> was investigated <em>in vitro</em>. The synthesized AgNPs was further characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, XRD, DLS and Zeta potential analysis. From the result, the LC<sub>50</sub> value for AgNPs identified was 448.66. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have maximum absorption at 430 nm. The FTIR indicated a specific peak in 3275.11cm<sup>-1</sup>, 2921.7cm<sup>-1 </sup>and 1244.28cm<sup>-1</sup> range. Scanning electron microscopy resulted in spherical shaped approximately ranging from 1 µm to20 µm in size. The average size distributions of Ag nanoparticles were 72.99 nm and are fairly stable with a zeta potential value of -31.1 mV. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with <em>Caulerpa taxifolia </em>extract provides potential source for the larvicidal activity against mosquito. The present study revealed that green synthesized silver nanoparticles can be used as an eco-friendly means for effective control of vector diseases</p> king Solomon Ebenezer, Roger M Coopoosamy, Olufunmiso O Olajuyigbe, P Thiyagarajan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Sitagliptin recuperates oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine expression in ovary of PCOS rats <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine, reproductive and metabolic disorder and a major cause of infertility in women. Testosterone propionate (TP) is used to induce PCOS in rats. High calorie diet causes metabolic changes, oxidative stress and PCOS. Sitagliptin (STG) is an inhibitor of dipeptide peptidase (DPP) 4 enzyme used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. <strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) on TP induced PCOS rats and the role of STG on oxidative stress and inflammation in PCOS. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> PCOS was induced by administration of TP to normal pellet and HFFD fed rats for 43 days. STG (i.p.) was given for the last 15 days to both groups of rats. Vaginal smear, parameters of oxidative stress, antioxidants and inflammation (TNF-α and IL-6) in ovary were analyzed. <strong>Results:</strong> Vaginal smear from TP rats consisted of persistent leucocytes, a characteristic of PCOS. All the TP administered rats registered significanty elevated levels of glucose, lipids, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, and reduced levels of antioxidants compared to CON rats. STG treatment to PCOS rats reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation and improved estrus cycle. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> High energy diet aggravated TP-induced changes in oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in ovary. STG recuperated the changes induced by TP, suggesting that STG holds potential for PCOS management.</p> Anuradha Venkatraman Carani, Nanda Dipti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Investigation of phytoconstituents of Cardiospermum halicacabum and its efficacy as a potential anti-cancer drug candidate <p>On the basis of the traditional knowledge of treating solid tumor using <em>Cardiospermum halicacabum</em> gained attention to carry out the present work. The preliminary screening for determination of cytotoxicity of successive extract of <em>C halicacabum</em> (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol) was performed through brine shrimp lethality assay and yeast growth rate cytotoxicity assay. Among the extracts, chloroform extract of <em>C halicacabum</em> exhibited highest cytotoxicity which was further investigated for anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity property in A-549 lung cancer cell line. Correspondingly, dose dependent effects on reduction of cell proliferation with prominent morphological abnormalities of A-549 cells were observed under treatment with chloroform extract. Hemocompatibility assessment of chloroform extract, by hemolysis assay, revealed its compatibility towards RBC which in turn may prevent heamolytic anemia (myelosuppression) the most adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy.&nbsp; Phytoconstituents of chloroform extract responsible for the cytotoxicity, anti-proliferative and hemocompatibiltiy was assessed by several chromatographic methods such as TLC, Column chromatography and HPLC which revealed the presence of flavonoids in chloroform extract of <em>C halicacabum</em>. Apparently the isolated flavonoids, in consistence with chloroform extract, exhibited similar effect on inhibition of proliferation of tumor cell line A-549. Therefore it could be evidenced from the current study that the <em>C halicacabum</em>, with its predisposed flavonoids, possesses anti-cancer property with least adverse effect on heamolysis. However detailed investigation on regulation of tumor cell proliferation and hemocompatability is required to bring <em>C halicacabum</em> as a potential candidate for cancer therapy.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>C halicacabum</em>, Anti-cancer, Toxicity, Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, Hemolysis.</p> S Mathan Kumar, V Jiju, D Chamundeeswari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antioxidant Activity and total Phenolic Content of Defatted Scenedesmus quadricauda KDPSC2 Biomass Extract by Microbial Fermentation <p>Microalgae biomass are considered as sustainable sources for various bioactive compounds. The objective of this study to evaluate the defatted biomass of green microalga <em>Scenedesmus quadricauda</em> KDPSC2 as a source for enhancement of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity by microbial fermentation. Ultrasonic assisted hydrolysate was prepared from defatted biomass using ultrasound power density of 0.3 Wcm<sup>-2</sup> at 10 min. Then the prepared defatted biomass hydrolysate (DBH) was used as soul medium for fermentation by five different microbial strains such as <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</em>, <em>B. stearothermophilus</em>, <em>B. subtilis</em>, <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> NITTS1 and <em>Cyberlindnera jadinii </em>MMS7. Among these microbial strains, <em>C. jadinii </em>MMS7 was selected for further study because it was enhanced the TPC and antioxidant activity of DBH by fermentation. Besides, the fermentation conditions were optimized by classical method of optimization and found the pH 5.5, temperature 35 <sup>o</sup>C, agitation speed 150 rpm and 36 h as optimum physical parameters for enhancing the TPC and antioxidant activity of DBH by fermentation using <em>C .jadinii</em> MMS7. At these optimum conditions, 4.67 fold DPPH radical scavenging activity was obtained from DBH after fermentation. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the defatted biomass of <em>S. quadricauda</em> KDPSC2 could be a useful source for production of TPC by <em>C. jadinii</em> MMS7 fermentation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong><em>Cyberlindnera jadinii</em>, Defatted biomass, Fermentation, Hydrolysate, <em>Scenedesmus quadricauda</em>, Total phenolic content.</p> V. Sarumathi, Krishnan Dhandayuthapani, Sultana Mazher ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Quantitative Estimation and Validation of Chlorthlidone and Azilsartan Medoximil in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form by using RP-HPLC <p>The first reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for Stability Indicating of, Azilsartan and chlorthalidone has been developed and validated to be a simple, sensitive, rapid, specific, precise, and accurate method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Zorbax XBD-C8, 250mm × 4.6mm,5µm.Buffer pH5.5 : Methanol&nbsp; (60:40) as a mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was operated at 234 nm and injection volum was 25 μl.. The proposed method showed good linearity, accuracy, precision and was successfully applied for determination of the drugs in laboratory prepared pharmaceutical dosage forms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Azilsartan and chlorthalidone, RP-HPLC, Stability Indicating.</p> Nachiket S. Dighe, Somnath K. Thorat, Ganesh S Shinde, Kavita V Dhamak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Hepatoprotective Effect of Tagetes Erecta L. Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats <p><em>Tagetes erecta</em> L. is a widespread garden plant that is commonly known as the marigold, and it is widely used as a medicinal herb for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-edematous properties, which are important for phytotherapeutic, dermatological and cosmetic applications. In this study, the protective effects of water extract of <em>Tagetes erecta</em> L. against liver damage were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. The results showed that the treatment of extract significantly lowered the CCl4-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (GOT, GPT, ALP, and total bilirubin Liver histopathology showed that extract reduced the incidence of liver lesions including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, lymphocytes infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by CCl4 in rats. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that <em>Tagetes erecta</em> L. Extract could protect liver against the CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats, and this hepatoprotective effect might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Tagetes erecta</em> L., Carbon Tetrachloride, Liver Damage, Hepato-protection</p> Kamshetti Manoj Vidyadhar, Hemant Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Anti-Trypanosomal Activity of Guiera senegalensis on Trypanosoma brucei Infected Mice <p>Aqueous decoction of <em>Guiera senegalensis </em>leaves was studied orally and intraperitoneally for its antitrypanosomal activity on mice infected experimentally with <em>Trypanosoma brucei brucei</em>. After a phytochemical screening followed by an acute toxicity study on mice, the extract of plant was administered once daily for 2 days at doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg / kg orally and 15, 30 and 60 mg / kg intraperitoneally after infection. Then, parameters of parasitaemia, packed cell volume (PCV), mean survival time and body weight of the mice treated with the extract were measured and compared with positive (diminazene aceturate) and negative (distilled water) controls for 7 days in a row. Results indicate that the aqueous extract of <em>G. senegalensis </em>leaves contains tannins, flavonoids, saponosides, reducing compounds and anthocyanosides, alkaloids and coumarins. LD50 of the extract are 1264.49 mg / kg by oral route and 316.22 mg / kg by intraperitoneal route. The doses of 240 mg / kg by oral route and 15 and 60 mg / kg by intraperitoneal route of aqueous extract showed a mean survival time (5 days) comparable to the positive control. Parasitaemia level increased in all mice tested except in mice treated with diminazene aceturate during the post-infestation period. During this period, PCV and body weight of all mice decreased by both routes of administration. These results of the study show the pharmacological utility of <em>G. senegalensis</em> leaves in the control of TAA by herders / pastoralists and suggest continuing further bio-guided studies to isolate the active components of the plant in order to improve their efficiency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>In vivo</em> test; <em>Trypanosoma brucei brucei</em>; <em>Guiera senegalensis</em> leaves; phytochemical screening; acute toxicity.</p> Zongo André, Vitouley Sèna Hervé, Bengaly Zakaria, Kaboré Adama, Traoré Aristide, Tamboura Hamidou Hamadou, Belem Adrien Marie Gaston ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 AN ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CATUNAREGAM SPINOSA (THUMB.) TIRVENG FOR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY <p><em>Catunaregam spinosa </em>(Thumb.) Tirveng have been reported in studies to possess antioxidant property. Therefore, present study was undertaken to validate different extracts of <em>C. spinosa</em> for antioxidant activity along with safety margin, according to OECD guidelines for toxicity. The extracts of different solvents, such as, distilled water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, chloroform; petroleum ether and benzene were subjected to phytochemical screening and characterization was done by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The toxicity studies displayed considerable margin of safety and no adverse effects observed upto 2gm/kg of administration of extract. The antioxidant property of extract of <em>C. spinosa</em> was evaluated for DPPH and FRAP activity. The IC50 value for DPPH activity was found to be 85% and the FRAP was found to be 2.5 μg/ml. These results when compared to standard values indicate towards superior antioxidant potential of <em>C. spinosa</em> extract.</p> Hansha Saini, Jayesh Dwivedi, Himanhu Paliwal, Udichi Kataria, Maya Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A Research Article Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of Carthamus tinctorius Leaves <p>Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of leaves of <em>Carthmus tinctorius</em> L. (MECT) was investigated against hepatotoxicity produced by administering a combination of two anti-tubercular drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin for 24 days by Oral route in rats. MECT were administered at two graded dose i.e. 200 and 300 mg/kg p.o. 45 min after to anti-tubercular challenge for 24 days. MECT was evident in the all doses as there was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, and Total Bilirubin levels. MECT significantly decreased the level of these biochemical parameter as compared to control. HPTLC analysis showed the presence of B-sitosterol and Lupeol in MECT. Results showed that Carthamus tinctorius possess significant Hepatoprotective activity which might be due to flavonoids.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Carthamus tinctorius</em> leaves<sup>1</sup>, hepatoprotective<sup>2</sup>, Rifampicin<sup>3</sup>, Isoniazide<sup>4</sup>, SGPT<sup>5.</sup></p> Rahul Pant, Raghuveer Irchhaiya, Ch. V. Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Lamotrigine 25 Mg Immediate Release Tablet <p>In the present quality assurance research work Lamotrigine&nbsp; Immediate Release tablet25mg&nbsp; has been undertaken in accordance with Quality By Design guidelines. Quality by design a common understanding of the concept of ICH guideline Q8, Q9 &amp; Q10 is now a day treaded as an essential tool in the process of formulation development. The development of Target Product Profile &amp; Critical Quality Attributes were done after dew consideration of risk assessment before finalization of these attributes. As Lamotrigine is poorly soluble (BCS class-II) it may effect bioavailability, Hence, Solid dispersion approach was taken as risk assessment measure. Product design space &amp; process parameters were finalized on the basis of critical material attributes. Control strategies for continuous monitoring &amp; updating of the process requirements were also highlighted. In the present research work critical process parameters were validated. The critical process parameter impacts on Quality. The Quality By Design principle &amp; tools demonstrated in present research work will be useful in creating &amp; developing control strategies in similar formulation &amp; process development.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>QbD, Solid dispersion, ICH Guidelines.</p> Ashwini Gunjal, Monali Tajane, Reshma Londhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Aug 2019 21:56:05 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Floating Matrix Tablets of Sacubitril and Valsartan <p>Floating Drug Delivery Systems (FDDS) have a bulk density lower than gastric fluids and thus remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, without affecting the gastric emptying rate. While the system is floating on the gastric contents, the drug is released slowly at a desired rate from the system. These floating tablets mainly prepared for reduction of lag time and release the drug up to 12 hours and may also increase the bioavailability of the drugs by utilizing the drug to full extent avoiding unnecessary frequency of dosing. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluated floating matrix tablets of sacubitril and valsartan. The floating matrix tablets of sacubitril and valsartan were prepared by direct compression method using altered concentrations of HPMC K4M, HPMC K100M, sodium alginate as polymers and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid as gas generating agent. FTIR, DSC studies conformed that there was no incompatibility between the polymers and the drug. Tablet preformulation parameters were within the pharmacopoeias limit. Tablets were evaluated by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness<em>, in vitro </em>release studies, buoyancy determination and kinetic analysis of dissolution data. The varying concentration of gas generating agent and polymers was found to affect on <em>in-vitro </em>drug release and floating lag time. Tablet showed ≤ 1min lag time, continuance of buoyancy for &gt;12 h. The <em>in-vitro </em>drug release pattern of sacubitril and valsartan optimized floating tablets (F16) was fitted to different kinetic models which showed highest regression (r<sup>2 </sup>= 0.9838) for Higuchi model. The Optimized formulation (F16) showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content, floating lag time, <em>in vitro </em>dissolution studies after 75%±5% RH at 40±20C relative humidity for 6 months.&nbsp; Prepared floating tablets of sacubitril and valsartan may prove to be a potential candidate for safe and effective controlled drug delivery over an extended period of time for gastro retentive drug delivery system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sudhakar Pathak, Harish Pandey, Sunil Kumar Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Phaseolus vulgaris on E. coli induced peritonitis and bacteraemia in mice <p>Infectious or non-infectious peritonitis leads to systemic inflammation due to violation of the peritoneum which is often fatal. Evidences suggest that common bean (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris </em>L.) is a source of nutrients and contains phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. The aim of the present investigation was evaluate the in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and protective potential of the methanolic extract of <em>P. vulgaris </em>in <em>E. coli </em>induced model of peritonitis in albino wistar rats. Rats were pre-treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg/bwt dose for 3 days and fourth day with <em>E. coli </em>(1×108 CFU/ml) strain and consecutively 3 days treatment. Mortality was monitored for 14 days. After the death of rats or completion of the experiment rats were sacrifice and kidney were used for our protocol. Colonies were count and statically analysis was done. Results showed dose dependent antibacterial activity. Thus the methanolic extract of <em>P. vulgaris </em>exhibited significant protection against <em>E. coli </em>induced peritonitis in normal rats. It significantly reduced the viable cells of <em>E. coli </em>when inoculated in rats. Activity is attributed to flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The present study thus suggests that methanolic extract of <em>P. vulgaris </em>significantly reverses peritoneal infection by <em>E. coli </em>in rats. It can be suggest that this medicinal formulation will be used as herbal medicine with no side effects. The high content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of <em>P. vulgaris </em>indicate that they may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidants. Thus, consumption of <em>P. vulgaris </em>seed along with coats might be recommended to gaining better nutritive benefits.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>&nbsp;<em>P. vulgaris</em>, Peritonitis, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, <em>E. coli</em></p> Dipika Khadagwanshi, Sonkia Trivedi, Preeti Patel, Megha Jha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation Development & Evaluation of Buffered Tablet of Proton Pump Inhibitors Drug Rabeprazole Sodium <p>The aim of present study was to prepare buffered tablets of acid labile drug, Rabeprazole sodium for oral administration using buffering agents to protect a drug from gastric fluid. Rabeprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds (substituted benzimidazole proton-pump inhibitors) that do not exhibit&nbsp;anticholinergic&nbsp;or&nbsp;histamine&nbsp;H<sub>2</sub>-receptor&nbsp;antagonist&nbsp;properties, but suppress&nbsp;gastric&nbsp;acid secretion by inhibiting the gastric H+, K+ATPase at the secretory surface of the gastric&nbsp;parietal&nbsp;cell.&nbsp;Rabeprazole blocks the final step of gastric acid secretion. The tablets were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. The formulations contain water soluble buffers such as sodium bicarbonate and trisodium phosphate as well as water insoluble buffers as magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate and crospovidone as superdisintegrant. Preformulation studies like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, hausner’s ratios, DSC and drug/excipient compatibility study were conducted and evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, disintegration and in-vitro dissolution. In the present study, pH of F6 batch was found to be optimum and disintegration time is 42 sec. The drug release was found to show maximum drug release in case of F6 with 99.3% in 60 minutes. In case of stability studies study of the optimized batch, all the results were found to be satisfactory and within limits. There were no significant changes after the period of 1 month study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rabeprazole sodium, Proton-pump inhibitors, Buffered tablet, Superdisintegrants, Buffering agents</p> Mamta Kumari, Nishi Prakash Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antitumor efficacy of Folic Acid conjugated Polymeric Nanoparticles of SN-38 after oral delivery <p>The objective of the present research was to develop folic acid conjugated polymeric nanoparticles (FCsPNP) and to investigate its therapeutic effectiveness in xenograft Colon tumor models after oral delivery. Chitosan coated PLGA nanoparticles (CsPNP) were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation method and it was further conjugated with Folic acid. Optimized formulation was investigated for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PdI), % entrapment drug loading and <em>in vitro </em>release. The morphology was observed by SEM and TEM images. Tumor regression studies were conducted on Balb/c mice implanted with Colo-26 cells. FCsPNP were successfully prepared and optimized. <em>In vitro</em> parameters viz. Particle size, Zeta potential, PdI were found to be optimum. The <em>in vitro </em>% release is directly correlated with the nature of polymers and folate conjugation. <em>In vivo</em> tumor regression studies found the formulations to be less toxic than Irinotecan hydrochloride (IHCl). CsPNP and FCsPNP were successfully prepared and evaluated for antitumor efficacy after oral delivery. FCsPNP were more effective in the colon tumor treatment and found to be less toxic than IHCl thus making it a potential drug delivery candidate for future anticancer therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nanoparticles, Xenograft colon tumor, Chitosan, Irinotecan hydrochloride</p> Prasad Shilpi, J.S Dangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Anti-Anemic and Haemopoietic Evaluation of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) in Rodent Model <p>The health benefits and medicinal properties of herbal food products are known since antiquity. Fenugreek, <em>Trigonella foenum-graecum</em> Linn (<em>T. foenum-graecum</em>, Fabaceae), a seed spice used to enhance flavor, color and texture of food is employed for medicinal purposes in many traditional systems.&nbsp; Ethno botanical survey of <em>T. foenum-graecum</em> revealed the seeds of the plant to be useful in anemia. The objective of this study was to study the ant-anemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds of <em>T. foenum-graecum</em> against phenylhydrazine induced anemic rat model. The hydroalcoholic extracts of seeds were prepared by soxhlation. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts was performed using standard testing procedures. Hemolytic anemia was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of phenylhydrazine HCl (PHZ) at doses of 40 mg/kg of body weight during two successive days then one day after the animals were treated orally by the hydroalcoholic extracts with the amounts of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of body weight and Dexorange (reference drug) up to 13 days. The rats were analyzed for hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC) and <em>white blood cell count</em> (WBC) on day 2 and 13. Phytochemical screening of the extracts indicated the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, sterols, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids. Anemia was induced successfully in Groups II, III, IV and V which was indicated by a mean reduction of 51.6% in RBC count; 52.85% in Hb content and 54.9% in WBC. Analysis of hematological parameters on day 13 showed that extract significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved Hb, RBC and WBC count at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. This study, not only substantiates the folklore use of the seed of <em>T. foenum-graecum</em><em>, </em>but also suggests its inclusion in the treatment of anemia as it exhibited significant anti-anemic activity</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Trigonella foenum-graecum, </em>Anemia, Phytochemical analysis, Phenyl hydrazine, Dexorange</p> Anand Chourasiya, Rakesh Kumar Sahu, Mohd Azaz Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Preformulation Studies of Pralidoxime Chloride for Formulation Development of Microspheres <p>Microspheres are one of the novel drug delivery system which possess several applications and are made up of assorted polymers. Microspheres can be defined as solid, approximately spherical particles ranging in size from 1 to 1000 μm range in diameter having a core of drug and entirely outer layers of polymers as coating material. They are made up of polymeric, waxy or other protective materials i.e. biodegradable synthetic polymer and modified natural products such as starches, gums, proteins, fats and waxes. Preformulation is a group of studies that focus on the physicochemical properties of a new drug candidate that could affect the drug performance and the development of a dosage form. This couldprovide important information for formulation design or support the need for molecular modification. Every drug has intrinsic chemical and physical properties which has been consider before development of pharmaceutical formulation. This property provides the framework for drugs combination with pharmaceutical ingredients in the fabrication of dosage form. Objective of preformulation study is to develop the elegant, stable, effective and safe dosage form by establishing kinetic rate profile, compatibility with the other ingredients and establish Physico-chemical parameter of new drug substances. The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate some of the important physicochemical properties of pralidoxime chloride for preparation of microspheres. The physicochemical properties such as solubility, pKa, dissolution, melting point, assay development, excipient compatibility etc. of pralidoxime chloride was carried out. Before selection of excipients, the Preformulation study of drug pralidoxime is completed for successful formulation of microspheres. The result of Preformulation studies shows good flow properties, excipient compatibility, solubility efficiency and melting point. From this study we concluded that pralidoximewith HPMC and EC can be used to formulate pralidoxime microspheres for modified release.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microspheres, Preformulation, Pralidoxime chloride, Physico-chemical parameter.</p> Shyam Bihari Sharma, Suman Jain, K. Ganesan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for Determination of Didanosine in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms <p>To develop a simple, cheap, accurate, and rapid Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method and validate as per ICH guidelines for estimation of Didanosine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The separation was conducted by using mobile phase consisting of methanol: water in the ratio (30:70). The wavelength was found at 246nm. Agilent 1220 Infinity LC with ezchrome software is used for chromatographic determination. The separation was conducted by using Zebra Eclipse XDB-C-18 (4.6<strong>×</strong>250<strong>×</strong>5µm) at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min using variable wavelength detector. The developed method resulted in didanosine eluting at 4.650 min. The method was found to be linear over the concentration range 2-12µg/ml with coefficient regression R2-0.997. Mean recovery was found to be in the range of 99.99%, during accuracy studies. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitiation (LOQ) was found to be 5 mg/ml and 16 mg/ml respectively. A cheap, accurate, precise, linear and rapid RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of Didanosine as per ICH guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:-RP-HPLC, Didanosine, Method Validation</p> Sachin Gholve, Sharddha Gangapure, Mahesh Birajdar, Imran Mujewar, Omprakash G Bhusnure ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Flavonoids from Corchorus olitorius L. <p><em>Corchorus olitorius </em>is fibre yielding plant with nutritive value so human used its various parts in their food. Flavonoids&nbsp; are secondary metabolites&nbsp; of plants and exist with variable phenolic structures.In the present study carried out the qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids by using chromatographic and spectral studies.Total amount of flavonoids were&nbsp; found in <em>Corchorus olitorius</em> ( 0.55 mg/gdw in stem and 0.30 mg/gdw in fruit). Thirty three compound were found in GC-MS analysis, Ethyl Oleate found to be maximum from fruits of <em>Corchorus olitorius</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> GC-MS,flavonoids , <em>Corchorus olitorius</em>.</p> Kalpna Dhayal, Dileep Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Piperazine Derivatives as Anti-Inflammatory Agents <p>Some 1-((4-methylpiperazin-1yl)methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole &amp; 1-((4-phenylpiperazin-1yl)methyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives were synthesized through reaction of 1-substituted piperazines with different benzimidazole derivatives in methanol yielded the corresponding mannich bases (42-a to 42-i). All the synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR and MASS spectroscopy. They were tested for anti-inflammatory activity using <em>in-vivo </em>(Carrageenan- induced rat paw edema model) method at a dose of 50mg/kg. result showed that compounds 42-c, 42-d and 42-h were found to be most potent in series.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> 1,4-disubstituted Piperazine, Anti-inflammatory, Mannich Base.</p> Nalini Patel, Vaishali Karkhanis, Pinkal Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 In-Vitro Anti-Fungal Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Stem Bark Extracts from Ventilago denticulata <p>The objective of the present study was to assess the antifungal activity of pet. Ether extract, acetone extract, ethyl acetate, and ethanol bark extract of <em>Ventilago denticulata (VD).</em>The material was dried in shade made to a coarse powder and weighted quantity of the powder&nbsp;&nbsp; (1000 g) was subjected to hot percolation in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone and ethanol, at a temperature range of 40-80<sup>0</sup>C. Phytochemical tests were done in presence of phytoconstituents like glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids. The anti-fungal activity was carried out by using cup method using Sabraud’s agar as medium. Plates were incubated at 25<sup>0</sup>C for 42hr and later observed for zones of inhibition. The effect of the extracts on fungal isolates was compared with Griseofluvin at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The Ethyl acetate extract at low as well as high doses gives antifungal effect. Pet-ether extract, acetone extract and ethanolic extract did not produce any antifungal effect at both doses. Ethyl acetate extract shows zone of inhibition at low dose (T<sub>1 </sub>10 mg/ml) 10 mm and at high dose (T<sub>2&nbsp; </sub>20 mg/ml) 16 mm.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong><em>Ventilago denticulata,</em> Anti- fungal, Griseofluvin.</p> NV Devhadrao, AS Bansode, VS Shende, SH Thokal, SS Bhalerao, PB Bhalerao, OL Dhage, AB Tambe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ALENDRONATE BUCCAL TABLETS <p>The aim of this work was to develop a mucoadhesive buccal tablet for the buccal delivery of the alendronate via buccal mucosa. Buccal tablets of alendronate are designed to release drug at mucosal site for extended period of time without wash out of drug by saliva. Alendronate sodium is a bisphosphonates which has antiresorptive effect which is implicated in the prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Sodium alginate, ethyl cellulose and carbopol were selected as mucoadhesive polymers on the basis of their matrix forming properties. The objective of the study is to improve the bioavailability of alendronate buccal tablets. Extensive literature survey was done for the collection of theoretical and technical data. The methodology part includes the explanation of implemented methods in the present study. In present study, an attempt was made to design mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing alendronate, sodium alginate, ethyl cellulose and carbopol using as polymers. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The formulations were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, drug content estimation, surface pH determination, swelling index, in vitro drug release. <em>In vitro</em> bioadhesive strength &amp; <em>in vitro </em>release studies showed that formulation F11 showed optimum bioadhesive &amp; exhibited optimum drug release 97.6% in 7hr. Kinetics results reveals that the F11 formulation follows zero order kinetics as correlation coefficient (r<sup>2</sup>) values are higher than that of first- order release kinetics.Optimized formula F11 show drug is released by non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The stability studies of formulation F11 prepared mucoadhesive buccal tablets of alendronate were stable. Overall evaluations of the mucoadhesive of tablets show good mucoadhesive properties.</p> SANJAY KUMAR GUPTA, Sradhanjali Patra, Syed Adnan Akber ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NANOEMULSION FOR TOPICAL APPLICATION <p>The aim of present research is to design and develop nanoemulsion of <em>Econazole nitrate</em> as effective treatment for tinea versicolor fungal disease. <em>Econazole nitrate</em> is an imidazole antifungal agent with broad spectrum activity. It belongs to BCS class II i.e. low soluble and highly permeable drug. Due to its poor solubility, it is incompletely absorbed after oral dosing and bioavailability varies among individuals. The drug efficacy of topical formulation can be limited by instability due to its poor solubility in the vehicle and low permeability. Therefore, to overcome these problems nanoemulsions have been designed. Topical nanoemulsion containing 1 % <em>Econazole nitrate</em> with different oils (oleic acid), surfactant (tween 20), co-surfactant (PEG 200, PEG 400) and distilled water. Various oil-in-water nanoemulsions are prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. The nanoemulsion formulations that passed thermodynamic stability tests were characterized for appearance, pH, FTIR, viscosity, drug content, % drug entrapment efficiency and <em>in-vitro</em> drug release study of <em>Econazole nitrate</em> determined by Franz diffusion cell and stability study.</p> Neha M Shaikh, S. M. Vijayendra Swamy, NAGOBA SHIVAPPA NARSING, K B Kulkarni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Primary Metabolite Profiling and Antioxidant Potential Assay from Selected Plant Parts of Gmelina arborea <p>Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds which are used for curing various human diseases and also play an important role in healing as well as for curing human diseases. The present study involves different parts of medicinal plant Gmelina arborea for their primary metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential assay. The different plant parts were washed, air dried and then powdered. Primary constituents have chlorophyll, phenol, carbohydrates (Starch and Total soluble sugar), lipid and protein and antioxidant are Catalase, peroxidase, SOD and FRAP etc. The experimental plant has been used as traditional medicine in India for several medicinal purposes like anthelmintic, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and antidiabetic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Gmelina arborea; Primary Metabolite; Antioxidants.</em></p> Rakesh Kumar, Manas Mathur, , Sanjana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Aug 2019 04:41:13 -0500 Antiproliferative Effect of Ethanolic Medicinal Fungus Extract of Agaricus bisporus on HEP2 Cancer cell lines <p>This study aims to determine the anti-proliferative effect of fungus <em>Agaricus bisporus</em>. Phytochemical analysis was performed and antiproliferative activity of <em>Agaricus bisporus</em> was analyzed by MTT assay The preliminary phytochemical screening of <em>Agaricus bisporus</em> revealed the presence of phenolics, carbohydrates alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins. The Antiproliferative potential of the ethanol extract was studied on Hep2 cell lines by MTT assay. The extract had an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 100μg/mL which showed cell viability. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Thus, the study revealed that <em>Agaricus bisporus</em><strong> c</strong>ould be considered as a significant source of phytochemicals and can act as antiproliferative agent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytochemical, antiproliferative,<em> Agaricus bisporus</em>, DPPH assay, Hep2 cell line.</p> G Priya, Nasreen Najeeb, , Thenmozhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Aug 2019 04:46:34 -0500 Phytochemical Screening and In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Embelia Ribes Burm. F <p><em>Embelia ribes </em>Burm. f. ( <em>E. ribes, </em>&nbsp;Myrsinaceae), first described by Nicolaas Laurens Burman in 1768, is a woody climber distributed in the primary lowland and mountain forests of Bangladesh, Burma, Cambodia, India, Laos, peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Ayurvedic medicine prescribes the dried fruits or <em>vidanga</em> and used as antibacterial, antifertility activities, antiprotozoal, abdominal disorders, lung diseases, constipation, indigestion, fungus infections, mouth ulcer, sore throat, pneumonia, heart disease, obesity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Inflammation is a reaction of a living vascularised tissue to an injury. Conventional or synthetic drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases are inadequate, it sometimes have serious side effects. So number of herbal medicines is recommended for the treatment of inflammation that has no side effects. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of <em>E. ribes</em> on formalin induced paw edema in rats as for controlling inflammatory disorders. Acute toxicity of the extract (2000 mg/kg) was examined in wistar rats for 14 days. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids ect. The total phenolics content of <em>E. ribes</em> extract was (1.155mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (0.811mg/100mg) respectively. Hydroalcoholic extract up to 2000 mg/kg did not produce any toxic effects. The hydroalcoholic extract of <em>E. ribes</em> (100 and 200 mg/kg) inhibited the inflammation induced by formalin in rats in a dose dependent manner. The results of present study demonstrate that hydroalcoholic extract of the seeds of<em> E. ribes</em> possess significant (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05) anti-inflammatory potential.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Embelia ribes </em>Burm. f, Acute toxicity, Anti-inflammatory effect, Phytochemical screening, Flavonoid, paw edema</p> Sushma Dwivedi, Sailesh Kumar Ghatuary, Satkar Prasad, Prabhat Kumar Jain, Geeta Parkhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Aug 2019 04:52:14 -0500 Phytochemical Screening and In Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Luffa acutangula (L) Roxb <p>Natural products are always helpful in the maintenance of life and good health. <em>Luffa acutangula</em> (L) Roxb (<em>L. acutangula</em> Cucurbitaceae) ranges from central and eastern Asia to south eastern Asia and is commercially grown for its edible unripe fruits, which are cooked and eaten as vegetable in Bangladesh and many parts of India. It is commonly known as ridge gourd, sponge gourd or angled luffa, Karviturai in <em>hindi </em>and dodake in <em>marathi</em> .The plant possesses various medicinal properties such as treatment of jaundice, splenic enlargement and laxative. Inflammation is a reaction of a living vascularised tissue to an injury. Conventional or synthetic drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases are inadequate, it sometimes have serious side effects. So number of herbal medicines is recommended for the treatment of inflammation that has no side effects. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of <em>L. acutangula</em> on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method in rats as for controlling inflammatory disorders. Acute toxicity of the extract (2000 mg/kg) was examined in wistar rats for 14 days. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids ect. The total phenolics content of <em>L. acutangula </em>extract was (0.897mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (0.765mg/100mg) respectively. Hydroalcoholic extract up to 2000 mg/kg did not produce any toxic effects. The hydroalcoholic extract of <em>L. acutangula </em>(100 and 200 mg/kg) inhibited the inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats in a dose dependent manner. The hydroalcoholic extract of <em>L. acutangula </em>possesses a strong anti-inflammatory activity and may be considered an interesting source of effective anti-inflammatory compounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Luffa acutangula</em> (L) Roxb, Acute toxicity, Anti-inflammatory effect, Phytochemical screening, Flavonoid, paw edema</p> Shloke Kumar Dwivedi, Sailesh Kumar Ghatuary, Satkar Prasad, Prabhat Kumar Jain, Geeta Parkhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Aug 2019 04:58:09 -0500 A Comprehensive Review on Plant derived Natural products for Diabetes and its complication as nephropathy <p>a</p> Manoj Jaiswal, B. K. Dubey, Grijesh Kumar Pandey, S. K. Yadav, Geeta Parkhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Aug 2019 05:04:22 -0500 Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Floating Matrix Tablet of Levofloxacin by Direct Compression Method <p>The objective of the present work was to develop Gastro retentive dosage forms which would remain in the stomach and upper part or GIT for a prolonged period of time thereby maximizing the drug release at desired site within the time before GRDFs left the stomach and upper part of the GIT, has provoked a great deal of increased interest in the formulation of such drug as floating drug delivery systems. Levofloxacin, (BCS class I) is a fluoroquinolone anti-bacterial agent. The rationale for the formulation of floating matrix tablet are acidic solubility of levofloxacin, residence of <em>Halicobactor pylori </em>mainly in sub region of stomach and the overdosing associated adverse effect due to continuous intake of drug in acute infection. A simple visible spectrophotometric method was employed for the estimation of levofloxacin at 294 nm and Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2-10 μg /ml. Floating matrix tablet of levofloxacin was prepared by direct compression method using different polymers like hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4) and carbopol 934 as matrix formation polymers, sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was used as gas generating agents. The FTIR spectra of the levofloxacin and other excipients alone and in combination show the compatibility of the drug and excipients. Six formulations of different polymer percentages were formulated (F1-F6). Pre-compression parameters were evaluated. The influence of matrix forming agents and binary mixtures of them on levofloxacin release was investigated. The formulated tablets were characterized by hardness, friability, thickness, weight variation and <em>in vitro </em>drug release. The formulated tablets had acceptable physicochemical characters. The data obtained from the <em>in-vitro </em>dissolution studies of optimized batch F4were fitted in different models. The optimized formulation F4 showed 99.25% drug content and swelling index of 79.85 %. Drug release mechanism was found to be first order kinetics. Levofloxacin floating tablets exhibited increased gastric residence time, there by improved bioavailability and therapeutic effect of the drug.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nidhi Kumari Pandey, Sailesh Kumar Ghatuary, Amit Dubey, Prabhat Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Antidepressant Drug <p>see PDF</p> Rahul Kumar Sahu, Shailesh Jain, Vishal Kapoor, Naveen Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation, Development and Characterization of Transdermal Patches of Sitagliptin Phosphate <p>Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase 4-(DPP-4) inhibitor with glucose controlling capabilities that was effectively used for treating diabetes in the past. However, the oral administration of this drug caused such severe side effects that it was removed from the market. Transdermal patches are innovative drug delivery systems and can be used for achieving efficient systemic effect by passing hepatic first pass metabolism and increasing the fraction absorbed. Transdermal patches of Sitagliptin phosphate (SIT) were prepared by the solvent casting evaporation technique using ethyl cellulose: HPMC, Eudragit RLPO, propylene glycol and permeation enhancer using different ratios. The physicochemical parameters such as flexibility, thickness, smoothness, weight variation, moisture content, hardness, folding endurance and tensile strength were evaluated for the prepared patches. The formulation exhibited flexibility, uniform thickness and weight, smoothness, good drug content (95.65to 99.45%) and little moisture content. The <em>in vitro</em> diffusion studies were carried out using modified Franz diffusion cell using egg membrane as the diffusion membrane and the formulation followed the Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The formulation containing ethyl cellulose: HPMC as polymers showed faster release rate compared to Eudragit: HPMC.&nbsp; The stability studies indicated that all the patches maintained good physicochemical properties and drug content after storing the patches in different storage conditions. Compatibility studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers. Hence, the aim of the present study was to prepare the sustained release formulation (Transdermal patches) of the drug using different blend of polymers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transdermal patches, Sitagliptin phosphate, Physicochemical parameters, <em>in vivo </em>study</p> Kavita Varma Shukla, Manisha Swamy, Rekha Pathak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Dactylorhiza Hatagirea Roots & Lavandula Stoechas Flower on Thiopental Sodium Induced Hypnosis in Mice <p><em>D</em><em>actylorhiza hatagirea</em> (D.Don) Soo belongs to the family orchidaceae. The plant is native and near endemic to Indian Himalayan region.&nbsp; Its distribution extends to Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan. In India, it is reported from Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The Juice extracted from tuber is used as tonic and also used for the treatment of pyorrhea (inflammation of the gum &amp; teeth). Root paste is externally applied as poultice on cuts and wounds and extract is given in intestinal disorders.&nbsp;<em>Lavandula stoechas</em>, the&nbsp;Spanish lavender&nbsp;or&nbsp;topped lavender&nbsp;or&nbsp;French lavender&nbsp;is a&nbsp;species&nbsp;of&nbsp;flowering plant&nbsp;in the&nbsp;family&nbsp;lamiaceae, ccurring&nbsp;naturally&nbsp;in several&nbsp;Mediterranean countries, including France, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece. It is used commercially in air fresheners and insecticides. Flower spikes have been used internally for headaches, irritability, feverish colds and nausea and externally for wounds, rheumatic pain, antiseptic, digestive,&nbsp;antispasmodic, healing, insect repellent and&nbsp;antibacterial. The neuropharmacological activities were examined by thiopental sodium induced sleeping time in mice at the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg p.o body weight. All the extracts exhibited significant reduction of onset and duration of sleep in thiopental sodium induced sleeping time test. Altogether, these results suggest that experimental hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>D. hatagirea</em> roots &amp; <em>L. stoechas</em> flower possesses potent hypnotic properties, which support its use in traditional medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>D</em><em>actylorhiza hata</em>, <em>Lavandula stoechas</em>, Sleeping time test, Thiopental sodium</p> Brijesh Sirohi, Rakesh Sagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Design, Characterization and Anti-ulcerogenic Effect of Amoxicillin trihydrate Thiolated Chitosan Mucoadhesive Microspheres for Effective Treatment of H. pylori <p>See full PDF</p> Sri Prakash Mishra, Amit Nayak, Dinesh Kumar Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Aug 2019 12:37:56 -0500 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Floating Microsphere of Famotidine for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer <p>The purpose of this research was to prepare a floating drug delivery system of famotidine. The floating microspheres can be prepared for the improvement of absorption and bioavailability of famotidine by retaining the system in the stomach for prolonged period of time. Floating microspheres of famotidine were prepared using different polymers like ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. The microspheres had smooth surfaces with free-flowing and good-packing properties. The yield of the microspheres was up to 73.32±0.14% and ethyl cellulose microspheres entrapped the maximum amount of the drug. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed their hollow structures with sizes in 331.6 nm. The prepared microspheres exhibited prolonged drug release and Percentage buoyancy was found to 73.25±0.23. The formulated batches were evaluated for percentage yield, particle size measurement, flow properties, percent entrapment efficiency, swelling studies. The formulations were subjected to stability studies and In-vitro release and release kinetics data was subjected to different dissolution models. It was concluded that developed floating microspheres of famotidine offers a suitable and practical approach for prolonged release of drug over an extended period of time and thus oral bioavailability, efficacy and patient compliance is improved.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Famotidine, Solvent diffusion evaporation method, Ethyl cellulose, Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose</p> Dharmendra Rai, Durga Pandey, Nishi Prakash Jain, Surendra Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Estimation of Aspirin, Clopidogrel and Rosuvastatin in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form <p>A new, simple, novel, accurate, precise, reliable, rapid and linear reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and fully validated for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative estimation of&nbsp;&nbsp; Rosuvastatin (ROS), Clopidogrel (CLOP) and Aspirin (ASP) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. In the present work, good chromatographic separation was achieved by isocratic method using a Hypersil BDS C<sub>18 </sub>column (250 mm ×4.6, 5 μm) and a mobile phase consisting of KH<sub>2</sub>Po<sub>4</sub> buffer pH-6.0: acetonitrile in the ratio 60:40, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The effluents obtained were monitored at 242nm with the UV-visible detector. The calibration curves obtained were linear (r<sup>2</sup>=0.999) over the concentration range of 7.5-22.5μg/ml and 1-3μg/ml for CLOP, ASP and ROS respectively. A run time of 7.0 minutes for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 200 samples per day. The retention time of ASP, CLOP and ROS was found to be 3.103 min, 4,277 min and 5.707 min respectively. The high recovery values (99%-101%) indicate a satisfactory accuracy. The low percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) values in the precision study reveal that the method is precise&nbsp; therefore the method can be used for routine monitoring of CLOP, ASP and ROS in industry in the assay of bulk drug and dosage form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> RP-HPLC, Rosuvastatin, Clopidogrel, Aspirin, Method validation, ICH guidelines.</p> Pradip Kumar Tiwari, Amit Jain, BK Dubey, GK Pandey, Suresh Dhakad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Topical Polyherbal Antiacne Gels Containing Luffa Acutangula, Amaranthus Spinosus and Morus Alba <p>Anti-acne herbal formulations are used for the treatment of acne vulgaris with the added advantage of not producing adverse effects unlike synthetic drugs. Acne is an inflammatory skin disease that occurs due to blockages in polysebase and inflammation that are caused by bacteria. Topical and systemic antibiotics are always used for treatment of acne, but the gradual resistance to antibiotics can affect the success rate of acne cure. Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Plant based drugs provide outstanding contribution to modern therapeutics as a source of many valuable secondary metabolites which serves as plant defence mechanisms against predator such as microorganism, insects and herbivores which have been proved to be potentially active compounds. There is a tremendous increase in search of antimicrobial plant extracts due to the fact that the resistance offered against antibiotic by the microorganism, in short the effective life span of any antibiotic is limited.<em> Propionibacterium acnes </em>are common pus-forming microbes responsible for the development of various forms of acne. In the present study anti-acne gels were prepared using polymer carbopol 940 along with the hydroalcoholic extracts of plants fruits of <em>Luffa acutangula,&nbsp;</em>leaves of <em>Amaranthus spinosus</em> and <em>Morus alba</em> and evaluated for their physicochemical properties, like pH, washability, extrudability, spreadability and viscosity. The formulations (PHG1-PHG6) were tested for the anti-acne activity by well diffusion method against <em>Propionibacterium acnes.</em> Results showed that the gels were non-irritant, stable and possess anti-acne activity. The efficacy when tested with a standard was almost same to that of Clintop (Marketed gel). This suggests that fruits of <em>Luffa acutangula,&nbsp;</em>leaves of <em>Amaranthus spinosus</em> and <em>Morus alba</em> have potential against acne causing bacteria and hence they can be used in topical anti-acne preparations and may address the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Luffa acutangula,&nbsp;Amaranthus spinosus</em>, <em>Morus alba,</em><em> Propionibacterium acnes, Acne vulgaris, </em>Carbopol, Physicochemical properties.</p> Kavita Varma Shukla, Nishi Choudhary, Rekha Pathak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Sustain Release Gastroretentive Floating Tablets of Prochlorperazine Dimaleate <p>Floating drug delivery systems are the gastroretentive forms that precisely control the release rate of target drug to a specific site which facilitate an enormous impact on health care. The purpose of this research was to develop a novel gastro retentive drug delivery system based on direct compression method for sustained delivery of active agent to improve the bioavailability, reduce the number of doses and to increase patient compliance. Gastro retentive floating tablets of Prochlorperazine dimaleate (PCZ) were prepared by direct compression method using altered concentrations of HPMC K4, HPMC K15 and PVP K30 as polymers. The prepared tablets of PCZ were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, drug content uniformity, buoyancy lag time, total floating time, <em>in-vitro </em>dissolution study, etc. All the compositions were resulted in adequate Pharmacopoeial limits. Compatibility studies was execution during FTIR shown that there was absence of probable chemical interaction between pure drug and excipients. The varying concentration of gas generating agent and polymers was found to affect on <em>in-vitro </em>drug release and floating lag time. <em>In vitro </em>drug release of floating gastro retentive tablet of PCZ shown that the formulation F9 was found to be the best formulation as it releases 98.89% in a controlled manner for an extended period of time (up to 12 hrs). The release data was fitted to various mathematical models such as Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, First order and Zero order to evaluate the kinetics and mechanism of the drug release. The optimized formulation (F9) showed no significant change in physical appearance, drug content, floating lag time, <em>in vitro </em>dissolution studies after 75%±5% RH at 40±20C relative humidity for 6 months.&nbsp; Prepared floating tablets of PCZ may prove to be a potential candidate for safe and effective controlled drug delivery over an extended period of time for gastro retentive drug delivery system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Prochlorperazine dimaleate, Floating tablet, Gastro retentive, Total floating time.</p> Bharti Patle, Vivek Jain, Shradha Shende, Prabhat Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Floating Tablets of Trazodone Hydrochloride Using Natural Polymer <p>See PDF</p> Kavita Varma Shukla, Priya Vishwakarma, Rekha Pathak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Prochlorperazine Dimaleate <p>Fsee Full PDF</p> Kavita Varma Shukla, Vishal Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation, Evaluation and Optimization of Orodispersible Tablets of Naproxen sodium by using Superdisintegrant <p>Among the different type of route of administration oral route for drug administration is most common route in which Orodispersible tablet is preferred for the patient which are unconscious, week or for immediate control. The tablet gets dispersed in mouth cavity without water, present study deals with formulation of Naproxen sodium mouth dissolving tablets using super disintegrants. Naproxen sodium is analgesic and NSAID, used for the treatment of pain and inflammation caused by different condition such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and menstrual cramps. However gastric discomfort caused by naproxen sodium result in poor patient compliance associated with it conventional doses form but now days Naproxen sodium MDTs produces rapid onset of action and minimise gastric discomfort associated with it. Thus improves patient compliance, enhance bioavailability and reduces the dose of drug. MDTs are formulated by direct compression method using super disintegrants in different proportion. The powder blend is subjected to pre-compression evaluation parameters like bulk density, true density, and tapped density and angle of repose. Formulations are evaluated for weight variation, hardness, wetting time, water absorption time, disintegration time. And in vitro dissolution studies and all formulations complies Pharmacopoeias standards. The tablets are evaluated and result compared for all five formulation the most efficacious super disintegrants for MTDs of Naproxen sodium as suggested by the dispersion time, disintegration time and drug dissolution profiles.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: - </strong>MDT, Naproxen Sodium, crosscarmellose Sodium, Sodium starch glycolate, Cross-povidone.</p> Mohd. Razi Ansari, Sumer Singh, M.A. Quazi, Yaasir Ahmed Ansari, Jameel Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Glucosamine Sulphate Potassuim Chloride 1500 Mg and Methyl Sulphonyl Methene 200 Mg Film Coated Tablet <p>Methyl Sulphonyl methane (MSM) is an organ sulfur compound with the formula (CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>2</sub>. Glucosamine is naturally hygroscopic is nature when exposed to air and moisture and degradable whether in the form of tablet or raw material.&nbsp; To overcome this problem Glucosamine needs to bond with suitable stabilizer.&nbsp; Glucosamine Sulphate in the form of Salt i.e. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are stable. The normal dose of Glucosamine is 500-1500 mg TID.&nbsp; It is very difficult to compress the tablet at the label claim 1500 mg because some additives are also required in the formulation and the average weight is 1800 mg.&nbsp; As per the pre formulation studies it is concluded that tablet average weight less than 70 mg are very difficult to compress and more than 1500 mg are difficult to swallow in adult patient.&nbsp; Glucosamine stimulates the formation or manufacture of collagen, the protein portion of the fibrous substance that holds joints together and provides a shock-absorbing cushion, as a person ages, the cartilage that cushions the joints often loses its ability to support healthy cellular growth. This condition, called osteoarthritis, often leads to rough bones that rub together and cause distress with every twist or bend.&nbsp; In this condition patient regularly required the Glucosamine tablet in 1500 mg three times a day. But it’s very difficult to compress the tablet at huge weight because D tooling compression machine have maximum limit is 1500 mg. For such critical formulation weight cam is adjusted in lower direction to increase the weight and feeding of granules in feed frame through force feeder resolve the dissolution problem. This tablet is prepared by wet granulation method by using Non Aqueous binding showed good results physical evaluation parameters and chemical parameters such as Assay, and Dissolution values. The granules are lubricated using suitable lubricants / Glidant / Antiadhrants were good in their flow properties. Assay and dissolution studies were conducted by the HPLC method.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jameel Abbas, Yaasir Ahmed Ansari, Tauheed Ahmad Malik, Isar Ahmad Sayed, Mukhim Sayyed, Mohd. Azharuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A STUDY ON PHYTOCHEMICALS SCREENING OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF INSULIN MEDICINAL PLANTS Costus spicatus- JACQ. <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of <em>Costus spicatus</em> flower extract along with their Phytochemical screening of physico-chemical parameters, fluorescence and Vitamins analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of <em>Costus spicatus</em> flower extract constant, fluorescence analysis and Preliminary phytochemical investigation.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Plant products are believed to more preferable due to less toxicity, economic and better patient compliance. Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in minute amounts designed for growth and activity of the body. The term also means that vitamins can be destroyed and become unable to perform their functions inour bodies. The phytochemical report of the plant exposed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, amino acids, phenols, tannins, glycosides and steroids as organic phytoconstituents. Every constituent plays an important role and deficiency of any one constituent may lead to abnormal developments in the body. Plants are rich source of all the elements essential for human being. Qualitative analysis of various inorganic elements revealed the presence of Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron, sulphates and phosphates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study of good source of <em>Costus spicatus</em> may be useful for human health associated emerging diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes mellitus, vitamins<strong>, </strong><em>Costus spicatus,</em> physico-chemical parameters, fluorescence analysis</p> S Senthilkumar, S Azhagu Madhavan, S Andrews, S Ganesan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 02:45:20 -0500 ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Costus spicatus JACQ. IN RHIZOME EXTRACT IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS –HISTOLOGICAL STUDY <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups and each group consisted of 6 rats and the duration of treatment was 45 days. Body weight, fasting plasma glucose levels, SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels were measured.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Albino Wistar male rats; 10- weeks old with a bodyweight ranged between 180-250 g were used. Anti-diabetic effect of plant <em>Costus spicatus</em>. In rhizome extract of ethanol extract.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The present study clearly indicates in the form of administration of <em>C. spicatus </em>rhizome extract towards glucose fed mice normalizes blood glucose level. Recent studies have revealed induced diabetic rats caused anti-diabetic effects. Histopathological studies of Pancreasin diabetic and treated groups are determined to show the protective action of the ECS. The administration of STZ resulted in a significant increase in plasma glucose level, SGOT, SGPT and ALP along with a reduction in body weight.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>All these effects were observed on 45<sup>th</sup> day. ECS and Glibenclamide of STZ induced diabetic animals restored the normal plasma glucose levels and SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels without damaging the pancreas.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>Anti-hypolipidemic, diabetes mellitus, peripheral insulin resistance, pancreatic, STZ.</p> S Azhagu Madhavan, S Senthilkumar, S Andrews, S Ganesan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 02:49:40 -0500 Development and Validation of UV Spectroscopic Method for Estimation of Baricitinib <p>A simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method for the analysis of Baricitinib in pure form and in its dosage form has been developed. Baricitinib is a synthetic antineoplastic and immunomodulating&nbsp; drug. Baricitinib is a selective and reversible Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and 2 (JAK2) inhibitor. Janus kinases belong to the tyrosine protein kinase family and play an important role in the proinflammatory pathway signalling that is frequently over-activated in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Developed method obeyed beer’s law in a concentration range of 10-60 µg/ml with a correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.993. Quantification was carried out at 250 nm. Percentage assay of Baricitinib was found to be close to 100 %. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method.</p> Santosh Vilaschand Gandhi, Barkha Govindlal Kapoor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 02:55:57 -0500 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL GEL CONTAINING Allium cepa EXTRACT <p>Herbal medicines widely improved for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability and better compatibility with human body and lesser side effects. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate of herbal gel containing <em>Allium cepa</em> extract. Topical gel formulation was designed by using <em>Allium cepa</em> extract and carbopol 934 as a gelling agent and different excipients. The herbaceous plant <em>Allium cepa</em> (onion). It has great health significance and is consumed for nutritional and health benefits for last centuries. It contains flavonoids compound. Plant extract used for prevention of hair loss. Raw onion eaten in salad form this is play very important role in health benefits. Gel was prepared by incorporating extract of <em>Allium cepa</em> in gel at a particular step in order to prepare non greasy formulation. Gel Formulation F3 Batch was optimized in the concentration 1.5% of Carbopol 934. Different gel formulations were evaluated for their physical appearance; pH, Spreadability, Homogeneity <em>in-vitro </em>diffusion ,Viscosity and Drug Excipients comparability study are carried out.</p> Vikram S. Sarukh, SHIVAPPA N NAGOBA, S. S. Hindole, K. D. Kaudewar, Digamber R. More ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 03:02:10 -0500 Formulatiom, Preparation and Evaluation of Mouth Disintegrating Tablet of Ranitidine HCl and Domperidone <p>See Full PDF</p> Shivaji Rambhau Suradkar, Abdul Wahid Ambekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 03:13:27 -0500 Studies on solvent systems for enhanced skin permeation of venlafaxine hydrochloride <p>Venlafaxine hydrochloride (VH) is a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor indicated for treatment of depression disorder. It shows low biological half-life 5±2 h and low oral bioavailability 45±15 % due to extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Frequent administration of VH is required to maintain steady state plasma concentration of drug. To overcome hepatic first pass metabolism and to cross blood brain barrier for effectively achieving plasma concentration of VH in brain, we envisaged to develop transdermal drug delivery system containing VH loaded polymeric nanoparticles. Effect of solvent systems (SS), penetration enhancers (PE), and VH nanoparticles (VHNPs) on transdermal diffusion of drug were studied. VHNPs were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method using high speed homogenizer followed by probe sonication. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) and tween 80 were used as polymer and surfactant respectively. Mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency of optimized VHNPs were found to be 175.4 nm, 0.109, (-) 24 mV and 56 %.respectively. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed spherical shape of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles. SS comprising 50% PG in EtOH shown maximum flux 158.67 ± 2.9 (µg/cm<sup>2</sup>/h) and lag time was found to be 5.60 ±0.16 h. The PE 5 (%v/v) limonene shown maximum flux 200.47±3.6 (µg/cm<sup>2</sup>/h) and lag time 3.17±0.11 h. The flux and lag time in case of VHNPs were found to be 192.24±3.20 (µg/cm<sup>2</sup>/h) and 4.22±0.14 h respectively. Based on flux, clearance and surface area of transdermal patch, a theoretical meaningful plasma level concentration of VH ranging from 12.85 to 128.5 (ng/mL) can be achieved.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Depression, Venlafaxine hydrochloride, Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), Solvent systems, Penetration enhancers, Nanoparticles (NPs)</p> Pramod S. Salve, Shahadev B. Rathod ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 18 Aug 2019 10:50:40 -0500 UV-Spectrophotometric Estimation of Olopatadine hydrochloride in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by Zero, First and Second Order Derivative Methods <p>Simple and accurate UV spectrophotometric methods by Zero, First and Second order derivative method&nbsp; have been developed and validated for the estimation of Olopatadine hydrochloride in bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage form. The standard and sample solutions of Olopatadine hydrochloride were prepared in methanol and water. Olopatadine hydrochloride was estimated at 299, 289 and 267 nm for the&nbsp; derivative UV-spectrophotometric method. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 20 to 120 μg / mL with coefficient of correlation value 0.9996, 0.999 and 0.999 for Zero, First and Second order derivative method. These methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH and USP guidelines. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation were of less than 2 for the above three methods respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of Olopatadine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and were found to be satisfactory. The proposed methods are simple, easy to apply, low-cost and require relatively inexpensive instruments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Olopatadine HCl, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Derivative Spectroscopy, Method validation.</p> Smita. S. Aher, Jayshree S. Gawali, Ravindranath B. Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 18 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Stability indicating RP-HPLC method development for docetaxel trihydrate <p>The purpose of present study was to develop RP-HPLC method for estimation of docetaxel trihydrate which should be a suitable, simple, precise, accurate, robust, and reproducible. The samples were assayed by the Shimadzu HPLC instrument<strong> - </strong>LC-20AD (Japan) equipped with Shimadzu SPD-M20A UV-VIS detector operated at wavelength of 230 nm. The binary gradiant pump was used for the analytical method development. The reverse phase stainless steel column (150 × 4.6 mm) packed with 5 μm particles (C-8, LiCrosphore® 100, Germany) was used to take chromatograph. A mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/phosphate buffer 20 mM, (45:55, v/v), pH 3.5 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The method was validated by system suitability and reproducibility. The linearity was also determined using samples with five different concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg/mL. The results of the study showed that the developed RP-HPLC method is simple and robust which is useful for the estimation of docetaxel trihydrate in bulk drug and in pharmaceutical dosage form. The results of stability show that the method has stability over a period of 48 h at room temperature.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Docetxel trihydrate, RP-HPLC method, validation, stability</p> Nilesh R. Rarokar, Pramod B. Khedekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 18 Aug 2019 11:15:46 -0500 Comparative Study of Antihypertensive Drugs Amlodipine Besylate /Metoprolol Succinate and Nebivolol Hydrochloride /Valsartan Combinations in Bilayer Tablets <p>The present research is an approach to develop a formulation platform that shall help in minimizing the time and effort taken to develop a drug delivery system. Taking bilayer tablet technology as a representation for drug delivery system, well accepted antihypertensive drugs, Amlodipine besylate and Metoprolol succinate were considered as model drugs for the study. Initially the process variables like concentration of the disintegrants, Sodium starch Glycolate and cross carmellose sodium, Polymers HPMC K100M and K4M were standardized with these drugs so that the incorporation of a new combination drugs would provide predictable results with a minimal trial runs. Nebivolol hydrochloride and Valsartan were considered as test drugs since they are novel antihypertensive drug combination and their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters were almost similar to that of the model drugs. The r value 0.98943 indicates a good correlation between the release profile of Amlodipine besylate (model drug) and Nebivolol hydrochloride (test drug) from the IR layer. Similarly, the r value in the range of 0.9998 indicates a good correlation between the release profile of Metoprolol succinate (model drug) and Valsartan (test drug) from the SR layer. The comparable experimental results of the model drugs and test drugs considered for this study infer that if two drugs are similar in their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters, their behavior with respect to in vitro parameters will be similar provided formulation variables remains constant. This concept could be productive in developing drug delivery system for new drugs for which extensive research and time are major constraints.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bilayer tablets, fixed unit dosage form, Amlodipine besylate, Metoprolol Succinate Nebivolol hydrochloride, Valsartan.</p> Selvi - Arunkumar, L. Srinivas, D. Satyavati, C. Emmanuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 18 Aug 2019 11:23:18 -0500 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE EPIDURAL INJECTION OF ANALGESIC DRUG <p>The objective of this work was to formulate and evaluate sustained release epidural injection of analgesic drug diclofenac sodium used in chronic lower back pain. The formulation composed of a thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (20%) and sustained release copolymers HPMC K100M (1%) and HPMC K4M (0.5%) optimized using 3<sup>2 </sup>factorial design. The formulation was found to be clear, colorless, sterile, syringeable through 18gauge, forming a stable gel at 37°C with a gel strength of 9.67g/cm. The drug release was found to be 98.13% in 72 hrs. The formulation was found to be stable at refrigerator temperature of 5°C for a month. Thus, a stable parenteral formulation was developed that can be an appropriate and convenient approach for patients requiring frequent parenteral administration, reducing recurrence of dosage and ultimately expanding patient comfort and satisfaction in case of chronic ailments.</p> Reshma N Mirajkar, Mrs., Kalyani Pruthviraj Dhavale ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 18 Aug 2019 11:27:47 -0500 Study on Preliminary Phytochemicals and GC-MS Analysis of Justicia adhatoda Leaves Extract <p>Several natural products have been implemented as an alternative health care treatment and in discovery of effective modern drugs. A major focus of natural product chemistry has been toward drug design and discovery. <em>Justicia adhatoda</em> is a well-known Indian medicinal plant valued for its pharmacopeia. This plant root, bark, leaf and flower are used to heal several diseases and poisonous bites. The present work was to evaluate the phytochemicals and GC-MS analysis of <em>J. adhatoda </em>leaves extracts. The extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The result showed that the phytochemicals present in the extract of <em>J.adhatoda</em> are alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, hydroxy anthraquinones, tannins, phlobatannins, proteins, xantho protein, steroids and phenols. The GC-MS analysis of acetone extract showed the presence of many secondary metabolites like phytol (0.8%),&nbsp; 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z) (1.6%), butane, 2,2-dimethyl (0.21%), pentane, 2,3,3-trimethyl (0.22%), hexathiane (0.08%), &nbsp;and benzenesulfonic acid (0.22%). The diversity of phytochemical present in the plant suggests that <em>J. adhatoda</em> could serve as a source of useful drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Justicia adhatoda</em> leaves, acetone extract, phytochemicals, GC-MS.</p> R. Malathi, D. Kaviyarasan, S. Chandrasekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 09:26:06 -0500 Formulation Optimization of Polyox Based Modified Release Drug Delivery System <p>Polyethylene Oxide (PEOs) offer specific advantages to be used in pharmaceutical products as release modifiers by forming a hydrogel around the dosage form in aqueous environment causing the drug to follow a diffusional path before releasing into the media. The strength of the hydrogel governs the release retardation capacity of the PEO system. The objective of this dissertation work was to use the Design of Experiments methodology to develop and optimize a PEO based modified release formulation of a highly water-soluble drug like Metoprolol succinate. The effect of the different viscosity grade PEOs, their concentration with respect to the drug, combination of two different viscosity grades, % drug content in the formulation and the use of water soluble / insoluble fillers on the dissolution of metoprolol succinate was studied. The critical formulation parameters namely PEO concentration and % drug content were chosen as input factors and dissolution at 1, 4, 8 and 20 hours was recorded as responses to carry out optimization using the DOE approach. The results obtained after statistical treatment of data provided a design space that can be used for achieving the desired formulation profile. The model has been validated to predict the effect of the input factors (PEO type and concentration and % drug content) on the responses (in vitro dissolution).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Polyethylene Oxide, Modified Release Drug Delivery System, Metoprolol</p> Sunil Shah, Dilip Shukla, Harish Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 09:31:23 -0500 Development of Hot Melt Coating Technique for Taste Masking of Chloroquine Phosphate Tablets <p>In the present study to mask the unpleasant taste of chloroquine phosphate, hot melt coating technique was used as a taste masking tool. Hot melt coating is a solvent free technology grants rapid, additionally economical coating process with reduced risk of dissolving drug during process and provide uniform application rate of coating agent. Precirol ATO 5 was used as hot melt coating material for taste masking. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and coated using hot melt coating technique. Coated tablets exhibited good uniformity of drug content. Amount of drug release from all batches were evaluated. Taste evaluation of hot melt coated tablets was done by using electronic tongue.PrecirolATO5 was found to be a better taste masking agent when used by hot melt coating technique.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Precirol ATO 5, Hot melt coating, taste masking.</p> Ashwini R. Madgulkar, Mangesh R. Bhalekar, aishwarya Deepak vaidya, Pauroosh Kaushal, R. P. Mudalwadkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 09:40:03 -0500 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Floating Wax Beads of Olopatadine Hydrochloride <p>In this study, a multiple-unit gastroretentive sustain release drug delivery system of Olopatadine hydrochloride was developed from a completely aqueous environment, avoiding the use of any organic solvent, thus releasing the drug for a prolonged duration of time. Emulsion gelation technique was used to prepare beads. The beads with edible oil were prepare by mixing and homogenizing olive oil and water containing pectin and molten wax which was then extruded in to calcium chloride solution. The effects of carnauba wax on drug entrapment efficiency, floating lag time and morphology and drug release was studied. It was found that carnauba wax was sufficient to sustain the drug release at gastric pH. The results show that these beads can entrap drug in sufficient amount and also can successfully deliver the drug in stomach for a prolong duration of time avoiding the use of any organic solvent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gastroretentive, Floating Wax Beads, Olopatadine</p> Priyanka Baviskar, Prashant Patil, Ravindranath B Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 12:19:37 -0500 Human papillomavirus is the cause of human prostate cancer <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the present meta-analysis study is to investigate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) serves as a cause or as the cause of human prostate cancer (PC).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The PubMed database was searched for suitable articles. Previously published expert reviews and systematic meta-analysis were used as an additional source to identify appropriate articles. Articles selected for this meta-analysis should fulfill the following inclusion criteria: (a) no data access barrier, (b) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA based identification of HPV. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to prove the hypotheses whether being married is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of PC. In other words, without being married no PC. The method of the conditio per quam relationship (sufficient condition) was used to prove the hypotheses if HPV is present in human prostate tissues then PC is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to prove the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between HPV and PC. Significance was indicated by a p-value (two sided) of less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In to more than 33 studies were considered for a meta-analysis. Several studies support the hypotheses without being married no PC. All the studies considered for a re-analysis support the null-hypotheses if HPV then PC, while the cause effect relationship between HPV and PC was highly significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> HPV is the cause of PC.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Human papillomavirus, prostate cancer, causality</p> Ilija Barukčić ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Aug 2019 07:34:06 -0500 In-vitro Gastric acid percent neutralizing potential of household remedies verses marketed antacid preparation: A case report <p>Gastric acidity is a very common condition among the peoples of developing and developed countries. Increased gastric pH is associated with gastric ulceration, Bleeding ulcers, GERD, heartburn, discomfort, nausea and vomiting. The instant and quick relief from acidity can be obtained by oral administration of antacids. Current study was carried out to determine the acid neutralizing effect of household remedies like cold milk, Baking soda, Baking soda + citric acid in water verses marked preparations like Effervescent granules (ENO, Digene) and liquid antacid Gelusil (5ml and 10ml). Gastric simulation fluid of pH1.2 was prepared and pH was recorded before and after addition of marketed antacid/ household remedies. Observations were recorded in multiple of three for 0 min to 60 min. percent acid neutralization were calculated for each marketed/ household preparation. Results advocate that baking soda in water and Gelusil 10ml shows significant percent acid neutralization 444.35% and 428.57% respectively. The effect of acid neutralization of baking soda in water was instant and remained same whereas Gelusil 10ml showed progressive acid neutralization over a period of time. Effervescent granules ENO and Digene showed 322.58303.14% acid neutralization respectively. Milk 259.67% Gelusil188.28% and Baking soda + citric acidin Water421.25% showed acid neutralization. From results it can be concluded that household remedies are also significantly effective to control the acidity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antacid, Effervescent granules, Milk, Baking soda. % acid neutralization.</p> BALU KHANDARE, sandip kshirsagar, Nikhil Bhujbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Case Report on Steroid Induced Cushing Syndrome <p>Glucocorticoids are the effective steroid drugs which reduce the inflammation &amp; most commonly glucocorticoids are used in diseases such as asthma, allergic diseases such as psoriasis, eczema and rheumatoid arthritis. Long term effect of corticosteroids leads to the symptoms of moon face, buffalo hump, pink stretch marks, and weight gain. In this we are going to report a case of 30 yrs female patient with representing the long term use of corticosteroids; Prednisolone leads to cushing syndrome. Eventually she was treated with oral hypoglycemics and diuretics and the use of steroid had stopped temporarily and the dose of prednisolone was tapered.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: glucocorticoids, prednisolone, Cushing syndrome</p> Shaik Salma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 UNNATURAL AMINO ACIDS (UAA’S): A TRENDY SCAFFOLD FOR PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH <p>Unnatural amino acids synthesis is a region of research that has gained a lot of interest in modern years. The accessibility of different synthetic routes for new unnatural amino acid derivatives and related compounds will be a critical point in the designning of novel molecules that impersonate the conformation of the natural, active peptides. These molecules (peptidomimetics) are specially designed to show the high receptor affinity and selectivity with enhanced bioavailability and metabolic stability of the drug molecule. Thus, this review focuses on detailed synthetic methods and analogues leading to synthesize variety of unnatural amino acids including various schemes that includes enantioselective synthesis and microwave-assisted synthesis also.</p> Ajay Singh Bisht ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 LACTOFERRIN, A PROMISING MOLECULE FOR THE TREATMENT OF ANEMIA OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE. <p>Commonly available therapeutic approaches for treating anemia of chronic kidney disease include oral iron supplementation such as ferrous fumarate, intra venous iron administration and erythropoiesis stimulating agents including erythropoietin, darbepoetin alfa, etc. Nowadays ESAs are used widely to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease and several studies have found that if used inappropriately it can even lead to cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effect of free iron in human body includes microbial growth promotion and free radical-induced reactions which can further cause deterioration of patient condition. Iron overload can lead to organ multiple organ failure in kidney disease patients. The iron level in the body is one of the significant factor for the effectiveness of erythropoietin. A well maintained iron homeostasis is required in the kidney disease patients to observe an effective treatment for anemia in chronic kidney disease patients. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein has been studied widely for its effect on iron homeostasis, anti-microbial activity, etc. Its safety and efficacy over other oral iron supplements have been established from several studies. This review article aims to support the need for further studies for attaining more vast knowledge regarding the use of lactoferrin in the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Keywords</strong>: Anemia in chronic kidney disease, free iron, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), Lactoferrin, Glycoprotein, Iron homeostasis</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sulaikha S, sreejith koorikat, Nadiya Banu M T, Shabana Thehsin k, Arshida p, Midhun K P ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari. Review of Its Botany, Medicinal Uses, Pharmacological Activities and Phytochemistry <p>The oldest remedies identified to mankind are herbal medicines. India is recognized worldwide for its Ayurvedic treatment. As only little studies are done on this plant, the purpose of current review is to make accessible up-to-date information on, botany, morphology, ecological biodiversity, medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities on diverse parts of <em>Commiphora wightii </em>(Arn.) Bhandari (<em>C. </em><em>wightii</em>). This review was assembled using scientific literature from electronic search engine such as Springerlink, BioMed Central, PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Scielo, Medline and Science domain. Supplementary literatures were obtained from books, book chapters, dissertations, websites and other scientific publications. <em>C. </em><em>wightii</em> <em>&nbsp;</em>(Syn. <em>Commiphora mukul </em>Hook. ex. Stocks) or <em>Guggulu </em>tree. <em>C. </em><em>wightii</em> is a shrub or small tree belonging to <em>Burseraceae </em>family. <em>C. </em><em>wightii</em> contains volatile oil, gum resin, gugulipids, guggulsterones, guggulsterols, mukolol and other steroids. <em>Guggulu </em>is very much used in <em>Ayuvedic </em>system of medicine as astringent, anti-septic, expectorant, aphrodisiac, carminative, anti-spasmodic, emmenagogue. In <em>Ayurveda</em>, it is the best among herbs that are used for <em>Medoroga </em>and <em>Vata </em>disorders. It is widely used for obesity and it is also known as fat burning agent all over the world. It helps to lower cholesterol and triglycerides level. It is very effective in rheumatoid arthritis, gout and sciatica. It is also one of the most important <em>Rasayana </em>of <em>Ayurveda</em>. In addition it treats sluggish liver, stimulates libido, nervous diseases, bronchial congestion, cardiac and circulatory problems, weak digestion, wounds, abscess, foetid ear, fractures, gynaecological problems and various skin diseases. <em>C. </em><em>wightii</em> is a very important and trustworthy herb in <em>Ayurvedic </em>medicine. This alternative system of medicine is gaining increasing fame universal. There is a required to isolate active constituents, their biological test, molecular mechanisms, experimental defense and legalization of therapeutic uses of <em>C. </em><em>wightii</em>. The collected information will be obliging to locate up study protocol for current drugs and Ayurvedic formulation extension in remedial and luxury a variety of ailments.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Manisha Bhardwaj, Aparna Alia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 NOVEL REGIMENS FOR TREATMENT OF PSORIASIS <p>Psoriasis is a dermatological disorder consists of&nbsp;&nbsp; abnormal multiplied skin cells&nbsp;&nbsp; than normal one. It causes the thickness of skin is increased and forms a&nbsp;&nbsp; red patches and white scales in the lesion. The disease causing several adverse problems in patient's i.e. adverse physical and mental conditions that are same to&nbsp;&nbsp; malignancies, heart disorder, diabetes mellitus, and depression. This review focus on the novel therapies for psoriasis that have emerged recently. It contains different classes of drugs (local, systemic) with different mechanism of action. Psoriasis cure rate is very low, so this regimens goal is to relieve symptoms as long as possible with a good benefit/risk ratio. In this review, the new regimens that target pathways and other steps in the pathogenesis of psoriasis are discussed, including IL12/IL-23, IL-17, IL-22, TNF- , JAK inhibitor etc.The prevalence of disease in worldwide is 0.6 to 4.8%. Cyclosporine and methotrexate are the example of systemic treatment regimen for the management of psoriasis but their toxicity is very high, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and pulmonary fibrosis are the toxicities of methotrexate and cyclosporine. But in the case of novel regimens the toxicity is very low as compared to existing regimens. This article was designed to compare the treatment efficacy of novel regimen with already available treatment options for psoriasis.</p> Nadiya Banu MT, sreejith koorikat, Sulaikha S, ShabanaThehsin K, Arshida P, Midhun KP ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Microballoons: A Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery System <p>Oral route is most preferable and widely used route for the administration of drug. Microballoons becomes novel technology in pharmaceutical field in the floating drug delivery for achieving the gastric retention. Microballoons are also called as hollowspheres which are porous smooth in nature and thus show good floating properties in gastric fluid. Microballoons release the drug in controlled manner at the targeted site. Microballoons are spherical empty vesicles without core and that can remain buoyant in gastric region for prolong period of time without irritation in gastrointestinal tract. Multiparticulate particles having a low density system that can efficiently prolong the gastric retention time of the drugs, thus enhanced bioavailability and thus improve the dosing frequency. These are less soluble at higher pH environment. As microballoons delivery systems provide longer retention in gastric pH and enhance the solubility of drugs that are less soluble in high pH environment. The formation of cavity inside the microballoons depend on the preparation, temperature and the surface smoothness determine the floatability and the release rate of microballoons.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microballoons, Gastro retentive drug delivery system, Hollowspheres, Controlled release</p> Ankita Srivastava, Ruchi Shukla, Kusum Sharma, Hitesh Jain, D. B. Meshram ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Probiotics, their Health Benefits and Applications for Development of Human Health: A Review <p>Gastrointestinal microbial flora plays a major role in health of host. The person with the healthy digestive system is the indication of proper health. Probiotics bacteria are live nonpathogenic microorganism which has beneficial effects on host gastrointestinal tract which is mentioned in articles viz. Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Approaches to Colon Specific Drug Delivery. Optimum population of probiotics bacteria are essential for the maintenance and effective functioning of the digestive system. Hence probiotics are the good therapeutic agents for the various abnormal conditions of gastrointestinal tract such as inflammatory bowel disease, chrohn’s disease, colon cancer etc. Probiotic micro biota also fights against pathogenic infections of GIT such as <em>H. pylori</em> infection by production of some antimicrobial chemical secretions such as bacteriocin. Recent studies and innovations and studies found that the probiotic bacteria are beneficial in the prevention and curative treatment of various disease and disorders like colorectal cancer, infection of urinary tract (UTI), allergic condition, cardiovascular disorders and depressive disorders. Probiotics are administered as nutraceutical products in the form of both conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms and traditional non-conventional food products, inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins effectively, sustained release tablets by solid dispersion technology etc. Probiotics are significantly gaining popularity due their wide application and safety. This paper presents the comprehensive review on the probiotics profile along with its some therapeutic applications, delivery approaches and current aspects.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Probiotics, mechanisms, Health benefits, cardiovascular disorders, safety, colon targeted drug delivery system.</p> Deepali Sanjay Sanap, Mahesh Arjun Garje, Ganesh R Godge ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 SURʻAT-E-INZĀL (PREMATURE EJACULATION) AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY UNANI MEDICINE <p><em>Surʻat-e-Inzāl</em> (Premature Ejaculation) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction affecting 25 - 40% global population of men. It is a universal disorder and is independent of age, social or marital status. It has a significant impact on both- patients and their partners, causing distress, anxiety and relationship difficulties affecting the quality of life. Several aetiologies have been proposed by various researchers which are not evidence-based but speculative. Accordingly the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) issued treatment guidelines for Premature Ejaculation (PE) recommending Serotonergic Antidepressants (SSRIs) and Local Anaesthetics (LA) for its management in modern medicine. However, these treatments were not actually developed for PE, and have limitations associated with their off-label use. Furthermore, nearly all the recommended drugs have a wider spectrum of adverse effects and serious drug interactions which sometimes could be fatal. On the other hand, centuries old Unani medicine offers a complete line of treatment for <em>Surʻat-e-Inzāl</em> based on traditional knowledge and experience. Firstly, various single as well as compound Unani formulations have been in use since long for the treatment of <em>Surʻat-e-Inzāl</em> and found effective and safe. Secondly, the benefits of herbal and other natural products are increasingly being sighted because of their lesser side effects. Keeping the limitations and adverse effects posed by conventional treatment of PE in mind, an attempt has been made in this paper to review the use of age old Unani System of Medicine for the treatment and management of Premature Ejaculation.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Premature;</em> <em>Ejaculation;</em><em> Unani</em><em>; Surʻat-e-Inzāl; Quwwat-e-Masika </em></p> SHAH ALAM ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Standardization of Unani Drugs with Modern Analytical Parameters: A Necessary Step <p>Mankind have been always utilized their native flora, not only as a source of food but also use for shelter, fuel, clothing, chemical production and healthcare products since ancient time. Traditional medicine (Ayurveda, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) and Yoga are gaining more and more attention all over the world, because of their long historic clinical practice and minimum side effects. Unani system of medicine also a part of traditional medicine, it also gaining more acceptability around the world, but to get the quality of the crude drugs and Unani formulations is still facing lacking of standardization. In this respect internationally recognition related with the quality is necessary. This can be achieved only if the herbal products are evaluated and analyzed using modern scientific tool and technologies of standardization.</p> <p>In this article discuss the various standardization parameters like morphological characters, microscopic evaluation, fluorescence analysis, physicochemical evaluations-proximate analysis (Moisture, ash content), solubility value (alcohol soluble, water soluble and ether soluble), heavy metal analysis and chromatography of botanicals are included. In the present review, various sensory parameters of the plant material (such as colour, odour, size, shape, and taste) were also mentioned of organoleptic evaluation method.</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><em>Herbal medicine, Standardization, Quality control, Chromatography </em></p> ABRAR ALAM, Javed Inam Siddiqui, Munawwar Husain Kazmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Role of Dalak (Massage) in management of Depression: A Review <p>BismllahirRehman Nirraheem, Nahmaduhu wa Nusallihi Ala Rasoolihil Kareem. Health is an essential component of life and it is necessary to live happy life.&nbsp; Health and diseases not only affect individual but also affects society. There are number of factors which are responsible for health and disease. According to Unani System of Medicine <em>Asbab-e-Sittah Zarooriyah</em> and <em>Ghair Zarooriyah</em> are important factors amongst them. Balance in these factors produces tabai khilt (normal humorous) such as Tabai balgham (normal phelghm), tabai safra (normal yellow bile), tabai sauda (normal black bile) etc, these tabai khilt produces good health and any disturbance in it leads to ill health/disease, because disturbances in componants of <em>asbab-e-sittah zarooriyah</em> leads to increase in abnormal <em>khilt </em>such as <em>ghair tabai souda</em> (abnormal black bile)<em>, ghair tabai balgham</em> (abnormal phlegm)<em>, ghair tabai safra</em> (abnormal yellow bile)<em> etc</em>. <em>Harkat-wa-Sukoon Nafsani</em> is a component of <em>asbab-e-sittah zarooriyah,</em> disturbance in it leads to ghair tabai sauoda, which is responsible for psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression etc. There are number of regimens such as <strong><em>Ilaj-bil Ghiza, Ilaj-bil-Tadabeer, Ilal-bil-Dawa and Ilj-bil-Yad,</em></strong> used to maintain health, for prevention and to control the diseases <em>. </em>One of the best example is dalak(massage) which is a component of Ilaj-bil-Tadabeer and play a very important role in management of depression. Some studies also proven its efficacy in the management of depression and many other diseases. Time, season, age, locality etc. play very important in it.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: depression, Dalak,<em> Asbab-e-Sittah Zarooriyah, ghair tabai souda, khilt,</em>&nbsp;</p> , Sana-Ur-Rehman, Aisha Perveen, Farzana Islam, Azhar Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Health Promoting Properties of Behman safed, a root of Centaurea behen Linn.-A Review <p>Medicinal plants have been used since prehistoric period for the cure of various diseases. In many developing countries, a large proportion of the population relies on herbal medicine in order to meet health care needs. Although, other health care system exists side by side with modern medicine still, Unani medicine, is&nbsp; one of the alternate system&nbsp; maintained its popularity for historical and cultural reasons.<sup>1</sup>&nbsp; About 8,000 herbal drugs have been codified in Ayush systems.<sup>2</sup> One of them is <em>Centaurea behen </em>Linn., a member of (Asteraceae) family commonly known as safed behmen in Unani medicine.<sup>3</sup> It possesses multiple pharmacological actions and medicinal activities such as <em>muqawwi bah</em> (aphrodisiac),<em>kasir riyah </em>(carminative),<em>muhallil auraam</em> (anti-inflammatory), <em>muqawwi qalb</em> (cardio tonic),<em>musakkin </em>(sedative<em>), Mudire-haiz</em> (emmenagogue) etc. It is used preferablly to treat various diseases such as<em> yarqan,</em> (jaundice), <em>hasate kulliya</em> (kidney stone), <em>hasate masana</em> (urinary stone) etc<sup>4.&nbsp; </sup>Centaurea species have also shown the presence of flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones, especially guaianolides, germacranolide type sesquiterpene lactones<sup>3</sup> and an alkaloid behamine<sup>4 .</sup>Hence, this review attempts to compile the information regarding the health promoting properties of centaurea roots in light of recent scientific advancement along with its pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses and pharmacological studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Unani Medicine, Behman safed, <em>Centaurea behen </em>Linn. Pharmacological actions.</p> Gulnar Fatima, Aisha Siddiqui, Anwar Jamal, S. Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Pharmaceutical Considerations of Microemulsion as a Drug Delivery System <p>Microemulsions were recognized after the work of Hoar and Schulman in 1943, which revealed the use of strong surface-active agent leading to spontaneous emulsification; however, it was in 1959 when Schulman first used the term “microemulsion” for such emulsion system. Microemulsions are optically transparent, thermodynamically stable colloidal systems, 10–100 nm diameters that form spontaneously upon mixing of oil, water, and emulsifier. After its discovery in 1943 to till date, more than 1200 publications have been reported and development of O/W type of microemulsions has been the priority for the researchers, mostly using non-ionic surfactants. Although microemulsions seem to be one of the most promising candidates in pharmaceuticals because of relative ease in the formulation and distinct characteristics when compared to other dispersion systems, its commercial success as a drug delivery system has been very little. Much of the time after its discovery has been exhausted in failure to understand correct formulation requisites or confusing it with other similar systems. In the face of increasing the number of publication year after year, its formulation has been generally based on trial-and-error. Efficient strategies for excipient selection and detailed understanding of microstructures contributing to its formulation is still required which may serve as the foundation for attaining greater success in this field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microemulsion, Surfactants. Spontaneous emulsification, Solubilization.</p> Himanshu Paliwal, Ram Singh Solanki, Chetan Singh Chauhan, Jayesh Dwivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A Review on Two Endemic Species of Genus Premna and their Conservational Importance <p>The genus <em>Premna </em>(Lamiaceae-APG IV) consists of about 200 species that are native mainly to the tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, Australia and the Pacific islands. The species of<em>Premna </em>are well known for their medicinal properties and have been used in Indian traditional system of medicine especially for diarrhoea, stomach and hepatic disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight two endemic species <em>Premna rajendranii</em> and <em>Premna paucinervis</em>and their importance of conservation. This review also helps to summarize the recent advances in the studies on genus <em>Premna</em>, its endemic status and their distribution in Western Ghats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Endemism, Western Ghats, <em>Premna rajendranii, Premna paucinervis</em></p> Steffy Francis, V. Anand Gideon, S. John Britto, VJ Dessy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Quantum Dots: Method of Preparation and Biological Application <p>Quantum dots are inorganic semiconductor crystal of nanometer size which having distinctive conductive property depend on its size &amp; shape. After administration of quantum dots parentally they identify target and bound them. Also quantum dots having light emitting property depend on size &amp; shape. Quantum dots are prepared by chemical synthesis method include both organic &amp; water phase synthesis &amp; also by top- bottom approach. Tumor cell targeting &amp; detection of pathogen &amp; toxin are the main application of quantum dots &amp; also in targeting drug delivery system. This review provides the overview of method of preparation of quantum dots &amp; its biological application.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Quantum dot, targeting drug delivery, biological application</p> Amol Gomase, Sagar Sangale, Akshay Mundhe, Pravin Gadakh, Vikrant Nikam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Challenges Faced During eCTD and CTD Filling Procedures for USFDA and Canada <p>Electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) is a topic of increasing interest in the pharmaceutical Industry as it become compulsory for filing procedures.&nbsp; The&nbsp;Common Technical Document&nbsp;(CTD) is a set of specification for application dossier, for the registration of Medicines and designed to be used across&nbsp;Europe,&nbsp;Japan&nbsp;and the&nbsp;United States.Quality, Safety and Efficacy information is assembled in a common format&nbsp;through CTD&nbsp;.The CTD is maintained by the&nbsp;International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use&nbsp;(ICH). <em>Electronic common technical document</em>is an interface used by applicants of marketing authorisation for medical products to submit regulatory affairs document to the agency concerned. The purpose of this article is to present a concise overview of challenges faced during eCTD &amp; CTD submissions in United States and Canada. A regulatory process, by which a person/organization/ sponsor/innovator gets authorization to launch a drug in the market, is known as registration process. The registration process will be done by submitting technical information to the authority</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> electronic common technical document (ECTD)/ (CTD), International conference on hormonisation (ICH), Drug registration process.</p> Nisar Ahammad, Nagarjuna Reddy, M.V. Nagabhushanam, Brahmaiah Ramakrishna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 02:33:35 -0500 Gastroretentive Mucoadhesive Microsphere for the Management of Gastric Infection <p>Gastric&nbsp;infections&nbsp;are&nbsp;mostly&nbsp;triggered&nbsp;by&nbsp;Helicobacter&nbsp;pylori&nbsp;(H.&nbsp;pylori),&nbsp;a&nbsp;fungus&nbsp;that&nbsp;colonizes&nbsp;the&nbsp;stomach&nbsp;mucosa&nbsp;of&nbsp;more&nbsp;than&nbsp;50%&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;inhabitants&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;world.&nbsp;Chronic&nbsp;H.&nbsp;Pylori&nbsp;diseasewas&nbsp;associated&nbsp;with&nbsp;stomach&nbsp;diseases&nbsp;such&nbsp;as&nbsp;peptic&nbsp;ulcer,&nbsp;chronic&nbsp;gastritis&nbsp;and&nbsp;stomach&nbsp;adenoc arcinoma. Current therapy for eradication relies on antibiotic-based therapies that are ineffective in about 20% of patients. Traditional method constraints optimize the creation of new techniques for fast, consistent and cost-effective H diagnosis. Infection with pylori. Wide-ranging study has been carried out over the previous few centuries to create a type of gastro-retentive dosage (GRDF). This sort of dosage form can advance the delivery and efficiency of stomach-active medicines because the GRDF enables the medication to remain in the stomach for a sufficient time period. Various methods were used to develop effective GRDFs such as high-density systems, low-density systems, swelling and expansion systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, superporous hydrogels,. However, there are both merits and demerits in these kinds of schemes. Intra-individual and inter-individual dissimilarities are obstacles to the growth of effective GRDFs in gastric physiology. Examples of these individual differences include gastric pH and gastric motility that have a notable effect on the moment of stomach retention and delivery of drugs. Some of these obstacles can be overcome by developing a novel mucoadhesive microsphere. The mucoadhesive microsphere is characterized by close contact of the MDF with the mucosal layer, thereby increasing the localized absorption of the drug. H<sub>2</sub>Receptor antagonists (H<sub>2</sub>RAs) have become first-line therapy for acid related peptic disease and GRDF especially designed for H<sub>2</sub>RAs and drugs against H. pylori, including specific targeting systems and leading to a marked development in the quality of life for a large number of patients. In this relationship, new formulations with improved absorption, improved bioavailability and improved acid-suppressing regimens are welcome</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> H.&nbsp;pylori, gastro-retentive dosage, mucoadhesive microsphere</p> Sri Prakash Mishra, Amit Nayak, Dinesh Kumar Mishra, Abhay Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 02:39:11 -0500 Nephroprotection in Unani Medicine through Herbal Medicine & their research scope: A Review <p>Plants are very potential &amp; vital source for human health and also used therapeutically in the various kidney disorders due to presence of phytochemical constituents. There are numerous herbs existing that have more pharmacological activities including with nephroprotective activity. Now a days herbal drugs are verified &amp; proved as nephroprotective agents and used for improving renal health, even reverse renal damages. The current review is targeted to explain the Unani &amp; modern concept of kidney disorders, nephrotoxicity and the list of scientifically proved medicinal plants having nephroprotective activity medicinal plants which used in the treatment of renal disorders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nephroprotection, Unani Medicine, Kidney disorders</p> Rizwana Khatoon, Dr. Mohammad Aslam, Shahid Shah Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 07:54:11 -0500 Therapeutic Potential of Evolvulus alsinoides <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Evolvulusalsinoides</em>is a well-known herbal drug possessing various promising medicinal properties described by prominent ancient scholars and also numerous preclinical and clinical researches has been performed, thus attestingit’s ample of pharmacological actions. So, thorough review of classical as well as contemporary literature has been executed on <em>Evolvulusalsinoides</em> to validate the pharmacological actions mentioned.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; .</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>For classical review,a comprehensive search of Unani literature is done and for latest research work on evolvulus, articles published in English language using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Google scholar with search term including Sahnkpushpi, sankhaoli, Evolvulusalsinoides since 1991 to 2019 is done.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The search includescontemporary literature, ethnomedicinal sources and 35 research articles from 1992 to 2019 which further ascertains various pharmacological actions being mentioned in Unani literature including anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, anti-helminthic, anti-convulsantand nootropicproperty of herb.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>The pharmacological action and therapeutic application of <em>Shankhaholi/ Shankpushpi</em>which ismentioned inclassical Unani literature are in accordance with latest research. Despite of having several researches on Evolvulusalsinoides there are still numerous indications mentioned in classical literature which are yet to be explored.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Evolvulusalsinoides, herb, Unani, contemporary.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mantasha Binth Siraj, Asim Ali Khan, Director General, CCRUM, Umar Jahangir, Assistant professor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 07:58:26 -0500 Herbal Alternative for Kidney Stone Diseases <p>Kidney stone disease is an increasing disorder of humans. It affects about 12% of the world population. Epidemiological data have shown that calcium oxalate is the predominant mineral in a majority of kidney stones. [1] It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. Kidney stones&nbsp;&nbsp; result from a succession of several physicochemical events including super saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention within the kidneys. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow .The average life time risk of stone formation has been reported in the range of 5-10 %.Recurrent stone formation is a common part of the medical care of patients with stone disease.[2] Kidney stone disease is usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Even improved and besides the high cost that imposes, compelling data now suggest that exposure to shock waves in therapeutic doses may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and an increase in stone recurrence. Data from&nbsp;<em>in vitro, in vivo</em>&nbsp;and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either an alternative therapy in the management of urolithiasis. The present review therefore critically explains the potential usefulness of herbal medicines in the management of urolithiasis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Kidney stones, Calcium oxalate, Herbal plant extracts, Alternative medicine</p> Bhavisha Bhupendrabhai Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 08:02:29 -0500 ANTIEPILEPTICS USE IN PREGNANT WOMEN <p>Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in women of reproductive age. Being careful in antiepileptic treatment during pregnancy can avoid birth defects in off springs. Valproic acid, Carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine are some of the antiepileptics used even during pregnancy.</p> P Arshida, Koorikat Sreejith, K Shabana Thehsin, MT Nadiya Banu, S Sulaikha, KP Midhun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 15 Aug 2019 08:12:01 -0500 Detection of Brain Tumor by Medical Image Processing <p>Medical image processing is the most inspiring and developing field today. This paper labels the method of discovery &amp; removal of brain tumor from patient’s MRI scan images of the brain. In this paper, a technique for separation of brain tumor has been developed on 2D-MRI facts which allow the documentation of tumor tissue with great accuracy and reproducibility compared to manual techniques. The first step of discovery of brain tumor is to patterned the symmetric and asymmetric Form of brain which will define the irregularity After this step the next step is segmentation which is built on two techniques 1) F-Transform (Fuzzy Transform) 2) Morphological operation. These two techniques are used to project the image in MRI. Now by this help of project we can sense the boundaries of brain tumor and calculate the real area of tumor.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Brain tumor, medical image processing, MRI.</p> Shivangi Mahajan, Sakshi Saini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 18 Aug 2019 11:37:30 -0500 Summary and application analysis of clinical herniorrhaphy mesh materials <p>It is widely believed in the medical community that the pathological and anatomical basis for the occurrence of external abdominal hernia is the fascia defect, and how to correctly deal with this kind of fascia defect is the key point in the treatment of external abdominal hernia. Theodore Billorth famously said that if we could artificially create dense and tough tissues like fascia and tendons, the secret to the complete healing of hernia would be solved. These similar theories largely guide the research and practice in the treatment of external abdominal hernia. along with the breakthrough progress in the mesh treatment of external abdominal hernia, According to the chemical composition and biological characteristics, the patch materials can be divided into non-absorbable materials, absorbable materials, composite repair materials and biological materials. <strong>Methods </strong>In this paper, Pubmed database and Chinese journal full-text database literatures were searched,and all mesh materials used in inguinal hernia repair were comprehensively studied, summarized and analyzed in clinical application.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> external abdominal hernia; patch material; conclusion; application</p> Yan Liu, Yanbo Zuo, Zhengwei Jiao, Xiaoshi Jin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 18 Aug 2019 11:43:42 -0500 Zanjabeel (Zingiber offcinale) Transformation of Culinary Spice to a multi-functional Medicine <p>The various traditional systems such as Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha use several plant species to treat different ailments. The Unani (Greco-Arab) system of medicine has been practiced since ancient times for the treatment of range of diseases. Traditional medicine usually takes a “holistic” approach where the physical, spiritual (which includes mental), and most often social well-being of an individual are treated. Thus, the medicinal value of an herbal product may be intimately related to its nutritional and psychological aspects. It is estimated that between 70% and 95% of citizens in a majority of developing countries use traditional medicine for the management of health and as primary health care to address their health-care needs and concerns. Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. Zanjabeel (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>) is a very famous herbal drug which is widely used in world as spice as well as drug in traditional medicine. This article aims at reviewing the Zanjabeel on the basis of description in Unani system of medicine, its Pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses and to discuss scientific studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Zanjabeel, Unani, Pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses.</p> Fouzia Bashir, Zeba Afrin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Aug 2019 07:21:01 -0500 Presence of phytochemicals in fruits and leaves of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) for cancer prevention: A mini review <p>The present review deals with the bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) in the fruits and leaves of guava (<em>Psidium guajava</em> Linn.). In the present study, an attempt was done to survey of literatures for exact solvent extraction to know exact phytocompound and characterization by using instruments along with anticancer properties of these phytochemicals present in fruits and leaves of guava. The compilation of available literatures of last 10 years can be suitable ready references for future experimental study as <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> as well as new drug design as phytomedicines for cancer therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bioactive compounds, <em>Psidium guajava</em>, Guava fruits and leaves, Cancer therapy, Phytomedicines</p> Sudipta Biswas, Partha Talukdar, Dr. Soumendra Nath Talapatra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Aug 2019 07:28:50 -0500 Equine Rabies Immunoglobulin: A Review <p>Rabies is a major cause of human death in many developing countries. There is a worldwide shortage of human and equine rabies immune globulin. The WHO recommends combined administration of rabies vaccine and rabies immune globulin to patients after exposure. The implementation of post exposure prophylaxis by vaccination and specific immunoglobulin therapy are largely hampered by its high cost. The equine rabies immunoglobulin is less expensive than human rabies immunoglobulin, and is used for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in developing countries.</p> <p>Equine rabies immunoglobulin is a F(ab)2 with high specific activity, purity, and safety. Healthy horses are immunized with a rabies vaccine. Crude plasma is collected and immunoglobulin is converted into F(ab)2 fragments by pepsin digestion. The F(ab)2 fragments are purified using caprylic acid precipitation followed by ultrafiltration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Rabies, Equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIG), Human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG), IgG, Caprylic acid, Pepsin.</p> P.V. Shelke, Punit R. Rachh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Aug 2019 04:05:47 -0500 A Review on Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Aṣl al-Sūs) with Unani Perspective and Modern Pharmacology <p>Traditional Unani (Greco-Arab) medicine is among the most ancient therapies founded by the father of Western medicine, the Hippocrates.&nbsp;Presently, most of the population worldwide depend on herbal medicines for some aspect of their primary health care needs. Treatment with medicinal plants is appraised very safely as there are no or minimal side effects. The promising fact is that herbal treatment can be used irrespective of any age group. Most of the pharmaceutical companies are currently conducting extensive research on plant materials assemble from the rain forests and other places for their potential medicinal value. <em>Glycyrrhiza</em> <em>glabra </em>L. (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) is best known for its use in making licorice-flavored confectionery. In Unani medicine, it is commonly known as Aṣl al-Sūs. It is a plant of remote origin. Aṣl al-Sūs extracts and its principle element “glycyrrhizin” have widely been used in foods, tobacco and for medicinal purposes in herbal and traditional medicines as well. It possesses multiple pharmacological and medicinal activities such as anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and hepatoprotective actions. This review attempts to compile the data regarding its ethnobotanical actions and medicinal uses in Unani medicine along with its phyto-pharmacological descriptions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Herbal medicine, Aṣl al-Sūs., <em>Glycyrrhiza glabra </em>L.</p> Gulnaz Fatima, Arzeena Jabeen, Shahid A. Siddiqui, Mohammad Khalid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Aug 2019 04:12:14 -0500 Review on Teneligliptin: A novel antihyperglycemic agent <p>Diabetes mellitus relates a metabolic disorder of collective aetiology which is characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia caused due to disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism due to impaired β cell function of pancreas or insulin resistance or both. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have recently emerged as a new class of antidiabetic that show favorable results in improving glycemic control with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Teneligliptin is a recently developed oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor indicated for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Teneligliptin, characterized by a "J-shaped" structure formed by five consecutive rings which give unique binding characteristics, reflect in higher potency than other dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor. Teneligliptin is a novel antihyperglycemic agent with a preferable profile in terms of long-term efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diabetes Mellitus, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitor, Teneligliptin, Hypoglycemia,</p> V. D. Gorde, Punit R. Rachh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Aug 2019 04:20:18 -0500 A Review Bioactive Components of Vigna mungo <p>The bioactive compound is secondary plant metabolites eliciting pharmacological or toxicological effects in man and animals. Legumes are a valuable source of proteins and nutrients for the majority of the world population. <em>Vigna mungo</em> is one of the important legume crops extensively cultivated in India and other parts of the world. Pulses and legumes have been gaining interest because they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds. The objective of this present review is to compile all relevant information published regarding bioactive components from the <em>Vigna mungo.</em> Various bioactive components reported in <em>Vigna mungo</em> were found and it includes flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phytoestrogens, phenolic acids, enzymes, fibers, starches, trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, saponins, tocopherols, fatty acids and proteins. This review clearly demonstrates that <em>Vigna mungo</em> is rich in bioactive components and these components are located in various organs of the plant.</p> Jeevan Suresh Dhumal, Sanjay R Chaudhari, Dr., Macchindra J Chavan, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Aug 2019 04:27:39 -0500 Review on Pharmacological potentials of Prosopis juliflora <p><em>Prosopis juliflora</em> is one of the most widely used herbal plants in treating diabetes mellitus. This plant mainly belongs to the <em>Leguminosae </em>(Mimosaceae) family. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 80% of the population is still depends upon herbal medicines for their treatment of diseases due to various advantages such as ease of availability, economic and less side effects when compared to allopathic system of medicines. This plant has broad ecological amplitude and is adapted to a wide range of soils. It is generally found in the areas where water and soil fertility are the primary agents limiting plant growth, and is able to survive, and even thrive, on some of the poorest land, unsuitable for any other tree species. The phytoconstituents present in this plant are tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes and steroids. This plant shows various pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity. The review of this plant suggests that the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids and other secondary metabolites are responsible for its pharmacological activities there for, the plant plays a vital role in maintenance of the human health and wellbeing. The present review deals with various pharmacological effects established on plant <em>P. juliflora</em></p> Manisha Dnyandeo Ukande, Shakila Shaikh, Krishna Murthy, Rajkumar Shete ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Aug 2019 10:43:34 -0500 Traditional Remedies for Wound Healing: A Review <p>Wounds are a natural part of everyday life that can be successfully treated with the knowledge of Ayurveda. Ayurveda is the study of science that is based on herbal remedies. A wound must progress through vrana shodhana (wound purification) and vrana roopana (wound healing) and pass through the four stages of wound healing; dushta vrana (septic wound), shudh vrana (clean wound), roohyamana vrana (healing wound), and roodha vrana (healed wound). Through this, Ayurveda has revealed knowledge for treating conditions that can’t be treating by the modern medicine. Ghee-based herbal formulations claimed to promote wound healing in traditional practices. This article aims to provide probable scientific explanations for using medicated ghrita (ghee) as wound healing formulation in Ayurvedic system of medicine and its clinical importance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ayurveda, Wound, Ghrita, Wound healing.</p> Shakila Shabbeer SHAIKH, Manisha D. Ukande, Krishna Murthy, Rajkumar V Shete, R.S. Solunke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Aug 2019 10:52:54 -0500