Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Mon, 15 Apr 2019 05:32:40 -0500 OJS 60 Development and validation of a spectrofluorimetric method for the estimation of camptothecin in bulk and formulation <p>A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and cost-effective spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the estimation of Camptothecin (CMPTO) in bulk and formulation. The relative fluorescence intensity of Camptothecin was measured in distilled water at an excitation wavelength of 278 nm and an emission wavelength of 419 nm. Proposed method was found to be linear over the range of 50 to 3000 ng/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9999. Proposed method was validated using different analytical method validation parameters viz. accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, robustness and ruggedness using QC standards as per the ICH guidelines<strong>.</strong> Thepercentage recovery was found to be 100.64 % and percentage RSD values were found to be less than 2 for accuracy and precision studies. The detection and quantification limits for the proposed method were found to be 15.76 and 47.98 ng/ml, respectively. A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive yet cost-effective spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the estimation of CMPTO in bulk and formulation. The said spectrofluorimetric method was found to be economic as it comprises water as a solvent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Spectrofluorimetry, Camptothecin, Validation, Excitation, Emission</p> Sachin Shivling Bhusari, Tejal Prashant Chaudhari, Pravin Shridhar Wakte ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Buccoadhesive Drug Delivery System for Lovastatin <p>Lovastatin, a hyperlipedemic agent used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, has poor bioavailability ( less than 5%) due to the first pass metabolism and thus the dosing frequency is more, as a result of which several side effects occurred with the current dosage form. The present study aimed to formulate and evaluate buccoadhesive tablets of Lovastatin using mucoadhesive polymer such as Carbopol 934P, Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (K4M, K100M) and sodium CMC. The different formulations of buccoadhesive tablet of Lovastatin were prepared by direct compression method and characterized for physicochemical parameters such as thickness, content uniformity, weight variation, hardness, and friability test. The swelling index, % matrix erosion, surface pH, bioadhesive strength, bioadhesive time and <em>in-vitro</em> drug release are also carried out which has been important aspect for success of buccoadhesive tablets. The FTIR study was carried out for drug and polymer compatibility.&nbsp; All the formulation showed satisfactory tablet properties. Formulation (F5) containing Carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M in the ratio of (1:1) showed good bioadhesive strength and maximum drug release of 95.80% in 8 hours. The surface pH of all tablets was found to be satisfactory, close to buccal pH, hence no irritation would observe with these tablets. FTIR studies showed no evidence of interaction between drug and polymers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Buccoadhesive tablets, Lovastatin, FTIR, Carbopol 934P, <em>in-vitro </em>drug release</p> RAJU RAMESH THENGE, S. S. Mahajan, N. M. Mahajan, V.S. Adhao, P. V. Ajmire ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in different extracts of rhizome of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. <p>To analyze and characterize the chemical composition of the different crude extracts from the rhizome of <em>Curcuma aeruginosa</em> Roxb a medicinal plant.The air-dried rhizomes were powdered and subjected to Soxhlet extraction using solvent n-hexane and Supercritical fluid extraction. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Qualitative determination of the different biologically active compounds from crude extracts of <em>C aeruginosa </em>Roxb using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed different types of high and low molecular weight chemical entities with varying quantities present in each of the extracts. These chemical compounds are considered biologically and pharmacologically important. Furthermore, the two different extracts SCF and n-hexane possess unique physicochemical characteristics. The two extracts possess major bioactive compounds that were identified and characterized spectroscopically. Thus, identification of different biologically active compounds in the extracts of <em>C aeruginosa</em> Roxb warrants further biological and pharmacological studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Supercritical Fluid, Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS</p> Dessy VJ, S.R. Sivakumar, Mariat George, Steffy francis ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A study to assess drug related problems in patients with Cardiovascular Diseases in a tertiary care teaching hospital <p><strong>Back ground: </strong>Drug related problems are common in hospitalized patients and may lead to increase hospital stay, health care cost and augment the risk of morbidity and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the study is to examine the nature and frequency of drug related problems, to minimize drug related problems and to improve therapeutic outcome by pharmaceutical care provided by clinical pharmacist.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A prospective study was conducted in the cardiology department of a tertiary care hospital over a period of six months. Necessary demographic and clinical data was collected from the case records including drug history, other relevant details of the admitted patients and reviewed by the clinical pharmacist for drug related problems.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 280 patient case sheets were reviewed during the study period, out of which 244 drug related problems were identified. The most common drug related problem was found to be drug interactions (58.6%) followed by untreated indication (19.26%) and drug use without indication (15.57%). The most frequent suggestions provided by the intervening pharmacist were drug discontinuation (5.32%), addition of a new drug (5.32%) and change of dosage form (4.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Drug related problems are common among medical ward patients. Routine participation of clinical pharmacist in clinical medical rounds facilitates the identification of drug related problems and the current study highlights the importance of pharmacist in a multidisciplinary team of reviewing drug therapy for identification and resolution of DRPs which helps in achieving better therapeutic outcomes and improved patient care.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>cardiovascular diseases, clinical pharmacist, dyslipidemia, drug related problem.</p> Sai Hamsini L, G Priyanka, D Chandralekha, M V Naveen Reddy, Apoorva Dev ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Pharmacological activities of aqueous flower extract of Ixora coccinea L. <p>Nature has blessed the universe with plenty of medicinal plants, so often referred as the Medicinal Garden of the world. In Indian Vedas, the medicinal plants including every part of the plant from roots to flowers were used for curing several diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to enrich the dietary system with antioxidant molecules to protect the human system against various diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antidiabetic activities of aqueous flowers extract of <em>Ixora coccinea </em>belongs to the family Rubiaceae<em>.</em> Antioxidant activities such as DPPH<strong><sup>·</sup></strong> radical, superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical scavenging activities, phosphomolybdenum reduction and Fe<sup>3+</sup> reducing power activities were carried out. The IC<sub>50</sub> of DPPH<strong><sup>·</sup></strong> radical and superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical were 13.58 and 23.51 µg/mL concentrations. The RC<sub>50</sub> of phosphomolybednum reduction and Fe<sup>3+</sup> reduction were 20.57 and 14.57 µg/mL concentrations. The IC<sub>50 </sub>of haemolytic inhibition was 99.72 µg/mL concentration. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were 369.1 µg/mg Gallic acid equivalents and 55.14 µg/mg Quercetin equivalents. The IC<sub>50 </sub>of alpha amylase enzyme inhibition was 655.02 µg/mL concentration. The antibacterial activity showed maximum zone of inhibition of 15mm for <em>B. subtilis</em> at 500 µg/mL concentration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antioxidant, DPPH<strong><sup>·</sup></strong> radical, Superoxide (O<sub>2</sub><sup>.-</sup>) radical, alpha-amylase, haemolysis.</p> Chandrasekaran Sivaraj, Adaikkalasamy Jenifer, Krishna Saraswathi, Perumal Arumugam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Bauhinia variegata and Commiphora mukul in Regulating Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Hypothyroidism Induced Albino Wistar Rats <p>The present clinical interventions used for the management of the hypothyroidism are still associated with various side effects. In order to avoid this, the aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the effect of <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> and <em>Commiphora mukul</em> in regulating serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels in rats. Ethanolic extract of <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> (non-woody aerial parts) and <em>Commiphora mukul</em>(gum resin) was prepared via hot solvent extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that the ethanolic extract of <em>Bauhinia variegates</em> linn has all the phytoconstituents except phytosterol, fixed oil and fats. The <em>Commiphora mukul</em> gum resin extract showed the presence of all phytoconstituents except alkaloids, fixed oil and mucilage.The oral toxicity studies showed no abnormalities at the maximum tolerated dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Methimazole were used to induce hypothyroidism in the rats. The animals were treated with different individual and combined dosages (100, 200 and 400 of two plant extracts. Serum TSH level analysis showed that a combination of high dose (400mg /kg body weight) of <em>Bauhinia variegate</em> and <em>Commiphora mukul</em> gum resin extracts showed a significant effect in lowering&nbsp; serum TSH levels raised due to hypothyroidism. To conclude, a combined extract of plants could be a potential therapeutic alternative for the management of hypothyroidism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bauhinia variegate Linn., <em>Commiphora mukul</em>, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid stimulating hormones, Methimazole.</p> Mahua Bhaumik Singha, Tikendrajit Sarma, Mangala Lahakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Estimation of total Phenol and flavonoid contents of Citrus limon L Burmf leaves from North Eastern region of India. <p>Citrus plants belonging to the family Rutaceae, are traditionally used by the local people India to treat scurvy, rheumatism, stomachic, diarrhea, liver disorders and used as an antioxidant. They are valuable source of phenolic and other biologically active compounds.&nbsp; Phenolic compounds have been reported to have multiple biological effects. In this paper quantitative determination of phenols and flavonoids of <em>Citrus limon</em> L Burmf leaves extracts was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. The plant material was collected from Assam, north eastern region of India. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminium chloride method was used for flavonoid determination. Acetone and methanol extracts of leaves showed quite high amount of phenol as well as flavinoid contents compared to ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts.&nbsp; However, all the extracts exhibited significant results.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Citrus limon</em>, Phenol, Flavonoid, Catechol and Quercetin.</p> S. Upadhyaya, E. Khatiwora, D.K. Bora ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Design development and optimization of immediate release tablet of valsartan <p>The objective of the present study was to prepare immediate release tablets (IRTs) of valsartan by direct compression method. Two types of superdisintegrants i.e. sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and Ac-Di-sol were used in the formulation of tablets. Twelve preliminary trial batches were prepared by varying the concentration of superdisintegrants. It was found that formulation containing Ac-Di-Sol disintegrated in less time as compared to formulation containing sodium starch glycolate. Values of friability was found to be more in case of formulation containing Ac-Di-Sol. Attempts were also made to prepare the tablets containing superdisintegrants in combination and these resulted in the formulation with improved values of disintegration time and friability. On the basis of preliminary studies optimization of IRT was done employing 3<sup>2</sup> full factorial design using design expert 7. The optimized batch of IRTs showed friability and disintegration time values of 0.82 ± 0.07 and 29 ± 1 respectively. The percent release was also found to be 94.73 ± 4.97% in 5 min.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Immediate release tablets, Valsartan, Hypertension, Sodium starch glycolate, Ac-Di-Sol, 3<sup>2</sup> full factorial design</p> Abhimanyu Rai Sharma, Birendra Shrivastava, Anurag Bhargava, Shailesh Sharma, Binu Raina, Prabhjot Singh Bajwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Mefenamic Acid Solid Dispersions Employing Starch Citrate-A New Solubility Enhancer <p>Solid dispersions refer to the group of solid products consisting of at least a hydrophilic carrier and hydrophobic drug. Drug is molecularly dispersed in amorphous form. Solubility and dissolution rate is the rate determining step for bioavailability of mefenamic acid, a BCS class II drug. In this paper, preparation of starch citrate and evaluation of it, as a solubility enhancer by formulating solid dispersion using mefenamic acid will be discussed. For evaluation, as solubility enhancer, of starch citrate <em>in vitro</em> evaluation of solid dispersion (prepared by physical method, solvent evaporation method and kneading method) was done. Starch citrate found to be a novel carrier and solubility enhancer of poorly soluble drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Mefenamic acid, Starch citrate, Solid dispersion &amp;<em> I</em><em>n vitro </em>studies, physical method, solvent evaporation, kneading method</p> Rada Santosh Kumar, Annu Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Phytochemical and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Careya arborea Roxb. leaves successive extracts <p>The successive extracts of <em>Careya arborea </em>Roxb leaves, a traditional medicinal plant used in India. It possessed a significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents with potent antioxidant activities in scavenging DPPH, ABTS radicals, and good total antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed the highest inhibition of DPPH, ABTS radicals and phosphomolybdate assay. This study verified that the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts have strong antioxidant activities which might be due to high level of phenolics and flavonoids. Thus results confirm its traditional claims can be used as a source of potential antioxidant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Careya arborea </em>Roxb<em>, </em>successive, leaves, antioxidant.</p> Shailaja D Wadje, Balaji G Wankhede, Madhav R Mali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Students based tuberculosis prevalence survey in IFTM University Moradabad <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Tuberculosis is a major problem in present timing. So, this survey based on the how much knowledge having by the students<strong>.</strong> In this present study belongs the national/ international journals of repute database, documents of Indian researcher’s publication data on tuberculosis research were used for the study. This survey given knowledge about the awareness of tuberculosis in present society.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study where we have interviewed total 156 students respectively. The study involved Pharmacy and Non-pharmacy students from a teaching institution located in the Moradabad city. The name of the institution is IFTM University Moradabad PS and NPS showed that the knowledge about the TB. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>The data collected was analyses using graph paid prism 7&amp; Chi square test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>With respect to knowledge, higher knowledge were observed among PS about TB. The results indicate the need for healthcare institutions to invest in this topic, aiming to improve students and knowledge about TB.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results indicate the need for healthcare institutions to invest in this topic, aiming to improve students and knowledge about TB, in view of the important role in the establishment of strategies to prevent and control the disease.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Tuberculosis<strong>, </strong>Questionnaire, <em>Pharmacy</em>&nbsp;students, Non-pharmacy students</p> Pawan Singh, Navneet Verma, Pravesh Kumar, Alankar Shrivastav, Najam Ali Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Prophylactic Effect of Butea monosperma against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats <p>Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for solid tumors; however its use is limited by nephrotoxicity. The current study investigated the effect of <em>Butea monosperma</em> in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Kidneys have a vital role in the normal physiology of humans. Worldwide chronic kidney disease has become a major cause for disability and in worst circumstances leads to death. Major renal disorders occur due to diabetes and its complications termed as diabetic nephropathy (DN). The animals were divided into four groups of six rats each (n=6). The control group (Group 1) received 1%CMC, Group 2 received only cisplatin, a 7 days of extract of <em>Butea monosperma</em> (200 mg/kg bwt) pre-treatment was applied to the animals in Group 3 before administration of cisplatin; a 7 days of extract of <em>Butea monosperma</em> was performed following administration of cisplatin for the animals in Group 4. Cisplatin (6 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected as a single dose and extract of <em>Butea monosperma</em> (200 and 400 mg/kg bwt) was administered by gavage in 1%CMC. Biochemical and histopathological methods were utilized for evaluation of the nephrotoxicity. The concentrations of creatinine, uric acid and blood urine nitrogen, in plasma and levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione as well as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined in kidney tissue. Administration of cisplatin to rats induced a marked renal failure, characterized with a significant increase in plasma creatinine and uric acid and Blood urea nitrogen. levels of rats received cisplatin alone were significantly different compared to control group but they had higher kidney malondialdehyde, and lower reduce glutathione concentrations, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Extract of <em>B. monosperma</em> administration produced amelioration in biochemical indices of nephrotoxicity in both serum and kidney tissues when compared to toxic inducer group; pre-treatment with extract of <em>Butea monosperma</em> being more effective. Results from this study indicated that the novel natural antioxidant extract of <em>B. monosperma</em> might have protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rat.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jitendra Bajaj, Sourabh Jain, Swapnil Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Discovery of Common Putative Drug Targets and Vaccine Candidates for Mycobacterium tuberculosis sp. <p><em><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></em></p> <p><em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>&nbsp;is the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB), an infection that usually affects the lungs and can be fatal without proper treatment. Combating through available drugs became a difficult task due to drug resistance and lack of appropriate common targets against genetically diverse strains. Since to improve efficacy, the effective targets should be identified and critically assessed. In the study, we aim to predict the potential novel targets against <em>M. tuberculosis</em> strains by employing in silico approach. The complete proteomic datasets of 23 <em>M. tuberculosis</em> strains was comparatively processed by executing R-scripts and eventually predicted 3906 'conserved gene products'. Further, we performed subtractive proteomic approach in search of promising crucial targets. Consequently, eight enzymes and two membrane proteins were prioritized as new therapeutic and vaccine targets respectively which found to have more interactors in network with high-confidence score, druggability and antigenicity. Therefore, outcomes of the study emphasize the importance of new targets may counteract with false-positive/negatives and facilitate appropriate potential targets for a new insight of reliable therapeutic development.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis, </em>Multidrug resistance tuberculosis and Extensive drug resistant tuberculosis.</p> Ravina Madhulitha Nalamolu, Chiranjeevi Pasala, Sudheer Kumar Katari, Umamaheswari Amineni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Medical survey on Cardiovascular Disorders <p>Recent studies in India indicate raising trends of cardiovascular disorders like hyper tension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. Even in rural areas continuous monitoring of the cardio vascular disorders situation is required by repeated cross sectional studies in both urban, rural to plan control measures. Aim of the study to make a survey on cardio vascular disorders in local hospitals of aroghya and spandana hosipital in khammam. A cross sectional study was carried out in khammam region in the rural field practice area of Mother Teresa Pharmacy College in Sathupally, India. All adults and olders of both genders were included and screened for cardio vascular disorders by hosipital survey. Conclusion: It was observed that cardiovascular disorders can be treated within time and proper medication. Awareness should be created among the population regarding prevention of cardiovascular disorders. Even though proper medication are there, in some cases like heart attack and congestive heart failure the death rate is very high. This is because the patient is not able to reach the hospitals in time, not changing their life style modifications, continuing their habits like smoking and alcohol consumption and lack of frequent medical checkups. Hence the sincere advise to all the patients those are in the risk of cardiovascular disorders must have to keep the corresponding medicines like nitroglycerine tablets (Isosorbide dinitrate)&nbsp; with them of their pocket every time, avoiding of their habits of smoking and alcohol consumption, intake of low calorie diet and maintain their regular medical checkups.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Cross sectional study, Cardiovascular Disorders, Smoking and Alcohol consumption</p> T. Satyanarayana, Swathi Palepu, Tallapureddy Parvathi, Kambampati Chandra Krishna, Shaik Parveen, Burugu Prathyusha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Design and characterization of floating microspheres for rheumatoid arthritis <p>Gastroretentive systems can remain in the gastric region for several hours and significantly prolong the gastric residence of the drugs. Prolonged gastric retention improves bioavailability, reduces drug waste, improve solubility of drugs that are less soluble in a high pH environment. It has application also for local drug delivery to the stomach and proximal small intestine. The main objective of any drug therapy is to achieve&nbsp; a desire concentration of the drug in blood or tissue&nbsp; which is therapeutically effective and nontoxic&nbsp; for extended period of time, and this goal can&nbsp; be achieved by proper design of sustain release&nbsp; dosage regimen. Microspheres have been widely accepted as a mean to achieve oral and parenteral controlled release. The microspheres require a polymeric substance as a coating material or carrier. A number of different substances biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable have been investigated for the preparation of microspheres. The aim of this study is to prepare floating microspheres containing Sulfasalazineto achieve a controlled drug release profile suitable for peroral administration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Gastroretentive, Sulfasalazine, sustain release, Microspheres</p> Ramnaresh Yadav, Mithun Bhowmick, Vaishali Rathi, Jagdish Rathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Preparation of solid dispersions of glibenclamide for in-vitro dissolution enhancement <p>The purpose of this study was to prepare solid dispersions (SD) of Glibenclamide (GLB) and evaluate them for in-vitro drug release enhancement. Glibenclamide is a second generation sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug used to control blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients, but poor-water solubility is responsible for its low oral bioavailability which has severely restricted it in the clinical application for diabetic control. Therefore, to increase the aqueous solubility and thereby,&nbsp; in-vitro dissolution of glibenclamide, solid dispersions were prepared with poloxamer-188in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2; 1:4 &amp; 1:6 by solvent evaporation method in ethanol after conducting preliminary screening for the selection of best carrier and ratio for the development of solid dispersion of glibenclamide . Among the prepared SD formulations, GLB-SD<sub>4</sub> (1:6 Drug: Carrier ratio) showed highest enhancement in solubility and in-vitro dissolution rate in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). In-vitro drug release profiles revealed that the drug release (%) of glibenclamide from GLB-SD<sub>4</sub> was achieved 6-fold higher than pure drug after 180 mins. It is worth noting that GLB-SD<sub>4</sub> provided the highest solubility and in-vitro dissolution rate compared to rest of the SD formulations, pure glibenclamide, market formulation and physical mixtures of glibenclamide in the same medium (Phosphate Buffer pH 6.8) as per the following manner: GLB-SD<sub>4 </sub>&gt; GLB-PM<sub>4 </sub>&gt; GLB-MF&gt;Pure GLB. This may be due to more reduction in particle size at molecular level, enhanced wetting properties and better solubilization of P-188 and use of ethanol. The hydrogen bonding interactions between the drug and carrier in the final solid dispersion formulation (GLB-SD<sub>4</sub>) was detected by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. These results demonstrated that the carrier (P-188) proved effective in improving the solubility of a poorly soluble glibenclamide, thereby endorsing the application of solid dispersion technology for the enhancement of solubility and thereby, in-vitro dissolution rate of glibenclamide.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Glibenclamide, Solid dispersion, Solubility, In-vitro dissolution, Fourier Transform Infrared.</p> Khalid Bashir Mir, Nisar Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and evaluation of topical Calcineurin inhibitor loaded transfersomal drug delivery for Vitiligo <p>The aim of the present investigation was to formulate and evaluate topical calcineurin inhibitor loaded transfersomal drug delivery for vitiligo using rota evaporator followed by thin film method. Tacrolimus can restore the melanocytes if given in transfersomal gel. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) had employed to study drug-excipients incompatibility. Analytical method was performed using UV spectrophotometer. Topical calcineurin inhibitor loaded transfersomal gel was evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, percent drug entrapment, surface morphology, in-vitro drug release study, in vitro permeability study and stability study. Optimization of process parameter was done by 3<sup>2</sup> full factorial Design Expert software. Topical calcineurin inhibitor was successfully prepared with drug:lipid(1:10), lipid:surfactant(9:1), water as hydration medium, chloroform:methanol(9:1) as solvent, HPMCK100 as mucoadhesive agent and extract of catechu powder to provide colour on skin. Optimization study of process parameter shows that batch prepared with hydration time 55 min,evaporation time 15 min, hydration temperature is 50°C and temperature to form thin film is 60°C as optimum condition for rota evaporator. Particle size, zeta potential, percent drug entrapment were found to be 155.5 nm, -49 mV, 80% respectively for optimized batch.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Vitiligo, Tacrolimus, Transfersomal gel, Thin film hydration method, Vesicle size, PDE, Zeta-potential, Skin irritation study, Skin sustain study, Stability study.</p> Dipti Patel, Zabir Sherasiya, Kajal Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation of Carbopol Capsules for Sustained Release of Losartan Potassium <p>Sustained release formulations have been extensively studied for their benefits in improving various physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of large number of drugs. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate sustained release capsules of losartan potassium in order to provide drug release over a long period of time. This allows the drug much time for absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and hence may increase the bioavailability of the drug. Carbopol 971 P was used as rate controlling polymer for the preparation of capsules. The capsules were evaluated for matrix integrity and drug release using USP type II dissolution apparatus. The sustained release capsules showed excellent matrix integrity and released more than 90% of the drug over a period of 12 hours. The kinetic studies showed that the drug release from the carbopol matrices followed Korsmeyer Peppas release kinetics and hence the mechanism of drug release was a combination of more than one processes i.e. diffusion and erossion. Hydration volume as well as matrix integrity were affected by the change in the amount of the polymer in the capsules. The study suggests that carbopol 971P capsules can be efficiently used to control and extend the release of losartan potassium over a long period. Thus improved absorption and bioavailability can be achieved which requires further studies in animals in future.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sustained release, Carbopol, Hydration volume, Capsules</p> Taha Umair Wani, Nisar Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of Patoladi Kwath (SU. CH.) with or without Rasnadi Pradeh (CH. SU.) in cases of Vatarakta (W.S.R. to Gouty Arthritis) <p>In <em>Ayurveda</em>, health means the state of <em>Doshasamya, Agnisamya, Dhatusamya</em> and <em>Samanya Malkriya</em> as well as wellness of <em>Atmendriya</em> and <em>Mana<sup>1</sup>,</em> which according to <em>Acharya Charak</em> is necessary to achieve <em>Dharma, Artha, Kama</em> &amp; <em>Moksha<sup>2</sup>,</em> the ultimate aim of life. But it has become quite difficult due to the various health obstacles experienced by men during his routine life. The disease <em>Vatarakta</em> is one of them and the number of <em>Vatarakta</em> patient are increasing day by day. The status of <em>Vatarakta</em> is often compared with Gouty Arthritis in the allied sciences. As far as the treatment of <em>Vatarakta</em>/Gouty Arthritis is concerned various research works conducted from time to time, which had shown encouraging result, but still there are many <em>Ayurvedic</em> medicine whose effect has to be established in the management of <em>Vatarakta</em>/Gouty Arthritis based on latest scientific parameters. <em>Acharya</em> <em>Charak</em> has advocated the use of different <em>Ghrit Yog, Tail Yog, Lepa, Pradeha,</em> etc for external application in different types of <em>Vatarakta</em> for relieving pain, swelling, stiffness, burning, itching, etc. So, for this research work we selected <em>Patoladi Kwath</em> from <em>Susrut Chikitsa Sthana</em> 5 and <em>Rasnadi Pradeh</em> from <em>Charak Sutra Sthana</em> 3 to evaluate their efficacy in the management of <em>Vatarakta</em> (w.s.r. to Gouty Arthritis). For this research work 56 diagnosed patient of <em>Vatarakta</em> having age of 21 to 60 years were registered and sequentially randomized into two parallel groups. Leaving 6 dropout (3 from each group), 25 patients of group A were treated with 40 ml <em>Patoladi kwath</em> 2 times a day after meal for 90 days and 25 patients of group B were treated with 40 ml <em>Patoladi kwath</em> 2 times a day after meal with <em>Rasnadi</em> <em>Praddeh</em> for local application over affected joint in the evening for 90 days. The result of the treatment was accessed based on the improvement in terms of symptomatic relief and improvement in terms of Lab investigation i.e, decrease in Serum Uric Acid level and ESR.</p> DEEPIKA GUPTA, Kamal Sachdev, Richa Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Phytochemical and Therapeutic Potential of Bioenergetic plant: Trapa bispinosa Roxb. <p>The present study includes the determination of physicochemical property, qualitative phytochemical investigation, fluorescence analysis and organoleptic property of kernel of fruit of water chestnut (<em>Traba bispinosa </em>Roxb) in different solvents. Maximum extractive value was obtained in aqueous solution(8.42%) followed by methanol80%(5.42%), ethanol 80%.(2.88%),ethanol(2.34%), methanol(2.02%), acetone(0.94%) and chloroform(0. 74%).Total ash content (2.30%) and moisture content (10.22%) were recorded in dried kernel. Qualitative analysis showed presence of carbohydrate, reducing sugar, starch, protein, flavonoid while phenols, saponin and tannins were absentin driedkernel of fruit. Florescence characteristics of crude drug powder ofdriedkernel fruit treated with acids, benzene, ammonia and FeCl<sub>3</sub> showed different colour in UV light and ordinary visible light. Organoleptic property of kernel fruitswas also recorded on the basis of colour, odor, taste and texture as off white, specific, sweet and powdery respectively. Present work suggests that kernel of fruits of <em>Trapa</em> has significant positive biomolecules to be used as industrial, pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals crop and can be further bioprospected for polyvalent utilization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Fluorescence, Organoleptic property, Physicochemical, Phytochemical.</p> , Vageshwari, V. N. Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and evaluation of Adhulsa lozenges for pediatric patients <p>WHO estimates that 235 million people currently suffer from asthma. WHO has recognized herbal medicines as an essential building block for primary health care of vast countries like India. In India the number of children suffering from asthma is increasing. Asthma is the chronic diseases of the bronchi which require continuous medical care. Appropriate management of asthma can enable people to enjoy a good quality of life. Many synthetic and traditional medicines are used in the treatment. Herbal formulations have been used by mankind for the cure and treatment of various diseases and are still popular to a large extend. <em>Justicia adhatoda</em> has been used to treat respiratory and other allergic conditions since years. Vasicine is the main active ingredient of <em>Justicia adhatoda</em>. It has been used in the ayurvedic system of medicine in the treatment of various ailments of respiratory tract both in children and adults. Juice of Adulsa is generally recommended for use. Formulations containing <em>Justicia adhatoda </em>are available in the market, which are syrups or liquid orals. Lozenges are palatable solid unit dosage form administrated in the oral cavity. The study aims in formulation and evaluation of sweet hard candy lozenges using medicinal plant extract especially for administration to pediatric patients for better patient compliance using juice of vasaka leaves.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Asthma, Traditional medicines, <em>Justicia adhatoda, </em>Vasicine</p> Atharva Sanjay Khaladkar, Amruta Avalaskar, Pranoti Bharati, Kiran Honkalas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Aglaia malabarica induced apoptosis evaluation in plant meristem, erythrocytes and human cancer cell lines <p>Apoptosis forms the basis of the drugs targeting cancer cells. The present study aims to explore apoptosis inducing ability of the evergreen forest plant <em>Aglaia malabarica </em>in three model cell systems. <em>Allium cepa </em>root meristem treated with the plant extract showed considerable decrease in the mitotic index and also revealed increased cytological aberration in a dose dependent manner on treatment with the leaf extract. Evans blue staining of the meristem confirmed the apoptotic death induction by the plant extract in a dose dependent way. Erythrocytes were subjected to treatment with the plant extract and remarkable apoptotic signs like membrane blebs, membrane distortions <em>etc</em>. were observed. HeLa cells were also characterized by the formation of echinoid bodies, membrane blebs, nuclear disintegration, fragmented nucleus <em>etc.</em> after treatment with <em>A. malabarica </em>extract. The quantitative estimation of cell viability was done using MTT assay and morphological alterations was studied by AO/EB double staining. The plant is proved to be of high potential in inducing apoptosis, in rapidly dividing cells and thereby opens a new possibility in drug preparation against uninhibited cell proliferation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Aglaia</em>, apoptosis, eryptosis, chromatin aberration, MTT, HeLa</p> Archana Elamkulam Ravindran, John Ernest Thoppil, Professor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Development and characterization of controlled release bilayered tablets of Citicoline sodium <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of present investigation was formulation development and evaluation of bi-layer tablets of citicoline sodium. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>An aqueous granulation process was adopted to formulate citicoline sodium (CTS) bilayer tablets. Wet granulation method has been utilized for the formulation of bilayer CTS tablet. Citicoline sodium, microcrystalline cellulose (pH 101 &amp; 102), HPMC K4, K15, K-100, PVP K-30, Magnesium stearate, cross-carmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and red oxide were used for preparation. Pre-formulation studies of citicoline sodium and drug excipient compatibility study was carried to optimize the formulation variables. Two layers, immediate release (IR layer) and sustained release (SR) has been developed and evaluated for the various parameters e.g. micromeritic properties, percentage yield, particle size, hardness, thickness, weight variation, percent friability and percent assay,&nbsp; <em>In-vitro</em> dissolution and <em>In</em>-<em>vitro</em> release studies. <strong>Result and Discussion: </strong>Pre-formulation study of citicoline sodium denotes that evaluated parameters confirm the suitability and compliance of drug with polymers.&nbsp; Drug excipient compatibility study through the DSC confirmed that polymer, excipient and drug were compatible with each other and no incompatibility issue found during the preparation of formulation. FT-IR study is also executed to confirm the drug-excipient incompatibility. In all physical mixtures of drug and polymer, there was neither masking of single characteristic peak nor existence of additional peak in drug spectra; this has proven that drug and polymers are compatible with each other. Hardness 10-11 kg/cm<sup>2</sup>, thickness 7.3-7.4 mm, percent weight variation 1.2%, friability 0.1-0.3%, assay was 99-101% denotes the successful development of CTS tablets. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>These all parameters denote that the formulation has optimized, evaluated and were in the standard range. Hence, this optimized bilayer tablet formulation could be a potential formulation to promote sustained release, promote delivery of drugs from a single dosage form to improve patient compliance and give better disease management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Citicoline sodium, bi-layer tablet, DSC, immediate release, sustain release.</p> Neetesh Rayakwar, Yuvraj Singh Dangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and evaluation of immediate release tablet of zopiclone using wet granulation method <p>Zopiclone, a cyclopyrolone, is a non-benzodiazepine derivative used as a hypnotic agent in the treatment of short term insomnia. The main objective of the present investigation was to formulate a pharmaceutically active stable and bioequivalent immediate release (IR) tablets of zopiclone using wet granulation method. The prepared formulations were evaluated using various physical parameters, equipment, dissolution study and drug release profile.&nbsp; The basic approach used in development of zopiclone IR tablets was that the use of superdisintegrants as like Corn starch (maize) and Sodium starch glycolate which provide instant disintegration after administration. <em>In-vitro</em> dissolution testing study was carried out for 1 hours using 0.1N HCl in a dissolution apparatus for evaluation of Drug release. On the basis of the dissolution profile, F3 gives a better result and were found 100 % release in just 20 minutes and also found that as the polymer ratio were increases the drug release rate also increased from the formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypnotic agent, immediate release, Wet granulation Method, Non-benzodiazepine derivative, Superdisintegrants, Zopiclone&nbsp;</p> Rajesh Bhatt, Aditya Sharma, Prevesh Kumar, Sukirti Upadhyay, Prashant Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Prunus armeniaca (apricot) and Mucuna pruriens (Konch) seeds improves the liver damage in albino rat exposed to nicotine <p><em>Prunus armeniaca</em> (apricot) and <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> (Konch) both are the plant, which are extensively used as medicine in Indian traditional system from ancients, they are considered to increase the protective mechanism against ailments. Nicotine is the main copious components in smoking of cigarette and it is primarily metabolized inside the liver. The current study was performed to explore the role of ethanolic extract of <em>Prunus armeniaca</em> and <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> seed on nicotine induced lethality in rats. Animals are divided in to seven group of with each group (n=6) number of rats. Wistar rats (Group II, III, IV, VI and VIII) were administered with oral nicotine diluted with drinking water for 32 days, While (Group I) plain control was treated with drinking water concurrently, following 32 days Group III, IV were administered with two different concentration of ethanolic extract of <em>Prunus armeniaca</em> seed (200 mg/kg , 400 mg/kg) and Group V and VI&nbsp; received ethanoilc extract of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> seed at different doses (400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg). Group II served as toxicity group (5mg/kg body weight of nicotine). Rats were sacrificed 24 hrs after last day of administration (40<sup>th</sup> day), the biochemical and histopathological parameter were studies. A significance increase in the activity of SGOT, SGPT, CRT, Total bile acid, LDL, ALP, TC, TG, TBL, DBL and decreased the activity of Albumin, TP and HDL in nicotine control group was observed. Group IV and Group VI, the ethanolic extract of <em>Prunus armeniaca</em> seed (400 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract of<em> Mucuna pruriens</em> seed (800 mg/kg) make the defensive effects which were found more considerable in rats. Thus the consequence was recommended that the <em>Prunus armeniaca </em>and <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> both were exert the protecting effects during nicotine induced hepatoxicity in rats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><em> Prunus armeniaca, Mucuna pruriens, </em>nicotine, hepatotoxicity.</p> Varsha Raj, Arun Kumar Mishra, Amrita Mishra, Najam Ali Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella [L.] Roxb. seed <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The study was planned to investigate the antiasthmatic activity of <em>C.</em> <em>bonducella</em> seeds by means of various <em>in-vitro</em> and <em>in-vivo </em>animal models.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In the present study, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of <em>C. bonducella </em>seeds were evaluated for preliminary phytochemical screening and antiasthmatic activity <em>in-vitro</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Preliminary phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of steroids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. Ethanolic extract of <em>C. bonducella </em>seeds exhibited antihistaminic activity at the dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg, it inhibited clonidine-induced catalepsy but not haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Ethanolic extract significantly inhibited increased leukocyte besides eosinophil count due to milk allergen moreover showed maximum protection against mast cell degranulation by clonidine. The results of guinea pig ileum indicated that the compound 2-methyl, 1-hexadecanol isolated from ethanolic extract significantly relaxed the ileum muscle strips that were pre-contracted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concludes that the antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract <em>C. bonducella </em>seeds may be due to 2-methyl, 1-hexadecanol. Hence, a detailed study needs to be conducted to isolate phytoconstituents responsible for antiasthmatic activity accordingly their clinical efficacy in the treatment of related diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>C. bonducella,</em> Phytochemical Screening, Antiasthmatic activity</p> Prakash Devidas Khandagale, Abhijeet V. Puri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Atenolol Using Natural and Synthetic Superdisintegrants <p>Oral disintegrating tablet (ODT) is defined as “A solid dosage form containing medical substances or active ingredient which disintegrates rapidly usually within a matter of seconds when placed upon the tongue”. The aim of the present research is to formulate Atenolol fast disintegrating tablets. Atenolol is β1- cardio selective adrenergic receptor blocker, widely used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias and myocardial infarction. It works by slowing down the heart and reducing the work load of the heart. The conventional tablets of atenolol are reported to exhibit fluctuations in the plasma drug levels after administration. Atenolol fast disintegrating tablets were prepared by using direct compression method using Synthetic as wel as Natural superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, Cross carmellose sodium and Miriabilis jalapa starch. The prepared tablets were characterized for their hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, water absorption ratio friability, and in vitro dissolution studies. The ability of the tablet to release the drug faster depends on the concentration and type of superdisintegrants. In this study the fast disintegrating tablets containing Cross carmellose sodium, Sodium starch glycolate and Miriabilis jalapa starch as the super disintegrant in the ratio of 1:2:3 Shows better release of drug. About 97.92% of the drug was released from the tablets in 10mins. Therefore, based on the physico chemical properties, in vitro drug release profile F9 formulation containing Miriabilis jalapa starch is optimized as the best formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fast Disintegrating Tablets, Superdisintegrants, Atenolol, Miriabilis jalapa starch, In vitro evaluation.</p> Swapna Mane, Ritesh Bathe, Sandhyarani Awatade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A study on evaluation of risk factors and anti-microbial prophylaxis in the prevention of surgical site infection <p><strong>Background: </strong>Surgical site infections are potential complications associated with a type of surgical procedure. Although surgical site infections are among the most preventable healthcare associated infections, they still represent a significant burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and addition costs to healthcare systems and service payers worldwide. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis has shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of surgical site infections.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of the study is to carry out an evaluation of the risk factors and prophylactic antibiotics used to prevent surgical site infection in surgeries performed in an NABH accredited quaternary care hospital in Bengaluru, Karnataka.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate patient related risk factors contributing to the incidence of surgical site infection. To evaluate the prophylactic anti-biotic used in the prevention of post-operative surgical site infection and to determine the incidence of surgical site infection.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Subjects who meet the study criteria will be enrolled in the study. Collection of patient related data with subsequent identification and evaluation of risk factors and prophylactic anti-biotics, and calculation of incidence of surgical site infection using statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In this study, on observation of 372 surgical cases, it was estimated that 1 in 10 patients acquired Surgical Site Infection within 30 days post-surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Conclusively, it can be said that the incidence of surgical site infection varies by different patient and procedure factors as well as prophylactic anti-biotic properties. They particularly show greater association to age, gender, certain comorbidities (like diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, and renal insufficiency), and duration of surgery, administration of prophylactic antibiotic, frequency, timing and dose. Therefore, greater care must be taken for every specific patient and procedure and also choice of antibiotic prophylaxis.</p> Deepthi Shenoy, Keerthana Nalluri, C Manasa, Pradeep Reddy, R Srinivasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Novel verdicts of nifedipine encapsulated with cyclodextrin in new-fangled form of microsponges <p>The fundamental approach for the microsponge technologies arises in solid dosage forms because they showing a promising technology for nifedipine drug in hypertension control. As nifedipine drug is chosen due to its hydrophobic nature second short half-life, third low remark in plasma concentration. Cyclodextrin-based microsponges with different polymer are novel finding in the microsphere technology, the crosslinking of polymers blends with respect to cyclodextrin will enhance the entrapment of nifedipine drug in the new-fangled form by emulsification solvent method and futher Lyophilization. The different microsponges batches are formulated the optimize batch was MN3 with angle of repose; 21.80 ± 0.63., Hausner ratio 1.132, Carrs&nbsp; index 0.132 and higher % drug content (80.5 ± 0.97 %). showed 99.41 ± 1.05 % drug release during 36 hr in vitro release . After that the stability data disclose superior drug retention of loaded nifedipine, besides consistent in vitro release pattern over a period of 90 days.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Microsponges, Cyclodextrin, Polymers, Nifedipine</p> Suchi Thakur, NIlesh Jain, Deepti Jain, Surendra Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of antifungal activity of Magnesium oxide (MgO) and Iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles on rot causing fungi <p>The antifungal activity of Magnesium oxide (MgO) and iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles prepared by bio safe method was evaluated for <em>Penicillium expansum</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Alternaria alternata</em>, <em>Mucor plumbeus</em>, <em>Penicillium chrysogenum</em>, <em>Trichothecium roseum </em>and <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>. It was observed from the study that all the concentrations of nanoparticles brought about significant inhibition in the spore germination and mycelial growth of all the rot causing fungi. However, the highest inhibition in the germination of all the test fungi was observed at higher concentrations followed by lower concentrations of nanoparticles. It was observed from the present study that MgO and FeO nanoparticles showed significant antimycotic activity against all the tested fungal pathogens. However, highest reduction in spore germination was observed against <em>Mucor plumbeus </em>whereas least reduction of spore germination was observed against <em>Aspergillus niger</em> at different concentration of nanoparticles of MgO respectively. Likewise, the maximum inhibition in the fungal growth was observed against <em>Alternaria alternate </em>and least inhibition in zone of fungal growth due to MgO nanoparticle was found against <em>Mucor plumbeus </em>respectively. Similarly, highest inhibition in spore germination was found against <em>Penicillium expansum </em>and least inhibition in spore germination was found against <em>Aspergillus niger</em> at different concentrations of nano FeO. Likewise, the maximum inhibition in the fungal growth was found against <em>Rhizoctonia solani </em>and <em>Trichothecium roseum </em>and least inhibition in zone of fungal growth was found against <em>Penicillium expansum </em>and<em> Mucor plumbeus </em>at 0.1mg/ml, 0.25mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml concentrations of FeO nanoparticles respectively. Activity index was recorded highest against <em>P. chrysogenum</em> (0.97) in case of MgO and against <em>T. roseum </em>(0.97) in case of FeO nanoparticles respectively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Spore germination, mycelial growth, rot causing fungi, tomato, brinjal, MgO and FeO nanoparticle</p> Jahangir Abdullah Koka, Abdul Hamid Wani, Mohd Yaqub Bhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Pharmacognostic Standardization and Phytochemical Evaluation of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle leaves <p>The present study was focussed to carry out the detailed pharmacognostic studies in terms of organoleptic characters, physicochemical parameters, macroscopical, microscopical characters and phytochemical screening for major groups of compounds and other WHO recommended parameters for standardization of the leaves of (Mill.) family Simaroubaceae. Phytochemical screening of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of <em>Ailanthus altissima</em> demonstrated the presence of Carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phenols, saponins, diterpenes, fats and oils. However alkaloids and anthraquinone glycosides were found absent in all the extracts. Information obtained from phytochemical and pharmacognostical analysis can be used as markers in the identification and standardization of this plant for monograph development and as herbal remedy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tree of heaven, Phytochemical, Pharmacognostic analysis, Bioactive compounds, <em>Ailanthus altissima</em>.</p> Andleeb Bashir, Roohi Mohi-ud-din, Saeema Farooq, Zulfiqar Ali Bhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Screening of in vitro Antimicrobial Potential of Fermentation Extracts Prepared from Indigenous Lactobacillus Isolates <p>Recently, efforts are being made to efficiently employ the probiotic bacteria in non-dairy products either as supplemental additive or for fermentation which might have several advantages over the probiotic dairy products such avoiding milk protein allergies, lactose intolerance or hyper cholesterolemia. So the present study aimed at screening of certain indigenous lactobacillus species responsible with antimicrobial potential against common pathogenic microorganism when allowed to ferment in liquid culture medium. The indigenous Lactobacillus spp. were isolated using different dairy samples like milk, curd, butter milk, cheese etc., on selective MRS agar medium and pure cultures were partially identified referring Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology based on morphological, cultural and biochemical reactions. The selected pure cultures were allowed to ferment in MRS broth for 7 days at 37<sup>o</sup>C in with intermittent shaking of culture flasks. There were total 14 isolates of Lactobacillus spp. were obtained. According to the results of biochemical tests as described in table 1 the probability of LAB would have been <em>L.acidophilus, L.fermentum, L.plantarum, L.casei, L. ruteri </em>or<em> L.rhamnosus</em>. Out of the 14 indigenously isolated Lactobacillus spp., the cell free fermentation extract of the isolates LB-2, LB-3, LB-5, LB-6, LB-7, LB-9, LB-11, LB-12, LB-13 and LB-14 was found imparted antimicrobial activity over the test microbial species including <em>Escherichia coli</em> (MTCC-1687), <em>Pseudomonas aeroginosa</em> (MTCC-*1934), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MTCC-737) and <em>Candida albicans</em> (MTCC-227), due to unknown substances secreted within fermentation extract. The ability to produce antagonistic substances during the process of fermentation could be explored extensively for identification, purification and use in food preservation at both domestic as well as industrial levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Therapeutics, Antimicrobial activity, Lactobacillus, Fermentation extracts</p> Neha Dubey, Shobha Shrivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Comparative analysis of some commonly consumed allergic food materials <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Food allergy is turning out to be one of the vital causes of death in all countries irrespective of the socio-economic status of the people. The extent of mortality from food allergens has increased several folds in the last decade. This has brought research on food allergy and its causative properties to the front. Human beings have the natural power to fight with an allergen, ranging from viruses to food. But in the case of immune-compromise or some other defects in the immune system, individuals can react against some food allergic component(s). Various studies have indicated that cereal or grain particles are more allergic materials than fruits or vegetables.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>This study was carried out with the main objective of understanding the variations in various biochemical parameters of a few foods commonly consumed and known to elicit allergic reactions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>In this study, a few food materials known to elicit allergic reactions in some individuals were selected and comparative analysis (qualitative and quantitative) was performed in an attempt to understand the basis of their differential responses.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The studies indicated difference in various biochemical parameters and anti-oxidative properties between equivalent quantities of the food samples.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Our study has revealed differential levels of nutrient contents and anti-oxidative properties between equivalent quantities of the samples of allergic food materials. These findings can be used for further research on the underlying mechanisms of their action.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: Food allergy, Biochemical attributes, Non-communicable diseases, Dietary habits, Nutrition</p> MOUMITA PAUL, SUBARNA BAG, SOUMILI DUTTAGUPTA, Malavika Bhattacharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of two Nigerian retailed polyherbal formulations <p>Oxidative stress has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and even ageing processes. This warrants that dietary antioxidants are needed to complement endogenous antioxidant defence system and prevent the development of these chronic diseases. In this study, the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of two retailed Nigerian polyherbal formulations (DRHM® and GCHM®) were evaluated <em>in vitro</em> using DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) models. Aside for saponins, glycosides, anthraquinones and anthocyanins which were higher in DRHM and alkaloids which were higher in GCHM, there was no significant (p &lt; 0.05) difference among the amount of other phytochemicals detected in the two polyherbal formulations. The DPPH radical scavenging effect exhibited by DRHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 1.62x10<sup>6</sup> µg/ml) was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than GCHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 574.5 µg/ml) but that of ascorbic acid (EC<sub>50</sub> = 10.58 µg/ml) was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than both DRHM and GCHM. Similarly, GCHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 0.005414 µg/ml) had higher FRAP than DRHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 5.302 µg/ml). However, the TAC of GCHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 1675 µg/ml) was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than that of DRHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 6.101 µg/ml). These findings suggest that the two polyherbal formulations possess appreciable antioxidant potentials which could be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant potentials. The polyherbal formulations can further be explored for possible harnessing of their antioxidant effect in prevention and management of oxidative stress-related disorders and ageing process.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>polyherbal formulations, phytochemicals, antioxidants, DPPH, FRAP, TAC</p> I.U. Okagu, J.C. Ndefo, C.C. Chibuogwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 13:34:20 -0500 Development and evaluation of clozapine intranasal mucoadhesive in situ gels for brain targeting <p>Oxidative stress has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and even ageing processes. This warrants that dietary antioxidants are needed to complement endogenous antioxidant defence system and prevent the development of these chronic diseases. In this study, the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of two retailed Nigerian polyherbal formulations (DRHM® and GCHM®) were evaluated <em>in vitro</em> using DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) models. Aside for saponins, glycosides, anthraquinones and anthocyanins which were higher in DRHM and alkaloids which were higher in GCHM, there was no significant (p &lt; 0.05) difference among the amount of other phytochemicals detected in the two polyherbal formulations. The DPPH radical scavenging effect exhibited by DRHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 1.62x10<sup>6</sup> µg/ml) was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than GCHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 574.5 µg/ml) but that of ascorbic acid (EC<sub>50</sub> = 10.58 µg/ml) was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than both DRHM and GCHM. Similarly, GCHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 0.005414 µg/ml) had higher FRAP than DRHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 5.302 µg/ml). However, the TAC of GCHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 1675 µg/ml) was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher than that of DRHM (EC<sub>50</sub> = 6.101 µg/ml). These findings suggest that the two polyherbal formulations possess appreciable antioxidant potentials which could be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant potentials. The polyherbal formulations can further be explored for possible harnessing of their antioxidant effect in prevention and management of oxidative stress-related disorders and ageing process.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>polyherbal formulations, phytochemicals, antioxidants, DPPH, FRAP, TAC</p> Velupula Ravikrishna, Janapareddi Krishnaveni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation, development and evaluation of topical nanoemulgel of tolnaftate <p>Nanoemulsion has been identified as a promising delivery system for various drugs including Biopharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsion is heterogeneous system composed of one immiscible liquid dispersed as droplets within another liquid. Aim of the present study was to investigate the nanoemulgel as transdermal delivery system for poorly water soluble drug, Tolnaftate in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different nanoemulsion components (Oil, Surfactant and Cosurfactant) were selected on the basis of solubility and emulsification ability. High pressure Homogenization techninique were used for the preparation of Nanoemulsion. Carbopol 934 was added as gel matrix to convert nanoemulsion into nanoemulgel. Drug loaded Nanoemulgels were characterized for particle size, SEM, Viscosity, Spreadability, Diffusion study using egg membrane, Nanoemulgel containing 3 % Almond oil, 5.25 % Tween 80, Proplene glycol as Cosurfactant, 1 % drug, Water upto Quantity sufficient was concluded as optimized formulation (F1).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antifungal, Nanoemulsion, Gelling agent, Tolnaftate</p> P. N. Gadkari, P. B. Patil, R. B. Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A new stability indicating RP-HPLC method for estimation of brexpiprazole <p>A simple stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of Brexpiprazole in tablet dosage forms. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on Shimadzu Model CBM-20A/20 Alite, using a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and methanol (65:35, v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min.&nbsp; Detection was carried at 214nm. Linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.1–250 μg/mL (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9999) with regression equation y = 39617.94x + 3300.8. Brexpiprazole was subjected to stress conditions (acidic, alkaline, oxidation and thermal degradation) and validated as per ICH guidelines. The validated method can be applied to perform long-term and accelerated stability studies of Brexpiprazole formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Brexpiprazole; Isocratic elution; Reversed-phase HPLC; Stability-indicating; Validation.</p> Goutham Kumar Vanaplli, Sumanta Mondal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Preliminary evaluation of melatonin in the kindling model of epilepsy <p>During the past decades, epilepsy syndrome has been depicted across India as well as worldwide and this leads to increasing mortality and morbidity rate. Researchers are trying to investigate the responsible causes and risk factors for seizure occurrence. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder which is derived from a Latin word ‘sacire’ meaning ‘convulsive attack’ and is expressed as a paroxysmal experience appointed to atypical, unnecessary or concurrent neuronal bustle in the brain. The treatment of epilepsy involves the use of anti-epileptic drugs i.e. Sodium valproate, phenytoin, carbamazepine. Despite being treated with the available anti-convulsant drugs, this disease is still prevalent worldwide. So, as an adjuvant treatment melatonin exhibit an anti-epileptic activity in several animal models of epilepsy. However, its anti-epileptic potential has yet to be evaluated in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced model of epilepsy through kindling phenomenon. Rats were injected with a dose of (35-55 mg/kg) of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) up to twenty days in alternate days. Observed the convulsive behavior of rats for thirty minutes immediately after PTZ injection.&nbsp; The entire treatment schedule includes the administration of melatonin (75 mg/kg) one hour prior to the PTZ administration. Sodium valproate was used as standard drug for this kindling model of epilepsy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pentylenetetrazole, Melatonin, Sodium valproate, Gamma-amino butyric acid</p> Ashish Mishra, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta, Nilesh Jain, Sunil Mistry ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Skin whitening efficacy of Gnetum gnemon L. seed extract <p><em>Gnetum gnemon</em>&nbsp;L. (Melinjo) seed extract (MSE) is potential as skin-whitening agent because it contains trans-resveratrol and its derivatives, to inhibit tyrosinase in melanogenesis process. Using MSE in cosmetic products will be challenging due to resveratrol chemical instability and bioavailability in the skin. Many cosmetic products have been developed using lipid particle technology to improve their limitation. The objective of this research was to examine the skin safety and whitening efficacy of MSE-loaded lipid particle gel in healthy human subjects.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong>&nbsp;Single occlusive closed patch test for 24 h was used as the skin irritation analysis. Irritation responses were graded after patch removal and compared to the control for evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The result showed the test product did not induce skin irritation effect. The skin melanin index was statistically significant decreased (<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05) after 28 days of application the test product, with the averaged by 3.50%, and skin melanin index changed by increase 0.75% in the control group.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Application MSE-loaded lipid particle gel can brighten the skin, without cause irritation under normal conditions of use.</p> <p><strong>Abbreviations Used:</strong>&nbsp;α-MSH: α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone; MITF: Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; MSE: Melinjo Seed Extract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Gel,&nbsp;Gnetum Gnemon, Melinjo Seed Extract, Resveratrol, Skin Whitening</p> Abhishek Sharma, Ruchi Jain, Payal Saiju, Nilesh Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 New spectrophotometric techniques for the estimation of osimertinib mesylate mesylate in tablet dosage form <p>Osimertinib Mesylate is used for a treatment of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Whereas only few simple, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of Osimertinib Mesylate (tagrisso) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The absorption maxima was found to be at 267 nm in method A (0.1N HCl) and shows linearity over the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.4323x + 0.0104 (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.9992). In Method B (Sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub>267nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.484x-0.017(r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9992). In Method C (phosphate&nbsp; buffer, pH 7.2) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub>267nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.2949x+0.0108(r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9992) In Method D (Methanol ) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub>267nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.6323x+0.003 (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.999). 1<sup>st </sup>derivative spectrophotometric method (E, F, G and H) were developed in 0.1NHCl and Sodium acetate pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer pH 7.2 and methanol in which Osimertinib Mesylate obeys Beer Lambert’s law 0.002-0.02 µg/mL and 0.002-0.02 µg/mL and 0.002-0.02 µg/mL and 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equations y=0.0259x + 0.0008 and y=0.0137x - 0.0005 and y=0.0097x-0.0008 and y=0.0087-0.0007 respectively. The proposed spectrophotometric method was validated as per the ICH guidelines and can be applied for the determination of Osimertinib Mesylate in pharmaceutical formulations. Osimertinib Mesylate, Derivative spectroscopy, Spectrophometry, Validation, Tagrisso.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tagrisso, Osimertinib Mesylate, Derivative spectroscopy, Spectrophometry, Validation.</p> Chakradhar Talluri, Sumanta Mondal, Sabyasachi Biswal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Preparation and evaluation of sulfamethoxazole solid dispersion employing starch citrate-a new solubility enhancer <p>Sulfamethoxazole used widely as a broad spectrum antibiotic. However, its solubility and dissolution rate is very low due to poor solubility in water. Solid dispersion technique was selected for the current research to improve solubility and drug absorption from of Sulfamethoxazole. A new solubility enhancer starch citrate was selected prepared and characterized for its solubility, viscosity, swelling index, gelling property, particle size, etc. Prepared Sulfamethoxazole solid dispersion was evaluated for drug content and <em>in vitro </em>dissolution.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<em>:</em> </strong>Sulfamethoxazole, Starch citrate, Solid dispersion &amp;<em> I</em><em>n vitro </em>study<em>.</em></p> Rada Santosh Kumar, Annu Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 DETERMINATION OF CETIRIZINE IN HUMAN PLASMA AND ITS VALIDATION OF METHOD USING HPLC TECHNIQUE <p>This reseach project is dedicated to analyze cetirizine in human plasma by using HPLC qualitatively and quantitatively, to make a reliable bioanalysis of this drug in human plasma with a goal to utilise it in pharmacokinetics studies. In this research project, cetirizine was extracted from plasma using liquid-liquid extraction by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. The results in terms of accuracy and precision are compared. For both of the methods, amlodipine was used as the internal standard. Separation was carried out by Phenomenex C18&nbsp; chromatography column. The mobile phase used here is 35:65, v/v of Acetonitrile to 0.3% triethylamine (TEA) buffer fixed at pH 3 by phosphoric acid, with flow rate of 1mL/min. The column temperature was set at 30 ᵒC. Various wavelength detector (VWD) was used, and detection was set at 237nm. The analysis was linear from 30ng/mL to 500ng/mL. Overall the recovery is more than 90% when using dichloromethane and more than 65% when using ethyl acetate.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bioanalysis, Method validation, Cetirizine, Human plasma, HPLC&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Siti Hazar Binti Zuhri, A.K. Azad, Abdur Rashid Mia, ABM Helal Uddin, Mohamed Sufian Bin Mohd. Nawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A study of medication adherence in general population in and around Bengaluru <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medication adherence is "The degree to which the person's behaviour of taking medication, following a diet, and/or executing lifestyle changes -corresponds with the agreed recommendations from a health care provider”. Lack of Medication adherence is one of the major drug problem and leads to unnecessary disease progression, disease complication, reduced functional abilities, a lower quality of life and even death. Adherence to medication is low in specific populations who need chronic medication. Adherence to medication is also of interest in a more general fashion, independent of specific populations or side effects of particular drugs. If clinicians and researchers expect patients to show close to full adherence, it is relevant to know how likely the achievement of this goal is. Population based rates can provide an estimate of efforts needed to achieve near complete adherence in patient population.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the medication adherence in general population.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Findings:</strong> This is an observational prospective study conducted for a period of 6 months at different area of Bengaluru, Karnataka. We assessed 518 participants. Adherence was measured by modified Morisky Adherence Index. We also assessed current medication intake and side effects. We found that, male adherence was 56 (18.2%) and female adherence was 32 (15.2%). By observing the education background 89 medical background participants 13 (14.6%) participants show adherence, 63 (70.7%) participants show medium adherence and 13 (14.6%) participants show non-adherence. Out of 429 non-medical background participants 84 (19.6%) participants show adherence, 262 (50.6%) participants show medium adherence and 83 (19.3%) participants show non-adherence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study concluded that males show more adherence than females. Participants belonged to medical background were more adhere to the medication than the participants from non-medical background. The most dictating reason for not taking medication is forgetfulness. Hence, medication adherence is very essential for the quick recovery of the patients and to improve the quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Medication adherence, Morisky Scale, reasons for non-adherence, education.</p> CM Chethan, Chaudhary Indrajeet, TM Kishor Kumar, Dev Apoorva ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Phase equilibria and thermodynamic description of solid dispersions of 8-hydroxyquinoline – 4-chlorobenzoic acid drug system <p>In present article 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ)-4-chlorobenzoic acid (CBA) binary drug system has been undertaken to study phase diagram and thermodynamic contribution in the system in terms of partial and integral mixing and excess functions. The phase equilibria of the system undertaken shows the formation of 1:1 addition compound C and its eutectic E at 214º and199º c respectively. The negative value of molar free energy of mixing (∆G<sup>M</sup>) of solid dispersion at 0.810 and 0.895 mole fraction of CBA suggests that the mixing in these cases is spontaneous. The integral molar enthalpy of mixing value corresponds to the value of excess integral molar free energy of the system favors the regularity in the binary solutions. The positive value of excess free energy (g<sup>E</sup>) for all the eutectic and noneutectic solid dispersion suggests an association of weaker nature between unlike molecules and of stronger nature between like molecules. Gibbs-Duhem equation gives the graphical solution of partial molar heat of mixing (H<sub>i</sub><sup>-M</sup>), activity and activity coefficient of a particular constituent in the binary mix. Interfacial roughness of the binary solid dispersion has also been explained.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Binary drug dispersion, phase diagram, activity, activity coefficient, mixing and excess function.</p> S.S. Salim, H. Shekhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Design and Characterisation of Bi-layer Tablets Containing Simvastatin as Sustained Release and Labetalol HCl as Immediate Release <p>The objective of present investigation is to design and characterise sustained release Simvastatin and immediate release of Labetalol HCl, a bi-layer tablet. The combination therapy of Simvastatin and Labetalol HCl can be useful in severe cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure which may occur along with increasing cholesterol level in the blood, while this combination remain preferable choice to the patient as compared to single dosage form. The bi-layer tablet is suitable for sequential release of two drugs in combination which are compatible with each other. Objective of present investigation is to prepare bi-layer tablet in which one layer is sustained while another one is immediate release. For the preparation of bi-layer tablet, different super disintegrants like cross carmellose cellulose, micro crystalline cellulose is used for immediate release and HPMC and Carbapol as controlled release polymer. The pre-formulation parameter such as solubility, melting point, compatibility study (FTIR) were studied. Pre-compression parameter such as angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, hausner’s ratio and compressibility index were studied. The tablets were evaluated by physical and chemical parameters such as weight uniformity, hardness, thickness, diameter, friability, drug content, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. The dissolution data were subjected to various release kinetic model to recognize the mechanism of drug release.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>sustained release tablet, bi-layer tablet, Simvastatin, Labetalol HCl.</p> Sujit T. Tambe, Harshad B. Padekar, S.M. Dhobale, S.L. Jadhav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and Characterization of Alginate Microbeads of Clonidine Hydrochloride by Ionotropic Gelation Technique <p>The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate sodium alginate microbeads with calcium chloride as cross-linking agent for <em>Clonidine hydrochloride</em> by ionotropic gelation method. Clonidine hydrochloride a centrally acting sympatholytic and imidazoline-derivative hypotensive agent; selective α2-adrenergic agonist. It stimulates alpha2-adrenergic receptors in the brainstem to decrease sympathetic nervous system outflow. It is also administered epidurally to treat pain. Microbeads offer numerous advantages for releasing one of the drugs or part of the same drug immediately while remaining drug or parts of the same can be sustained release. Prepared microbeads were evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, particle shape, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency and In vitro drug release. The prepared beads were free flowing and white in color. The drug loaded beads showed 72.9±2.4% to 94.6±2.6 % drug entrapment, which was found to increase with increase in alginate concentration. In vitro drug release study of these microbeads indicated controlled release for Clonidine hydrochloride 83.46% release after 48 hours. Hence the observations of all results of the different batches, MBD 11 showed controlled release action and improved drug availability. From this study it could be concluded that the free flowing microbeads of Clonidine hydrochloride could be successfully prepared by ionotropic gelation technique with high entrapment efficiency and prolonged release characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Clonidine hydrochloride, Microbeads, Sodium alginate, Calcium chloride, Ionotropic gelation method.</p> Rituraj Dubey, B.K. Dubey, Girijesh Kumar Pandey, S.K. Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Analgesic activity of poly herbal formulation in experimental rats by acetic acid induced writhing test model and Hot plate model <p>To evaluate analgesic activity of a polyherbal formulation-PHF [hydro-alcoholic extract of <em>Hibiscus rosa</em>-<em>sinensis </em><em>(50mg), </em><em>Fennel seeds</em><em> (50mg), </em><em>Prosopis cineraria</em><em> (50mg)</em><em>, &amp;</em> <em>Ficus racemosa</em><em> (50mg)</em>] compare it with Diclofenac Na by using Eddys hot plate and writhing test in Adult Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups of 6 each for both tests. PHF (250, 300 mg/kg, p.o. body weight) and Diclofenac Na (50 mg/kg, p.o.) made as suspensions prepared in 1% carboxy methyl cellulose (control) and were fed to rats orally. The physicochemical evaluations carried out in terms of loss on drying, ash value, extractive values and acid insoluble ash value ect. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids. &nbsp;Analgesic activity was assessed by counting the number of writhes induced by 0.7% acetic acid (10 ml/kg) in the 30 min. Number of writhing and percentage protection against writhing was evaluated. In Eddys hot plate method, they were placed individually on hot plate maintained at a temperature of 55 ± 0.5 ºC. The latency to lick the paw (reaction time) was noted at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. The cut off time was set at 20 sec to avoid damage to the skin. In acetic acid writhing method, PHF (250, 300 mg/kg, p. o.) significantly (p &lt; 0.001) decreased the number of writhing 39±1.55*, 29.0±0.43*resp. Maximum percentage of inhibition of writhing response shown by Diclofenac Na was 73.03 %. In hot plate method, PHF showed a significant increase in the elevated basal reaction time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. The results indicated that the poly-herbal formulation possesses good analgesic activity in the experimental animal models.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Analgesic activity, Physicochemical evaluations, Phytochemical analysis,<em> Hibiscus rosa</em>-<em>sinensis </em><em>Fennel seeds</em><em>, </em><em>Prosopis cineraria</em><em>, </em><em>Ficus racemosa</em></p> Shrishti Sharma, Salaj Khare, B.K Dubey, Amit Joshi, Amit Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Process variable studies for preparation of optimized system for bupropion hydrochloride using CCD <p>Aim of present work is to develop optimized sustained release dosage form of Bupropion hydrochloride using Formulation by Design (FbD) approach. Development and optimization of formulation batches was done by design experiment using Central Composite Design (CCD). Tablets were formulated by direct compression technique and evaluated. The impact of independent variables like concentration of Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M) and&nbsp; Carbopol (CP 934P) were observed on&nbsp; dependent variable like hardness of tablet, drug release in 12 h (Q<sub>12h</sub>) and the time for fifty percent release of drug (T<sub>50%</sub>). Polynomial equations were generated using multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA), response surface plots and contour plots were drawn, optimum formulations were selected by brute force method. The hardness and Q<sub>12h </sub>was found in the range of 4.4- 4.7 Kg/cm<sup>2</sup> and 88.19- 96.7% respectively, while T<sub>50%</sub> was found in the range of 3.5- 5.5h. Validation of optimization study performed using four confirmatory experimental runs which indicated very high degree of prognostic ability of FbD methodology with percentage error varied between -0.024% and 0.024 %. The overlaying of all these plots provided an overlay plot, which signified the region of optimization. Thus, central composite design (CCD) is a useful tool in the development of optimized dosage form along with the significance of independent variable as well as least investment of money, manpower and time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Formulation by Design, Central Composite Design, Bupropion Hydrochloride.</p> Aparna Gupta, Vijay Sharma, Lalit Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory and Antidepressant potential of methanolic extract of Celosia argentea Linn <p>The present study was done to determine the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of leaves of <em>Celosaia argentea (</em>MECA) by oral administration at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy swiss albino mice. The MECA was studied for antinociceptive effect using Eddy’s hot plate method and tail flick method in albino mice and anti-inflammatory effect by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume was measured plethysmometer at different time intervals after carrageenan injection (1% w/v). The MECA was evaluated for antidepressant effect using forced swim and tail suspension methods in albino mice. The MECA showed antinociceptive effect evidenced by the increase in the reaction time by Eddy’s hot plate method and tail flick method in albino mice and anti-inflammatory effect by significant (P&lt;0.001) reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The MECA showed a significant antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effect when compared with the standard drugs viz pentazocine, indomethacin and imipramine respectively. The present observation indicated significant (P&lt;0.001) a<strong>c</strong>tivity of the methanolic extract of <em>Celosia argentea </em>in the treatment of pain, inflammation, and depression.</p> Amol Kharat, Yogita Tarkasband, Kiran Ramesh Kharat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and evaluation of Vasaka granules for asthma <p>Asthma is a chronic disease of bronchi which usually requires continuous medical care. Approaches for drug formulation that easy to administer especially for chronic diseases can form valuable therapy.Azathodavasica is a plant believed to have several therapeutic effects including antiasthmatic properties.It is the leaves,which are of great importance for asthma. Azathodavasicaneesbelonging to family Acanthaceae, it is found mainly in India It is also called as vasaka. vasaka herb is used for treating cold cough and asthma. It is a well-knownayurvedic medicine for expectorant and helps to ease out the phlegm.Vasaka leaves contain quinazoline alkaloids such as vasicinone, vasicine, vasicinol, vasicol granules can be used for the treatment of asthma as they offer advantages such as faster disintegration and dissolution as compare to tablet capsules.<sup>1</sup></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>vasicinone, vasicine, vasicol, Acanthaceae, Azathoda.</p> Mayuri S Bangar, Chetana D Balsaraf, Sampada K Dhamdhere, Salim G Patel, S. L Jadhav, D. D. Gaikwad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Quantification and stability aspects of Luliconazole in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms by UV spectroscopy <p>Two simple and economical UV spectroscopic methods were developed for the estimation of Luliconazole in creams. The drug showed maximum absorption at 294 nm, both in 0.1N HCl and phosphate buffer (pH 2.0) in the fundamental spectra (D<sup>0</sup>). The same spectra were derivatized into first derivative (D<sup>1</sup>) and the dA/dλ was measured at 315 nm in 0.1N HCl and 317 nm in phosphate buffer (pH 2.0). In both the methods the drug obeyed Beer-Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 2-30 μg/mL in 0.1N HCl and 10-30 μg/mL in phosphate buffer (pH 2.0). The linear regression equations were calculated to be y = 0.0504x + 0.0102 (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.9991) for D<sup>0 </sup>and y = 0.0025x + 0.0002 (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.9991) for D<sup>1</sup> in 0.1N HCl, y = 0.0637x + 0.0181 (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.999) for D<sup>0</sup> and y = 0.0025x + 0.0006 (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.999) for D<sup>1</sup> in phosphate buffer (pH 2.0). An acceptable recovery in the range of 98 ± 0.01 – 102 ± 0.001 % indicates accuracy as well as non-interference from excipients in the present method. The intraday and inter day precision results were within 2 % RSD indicating the preciseness of the methods. The methods were applied for quantification of Luliconazole in marketed creams and the assay was obtained as 98.53 % w/w against the label claim. The methods were also applied to study the stability aspects of the drug in a variety of conditions like acid, base and oxidative stress along with thermal and photolytic stress conditions. The drug showed altered absorbance in basic and photolysis conditions. The methods were validated statistically as per the ICH guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Luliconazole, UV spectroscopy, Stability, Validation, ICH.</p> Gummadi Sowjanya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of the poly herbal drug: Keelvayu Nivarana Churnam <p>Siddha Medicine is regaining its lost glory throughout the World. For the universal acceptations of Siddha medicine we should standardize by scientific validation at various levels. Herbals have been an important source of medicine with qualities for thousands of years. &nbsp;Phytochemicals are the active principles of the herbal drug. <em>Keelvayu nivarana churnam</em> is one of the poly herbal drugs used for Arthritis. In this study we carried out powder microscopy for identification of the ingredient medicinal plants.&nbsp; We studied Physicochemical parameters like appearance, pH, total ash, loss on drying; water soluble extractive, alcohol soluble extractive, bulk density and tap density are evaluated.&nbsp; In Phyotochemical screening the presence or absence of alkaloids, flavanoides, tannins, proteins, sterols, carbohydrates, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins and starch. We did Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS/MS) for the identification of bioactive compounds of Keelvayu nivarana churnam. These findings support the therapeutic value of Keelvayu nivarana churnam in Arthritis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Arthritis; <em>Keelvayu nivarana churnam</em>; Powder Microscopy; Physicochemistry and Phytochemistry; Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).</p> Vijayabaskar G, ELANGO V ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation, in-vitro & in-vivo evaluation of Ethyl cellulose microspheres of Glipizide <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of the present study was to formulate sustained release glipizide loaded microspheres and evaluate the effect of various variables on their properties.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The microspheres were prepared by non solvent addition coacervation method. Ethyl cellulose used as a polymer, petroleum ether (60-40º) for induced coacervation and n-hexane as non solvent for microspheres preperation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Microspheres were characterized in term of percent yield, percent entrapment and release pattern of drug. The shape, color and particle size of microspheres were also evaluated. According the result of formulation, n-hexane used as non solvent resulted in enhances rigidization of coating and petroleum ether (60-40º) for induced coacervation. The maximum percent yield of GEN6 formulation was 75.7; particle size in the range of 50-450 µ, maximum entrapment was 89.8 ± 0.11% for GEN3 formulation. GEN1 formulation with low polymer ratio showed better <em>in-vitro</em> release between 95-100%. &nbsp;Formulation GEN4 showed 40-50% reduction in plasma glucose level than conventional dosage forms when tested <em>in-vivo</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclussion:</strong> Result of the present study supported that the formulation showed sustenance release with the potential application of n-hexane for improving the physical properties as well as the release profile of this water insoluble drug.</p> Maya Sharma, P K Choudhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Phytochemical Analysis of Gymnema Complex from Maharashtra <p>Plants are the major source of drugs comprising to different groups such as anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, antispasmodics, anti-microbial, etc. A number of plants are claimed to possess anti-diabetic properties in the traditional systems and extensively used by tribal people as well as local inhabitants. Out of these ‘Gud-mar’/ ‘Gulmar’ is one of the groups. Ethnobotanical data revealed that, <em>Gymnemasylvestre</em> (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm., <em>Gymnema cuspidatum</em> (Thunb.) Kuntze, <em>Gymnema latifolium</em>Wall. <em>ex</em> Wight, <em>Gymnema inodorum</em> (Lour.) Decne.,<em>Gymnema montanum</em> Hook. f. and <em>Ichnocarpus frutescens</em> (L.) W.T. Aiton are called Gulmar and used as anti-diabetic plantsin Maharashtra. Therefore, phytochemical screening was carried out using standard experimental procedures in dry leaf powder of <em>Gymnema sylvestre</em>, <em>G.cuspidatum</em>, <em>G.latifolium</em> and <em>Ichnocarpus frutescens</em>. This study scientifically validates the use of these plants in traditional medicines and the phytochemical data is helpful for standardization of indigenous drug.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Savita Sanjaykumar Rahangdale ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Effects Of Essential Oil From Drypetes gossweileri S. Moore Stem Barks On Cell Release And Dna Synthesis Of Mycobacterium tuberculosis <p>Background: In the recent years, the proliferation of multi-drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strain to tuberculosis (TB) suggest that efforts are required to find alternative treatments. The designed study aimed to show the effects of essential oils (EO) from Drypetes gossweileri stem barks on Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell membrane release and DNA synthesis. Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined against two clinical isolates (IS53 and IS310) and the reference strain H37Rv ATCC 27294 using microdilution method. The effect of essential oil on cell membrane release of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated by measuring DNA, RNA and proteins release in extracellular medium using NanoDrop 1000 spectrophotometer to show the membrane integrity lose. The effect on DNA was performed by measuring genomic DNA and amplicons of MIRU 04 sequence produced when treated at MICs and MBCs concentrations to put in evidence the inhibitory effect of EO during DNA synthesis. Results: The results revealed that EO from Drypetes gossweileri stem barks exhibited strong activity with MIC ranging from 4.88 µg/mL against H37Rv and IS310 to 9.76 µg/mL against IS53. The significant release of DNA, RNA and proteins in extracellular medium were observed for treated cells at MIC and MBC concentrations compare to untreated cells. The most quantified biomolecules were proteins with concentration ranging from 370.9 104 ng/µL to 10630.0 104 ng/µL released at MIC concentration which increased from 1890.0 104 ng/µL to 12000.9 104 ng/µL at MBC. The inhibitory effect of DNA synthesis by EOs enhanced lower quantity of DNA for all treated cells at MIC and MBC compare to untreated cells. The results obtained in this study enabled the identification of two cellular targets (cell membrane and DNA) of EO from D. gossweileri stem barks on M. tuberculosis.</p> Esther Del Florence NDEDI MONI, Maximilienne Ascension NYEGUE, Jean Paul ASSAM ASSAM, Patrick Hervé DIBOUE BETOTE, Gaizirène EGOUME FEUDJIEU, Véronique BENG PENLAP, François-Xavier ETOA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Improved Biological Activity and Stability of enzyme L-Asparaginase in Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Formulation <p>To protect the biological activity of an enzyme during the development of formulations is one of the biggest challenges. The tetrameric form of L-Asparaginase is used to treat Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia. It possesses shorter in vivo half–life. Using a modified (water/oil)/water-emulsion method followed by solvent evaporation L-Asn was successfully encapsulated at the core of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles made of lipid glyceryl monostearate. This study elucidated that the preparation of L-Asn loaded SLN develop a colloidal formulation with enhanced activity. The <em>in-vitro</em> release profile of the enzyme revealed first bursts has been increased. The study of the lyophilised formulation also shows that the enzyme holds its biological activity and retains its particle size distribution. Consequently, by using an apt combination of homogenisation speed, temperature and additives the storage and biological activity of L-Asn in SLN formulation can be improved.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> L-Asparaginase, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Controlled release, Lymphocytic Leukaemia</p> Gazal Sharma, Goutam Rath, Amit Goyal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation design, development and characterization of dexibuprofen emulgel for topical delivery: In-vitro and In-vivo evaluation <p>Emulgels have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. The objective of the study was to prepare emulgel of Dexibuprofen, a NSAID, using Carbapol 940 as a gelling agent. Clove oil and Mentha oil were used as penetration enhancers. The emulsion was prepared and it was added in gel base. The formulations were evaluated for rheological studies, spreading coefficient studies, bioadhesion strength, skin irritation studies, in vitro release, ex vivo release studies, anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity. Formulation showed comparable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity when they compared with marketed diclofenac sodium gel. So, it can be concluded that topical emulgel of Dexibuprofen possess an effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Emulgel, Dexibuprofen, Topical Drug Delivery, bioavailability, NSAIDs</p> Vijay Rajaram Mahajan, Ganesh Dinkar Basarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Synthesis of some new 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles as antioxidant and antiinflammatory agents <p>A series of some new 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles was synthesized by the reaction of α-β dibromochalcones with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride. α-β-Dibromochalcones were prepared by the regioselective bromination of respective chalcones with tetrabutylammonium tribromide. The synthesized trisubstituted pyrazoles were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>α-β-Dibromochalcones, 1,3,5-Trisubstituted pyrazoles, Tetrabutylammonium tribromide<strong>, </strong>Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities</p> Pragi Arora, Jagdeep Dua, Jitender Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 HPTLC method development for the simultaneous determination of Pregabalin and Amitryptyline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms <p>A simple, selective, precise high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method with densitometry at λ= 205 nm was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Pregabalin and Amitryptyline Hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation of the drugs were performed on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F<sub>254 </sub>used&nbsp; as stationary phase and the chromatogram was developed using Toluene: Methanol: Formic acid (7: 2.5: 0.5 v/v/v) and 20 ml of mobile phase was used per chromatography run. The system was found to give a compact band for Pregabalin (R<sub>f </sub>=0.27±0.03) and Amitryptyline Hydrochloride (R<sub>f </sub>=0.68±0.03). The validated lowest limit of detection was 45.097ng/spot and 12.614ng/spot wherenas lowest limit of quantification was 136.659ng/spot and 38.224ng/spot for Pregabalin and Amitryptyline Hydrochloride respectively. The percentage recovery for Pregabalin was found to be 99.91 (at 50%), 99.39 (at 100%), 99.27(at 150%) and 100.42 (at 50%), 100.63 (at 100%), 100.97(at 150%) for Amitryptyline Hydrochloride. Statistical analysis proved that the method is selective, precise and accurate for the estimation of Pregabalin and Amitryptyline Hydrochloride.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pregabalin (PRGB), Amitryptyline Hydrochloride (AMTR), HPTLC, Pharmaceutical formulation.</p> Sunil More, Ashpak Tamboli, Vhanmane Amol, Snehal Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Preparation and Characterization of Nanomicelle for Ocular delivery of fluoroquinolone derivative <p>Pluronic nanomicelles were prepared for Ocular delivery by incorporation of methyl alcohol as a dispersing agent and the surface was modifying by chitosan to improve the bioavailability. Nanomicelle dispersed well in solution and having a core shell-like structure with particle range from 100-350 nm and zeta potential between 5.45mV -18.98mV indicating very suitable use as an ophthalmic carrier. The turbidity test reveals that the prepared nanomicelle were very stable under simulated tear fluid environment and simulated tear fluid, which prevent the blurred vision. The drug entrapment of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in nanomicelle was too much high 98.07±6.8040. Finally, the drug release indicates the Pluronic nanomicelle modify by chitosan have sustained release behavior. As a result of Pluronic-Chitosan nanomicelle system provide a potential opportunity in decreasing dosing frequency of administration and improving patient compliance for ocular drug delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keyw</strong><strong>ords:</strong> Chitosan, Nanomicelle, Ocular delivery system, Poloxamer 407.</p> Pawan Singh, Navneet Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 IN VITRO ADME STUDIES OF TUG-891, A GPR-120 INHIBITOR USING SWISS ADME PREDICTOR <p>Predicting the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) profile of drug candidates before their synthesis, in the early stage of drug discovery, could help in selecting candidates with the less critical ADME profile. <em>In vivo</em> ADME assessment is found to be costly, time consuming and involve the lives of animals, so the <em>in vitro</em> ADME analysis is better, cheaper and provides accurate results quickly. TUG-891 is a GPR-120 inhibitor under clinical trials. The aim of the present study is to predict the <em>in vitro</em> ADME studies of TUG-891, to know the expected outcome of the clinical trials and finding the correlation between the <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> results along with the improvisation in the structure of the TUG-891, so that the biological activity remains unaffected, but reduces the unwanted ADME effects. The 2D and 3D structures of TUG-891 were drawn on chemdraw 3D-Ultra version 8.0 by minimizing the energy using MM2 and MOPAC setting the minimum RMS gradient to 0.01. The structure was imported, the structure smiley was entered and the Swiss ADME drug design study was run. The bioavailability radar showed that the colored zone is the suitable physicochemical space for oral bioavailability where the following properties were taken into consideration as flexibility, lipophilicity, saturation, size, polarity and solubility. The pharmacokinetic properties were studied using the boiled egg model allows for intuitive evaluation of passive gastrointestinal absorption and brain penetration in function of the position of the molecules in the WLOGP-versus-TPSA referential. The white region is for high probability of passive absorption by the gastrointestinal tract and the yellow region that is yolk, is for high probability of brain penetration. Yolk and white areas are not mutually exclusive. Through the study conducted it could be concluded that the aqueous solubility of the compound should be increased along with the fraction of sp<sub>3</sub> hybridized carbon atoms. The molecule should not be the inhibitor of metabolizing enzymes and so further modifications need to be done on the lead structure.</p> Shweta Mishra, Rashmi Dahima ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Tilapia pond sediment in Lubao, Pampanga, Philippines <p>see PDF</p> Alvin T Reyes, Lorenz J Fajardo, Aylwin Kesley Y Abando ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens <p><em>Capsicum frutescens</em> has been known to contain a high level of antioxidant components. We investigated antioxidant activities in various solvent extracts from <em>C. frutescens</em>. The aim of this study is to evaluate <em>invitro </em>antioxidant activity of acetone, carbinol, hot water and hexane extracts of <em>Capsicum frutescens. </em>&nbsp;Preliminary analysis revealed that all the four extracts responded positively for all the phytoconstituents. Acetone extract showed the strongest phenolic and tannin content; showed highest activity for FRAP, ABTS, Superoxide Radical and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity.&nbsp; The present study explored that <em>Capsicum frutescens</em> has efficient antioxidant activity and could act as safe and cost-effective with potential biological applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Capsicum frutescens</em>, Antioxidant, Free radical scavengers, ABTS, FRAP</p> M R Maya, Illuri Ramanaiah, K Venkatakrishna, K Rameshkumar, V Veeramanikandan, M Eyini, P Balaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Simultaneous estimation of simvastatin and labetalol in bulk and solid dosage form <p>A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive, and highly selective ultra violet spectrometer method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of simvastatin and labetalol in bulk and solid dosage form. The estimation of simvastatin was carried out at 239 nm while labetalol was estimated at 222.4 nm. The developed method was validated for linearity range, precision, recovery studies and interference study for mixture, all these parameter showed the adaptability of the method for the method quality analysis of the drug in bulk and combination formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Simvastatin, Labetalol, UV Spectrophotometric, Dosage form.</p> Abhijeet A. Sonawane, Akhil A. Shinde, Pooja K. Phalke, Nikita N. Bodke, Sonali D. Dangat, Neha A. Vishwakarma, S.L. Jadhav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation and evaluation of polyherbal hair oil for alopecia <p>The Herbal cosmetics are nowadays widely used because of fewer side effects with better safety and security .The present work was aimed to formulate polyherbal hair oil for general purpose using various Herbs. Herbal hair oil was prepared from the hair growth .The formulated hair oil contain different Herbal plant which are traditionally utilised for hair growth plants used are Shikhakai powder, Coconut Oil, Maka powder, castor oil, rice bran oil, Amla powder, Bramhi powder, hibiscus fiower, Neem leaves. The Formulated oil was evaluated and various parameters such as Viscosity, Saponification Value, pH, Acid Value where determine &amp; reported in this article. The Formulation were also subjected to chemical test determination. To determine the presence of active constituent in the drug .Excellent result of hair growth were seen in formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hair oil, Herb, Cosmetics, Formulation &amp; Evaluation.</p> Shilpa Kolhe, Pranaya Indore, Shweta Shewale, Akshata Pol, Leena Hanmante ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A new stability indicating RP-HPLC method for estimation of Osimertinib Mesylate <p>A simple stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of Osimertinib Mesylate in tablet dosage forms. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on Shimadzu Model CBM-20A/20 Alite, using a mixture of 0.1% T.E.A and methanol (50:50, v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.&nbsp; Detection was carried at 211nm. Linearity was observed over the concentration range of 10–400 μg/mL (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9992) with regression equation y = 125927x + 192648 Osimertinib Mesylate was subjected to stress conditions (acidic, alkaline, oxidation and thermal degradation) and validated as per ICH guidelines. The validated method can be applied to perform long-term and accelerated stability studies of Osimertinib Mesylate formulations.</p> Talluri Chakradhar, Sumanta Mondal, Goutham Kumar Vanapalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Antioxidant, In-vitro Antibacterial and DNA-cleavage activities of Nickel (II) Complex derived from N, N'-(1, 2 Phenylenebis (Methanylylidene)) bis(4-Nitroaniline) <p>New mononuclear Nickel (II) complex with Schiff base derived from the condensation of o-phthalaldehyde with p-nitroaniline were synthesized. The ligand and its complex were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic moment, IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, and electronic spectra. The conductivity data confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the complex. The spectral and analytical data suggested a distorted octahedral geometry for Ni(II) complex. The synthesized complex with ligand have been screened for antimicrobial activity against two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae). The obtained results showed that Ni(II) complex is more potent than free ligand. DNA cleavage studies of Ni(II) complex have been investigated by gel electrophoresis using super coiled pUC18DNA. The experimental results revealed that the Ni(II) complex cleaved pUC18DNA. in an efficient manner than the parent ligand. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the ligand and its metal complex were investigated through scavenging effects for DPPH radical indicating that the compound show stronger antioxidant activity than free ligand but lower when compared to standard oxidants such as vitamin C.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Mononuclear, Antimicrobial studies and DNA cleavage.</p> T. Sujeshwari, E. Akila, P. Maheswaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 New Phenoxy Benzoyl Methane Derivatives: Synthesis and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Potential <p>See PDF</p> , Mohit, Surendra Kumar, Sushil Kumar, S. Riaz Hashim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A Survey on Over The Counter Drug usage in the Community <p><strong>Background:</strong> The incidence of usage of over the counter (OTC) drugs is drastically increasing day by day. Over the counter drugs are medicines sold directly to consumer without a prescription from health care personnel. In many countries, OTC drugs are selected by a regulatory agency to ensure that they are safe and effective when used without physicians care.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study was designed to carry out a survey on over the counter (OTC) drug usage in the community.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A prospective and community based study was carried out over 6 months of period. A validated questionnaire was used for the collection of data, given to a total of 774 persons and face to face interviews among the 774, aged 14-84yrs.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 750 participants were enrolled in the study. A significant proportion of the participants identified as practicing self-medication in our study were found to be 77.33%.&nbsp; Majority of participants used OTC drugs for fever (31.551%), headache (30%) and Sore throat /cough/common cold (17.931%). The most commonly used drug as self-medication was Paracetamol (66.103%), Cetirizine (6.55%), and Meftal spas (4.65%). Anti-pyretics/pain relievers (37.41%) were the most commonly used class of drug. The most common reason for self-medication was easy accessibility (21.55%). The most relevant source of information was friends/relatives (27.41%). 52.93% of participants altered dose/frequency of the medication according to their health condition. Out of 580 participants, 108 (18.62%) experienced side effects from OTC drugs in which 21 reported side effects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We concluded that majority of participants practiced self-medication. The most commonly used drug was Paracetamol and the most common indication for self-medication was fever.&nbsp; Awareness and dangers of misuse of OTC medications among all participants was less. Therefore it is suggested that proper education should be imparted regarding illness where self-administration of OTC drugs to be employed.</p> Aluri Mourya, Chippy Mary, Chithu James, Josepheena Jose, R Srinivasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti Parkinsonism Activity of Betaine in Experimental Rats <p><strong>Aim and Objectives: </strong>The present study was aimed to evaluate anti parkinsonium effect of Betaine for its Applications in trigger factors in pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease and to understand development of new treatments approaches for PD. Betaine is naturally obtained product. It has antioxidant, neuroprotective activity. Hence, we inspected whether betaine can act as a protective agent in 6-OHDA induced oxidative stress on cerebellum of Sprague-Dawleyrats.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong> Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats were dived into six groups. Rats were received unilateral 6- hydroxydopamine lesions for induction except normal and rats were treated with respective treatment. At the day of 21 rats were sacrificed. Prepared brain homogenate was used for further Biochemical estimation.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Betaine showed marked rise in SOD and Catalase activity as well as GSH content subsequently decreasing in the lipid peroxidation process. Our result suggests Betaine to be potent antioxidant at dose 12.5 and 25 mg/kg as compared to standard (L-dopa+Benserazide) and pro-inflammatory cytokines viz: TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly reversed by Betaine as compared to that of standard group (L-dopa+ Benserazide).</p> <p><strong>Discussion and Conclusion:</strong> Betaine showed dose dependent effect by reducing LPO level as increasing SOD, GSH and Catalase activity and marked reduced proinflammatory cytokine, hence we conclude that betaine has good anti parkinsonism activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>6-OHDA, Antioxidant, Betaine, Pro-inflammatory cytokines.</p> Milind V. Masule, Sachin D. Shinde, Sujata S. Kurkute, Balu Salve ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Insecticidal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and elemental analysis of Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston (Bixaceae) <p><strong>Objectives: </strong><em>Cochlospermum religiosum</em> (L.) Alston is one of the extensively used medicinal plant belonging to the family Bixaceae. In the present study, we determined antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activity and elemental analysis of <em>C. religiosum</em> flowers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Shade dried and powdered flower material was extracted by maceration process using methanol. Antibacterial activity of flower extract was determined by agar well diffusion assay against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Antifungal activity was tested against two molds namely <em>Rhizopus</em> sp. and <em>Curvularia</em> sp. by poisoned food technique. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging and ABTS free radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing assay. Insecticidal activity was assessed in terms of larvicidal activity against I, II and III instar larvae of <em>Aedes</em> species and <em>Anopheles</em> species. Elemental analysis was carried out to estimate the content of major and minor elements.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The flower extract was effective in inhibiting all test bacteria. Overall, the flower extract was effective against gram positive bacteria to higher extent when compared to gram negative bacteria. Flower extract showed dose dependent scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals with an EC<sub>50</sub> value of 2.72 and 1.50µg/ml, respectively. In ferric reducing assay, an increase in the absorbance with increase in concentration indicated reducing potential of flower extract. At 1mg/ml concentration, the flower extract caused 100% mortality of I, II and III instar larvae of <em>Aedes</em> species and <em>Anopheles</em> species. The flower was shown to contain potassium and iron in highest quantity among major and minor elements, respectively while magnesium and chromium content was least among major and minor elements, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The results are promising and the study highlights the possible utilization of the <em>C. religiosum</em> flowers against pathogenic microorganisms and oxidative stress and to manage mosquito-borne diseases. The flower can be used as a food supplement as it is shown to contain various mineral elements that are required.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong><em>Cochlospermum</em> <em>religiosum</em>, Maceration, Agar well diffusion assay, DPPH, ABTS, Ferric reducing</p> B.G. Swathi, B.S. Smruthi, B Saima, T.R. Prashith Kekuda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 The Development and validation of few UV Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Apremilast in bulk form and pharmaceutical dosage form <p>Apremilast is an analog of thalidomide and used as a medication for the treatment of certain type of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. It is pale yellow to white colour powder which is non-hygroscopic and practically insoluble in water and buffer solutions of wide pH range, but is soluble is lipophilic solvents like acetone , acetonitrile , butanone , dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran. Validation study was performed to develop novel, simple, precise, sensitive and accurate UV spectrophotometric method w for the estimation of Apremilast. Double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (UV-1800, Shimadzu, Japan) with a pair of 10mm path length matched quartz cells were used for the study. Method A(methanol), Method B(ethanol), Method C(DMSO), Method D( acetonitrile) were developed foe estimation of Apremilast by zero-order and first-order derivative. Linearity was carried out in the concentration range of 0.2-1.0µg/ml and correlation coefficients were found to be 0.999. The relative standard deviation was found to be &lt;2%. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.120µg/ml and 0.7810µg/ml respectively. Hence, the methods were validated according to ICH to guidelines and can be adopted for the routine analysis of Apremilast in pure and table dosage form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Apremilast, UV visible spectrophotometer, zero-order, first-order derivative, ICH guidelines.</p> Sumanta Mondal, Sowmya Paidipati, Sneha Potlapally, Goutham Kumar Vanapalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 THE Formulation and In-vitro evaluation of press coated tablets of pravastatin for pulsatile drug delivery <p>The aim of present study is to formulate and evaluate Pravastatin pulsatile drug delivery system by press coated method to mimic the circadian rhythm of the disease by releasing the drug with a distinct predetermined lag time of 6 hrs. The basic design of the system consists of a rapid release core and controlled release coat. Core blend was evaluated for flow properties, hardness, thickness, friability and <em>invitro</em> drug release. <em>Invitro</em> drug release studies of press coated tablets for various formulations <em>i.e., </em>P1F6-P5F6 was conducted. From the results obtained by executed trails P5F6 of coated tablet containing 50% of ethyl cellulose and 20% of HPMC K15M concentration shows lag time up to 6hr and followed by complete drug release at the end of 8hr. Among these, P5F6 was considered as optimized formulation based on the lag time and percent of drug release (98.96% of drug release in 6 hrs). So, it is selected as optimized formulations for designing pulsatile device.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pravastatin, SSG, lycoat, ethyl cellulose, HPMC K15M, pulsatile drug delivery, Press coated method.</p> PITTU VISHNU PRIYA, JVC Sharma, G. Archana, Hasan Arshi, M. Arjun Singh, V. Nikhila ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of Ayurvedic formulation for Pharmacognostic parameters, Phytochemical screening, and acute toxicity <p>In this age, there is an urgent need to meticulously examine the present indisputable conclusion on traditional herbal medicines, which are used for a favourable outcome for various maladies. Therefore the current investigation aimed to formulate traditional Ayurvedic medicine&nbsp; <em>Amrtabhallataka Ghrta</em>. (ABG) and evaluate it for pharmacognostic, phytochemistry and acute toxicity on Wistar rats. The organoleptic and microscopical features of <em>Semecarpus anacardium</em> were studied. Further, <em>Bhallantaka</em> nut was evaluated for phytochemical constituents. After the <em>Shodhana</em> process, <em>Amrtabhallataka Ghrita</em> was prepared. Further <em>Ghrita</em> was analysed for its organoleptic, physicochemical features and screened its acute toxicity in Wistar rats. The progress in analytical methodologies could serve as a specific basis for examination in herbal drug technology, thereby, aid the Ayurvedic industry to lay down quality standards and parameters, for the establishment of therapeutic efficacy, safety and purity of herbal drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Semecarpus anacardium,</em> <em>Ghrita </em>Standardization, Herbal ghee, Ayurvedic medicine Acute Toxicity</p> Hansraj Singh, Manish Dev Indoria, Gaurav Saxena, Nitin Kumar, Nutan Kumari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Formulation, development and evaluation of Microsponge loaded Topical Gel of Nystatin <p>Nystatin containing microsponge as active constituent (API) in different formulations by changing the proportions of drug (Nystatin), polymer (ethyl cellulose), emulsifier (Poly vinyl alcohol) were obtained successfully using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. These formulations were studied for particle size and physical characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the microsponges porous and spherical in shape. The physical characterization showed that microsponge formulation coded by P6 showed a better loading efficiency and production yield. This microsponge formulation was prepared as gel in carbopol and studied for pH, viscosity, spreadability, drug content, <em>in-vitro </em>release. The microsponge formulation gel, F3 showed viscosity3465.84cps,spreadability of 26.22g cm/s and drug content of 89.65%. The nystatin microsponge gel formulations showed an appropriate drug release profile. F3 released 81.03% of drug at 12 hours.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microsponge, Solvent diffusion method, Scanning electron microscope, Nystatin microsponge gel.</p> Ashwini S Bansode, Vaishnavi B Kute, Komal S Vethekar, Priyanka S Kote, Monika K Varhadi, Ajit S Bansode, Suresh L Jadhav, Nitin V Devhadrao ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 PEGylated liposome containing sildenafil for the treatment of hypertension <p>The purpose of this study was to prepare PEGylated liposomes containing sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PEGylated liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method by varying the concentration of lipids. The prepared liposomes were characterized for the particle size, PDI, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency and <em>in-vitro </em>release study. The optimized formulation exhibits a particle size of 104.27±1.4 nm, PDI of 0.449±0.02, zeta potential of -42.9±0.7 along with the maximum encapsulation of drug i.e. 87.30±2.6. Optimized formulation showed % cumulative drug release of 85.38±0.26 in 48 hr.&nbsp; From the study it can be concluded that the PEGylated liposomes containing sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension provides a sustained release of drug and further studies are required to confirm their efficacy at clinical level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sildenafil; PEGylated liposomes; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; % entrapment efficiency</p> Jaiprakash Sharma, Sarvesh Paliwal, Swapnil Sharma, Vivek Dave ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:15:20 -0500 New spectrophotometric techniques for the estimation of Perphenazine in bulk drug form <p>Perphenazine is an atypical antipsychotic drug. &nbsp;The simple and accurate and precise absorption ratio method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Perphenazine in the pure drug form. The absorption maxima were found to be 310nm in Method A (0.1N HCl Buffer) and show linearity over the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.5372x-0.0099(r<sup>2</sup> = 0.9990). In Method B (Sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub> 310nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.4257x - 0.0084(r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9992). In Method C (Phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub> 310nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.482x - 0.0074(r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9991). In Method D (phosphate buffer, pH 7.2) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub> 310nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.3686x - 0.0055(r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9992). In Method E (0.1N NaOH Buffer) and shows linearity over the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.4864x-0.0081(r<sup>2</sup> = 0.999). In Method F (Methanol) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub> 300nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.6323x - 0.003(r<sup>2</sup>= 0.999). In Method G (Ethanol ) the drug obeys Beer Lambert’s law (λ<sub>max</sub> 300nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL with regression equation y=0.3686x - 0.0055(r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9991). &nbsp;&nbsp;First derivative spectrophotometric methods (A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1 and G1) were developed in 0.1NHCl and Sodium acetate pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, in pH 6.8 and phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, 0.1N NaOH Buffer, which Perphenazine obeys Beer Lambert’s law(λ<sub>max</sub>310nm) in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL and &nbsp;0.002-0.02 µg/mL and &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.002-0.02 µg/mL&nbsp; and 0.002-0.02 µg/mL and0.002-0.02 µg/mL &nbsp;with regression equations y=0.0357x - 0.0006 and y=0.0201x+0.0004 and y=0.0196x-0.0002 and y=0.0162x+0.0002 &nbsp;and y=0.0239x - 0.0002 &nbsp;and Perphenazine obeys Beer Lambert’s law(λ<sub>max</sub>300nm) for methanol and ethanol in the concentration range of 0.002-0.02 µg/mL and &nbsp;0.002-0.02 µg/mL&nbsp; with regression equations y=0.0423x-0.0003 and y=0.0371x+0.0003 respectively.&nbsp;</p> Sumanta Mondal, Chekka Rohith Kumar, T Sai Pavan, K Sampath, Goutham Kumar Vanapalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 12:49:39 -0500 Standardization Parameters of few India herbal drugs used in the treatment of gynecological disorders <p>Gynecological disorders are very common among Indian women and are more prone in rural areas as compared with urban due to various issue among with un-hygienic conditions are at the top. As per Ayurvedic literature there are several plants used to cure women disorders, though there proper documentation and validation need to be established for quality and purity of herbal drugs. The present work aims to investigate the acute toxicity profile of few India medicinal plants. In this present study standardization parameters of <em>Achyranthes aspera</em> Linn. (Roots) ASR, <em>Clitoria ternatea</em> Linn. (Roots) CTR, <em>Ipomea cairica</em> Linn. (Leaves) ICL and <em>Plumeria pudica</em> Jacq. (Leaves) PPL were investigated. The present investigation shows the results of morphological features and physicochemical evaluation of selected herbal drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Herbal drugs, Standardization parameters, Quality, gynecological disorders</p> Shweta Shriwas, Raju Choukse, Sumeet Dwivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 12:40:23 -0500 Formulation and Evaluation of Torsemide Granules (Sustained Release) <p>The aim of study was to design development and optimize a controlled release system of Torsemide. to increase its bioavailability by increasing the residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa, and was achieved through the preparation of floating granules by melt granulation techniques. Torsemide; a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema was chosen as the drug candidate to be formulated as gastro retentive multiparticulate system as it is a weakly basic drug with a short half life of 2-3 hrs. Gelucire 43/01 was selected as a lipid carrier in different ratio (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5) along with drug. The formulation F<sub>1</sub> to F<sub>6</sub> were prepared and evaluated for dependent variable (in vitro floating ability) and formulations F<sub>4</sub> to F<sub>6</sub> were selected as preliminary optimized formulation. The preliminary optimized formulation F<sub>4</sub> to F<sub>6</sub> were evaluated for micromeritic properties, drug content and percentage yield, <em>in-vitro</em> drug release,&nbsp; percentage <em>in-vitro</em> floating ability and formulation F<sub>4</sub> was selected as optimized formulation that exhibited good floating ability and zero order drug release (85.95 %) at the end of 8 hours. Aging effect on storage was evaluated using <em>In-vitro</em> drug release. The <em>In-vitro</em> drug release study of the aged sample showed increase in release behaviour, it may be due to phase transformation of Gelucire. In conclusion, hydrophobic lipid, Gelucire 43/01 can be considered as an effective carrier for design of a multi-unit floating drug delivery system of Torsemide.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Torsemide, Floating granules, Gelucire, In-vitro release study.</p> Satya Prakash Singh, Navneet Kumar Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 12:41:12 -0500 Formulation and Development OF BCS Class II Drug <p>The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate liquisolid compacts of Voriconazole a BCS class II drug. The series of formulations containing Voriconazole drug were formulated by using aerosil a colloidal silicone dioxide and avicel PH microcrystalline cellulose in different ratios by using suitable solvent. Solubility studies were performed in propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200, 400, 600) for the choice of the best non volatile liquid to dissolve Voriconazole. On the basis of the solubility data PEG 600 was chosen as a good solvent for the Voriconazole<strong>.</strong> Voriconazole was dissolved in solvent PEG 600 for the preparation of solution of drug. Formulated compacts were evaluated for all post compression parameters and the in-vitro drug release study was carried out. All the formulations have shown a very good drug release in&nbsp; 15 min except compressibility problems due to higher loading factor of liquid vehicle for the formulations. The selected formulation FV10 containing 30% of drug solution has&nbsp; shown good drug release of 100.2.% in 15&nbsp; min compared to dissolution of&nbsp; pure drug and marketed tablet which shown 58.5.5%&nbsp; and 70..6 % respectively.No interactions were found &nbsp;between drug and polymers in FITR as well as DSC. XRD of selected formulation shows that drug present in the formulation is in amorphous form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Voriconazole HCl, Avicel PH, Aerosil 200, Poly-Ethylene Glycol 600, liquisolid compacts.</p> S C Marapur, Rakesh Kumar Jat, J S Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 12:42:08 -0500 Assessment of Glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile among patients with skin tags in Khartoum State-Sudan <p><strong>Background</strong>: Skin tags (acrochordons) are the common small benign connective tissue tumor of the dermis that occurs in old subjects usually located on the neck and the major flexors .and the aim of this study to estimate the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and dyslipidemia among patients with Skin Tags in Khartoum state.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: This is descriptive case control study and was conducted during the period from March to July 2018. In this study 50 [28 (56%) male and 22 (54%) female] patients with skin tags and 20 [11 (55%) male and 9 (45%) female] healthy individual are randomly selected, blood samples were collected after fulfillment of questionnaire, fasting venous blood collected in fluoride oxalate container for fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides and 2.5ml venous blood in EDTA for HbA1c,&nbsp; and were analysis by spectrophotometer for glucose cholesterol and triglycerides and&nbsp; ichroma for HbA1c,obtained results were analyzed statistically by using SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides of case is (111mg.dl, 5.6 %, 205mg.dl, 160mg.dl) respectively. And the mean of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides of healthy individual is (86mg.dl, 5.0%, 149mg.dl, 170mg.dl) respectively. 62.2% of male has (1-10 ST), 38.5% of male has (11-20 ST) and 37.8% of female has (1-10 ST) ,61.5% has 11-20 ST. case aged 20-40 years (48.6% has 1-10 ST and 15.4% has 11-20 ST ), case aged 41-80 years (51.4% has 1-10 ST and 84.6% has 11-20 ST).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: There was significant correlation between number of skin tags and mean levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and fasting serum cholesterol levels, no significant correlation between gender and number of ST, significant correlation between age and number of ST.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Skin Tags, Fasting Blood Glucose, Hba1c, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Sudanese</p> Khalda Ali Omer, Abdelwahab Abdien Saeed, Salman Taha Ahmed Elmukashfi, Mutaz Ibrahim Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Apr 2019 11:39:00 -0500 Evaluation of serum Manganese and Zinc in non-cancerous thyroid disorders in Khartoum State-Sudan <p><strong>Background</strong>: The thyroid gland is responsible for the production of two hormones. Those are regulating body metabolism, neurologic development, and numerous other body functions. So this study aimed to determine the level of serum Zinc and Manganese in Sudanese patient with non-cancerous thyroid disorders in Khartoum state.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong>: This study was designed as case control, which includes 100 blood samples, a 60 from these samples were collected from patient with non-cancerous thyroid disorders and 40 samples were collected from health individual as control group. A total of 60 blood samples from the patients the males is 32 sample 53% and females is 28 sample 47%. Carried out in different Hospital in Khartoum state and the sample is collected by using sterile disposable syringes and separated by centrifuge, during period from March to June 2018. And the serum levels of zinc and manganese determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (OPERATOR’S MANUAL January 2003 VER 3.94 C), and the obtained results were analyzed by SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study showed that there was significant different because the mean of serum Zn was 0.285 in test group and 0.720 in control group with p.value of 0.001 in serum level of Zn and Mn in patient compared to control subject, significant decrease in the serum levels of Zn and increase in Mn. Mean of Mn in test group was 0.428 and 0.406 control group with p.value of 0.006. Also the study showed the age, gender of the patient and duration of the disease have no effect on the serum level of Zn and Mn.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study conclude that the serum level of Zn is decrease and Mn is increase in patients with non-cancerous thyroid disorders and the age, gender of the patient and duration of the disease have no effect on the serum level of Zn and Mn.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Thyroid disorders, Zinc, Manganese, Sudanese</p> Abdelwahab Abdien Saeed, Hoyam Abdalla Ataitalla, Salman Taha Ahmed Elmukashfi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 17 Apr 2019 11:44:27 -0500 Formulation, evaluation & comparison of traditional poly herbal shampoo powders with marketed formulation <p><strong>The aim of present work is to formulate poly herbal powder by using different natural herbs like Aswagandha, Tulsi, Ginger, Hibiscus, Aloe vera, Amla and Soap nut to have safety and effectiveness which can avoid toxic effects by chemical ingredients and prepared formulations were compared with marketed poly herbal shampoo. Prepared formulation strengths hair growth, prevents hair fall, dandruff and also acts as antibacterial conditioner and foaming agent without affecting or damaging hair. All the herbs have been selected to formulate poly herbal traditional shampoo powder on the basis of traditional system with scientific modern uses of poly herbs. In this present work herbs like <em>Aswagandha, Tulsi, Ginger, Hibiscus, Aloe vera, Amla</em> and <em>Soap nut</em> were collected, dried, powdered and sieved by passing through sieve no.60, stored in an air tight container and used for further formulation. Then the powders were formulated into four different formulations namely F1, F2, F3, F4 and evaluated for their organoleptic properties like color, odor and texture etc., General powder characteristics like angle of repose, bulk density and true density etc. and physiochemical properties like pH, moisture content, total ash contents, acid insoluble ash, other parameters evaluated were dirt dispersion and foaming capacity. All the four formulations offered good results in all the evaluation tests. The organoleptic characteristics were found to be good, general powder characteristics results were in specified limits and physicochemical evaluation like pH, foaming action, Dirt dispersion were found to yield good satisfactory results. So, the present work successfully formulated poly herbal traditional shampoo powder which meets the modern uses of hair without causing any damage to both skin and hair. Further the Scope of work need to be extended to carry out the stability studies.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Keywords: Poly herbal, Traditional </strong></p> AMPAPURAM RAJESH PAVAN, Bindu K Hima, M Prasanna Kumari, R Maddileti, G Anitha Lakshmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Apr 2019 07:22:27 -0500 Comparitive Analysis of Simhanada and Vatari Guggulu <p>Guggulu is the resin obtained from Commiphora mukul which is widely used in case of vata-kaphaja rogas especially vata vyadhi. Several guggulu formulations have been explained in the books of Ayurveda but two formulations namely; Simhanada and Vatari Guggulu stand out amongst them. They are both mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali of Govinda Das in the context of Amavata but Simhanada Guggulu was also first mentioned in Chakradutta. Though mentioned in the same book and in the same chapter, they contain the same ingredients. The only difference among them is the proportion of ingredients and method of preparation. Very specific indications have been explained for both the formulations apart from the main indication - Amavata. Aiming to understand what sets these formulations apart, they were prepared and analysed. However, the preparation, though done in accordance with the method explained in Bhaishajya Ratnavali, was a bit difficult. Several trials were done, to prepare both the formulations and the final product was analysed with market samples of the same. The results of analytical values were compared within and between the samples to understand how the proportions and methods of preparation may affect the values. The values obtained from the final products were compared to the values in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India and tabulated.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Guggulu, Simhanada, vata-kaphaja rogas, Amavata</p> M.R. Anusha Rao, Gazala Hussain, Govinda K Sharma, Vinay R. Kadibagil, O.P. Amrutha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 23 Apr 2019 11:18:38 -0500 Ayurvedic management of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura - A Case Study <p>Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is characterised by immunologic destruction of&nbsp; platelets and normal or increased megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. On the basis of clinical presentation , Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is classified into acute and chronic &nbsp;forms&nbsp; in which severe bleeding, or insidious with slow development with mild or no symptoms occcurs. According to Ayurvedic classics ITP can be correlated with <em>Tiryaga Raktapitta </em>as in this disease all the <em>Dosas</em> are vitiated and are circulating in the blood stream and manifested subcutaneously. The present case study was dealt with, the chronic form of disease, to check the bleeding and to stop the destruction of platelets. In this case an effort was made to treat a 35 years old female patient having symptoms - blackish patches in forehead and in both lower legs, bleeding from nose and excessive bleeding during menses since 3 years &nbsp;treated with <em>Giloya</em> and <em>Durwa swarasa</em>, <em>Ojaswani churna, Shatavari Churna, Akik Pishti, Shudha Sphatika</em> and <em>Aamlaki Churna </em>in BD dose in combination <em>&nbsp;</em>with normal water in oral form for 7 months. After 7 months of treatment patient got much improvement in symptoms with increase in platelets counts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Shriti Agrawal, Harish Bhakuni, Ram Kishor Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Micro-RNA: biomarker for the treatment of cancer <p>MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are presently experiencing a renewed height of attention not simplest as diagnostics, however specifically as noticeably promising novel objectives or gear for medical therapy in several different malignant diseases. MicroRNAs have emerged as key publish-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, involved in diverse physiological and pathological approaches. It changed into located that several miRNAs are without delay worried in human cancers, along with lung, breast, mind, liver, colon most cancers and leukemia. Biomarkers have many capacity packages in oncology, together with danger assessment, screening, differential analysis, dedication of analysis, prediction of reaction to treatment, and tracking of progression of disease. In this evaluation, we summarize the present day know-how and ideas concerning the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, which have emerged from the take a look at of cellular tradition and animal model systems, which includes the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, which include mobile cycle control and the DNA damage response. Importantly, microRNA molecules are already getting into the health facility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for patient stratification and also as therapeutic targets and marketers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> MiRNA, Biomarkers, cancer.</p> Vanashri Nawale, Avinash Darekar, Ravindranath Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Pre-Liposomes: A novel drug delivery system <p>Preliposomes are a novel drug delivery system (NDDS). Preliposomes, due to their various forms, require further exploration. These structures can deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for cancer, bacterial infections, fungal infections, immunomodulation, diagnostics, ophthalmic, vaccines, enzymes and genetic elements. Prevesicular drug delivery system like preliposomes having distinct advantages over conventional drug delivery system. These systems overcome the problems associated with instability of liposomes. preliposomes composed of water-soluble porous powder as carrier which having ability to rapid hydration of preliposomes and formed vesicles. New concept of demonstrating preliposomes as novel carrier to enhance the oral bioavailability and permeation across the membrane. On the basis of investigation. it is clear that pre-liposomes are the alternate drug carrier for the various route of administration. These reviews give the brief knowledge about the preparation, evaluation and application of prevesicular drug delivery system in pharmaceutical field. The current deepening and widening of liposome interest in many scientific disciplines and their application in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and food industries as promising novel breakthroughs and products are also handle. The obtained information allows establishing criteria for selecting pre-liposomes as a drug carrier according to its advantages and limitations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Novel drug delivery, Liposomes, Lamellar, Carrier</p> Maitry Sheth, Divya Jadhav, Hitesh Jain, D. B. Meshram ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A review on Nanocomposite Drug Delivery <p>Low aqueous solubility is the major problem come across the formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. Supplementary than 40% New Chemical Entities developed in pharmaceutical industry are practically insoluble in water. Hence, there is a need for boosting the solubility and dissolution of such drugs. Enhancement of the solubility and dissolution of the practically insoluble drug was achieved by forming nanocomposites. Nanocomposities are formed by using synthetic polymers such as gelatin, chitosan, polyvinyl pyrollidone, carboxymethyl cellulose, etc. Selection of polymers was based on their surfactant and wetting properties. To check the solubility enhancement of drugs solubility studies is carried out. Nanocomposites are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. As the concentration of polymer in the composite increased the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug were enhanced. In end, new technology require substances showing novel properties and/or progressed performance in comparison to conventionally processed additives. In this context, nanocomposites are appropriate materials to meet the emerging needs bobbing up from medical and technologic advances.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>nanocomposites, polymers, synthesis.</p> Avinash Darekar, Mrudula Bele, Milind Wagh, Vanashri Nawale, Ravindranath Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Quality Assurance and Quality Management in Pharmaceutical Science and Pharmaceutical Industry <p>Affection affirmation (QA) is aimed at ensuring affection analysis results. The purpose of affection affirmation is to accord relevant, reliable, appropriate analysis after-effects which are interpreted correctly. Affection affirmation involves activities both central and alfresco laboratory, acceptable class convenance and able administration skill. The WHO analogue of affection affirmation is a absolute action area by the affection of lab letters can be guaranteed. I capital to animadversion on the beat entitled, “An in-flight absorption on affirmation and quality.”The acreage of Affection Administration has abounding methods to abate and anticipate defects in any industry. Some of the best accepted methods today are Six Sigma, Lean Enterprise, and Benchmarking. There is a abundance of accurate affirmation to appearance how these methods accept helped the bloom affliction industry even out defects, waste, basis causes, and optimal solutions, application anarsenal of administration tools.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Keywords</strong>: Affection assurance, quality management, pharmaceutical industry.</p> Swati Kushare, Avinash Darekar, Ravindranath Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Drug safety and Pharmacovigilance: An overview <p>Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have a major impact on public health, reducing patient’s quality of life and imposing a considerable financial burden on the health care systems at a time when many health care systems are under considerable financial strain. All healthcare providers have roles to play in maintaining a balance between a medicine's benefits and risks. Once a drug is available to the public, making a determination about its safety is the shared responsibility of all who are part of the prescribing process, including patients. The role of healthcare professionals is vital in recording and reporting suspected ADRs in order that regulatory agencies are alerted of emerging safety concerns and thereby facilitating timely and appropriate action<strong>. </strong>Pharmacovigilance is an important exercise for monitoring of drug related issues after marketed in “real world setting”. Pharmacovigilance and all drug related issues are important for everyone whose life is being impacted any way by medical interventions. The evolution of Pharmacovigilance in recent years has growing importance as a science critical to effective clinical practice and public health science. The national Pharmacovigilance centers have become a significant influence on the drug regulatory authorities, at a time when drug safety concerns have become increasingly important in public health and clinical practice. This paper unfolds the basics of drug safety and other important aspects of Pharmacovigilance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adverse drug reactions, Pharmacovigilance, Drug regulation.</p> Mudasir Maqbool, Mohmad Amin Dar, Shafiqa Rasool, Ahsan Ullaha Bhat, Mohammad Ishaq Geer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Review on Suchikabarana Rasa <p>Effect of Chikista (treatment) is depend upon many factors like Aushadha (formulations), Aushadha Marga (route of drug administration). Selection of Aushadha Marga (route of drug administration) depend many factors like Aushadha Kalpana (dosage forms), Roga Avastha (condition of disease). Aushadhi (formulation) which is used in Athyayika Avastha (emergency conditions) like Murcha (unconsciousness), Sarpa Dhamsa (snake bite) should be more potent. In Ayurvedic classics different Aushadha Marga (route of drug administration) are mentioned. Suchikabarana Rasa is one of the formulations mentioned for subcutaneous route in Sarpa Dhamsa (snake bite). It is prepared by Sthavara Visha (plant or mineral poison) and Jangama Visha (animal poison) which is more effective in small dose. Visha Dravya (poison drugs) act quick and effective in small dose because of their Guna (property).</p> K Sreelakshmi, Vinay R Kadibagil, VK Sangameshwara, D Anjali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Twak Sharir According to Ayurveda and its Correlation with Skin Diseases: Ayurveda and Modern Consideration <p><em>Twak </em>(skin) is one of the important sensory organs <em>(Dnyanendria) </em>which receive sense/stimuli through <em>Adhisthanas. Twak </em>generates anticipated response against the stimuli like; <em>Sparsh </em>(touch)<em>. Twacha </em>(skin) not only helps to understand touch sensation but it also covers whole body, protect from shock and perform functioning of thermostat through sweat channels <em>(swedvahi strotas). </em>The pores present in skin help in the hair nourishment and detoxification process. It is believed that each and every components of skin having anatomical as well as physiological importance. Therefore any anatomical or physiological abnormalities in skin or related organs may leads various disorders with skin manifestation including psoriasis, acne, leprosy, hyper pigmentation, skin allergy and vitiligo. Present article described structural components of skin and their role in disease pathogenesis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ayurveda, <em>Dnyanendria</em>, <em>Twak</em>, Skin, Disorders.<strong> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> Anand K. Madgundi, Avinash B. Chavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Ayurveda and modern management of Fistula: A literary review <p>Fistula is a&nbsp;<em>Marmaasrita Vyadhi&nbsp;</em>which mainly affects&nbsp; G<em>uda&nbsp;</em>&amp;&nbsp;<em>Basti</em>, it involve formation of excess tract, painful openings around anal region, discharge &amp; burning sensation, pus formation and bed smell near anal parts. Ayurveda considered this disease amongst one of the <em>Ashta Mahagada</em>. The traditional medical science; ayurveda as well as modern medical science described various therapeutic modalities for the management of fistula including surgical and non-surgical interventions. In a view to explore literary contribution in this area present article summarized some important ayurveda and modern approaches used for the treatment of fistula.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda, Fistula, Bhagandara, Arsha.</em></p> Bharat Kailash Oza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Surgical and non-surgical management of Dushtavrana: A review <p><em>Vrana</em> (ulcer) is one of the common pathological conditions affecting large number of word wide population from many years. <em>Vrana</em> means discontinuity to the skin due to the some exogenous or endogenous factors including cuts or wound. Ayurveda mentioned that if <em>Vrana</em> not treated properly at initial stage then it turned to non-healing ulcer means <em>Dushtavrana</em>. Vitiation of <em>Doshas</em> &amp; <em>Rakta </em>as a consequence of injury involve in pathogenesis of <em>Dushtavrana</em>. Therefore <em>Doshas</em> &amp; <em>Rakta</em> pacifying approaches recommended to stops pathological progression of <em>Dushtavrana.</em> Considering this fact ayurveda literature also suggested various approaches for the management of <em>Dushtavrana </em>like; herbal drugs, traditional ayurveda formulation, surgical interventions and <em>Shodhna chikitsa</em>, etc. The approaches for the management of <em>Dushtavrana</em> aims decrease production of discharge, relief in granulation, pain and burning sensation due to the antibacterial, anti inflammatory, <em>Vranashodhak</em> and <em>Vranaropak</em> properties of therapy. Present article summarized some important surgical and non-surgical approaches for the management of <em>Dushtavrana</em> in aview to explore this area for future research perspectives.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda,</em><em> Vrana, Ulcer, Dushtavrana, Surgery.</em></p> Bharat Kailash Oza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A review on Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) <p><em>Ocimum sanctum Linn</em> is one of the important medicinal plant; known as holy basil. It is commonly available and cultivated across the India and it is having many therapeutic usages. And it is widely used in <em>Ayurveda </em>for the treatment of various disorders. It is extensively used as antioxidant, immune-modulatory, antipyretic, anticancer, chemo-preventive, radio-protective, anti-hypertensive and cardio protective and antimicrobial activity etc. The present article provides all necessary information regarding its classical literature and research updates on Phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: &nbsp;</strong><em>Ayurveda, Tulasi</em>,<em> Ocimum sanctum Linn.</em></p> MR Kavyashree, A Harini, Prakash L Hegde, Dr. Pradeep ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 The Functional Nanogel: An Exalted Carrier System <p>Nanotechnology is widely growing field nowadays. Under these vast variety of carriers are available through which the drugs can be delivered to the affected organ. Nanogels are one of the most effective carrier systems for targeting the drugs directly to the diseased tissues with their highly adaptive properties. Nanogel can be defined as nanoparticles incorporated in hydrogel. These systems are very efficient in embodying drugs of diverse nature and also in enhancing their delivery and retention to the targeting organ. Due to their targeting properties they reduce the dose of drug required in free form and also reduces the side effects produced by accumulation of drugs to any other organ. This review highlights various types of nanogels, their advantages, most commonly used preparation techniques, biomedical applications, drug targeting through nanogels, drug loading and release through the nanogels. The review has also incorporated the recent patents related to the topic. However, there is an urgent need for relevant clinical data from nanogels so as to allow translation of the nanogel concept into a viable therapeutic application for the treatment of cancer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nanogels, Polymers, Drug targeting, Hydrogel, Diagnosis.</p> Disha Kesharwani, Sandhya Mishra, Swarnali Das Paul, Rishi Paliwal, Trilochan Satapathy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Kidney injury molecule-1 and its diagnostic ability in various clinical conditions <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This review evaluates the diagnostic ability of Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (Kim-1) in various clinical conditions.&nbsp;<br> <strong>Methods:</strong> We screened literature in electronic database from January 2016 to March 2016 by the words “Kidney Injury Molecule-1”or “Kim-1” and “Acute Kidney Injury”. Specific studies were selected for inclusion if they were published in English journals, in which Kim-1 was measured for diagnosis of various forms of Acute Kidney Injury in different articles.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were eight articles which met the selection criteria for inclusion in our study. Compared to non acute kidney injury (AKI) patients, Kim-1 raised significantly in different forms of AKI patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Kidney Injury Molecule-1 is a new emerging urinary biomarker in the early detection of acute kidney injury and repair of kidney cells as well. Kim-1 can detect acute tubular necrosis, a useful marker for renal proximal tubular injury and it can restore morphological integration of kidney cells followed by ischemic injury. Kim-1 can detect nephrotoxic injury and injury caused by various drugs as well.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Kidney injury Molecule, Acute Kidney Injury</p> M Vijayasimha, R K Jha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 DALK (MASSAGE): AN EFFECTIVE MODE OF TREATMENT FOR MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS <p>In Unani system of medicine, there are four modes of treatment; <em>Ilaj Bil Ghiza</em> (Dietotherapy), <em>Ilaj Bid Dawa</em> (Pharmacotherapy), <em>Ilaj Bit Tadbeer</em> (Regimenal therapy) and <em>Ilaj Bil Yad </em>(Surgery). <em>Ilaj bit Tadbeer</em> includes a number of regimenal therapies such as <em>Hijāma </em>(cupping), <em>Ta‘līq al-‘Alaq </em>(leeching), <em>Fasd </em>(venesection), <em>Dalk </em>(massage), <em>Natūl </em>(irrigation), <em>Qay’ </em>(Emesis), <em>Idrār-i-Bawl </em>(Diuresis), <em>Tariq </em>(Diaphoresis), <em>Mundij </em>and <em>Mu'shil </em>therapy (Concoction and purgation), <em>Bukhoor </em>(medicated steam), <em>Kaiyy </em>(cauterization), <em>Huqna </em>(enema) etc. It has been extensively used for its preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes since ancient times. It causes elimination of morbid matter out of the body, thus helps in maintaining the equilibrium of humours. It has been advised in management of neurological, psychosomatic and musculoskeletal disorders. Various clinical trials have established its efficacy in musculoskeletal disorders on scientific parameters. This review paper aims to explore the basic concept, classification and its therapeutic importance in musculoskeletal disorders.</p> Fouzia Bashir, Jamal Akhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 14 Apr 2019 14:08:55 -0500 Nanoparticles: A smart drug delivery <p>In recent years, there has been an exponential interest in the development of novel drug delivery systems using nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are defined as particulate dispersions or solid particles with size in the range of 10-1000nm. There has been a considerable research interest in the area of drug delivery using particulate delivery systems as carriers for small and large molecules. Particulate systems like nanoparticles have been used as a physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various types of drug molecules. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, because they show promise as drug delivery systems as a result of their sustained and targeting release properties, subcellular size, biocompatibility with tissue and cells. Various polymers have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles for targeting drug delivery research to increase therapeutic benefit, while minimizing side effects. Polymeric nanoparticls with a size in the nanometer range protect drugs against <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> degradation. The use of nanoparticle drug delivery is a universal approach to increase the therapeutic performance of poorly soluble drugs in any route of administration. In this review focused various aspects of nanoparticle formulation, characterization and their applications in targeting delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nanoparticles, Drug Targeting and Controlled Release.</p> S Venkateswara Rao, E Anuhya, K Padmalatha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Vishaharayogas in Sahasrayoga: A review <p>Ayurveda pharmaceutics deals with preparation of medicines. The formulations are in different forms with a variety of ingredients that are herbal, mineral, marine, etc. in origin.&nbsp; These formulations, based on the ingredients and the forms are mentioned in different conditions including in the management of poisons. Sahasrayoga is a book that is a compilation of different formulations that are mentioned in various diseases. A review of this book has put light on the yogas that are mentioned in the management of various poisons. In this book, for the management of poisons different dosage forms are mentioned like kashaya, churna, leha, ghrita, etc. The formulations mentioned are not just for management of visha but are also indicated in other disorders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Visha, Yogas, Vishaghna, Ayurveda, formulations</p> Gazala Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Liposomes encapsulating cyclodextrin enclosed hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs: a novel drug delivery system for cancer. <p>In the current situation in the health care industry is to face many challenges to cure the cancer. The second highest death were noticed by the cancer in society. Therefore, the efficient treatment is required. There many treatmentsare available to cure the cancer but not found much efficient.&nbsp; The advance development in the hydrophobic drug in the form of water-soluble drug cyclodextrin complex in liposomes has been investigated. This new investigation in to the complex in liposomes play key role in combination of the cyclodextrin and liposomes in the one common system. Such system would potentially increase the drug to lipid mass ratio. In comparison to conventional treatment this ratio is high therefore it enlarges the range of insoluble drug amenable to encapsulation to include, allow targeting, of complexes to specific sites and reduce toxicity, for instance and membrane destabilizing agents. This extensive review explores the novel drug delivery for the cancer treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Liposomes, cyclodextrin, anti-cancer, novel drug delivery system</p> Dr. Rupalben Kaushalkumar Jani, Mansi Pandya, Hemali Rathod ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 EMERGING TRENDS IN THERAPEUTIC PEPTIDE PHARMACEUTICALS: PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES <p>Over the last few decades, the inclusions of peptide drugs in the pharmaceutical formulation aspects are more contemporary and recurrent. Since peptide moieties for the treatment of various clinical conditions has been started worthwhile since 1930’s. There has been an increasingly sustainable research work regarding the formulation of therapeutic peptides are in the arena, as probably several entities are already in the clinical investigation, where as few more are in the pipeline for clinical indication. In this current discussion, it has been aimed to unleash the potential of therapeutic bioactive peptides and its future prospects, in the area of pharmaceutical formulation. A plinth of area in regard to the, demand for the development of pharmaceutical formulation of bioactive peptides are still need to be uncovered. And hence only we have discussed deeply about the contemporary prospects of the peptide moieties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Peptide drugs, pharmaceutical formulation, current trends, clinical implications</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nagarajan Sangeetha, Palanisamy Selvamani, Subbiah Latha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Osmotic drug delivery system: A review <p>Osmotic drug delivery uses the osmotic pressure level for controlled delivery of drugs by using osmogens. Osmotic systems for controlled drug-delivery applications are well established, both in human pharmaceuticals and in veterinary medicine. The process of osmosis is that can control the drug delivery system. Osmotic pressure created from external environment into the dosage form regulates the delivery of drug from osmotic device. Osmotic pumps&nbsp;are promising systems for controlled drug delivery. The systems are used for oral administration and implantation.&nbsp;Osmotic pumps consist of an inner core containing drug and coated with a semi permeable membrane.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Osmosis, Osmotic drug delivery system, Osmotic pump.</p> B.S. Venkateswarlu, C. Pasupathi, A. Pasupthi, B. Jaykar, R. Margret Chandira, P. Palanisamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 BRCA mutation: A review of breast cancer <p>In the present study, we focus on the causes of a major cancer type contributing to the major deaths due to cancer across the world. Breast cancer which accounts for more than approximately 29 to 34% affected to women posing a major cause of death due to cancer. In-situ carcinomas might arise in either ductal or lobular epithelium, but remain confined there, with no invasion of the underlying basement membrane that would constitute extension beyond epithelial boundaries. Approximately 29 to 34% of women with invasive breast cancer will die of their disease. This&nbsp;<a href="">syndrome</a>&nbsp;presents as skin changes resembling&nbsp;<a href="">skin</a> condition like redness, discoloration, or mild flaking of the nipple skin. As Paget's disease of the breast advances, symptoms may include skin tingling, itching, increased sensitivity, burning and pain. There may also be discharge from the nipple. Approximately half of women diagnosed with Paget's disease of the breast even have a lump within the breast.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Breast cancer, BRCA mutation, BRCA1, BRCA2.</p> R. Margret Chandira, M. Prabakaran, B. Jaykar, B.S. Venkateswarlu, P. Palanisamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A Comprehensive Review on Plant derived Natural products for Diabetes and its complication as nephropathy <p>Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most severe microangiopathies of diabetes taking heavy toll on human lives. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the accumulation of extracelluar matrix protein leading to irreversible decline in renal function and end stage renal disease. Incomplete knowledge about molecular mechanism underlying nephropathy limit the use of modern medicines to treat this clinical entity. Moreover, current standard of therapy for diabetic nephropathy mainly focus on reduction in hyperglycemia and hypertension. These therapies have limited effect on delaying nephropathy progression. A pressing need for novel therapies initiated studies targeting various molecular pathways involved in nephropathic changes. Herbal medicines with beneficial phytochemicals are reported to delay the progression of nephropathic changes in diabetes in various experimental studies. This review try to summarize various phytoconstituents proved to be effective in management of diabetic nephropathy. The goal is to identify promising phytoconstituents that can be translated into beneficial therapeutic options.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diabetic complications, Medicinal plants, Phytoconstituents, Oxidative stress.</p> Pankaj G. Jain, Priti G. Nayse, Dipali J. Patil, Sanjay J. Surana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 CONCEPT AND MANAGEMENT OF WAJA‘AL-MAFᾹSIL (ARTHRITIS) IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE <p>Arthritis is described in Unani system of Medicine under a broad term <em>Waja‘al-Mafāsil </em>which covers entire joint disorders like inflammatory, non-inflammatory, infectious, metabolic and other musculoskeletal disorders. According to <em>Unani</em> concept, the pathological changes in the joints are caused mainly by derangement of humoural (<em>Akhlat</em>) temperament and accumulation of <em>Fasid madda</em> (Morbid material) in the joint spaces. The main principles of treatment in Unani system of Medicine include <em>Ilaj Bil Ghiza</em> (Dieto-therapy), <em>Ilaj Bit Tadbeer</em> (Regimenal therapy) and <em>Ilaj Bid Dawa</em> (Pharmacotherapy). All the said principles are recommended for the treatment of <em>Waja‘al-Mafāsil</em>. The aim of treatment for patient with <em>Waja‘al-Mafāsil </em>is to reduce morbidity and disability. In India it affects 15% (180 million) people. Ancient <em>Unani</em> scholars have elaborately described <em>Waja‘al-Mafāsil </em>and managed with multidimensional approach, where as with the present day management of disease mainly with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which have large number of adverse effects. This review article highlight the salient features describing arthritis with reference to <em>Waja‘al-Mafāsil </em>for empathizing disease condition as enunciated by Unani scholars to provide a better alternative in terms of cost effective managements and side effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Waja‘al-Mafāsil</em>, Arthritis, Joints pain, Unani medicine</p> Fouzia Bashir, Asim Ali Khan, Jamal Akhtar, Nighat Anjum, Shah Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Herbal mediated silver nanoparticles: A new horizon of antineoplastic drug delivery system <p>Cancer is a disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, and is still the second most common cause of death worldwide. Several classes of drugs are available to treat different types of cancer. Currently, researchers are paying significant attention to the development of drugs at the nanoscale level to increase their target specificity and to reduce their side effects. Silver nanoparticles are the topics of researchers because of their distinctive properties (<em>e.g.</em>, size and shape and electrical properties). Synthesis of herbal mediated silver nanoparticles targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficacy and fewer side effects as compared to other commercial cancer drugs. A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles such as physical, chemical and biological methods. In this review, different medicinal plants and their active compounds, as well as synthesized silver nanoparticles from medicinal plants, are discussed in relation to their anticancer activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Silver nanoparticles, Medicinal plants and Anti-cancer activities.</p> S Venkateswara Rao, Sharief Naserunnisa, K Padmalatha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Ayurveda Concept of Bhasma, Specific Role in Diseases Management and Precautionary Measurements Related to Bhasma: A Review <p>Metals and metallic preparations have a great historical background in Ayurveda system. Metals such as; <em>Parada</em> (Mercury), <em>Rajata</em> (Silver), <em>Tamra</em> (Copper), <em>Swarna</em> (Gold), <em>Lauha</em> (Iron), <em>Vanga</em> (Tin) and <em>Yasada</em> (Zinc) possessing some therapeutic value. However these metals can’t be used without processing or purification, therefore they are used in incinerated form as <em>Bhasma</em>. These herbo-metallic preparations offer different therapeutic values and utilizing since evaluation of ayurveda. The proper preparation method, dose regimen and duration of use are some important aspects need to be considered while using<em> Bhasma.</em> <em>Bhasma</em> may produce severe adverse effects if used without considering precautionary measurements. Present article described various ayurveda perspective of <em>Bhasma.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda, Bhasma, Herbo-metallic, Incinerated.</em></p> Amita Sharma, Umesh Shukla, Rishi Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 14 Apr 2019 14:25:28 -0500 A review on natural and synthetic polymers employed in the formulation of oral disintegrating tablets <p>The oral route is the most popular route of administration for numerous drugs because it is considered as a safest, most preferred and less economical. Disintegrating agents are the substances that disperse or dissolve within a matter of seconds. This disintegrating mechanism helps in dysphagia, pediatric and geriatric patients. Synthetic disintegrating agents are available as a highly economical and less effective when compared to natural disintegrating agents. Therefore natural disintegrants serve as the best alternative to overcome the problems of these synthetic substances. Due to their numerous advantages over synthetic products they are widely used in the pharmaceutical field as a binder, disintegrants, gums, and mucilages.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Disintegrants, dysphagia, synthetic substances.</p> G.S.S.V. Madhulika, B. Ramya Kuber ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A recent review on Nanoemulsion as a topical delivery system of antipsoriatic drugs <p>Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are a chronic skin disease of autoimmune system that is identified as patches of abnormal skin, affecting 2-5% of the world’s population. Psoriasis is an incurable lifetime disease which can be controlled and relieved through medication. Various approaches have been explored to treat the disease. Treatment of psoriasis includes topical therapy, systemic therapy and phototherapy. Topical therapy is the main psoriasis treatment. However, the conventional topical treatment such as gel and cream have low efficiency to&nbsp; poor cosmetic and aesthetic appeal leading to poor patient compliance or adherence. Nanoemulsions are transparent or translucent dispersions, having the droplet size less than 100 nm with ultra-low interfacial tension, large o/w interfacial areas and long term physical stability recently, much attention has been paid to the application of Nano emulsion as drug delivery system. A small droplet size would enhance the drug delivery and penetration of a drug through the psoriasis skin layer. A good selection of oils and surfactants would enhance the transdermal treatment efficacy in psoriatic patient.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nano emulsion topical drug delivery, psoriatic treatment</p> S.A. Nimase, P.B. Patil, R.B. Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Lichens as promising resources of enzyme inhibitors: A review <p>Inhibition of some enzymes seems to be one of the therapeutic strategies for the management of certain diseases or conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and obesity. In this review, an updated information on the enzyme inhibitory activity of lichen extracts and lichen compounds by an intensive literature survey is presented. Crude solvent extracts and isolated compounds from lichens were shown to be effective in causing inhibition of several enzymes such as amylase, lipase, lipoxygenase, aromatase, cyclooxygenase, trypsin, β-glucoronidase, prolyl endopeptidase, monoamine oxidase, urease, tyrosinase, xanthine oxidase, Thioredoxin reductase, glucosidase, topoisomerase, pancreatic elastase, phosphodiesterase, telomerase and acetylcholinesterase. Lichen metabolites such as usnic acid and its derivatives, lobaric acid, physodic acid, ramalin, protolichestrinic acid, salazinic acid, atranorin, evernic acid, zeorin, diffractic acid, psoromic acid, methyl β-orcinolcarboxylate, methylorsellinate, and anziaic acid were shown to be inhibitors of some enzymes. In conclusion, lichens can be employed as promising therapeutic agents in terms of their potential to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes that are involved in some diseases or disorders. In vitro culturing of lichen symbionts in optimized media can be carried out to isolate enzyme inhibitors in larger scale and to develop effective therapeutic agents.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Lichens, lichen substances, enzyme inhibitors, enzyme inhibitory activity <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> T.R Prashith Kekuda, D Lavanya, Rao Pooja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Application value of drainage technique in biological patch <p><strong>Objective</strong> The reliability and necessity of the drainage technique were discussed by comparing the application of drainage technique in the clinical application of acellular matrix material biological mesh. <strong>Method</strong> Forty-three patients with inguinal hernia were divided into two groups, all of whom were treated with Biodesign Surgisis(SIS) biological mesh for inguinal hernia repair. Twenty-one patients in the experimental group were treated with drainage technology, while 22 patients in the control group were not treated with drainage technology. The postoperative indicators and complications such as seroma, postoperative infection and chronic pain in the two groups were statistically analyzed. <strong>Result</strong> After statistical observation and comparison, there was a significant difference in postoperative seroma between patients with and without drainage devices (P&lt;0.05).There was no significant difference in postoperative indicators, postoperative infection, postoperative chronic pain, postoperative foreign body sensation, postoperative recurrence, etc. (P&gt;0.05).<strong>Conclusion</strong> The application of drainage device can reduce the occurrence of adverse events of seroma after the repair of inguinal hernia with acellular matrix material biological mesh.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> biological patch; Seroma; Tension-free herniorrhaphy; The drainage device</p> Yan Liu, Yanbo Zuo1, Xiaoshi Jin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Ophthalmic pH Sensitive In-Situ Gel: A Review <p>Ocular Drug Delivery has been a major challenging and interesting field for the pharmaceutical scientist due to unique anatomy and physiology of eye. The eye suffers from various problems like glaucoma, dry eye syndrome, keratitis, endopthalmitis, trachoma and conjunctivitis. To achieve the effective ocular therapy within the eye. An adequate amount of active ingredients must be delivered and maintained at the site of action. The conventional therapy exhibits the poor bioavailability due to the rapid precorneal drug loss. There are some static and dynamic barriers which also affect the bioavailability of drug. There are considerable efforts which are directed towards newer drug system for ocular administration to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapy. The use of in situ overcomes the problems when drop instilled into the eye it undergoes sol-gel transition and transition form in cul-de-sac. This review involves in-situ gel system which includes thermally triggered system, pH triggered system and ion cross linking system. It involves detailed method of preparation and evaluation parameters of pH triggered system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ocular Drug Delivery, in-situ gel, pH sensitive, temperature sensitive, ion sensitive.</p> Lajri Vasant Garge, Ravindranath Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 03:32:44 -0500 Free Radical Pharmacology and its role in various diseases <p>Free Radicals are molecules with an unpaired electron and are important intermediates in natural processes. Free radicals are very unstable and react quickly with other compounds, and try to capture the needed electron to gain stability. Once the process is started, it can cascade, and finally results in the disruption of a living cell. Generally, harmful effects of reactive oxygen species on the cell are most often like damage of DNA, oxidations of polydesaturated fatty acids in lipids, oxidations of amino acids in proteins, oxidatively inactivate specific enzymes by oxidation of co-factors. Free radicals cause many human diseases like cancer Alzheimer’s disease, cardiac reperfusion abnormalities, kidney disease, fibrosis, etc. The free radicals formed in our body are combated by antioxidants that safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. Excessive exercise has been found to increase the free radical level in the body and causes intense damage to the Regular physical exercise enhances the antioxidant defense system and protects against exercise induced free radical damage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Radicals, Free Radicals, Reactive oxygen species, Anti-oxidant, Redox signaling.</p> Priya Gupta, RB Jyoti, Saibya Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 22 Apr 2019 07:13:21 -0500