Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> en-US <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> (Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief) (Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics) Fri, 15 Nov 2019 01:34:39 -0600 OJS 60 Anti-inflammatory and healing effect of leaf-flower mixture extract of Cytisus triflorus L <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present study aims to study the anti-inflammatory and healing effects of the crude leaf and flower mixture extract of <em>Cytisus triflorus</em> L., known in Algeria as Igoulli.</p> <p><strong>Methodology and results</strong>: The method consists of studying the anti-inflammatory effect by measuring the diameter of edema of the paw of rats that received carrageenan. In addition, 2 cm diameter circular incision wounds were made in rats to evaluate the healing activity of the crude leaf and flower mixture extract of <em>Cytisus triflorus</em> L. at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory effect of <em>C. triflorus</em> showed that E.Br at the dose 400 mg has the higher activity, which induces a significant decrease in the thickness of the rat paw from the second hour, its effects being similar to those of Diclofenac. The percentages of inhibition of edema at 4 h and 6 h are 80.05 and 88.56% for E.Br and Diclofenac respectively. With respect to healing activity, the results show that after 18 days, complete healing was achieved with almost two concentrations of crude <em>C. triflorus</em>, tissue remodeling and reoccurrence of hair was observed at level of scars.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of the study show that the leaf extract and flower extract of <em>Cytisus triflorus </em>L. has healing and anti-inflammatory properties that could justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine against inflammatory diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Cytisus triflorus</em>, anti-inflammatory, healing activity.</p> Soraya Madoui, Kamel Mokhnache, Hanane Khither, Sana Aouchria, Noureddine Charef ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Evaluation of Ceftriaxone utilization among selected hospitals in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania <h2>Objectives: Inappropriate use of ceftriaxone has been reported to increase treatment cost among patients. In addition, inappropriate use is a threat for resistance development. We assessed utilization of ceftriaxone among selected public and private hospitals in Dar es Salaam Tanzania.</h2> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Retrospective study was conducted from February to May 2017. Total of 600 patients’ medication records were included. Chi square test was used to compare appropriateness use of ceftriaxone between the hospitals. Significance level was set at 0.05 and the confidence level at 95%.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total of 330 (55%) and 270 (45%) patients were prescribed ceftriaxone for pre-operative prophylaxis, and treatment respectively. In overall, ceftriaxone was significantly utilized inappropriately in private hospital (72.3%) than in public hospital (60%) p=0.002 against the Tanzania standard treatment guideline. Ceftriaxone was more used inappropriately in private (87%) than the public hospital (69.2%) p&lt;0.001 for prophylaxis. In contrary, for treatment indication ceftriaxone was more used inappropriately in public hospital (53.3%) than in private hospital (38.9%) p= 0.026.There were no records of sensitivity test in all the patients’ files.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We report inappropriately utilization of Ceftriaxone against the Tanzanian standard treatment guideline. Private hospital was found to utilize ceftriaxone more inappropriately than the public hospital. We recommend further prospective studies involving all antimicrobials to be done.</p> <h1>Keywords: Ceftriaxone utilization, antimicrobial resistance, inappropriate use</h1> Mlugu Eulambius, Nelson Osward ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Synthesis, Characterization, in vivo acute toxicity and superoxide anion scavenging evaluation of new isatin-hydrazone <p>A new isatin-hydrazone (<strong>I</strong>); <em>N</em>'-[(<em>E</em>)-(5-bromo-1<em>H</em>- indol-3-yl) methylidene] pyridine-4-carbohydrazide&nbsp; was prepared from the condensation reaction of 5-bromo-1<em>H</em>-indole-3-carbaldehyde and the anti-tubercular drug; isoniazid, in the presence of acetic acid. The obtained hydrazone was identified and characterized by physico-chemical techniques such as melting point, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. In addition, the acute toxicity was evaluated using mice. The antioxidant of I was evaluated against superoxide anion radical.&nbsp; Our biological results indicate low toxicity of <strong>I </strong>at the high dose of 1000 mg/kg, and high superoxide anion scavenging effect with inhibition percentage of 82.57 % and IC50&nbsp;138.78 µg/mL.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: hydrazone, toxicity, antioxidant, superoxide anion</p> Kamel Mokhnache, Ahlem Karbab, Soraya Madoui, Hanane Khither, EL-Khamsa Soltani, Noureddine Charef ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Enhancement of solubility of Metaclopramide using solid dispersion technique with different carriers (HPβCD, PVP K-30) <p>Modern drug discovery has led to the development of drug molecules that exhibit high lipophilicity and poor water solubility, which leads to problematic bioavailability. Approaches have thus been made to enhance dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs through modifications and creation of specific formulations. Metaclopramide is an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent, commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting. It is absorbed well after oral administration but a significant first pass effect in some human patients may reduce systemic bioavailability to 30%.The Metaclopramide base is thus modified from Metaclopramide hydrochloride to enhance solubility .This has been achieved by the formulating in solid dispersion since Metaclopramide is poorly water soluble. Though it is absorbed well after oral administration, a significant first pass effect in some patients reduces systemic bioavailability, which can cause adverse side effects. This solid dispersion has then been used through transdermal drug delivery. Enhancement of solubility of poorly water soluble drug by solid dispersion may be attributed to particles modified characters such as particle size reduction, improved wettability, higher porosity, decreased lattice energy, amorphous state. The main objective thus includes modification of drug Metaclopramide&nbsp; hydrochloride to Metaclopramide base, preparation of solid dispersion of modified Metaclopramide&nbsp; base drug which has poor water solubility, experimental analysis of Metaclopramide base drug and solid dispersion products with carriers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> solubility, Metaclopramide, solid dispersion, carriers, HPβCD, PVP K-30</p> Moumita Paul, Pintu Sarkar, Riyanka Sengupta, Saikat Bhunia, Payal Jana, Chandan Kumar, Goutam Mukhopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 In Silico Toxicological, Anti-Tubercular Effect Evaluation And In Vitro Marine Pathogenic Bacteria Inhibition of N-[(3-Chloro-4-Nitro-Phenyl)Methyleneamino]Pyridine-4-Carboxamidine <p>The hydrazone; N-[(3-chloro-4-nitro-phenyl) methyleneamino] pyridine-4-carboxamidine (<strong>H</strong>) was selected for <em>in silico </em>toxicological and <em>in vitro</em> bactericidal studies. Toxicological investigation was carried out using software program, such as eMolTox and Gusar, for the toxic substructure determination, and acute rat toxicity prediction respectively. <em>In vitro</em> bactericidal effect evaluation was investigated using tow marine pathogenic bacteria; <em>Vibrio </em><em>anguillarum</em> and <em>Photobacterium damselae</em>. Computational results determinate toxicophores of (<strong>H</strong>), which are nitro-aromatic part, hydrazine group, and quaternary carbon, were predicted as responsible for Idiosyncratic toxicity metabolic activation, covalent bond with DNA, and hepatotoxicity respectively. In addition, the predicted LD50 of (<strong>H</strong>) are 1086, 244, 1816, and 823.40 mg/kg in intraperitenial, intravenous, oral and subcutaneous administration respectively. For bactericidal results, <strong>H</strong> exhibited an excellent effect with inhibition percentages of 98.65 and 98.83% at the concentrations of 1000 and 500 µg/mL against <em>Vibrio </em><em>anguillarum</em> respectively, the same effect was demonstrated against <em>Photobacterium damselae </em>with inhibition percentages of 97.74 and 97.98 % at the same concentrations. For anti-tubercular effect prediction, results revealed that <strong>H </strong>has an excellent effect with probability percentage of 84.6%.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Hydrazone, toxicophore, LD50, Anti-tubercular, <em>Vibrio </em><em>anguillarum</em>, <em>Photobacterium damselae</em><strong>.</strong> <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> Kamel Mokhnache, EL-Khamsa Soltani, Soraya Madoui, Hanane Khither, Ahlem Karbab, Noureddine Charef, Lekhmici Arrar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Effect of Four Essential Oils on Cells Release Membrane and Biofilm Formation of Clinical Bacterial Isolated From Oral Infection <p><strong>Background:</strong> Bacterial biofilms forming are current resistant bacterial form to the treatment of oral diseases that colonizes in the gingival and sub-gingival regions of the mouth. The present study aims to screen the anti-biofilm potential and evaluate the effect of four essential oils on cells release membrane. <strong>Methods: </strong>Seven type isolate bacteria obtained during previous work were screen to select those who had ability to form biofilm using Congo Red Agar method, tube method and crystal violet method. The inhibitory parameter of biofilm forming was determine using microtiter plate method. The effect of essential oil on cell membrane release of each selected bacterial was put in evidence by measuring cellular material that absorb at 260 nm and 280 nm after 0 min, 30 min and 60 min of exposure and confirm by measuring DNA, RNA and proteins release by treated cells on extracellular medium using Nanodrop 1000 spectrophotometer. <strong>Results</strong>: The crystal violet method shows twelve (12) strong, five (05) moderate and five (05) weak biofilm forming bacteria. The anti-biofilm activity against the oral bacteria who shown that most of essentials oils have activity on different biofilm formation and the MICs ranged from 0.31 mg/mL to 1.25 mg/mL. Concentration of intracellular material released in extracellular medium ranged from 186,56 ± 2,35 ng/µL to 766,6 ± 2,84 ng/µL for DNA, 158,06 ± 1,87 ng/µL to 628,53 ± 2,05 ng/µL for RNA and 695,9 ± 2,11ng/µL to 1125,23 ± 2,15 ng/µL for proteins. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study demonstrates that the selected EOs have a significant anti-biofilm activity, acting on the cell surface and causing the disruption of the bacterial membrane. These EOs are interesting alternative to conventional antimicrobials for the control of oral microorganisms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anti-biofilm activity, Biofilm, oral diseases</p> Dimitri Tchami Ngongang, Ascension Maximilienne Nyegue, Del Florence Esther Ndedi, Xavier François Etoa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Evaluation of isoniazid-oxidative reactions in mice model <p>In this study the anti-tubercular drug; isoniazid (<strong>INH</strong>) was investigated for their adverse effect; the oxidative stress. This effect was evaluated by using mice model, at the dose of 151 mg/kg.&nbsp; We found that oxidative stress induced by <strong>INH</strong> is associated with lipid peroxidation expressed by the increase in the level of MDA from 76.9 ± 1.74 to 79.61 ± 2.67 nmol/g tissue. The oxidative stress of <strong>INH </strong>is accompanied by a decrease in reduced GSH level (from 79.9 ± 12 μmol / mg&nbsp; to 68.48 ± 4.28 μmol / mg compared to of the control group). After treatment with <strong>INH </strong>at 151 mg/kg, a decrease in CAT activities occurred compared to control (2.53 ± 0.39 U/mg Pr <em>vs </em>5.07 ± 0.73 U/mg Pr).</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: isoniazid, oxidative stress, MDA, GSH, CAT</p> Kamel Mokhnache, Ahlem Karbab, Soraya Madoui, Hanane Khither, El-Khamsa Soltani, Noureddine Charef ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Androgenic Effect and Phytochimie of the Bark of Trunk of Buchholzia coriacea Engl. (Capparidaceae) <p>The testosterone is the main androgen produced by the testes among the males.&nbsp; Her absence is responsible for erectile dysfunction and the loss of the sexual performance. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the androgenic effect and to determine the profile phytochemestry of the barks of trunk of <em>B. coriacea</em>. Fifteen days after the castration, the animals left in group and, received the aqueous extract of <em>B. coriacea</em> (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o). The sexual parameters (mounts sexual, number of erections, number of ejaculations and the time of latency) have been valued, and compared, to the witnesses groups: water distilled (0,5 ml/100 mg, p.o) and Enanthate of testosterone (1 mg/mL, i.m). The dosage of the testosterone has been achieved by the technic of ELYSA analysis. The determination of the chemical families has been achieved by the technique of coloration in tubes. The aqueous extract of <em>B. coriacea</em> (100,250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o) has an effect androgenic because managed daily during 15 days, it provokes an increase of the rate plasmatic of the testosterone and the bodily weight of the rats, maintains the sexual parameters among the castrated rat, extract the number of ejaculations. The barks of trunk of <em>B. coriacea</em> would contain the stérols, the flavonoides, the saponosids that could be responsible for the sexual effects and androgénic observed. The aqueous extract of the plant would possess the properties androgenic would be to advise the patients presenting problems of masculine barrenness.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Androgen - Phytochimie - Buchholzia - coriacea&nbsp;</p> R Ondele, B.M.L. Peneme, L. Miguel, A. W. Etou Ossibi, R.D.G Elion Itou, C. Nkounkou Loumpangou, A.A. Abena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Skin Sensitization Calculation, Topical anti-inflammatory effect and DFT Study of New Indole-Hydrazone <p>A new indol-hydrazone (<strong>IH</strong>); <em>N</em>'-[(<em>E</em>)-(5-bromo-1<em>H</em>- indol-3-yl) methylidene] pyridine-4-carbohydrazide was selected for theoretical and experimental studies. Molecular structure proprieties were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) <em>via</em> B3LYP/6-31G (d,p), skin sensitization prediction was carried out using Pred Skin software program. The obtained results demonstrate the reactivity of <strong>IH </strong>with Energy gap (Δ) of 0.0579 a.u, low sensitizer effect towards human skin with probability of 60 %, and an excellent topical anti-inflammatory effect against xylen-induced ear odema in mice model with inhibition percentages of 81.48%.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Hydrazone, skin sensitization, Topical, Anti-inflammatory.</p> Kamel Mokhnache, Ahlem Karbab, EL-Khamsa Soltani, Soraya Madoui, Hanane Khither, Noureddine Charef, Lekhmici Arrar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Area Under Curve by UV Spectrophotometric Method for Determination Albendazole in Bulk <p>The aim of present investigation is to establish simple, precise, and rapid Spectrophotometric method for the quantification of Albendazole in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient. In this, work is carried out to for estimation of Albendazole bulk by utilizing an Area under Curve (AUC) method using UV – Visible Spectrophotometry. The study is designed to validate the developed methods as per ICH guidelines. For this purpose the wavelength range between 200-400 nm was selected. Methanolic distilled water (50 ml methanol used for stock solution and serial dilution in 25 ml distilled water) was used as a solvent throughout the work. Linearity was obtained in concentration range 2 to 10 ɥg/ml (r2 = 0.992) for the method. The developed method was found to be simple, linear, accurate, precise and highly sensitive and which can be used for routine quality control analysis for Spectrophotometric estimation of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient.</p> <p><strong>KeywordS: </strong>Albendazole<strong>,</strong> linearity, AUC, spectrophotometer, methanol, distilled water.</p> Kedar Vikas Dagdu, Manoj Gadhave, Shubham Bhujbal, Bhushan Shrinath ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Synthesis, Characterisation and Analgesic Activity of Diethylenediamine Copper Complex <p>see PDF for detail.</p> Kamel Mokhnache, Ahlem Karbab, Soraya Madoui, Hanane Khither, El-Khamsa Soltani, Noureddine Charef, Lekhmici Arrar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation of Furosemide Oral Disintegrating Tablets Using Natural and Synthetic Superdisintegrants by SeDeM Expert Design System <p>SeDeM design expert technique used to evaluate the risks of poor flow of pharmaceutical powders under preformulation studies which reveals direct compression suitability and prepare robust composition of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipient in tablets formulation. The purpose of this study was to develop oral disintegrating tablets of Furosemide using different concentration of natural and synthetic superdisintegrants by means of SeDeM design technique. Oral disintegrating tablets (ODT) of Furosemide were prepared by direct compression technique using isolated banana powder and croscarmellose sodium (Ac-di-sol) together with microcrystalline cellulose as superdisintegrants. SeDeM design was performed to check suitability and deficient of excipients and drug for optimized composition derived based on IPP value. These tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, weight variation, wetting time and <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution. All the formulations showed low weight variation with dispersion time less than 173.5±0.70 seconds and rapid <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution. The drug content of all the formulations was within the acceptable limits. Lubricated blend composition of F4 found average radius value 5.24, 0.66 and 5.509 for IGC, IP and IPP respectively, compressed tablet shown good physical properties. The optimized formulation F4 showed good release profile with 99.25 percentage drug release compared to other trial batches. It was concluded that natural superdisintegrant (banana powder) showed better disintegrating property than synthetic super disintegrant (Ac-di-sol) in the formulations of ODTs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Furosemide, Oral disintegrating tablets, SeDeM expert system, Superdisintegrants</p> Mulchand A. Shende, Kajal D Chavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Pharmaceutical Standardization of Mayaphaladi Churna <p><em>Rasa Shastra</em> is the pharmaceutical branch of <em>Ayurveda</em>. As like any other medical system, success of <em>Ayurvedic</em> treatment also depends upon quality of medicine prescribed to the patient. The integral part of <em>Rasa Shastra</em> lies in the successful pharmaceutical process. <em>Rasa oushadis </em>are the potent <em>Ayurvedic </em>preparations mainly containing metals and minerals. These <em>oushadis</em> possess a wide range of therapeutic efficacy and are considered superior because of their qualities like small dose, quick action, palatability and longer shelf life. <em>Mayaphaladi Churna </em>is an important <em>Rasa oushadi </em>described in <strong><em>Rasa Tantra Sara Va Siddha</em></strong><em> <strong>Prayoga Sangraha</strong></em>- Part 2, <em>Streerogadhikara </em>indicated for the management of the diseases<em> Swetapradara and Yonibramsha</em>. The ingredients present in the ‘<em>Mayaphaladi Churna’ </em>are <em>Kukkutanda twak bhasma (Egg Shell Ash)</em>, <em>Shuddha Sphatika (Alum), Mayaphala Churna (Quercus Infectoria Oliv.), Amalaki Churna (Emblica Officinalis Gearth), Ashwagandha Churna (Withania Somnifera Linn.) and Sita Churna (Sugar Candy)</em>. The main pharmaceutical procedures involved in the preparation of <em>Mayaphaladi Churna </em>are <em>Shodhana, Marana, Churna nirmana </em>and preparation of <em>Mayaphaladi Churna</em>. The specific pharmaceutical blend of these contents can result in a more effective formulation. Therefore the present study has been planned to standardize the method of preparation of <em>Mayaphaladi Churna </em>according to the method explained in the classical literatures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Mayaphaladi Churna</em>, <em>Shodhana, Marana, Churna Nirmana, </em>Standardization.</p> Tumma Tejaswini, Ch. Sridurga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Inclusion Complexation in Sulfobutyl Ether Beta Cyclodextrin and Dispersion in Gelucire for Sustained Release of Nifedipine Employing Almond Gum <p>In the present research investigation, the utility of employing high dissolving forms of nifedipine for sustained release from matrix tablets with almond gum as major release retardant is explored. A poorly soluble BCS class II drug nifedipine is chosen as a model drug. Efforts were made to alter the dissolution characteristics of the drug before it is entrapped in the polymer matrix of almond gum. Inclusion complexation in sulfobutyl ether beta cyclodextrin or solid dispersion in gelucire (50/13) resulted in enhanced dissolution of nifedipine. The high dissolving forms are characterized by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and infra-red spectroscopy. The matrix tablets prepared employing the high dissolving forms exhibited satisfactory characteristics such as hardness, friability, swelling index. The drug release is found to be slow and spread over a period of 12 hours and the release could be modified with changes in nature of high dissolving form and the proportion of almond gum as the major release retardant. Employing high dissolving forms in matrix tablets of almond gum is found to be a novel approach in obtaining slow and complete release of poorly soluble drug such as nifedipine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: &nbsp;</strong>sulfobutyl ether beta cyclodextrin, solid dispersion, nifedipine</p> Kanteti Venkata Ramesh, Meena Achamma, Hemant Kumar Yadav, Tamer Salama Elmarsafawy, Quamrul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 NEBULIZED GLYCOPYRRONIUM AND FORMOTEROL, BUDESONIDE AEROSOL AERODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT WITH VIBRATING MESH AND COMPRESSOR AIR NEBULIZER: ANDERSON CASCADE IMPACTOR STUDY <p>Vibrating mesh nebulizers (VMN) demonstrate improved efficiency for delivery of inhaled aerosol solutions or suspensions as compared to compressor devices. The added advantages of compactness, portability and functioning as noise-free device makes them of incremental value in Home or Ambulatory settings while managing Severe Obstructive airway disease or delivery of maintenance medications in these cases. This further circumvents the need for multiple devices thereby further improving patient compliance and convenience while delivering acute or maintenance formulations including Glycopyrronium (GLY) and Formoterol (FRM)/Budesonide(BUD) nebulizing solution formulations. To further assess the clinical role and feasibility of FRM-BUD formulation delivery kinetics&nbsp; with or without GLY nebulizing solution through VMN and jet&nbsp; nebulizers for In- &amp; outpatient settings, 2 comparative <em>in-vitro</em> lung deposition studies were carried out utilizing Anderson Cascade impactor at 30 L/min; deposited drug concentrations in different stages were suitably collected and estimated by HPLC. Post-hoc analyses with p&lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant for intergroup differences on FRM/BUD and GLY delivered through VMN or Compressor devices.&nbsp; The calculated mean fine particle dose for FRM &amp; BUD delivered by VMN or jet nebulizer showed no statistical difference. However the mean fine particle fraction for BUD delivered by VMN was significantly better compared to jet nebulizer than that for FRM. The Residual volume at 10 mins was significantly higher with jet nebulizer. The optimal APSD for GLY nebulizing solution admixture with FRM/BUD suspension delivered through VMN and Jet nebulizer offers a clinically relevant strategy for High risk COPD cases in Acute or Home settings.</p> Mala Menon, Isha Naik, Gopal Singh Rajawat, Mangal Nagarsenker, Korukonda Krishnaprasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Susceptibility Pattern of Isolated Pathogenic Oral Bacteria to Some Commonly Prescribed Antibiotics in Dental and General Medical Practice <p>The current global rise in the morbidity and mortality rates of infectious diseases is due in part, to the problem of antimicrobial resistance. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance is also partly a consequence of widespread inappropriate prescription and use of antibiotics, sometimes on empirical basis, without any established antimicrobial susceptibility data-based guidelines on such empirical use.&nbsp; In the present study, we re-examined the susceptibility pattern of organisms isolated from active carious lesions to some commonly prescribed antibiotics and suggest a comprehensive data generation and establishment of guidelines based on a holistic assessment of susceptibility pattern of different organisms to the different classes of antibiotics commonly prescribed in various branches of medicine. For instance, our results revealed significant resistance of cariogenic organisms such as <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> and <em>Lactobacillus</em> to Amoxicillin, Gentamicin, Tarivid, Chloramphenicol and Sparfloxacin, with good susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Pefloxacin and Streptomycin. These findings suggest that the latter group of antibiotics could function better than Amoxicillin in the prophylactic and empirical management of dental caries and other oral infections prior to obtaining antimicrobial susceptibility test results.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antimicrobial, Susceptibility, Empirical, Resistance.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Onoriode Oyiborhoro, Emmanuel O Oshomoh, Enoh F. Akpojotor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablet of Atorvastatin Calcium by Using Hibiscus rosa sinesis Mucilage as Natural Superdisintegrant <p>Orodispersible tablets (ODTs), also known as fast melt, quick melts, fast disintegrating have the unique property of disintegrating in the mouth in seconds without chewing and the need of water. Oral bioavailability of Atorvastatin Calcium is low (14%) and shows extensive intestinal clearance and first-pass metabolism, which is the main cause for the low systemic availability. In the present work, orodispersible tablets of Atorvastatin calcium were prepared by direct compression method using Hibiscus rosa sinesis mucilage as natural superdisintegrant with a view to enhance patient compliance and to avoid hepatic first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water-absorption ratio and in-vitro dispersion time. Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Orodispersible tablet, Atorvastatin Calcium, lipid-lowering agent, Superdisintegrant, Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis, Bioavailability, solubility.&nbsp;</p> Ashish Gupta, Juhi Bhadoria, G.N. Darwhekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Internet and Social Media use among Pharmacists in a state in Nigeria <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study determined the use of internet and social media by pharmacists in Delta State as well as their experiences with the internet and patients.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This was achieved through the use of a 32 item, structured questionnaire, pretested and administered to 100 pharmacists attending the quarterly meeting of Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria in Abraka, Delta State. Use of internet and social media were evaluated by Chi square analysis, using SPSS 20. At 95% confidence interval, a 2-tailed, P- value less than 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; Of 100 questionnaires administered, 81 were returned, giving a response rate of 81%. Majorities (29.6%) were aged 30-39 years, there were more males (54.3%) than females, one third (39.5%) had been in practice for 1-10 years. Nearly half (48.1%) were in community practice, more than half (56.8%) were practicing in Asaba. Majority (61.7%) used electronic communication for professional services; a quarter (27.2%) used email to communicate with their patients. Whatsapp was 3.5%, text messaging and Face book were 1.2% each. Significant differences were found in their online activities. Reasons for not communicating online included respondents not being computer literate (9.9%), irregular power supply in location (9.9%), lack of time (2.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Internet use among respondents in the study area was poor, with those practicing in urban capital using the internet most. There is need to encourage greater internet use among pharmacists because of the obvious benefits to patient care.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Internet use, pharmacists, social media</p> Valentine U Odili, Kingsley Chiedu Amibor, Angela Omoikhefue Obaseki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 In Vitro Antidiabetic Effect of Neohesperidin <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study was performed to determine <em>in vitro </em>antidiabetic effect of neohesperidin. To evaluate inhibitory effect of neohesperidin on α-amylase and α-glucosidase diabetes causing enzyme.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong><em>Invitro</em> carbohydrate metabolizing enzyme based inhibitory methods were used to determine antidiabetic effect of neohesperidin. Alpha (α)-amylase inhibitory assay was performed using different sources i.e. wheat alpha (α)-amylase enzyme, salivary alpha (α)-amylase and fungal alpha (α)-amylase assay. Alpha (α)-glucosidase inhibitory assay was performed using alpha (α)-glucosidase <em>(B. stearothermophil)</em>, alpha (α)-glucosidase rat intestine and alpha (α)-glucosidase from baker’s yeast. Sucrase inhibitory assay from rat small intestine.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Neohesperidin possess a potent anti-diabetic by significantly inhibiting alpha amylase activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that enzyme inhibitory activity of neohesperidin shown a significantly higher inhibitory activity on alpha-amylase in comparision to alpha-glucosidase &amp; Sucrase enzymes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Neohespiridin, acarbose, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase</p> Durgeshnandani Sinha, Trilochan Satapathy, Parag Jain, Jhakeshwar Prasad Chandel, Divya Sahu, Bhavna Sahu, Abhishek Verma, Shalini Singh, Khushboo Verma, Rahul Rathore ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Film of Prochlorperazine Maleate <p>This research work was aimed to enhance the oral bioavailability and provide faster onset of action of Prochlorperazine maleate (used for the treatment nausea and vomiting) by formulating its mouth dissolving film (MDF). Prochlorperazine belongs to BCS II and oral bioavailability of it’s about 11-15%. The MDF of Prochlorperazine&nbsp; maleate was prepared by solvent casting&nbsp; method using HPMC (film forming agent),Glycerol (plasticizer), Betacyclodextrin (solubilizing agent), Citric acid (saliva stimulating agent), Mannitol (sweetening agent). The formulation was optimized by two factors, three levels (3<sup>2</sup>) was used for the formulation optimization of fast dissolving film of Prochlorperazine maleate and experimental trials are performed on all 9 formulation. In which the amount of HPMC, Glycerol were selected as independent variables (factor) varied at three different level: low (-1), medium (0), and high (+1) levels. The drug release and disintegration time used as dependent variables (response). and formulation was evaluated for weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, in- vitro disintegration, in vitro dissolution study and stability study. Based on results it was concluded that MDF (F3) showed enhanced bioavailability and faster onset of action.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Prochlorperazine maleate, Mouth dissolving film, bioavailability</p> Rajat Pawar, Ravi Sharma, Gajanan Darwhekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation and evaluation of Lornoxicam loaded Lyotropic liquid crystalline gel <p>GIT irritation is prominent limitation with the use of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s). There is rising interest in designing formulations which will deliver the drug at the site of action as topical gels, to avoid GIT irritation and other systemic side effects. Liquid Crystal phase has emerged as a novel material for the preparation of topical drug delivery system. In present study the attempt is made to prepare Lornoxicam loaded lyotropic liquid crystalline gel using glycerol monooleate. Glycerol monooleate is biocompatible, bioadhesive, penetration enhancer and sustain release agent. It also promotes ceramide extraction and enhancement of lipid fluidity in the stratum corneum region of the skin. Five formulation of lornoxicam were prepared and evaluated for parameters like drug content, viscosity, spreadability, Extrudability <em>In-vitro</em> drug release along with in vivo study.&nbsp; <em>In-Vitro</em> and <em>Ex-Vivo</em> drug release kinetics showed that there was 72.85% and 77.98% drug release within 48 hrs. Skin irritation test suggested that prepared formulation was safe for human use. <em>In-Vivo</em> evaluation of this formulation was done by carrageenan induced rat paw edema anti-inflammatory model.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Lornoxicam, GMO, Lyotropic liquid crystal, Anti-Inflammatory, Topical drug delivery</p> Kiran R. Thorat, Ravindra B. Laware ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Dietary Restriction: A Major Factor in Prophylaxis against Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis <p>Urolithiasis (Ur) Is A Worldwide Problem That Affects All Groups Of Ages.&nbsp; Nearly 80% Of Renal Stones Are Calcium Oxalate (Cao) And 50% Of The Affected Patients Have Recurrent Disease Within 10 Years.&nbsp; Our Prospective Study Was Conducted Over 4 And ½ Years And Evaluated The Role Of Dietary Manipulation In Prophylaxis Against Cao Ur.&nbsp; A Total Of 212 Patients With Recurrent Cao Ur, Who Lacked Anatomical Or Metabolic Derangement, Were Subjected To A Practical And Specific Diet.&nbsp; The Latter Had: (A) Low Salt, Red-Meat And Green Leafy Vegetable, (B) Moderate Amounts Of Milk, Dairy Products, Poultry And Certain Fish-Items, And (C) High Water Intake (2 Liters/Day).&nbsp; A Total Of 66/70 (96%), 87/108(88%) And 146/167(87.4%) Patients Were Stone-Free By The End Of 1, 2 And 3 Years Of Follow Up.&nbsp; The Median Time For Stone-Free Duration Was 33 (28.7-37.3) Months.&nbsp; Adding A Thiazide And Allopurinol To The 19 Patients Who Had Failed Dietary Prophylaxis Prevented Stone Formation In 16 More Patients Leaving Only 3 True Failures.&nbsp; Four Patients Could Not Tolerate The Latter 2 Drugs For Allergy.&nbsp; In Conclusion; Our Practical Dietary Modification Can Aid In Prophylaxis Against Cao Ur.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diet, Calcium Oxalate, Urolithiasis, Urinary Tract Stones, Prophylaxis</p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Clinical Appraisal on Therapeutic Efficacy of Tankana & Sphatika Bhasma With Madhu Pratisarana In Tundikeri <p>The clinical study was carried out to find out the efficacy of <em>Tankana</em> &amp; <em>Sphatika</em> <em>bhasma</em> with <em>Madhu pratisarana</em> in <em>Tundikeri</em> (Chronic Tonsillitis).The study was an Open Labelled Randomized Comparative study with a pre- and post-test design at the outpatient level of S.V.M. Ayurvedic Medical College &amp; R.P.K Ayurvedic Hospital, Ilkal, Karnatak, India. In accordance to inclusion and exclusion criteria 30 patients were treated with <em>Tankana bhasma</em> (Purified borax powder) along with <em>Madhu (</em>honey) <em>pratisaran</em>a and <em>Sphatika bhasma </em>(purified potash alum) along with <em>Madhu pratisarana</em> on alternative days for 13 days to Group A and Group B respectively. Each group comprised with 15 patients. After assessment of all data, the result conforms that both the drug <em>Tankana bhasma</em> with <em>Madhu pratisarana</em> and <em>Sphatika bhasma</em> with <em>Madhu pratisarana</em> on <em>Tundikeri </em>have significant result. However, in overall assessment, the efficacy of <em>Tankana bhasma</em> <em>pratisarana</em> is more significant than <em>Sphatika bhasma pratisarana</em> in the management of <em>Tundikeri</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Tundikeri</em>, Tonsillitis, <em>Tankana</em>, Borax, <em>Sphatika</em>, <em>Alum</em>, <em>Madhu</em>, <em>Pratisarana </em></p> Itishree Sahoo, Sanjay S More, Vinod Jadhav, Sujit Dalai, Manoj Sahoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Evolocumab in treatment of acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia <p>Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common emergency resulting from inflammation of the pancreas. The mechanism involves premature activation of enzyme precursors in the acinar cells triggering a self-digestive inflammatory cascade.&nbsp; Hypertriglyceridemia is the most common etiology of pancreatitis after gall stones and alcohol.&nbsp; It usually follows a sudden surge such as diabetic ketoacidosis on top of hereditary hyperlipidemia.&nbsp; In the present case report; we describe a patient with type-I diabetes mellitus who had developed recurrent attacks of hypertriglyceridemia AP (HTG-AP) despite Fenfibrate-therapy and report on our experience with Evolocumab in his treatment and prophylaxis.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, pancreatitis, prophylaxis, treatment.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid, Shaikha Al-Bader, Zhaneta Markova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Bio-Analytical Method Development of Repaglinide Drug Delivery Systems <p>A sensitive, specific and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy method was developed and successfully validated to estimate the repaglinide in rabbit plasma. The solvent extraction method was used for&nbsp; repaglinide from serum by using ethyl acetate and 0.1N HCl. The mobile phase consists of acetonitrile: phosphate buffer pH 4.0 at 60:40 %v/v with 1% triethylamine at flow rate of 0.8ml/min and at fixed wavelength of 254nm. On ten minutes of run time, repaglinide was retention at 7.4min. The extraction efficiency 95% for repaglinide. The intra-day and inter-day precision was in the terms of %RSD less than 1.76%. The developed method was validated and proposed method is useful for pharmacokinetics studies.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Anti-diabetics, HPLC,Methanol,Phosphate buffer, Repaglinide</p> B. Ramu, Kaushal K Chandrul, P. Shanmuga Pandiyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Formulation Development of Porous Mannitol carrier: Improving the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs <p>Major challenges in the design of oral dosage forms are their low solubility and low bioavailability. Improving the dissolution of these oral dosage forms are one of the most challenging tasks for the formulation scientists as most of the drug candidates are highly lipophilic in nature. Telmisartan&nbsp;and Ezetimibe belongs to the <em>BCS </em>class II, having high lipophilicity, poor water solubility and poor dissolution. The objective of this work was to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs by using porous carrier drug delivery system. Templating based spray drying methodology was used to prepare porous mannitol. Drug (Telmisartan, Ezetimibe) loaded porous mannitol carriers then characterized by <em>P-XRD, DSC, SEM, BET</em> surface area analysis and <em>ATR-FTIR. ATR-FTIR</em> studies showed complete removal of templating agent from carrier.<em> P-XRD</em> and <em>DSC</em> studies confirmed nano- confinement of drug in crystalline form. <em>In vitro</em> dissolution study results indicated that porous mannitol prepared using tartaric acid as templating agent showed significant improvement in dissolution rate than pure drugs and respective physical mixtures .These results suggest that, these porous carriers can be useful as drug carriers for improving the dissolution of lipophilic drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Templating agent, Spray drying, Mannitol, Surface area, Tartaric acid.</p> Sharmila Shah, Roshan Bodhe, Ashish Gorle ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Caralluma Acutangula (Decne.) N.E.Br Extracts, a Medicinal Plant from Burkina Faso <p>Plants have always played an important role in health care in Africa. The stress, a situation of imbalance between oxidizing and antioxidant systems in favor of the prooxidants is responsible for the installation of several pathologies such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes ... The objective of this study was to highlight the presence Secondary metabolites in <em>C. acutangula</em> extract and determine its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential.</p> <p>For the determination of the acute toxicity of the extract, a dose of 2000 mg / kg was administered to the NMRI Mouse. The methods of screening were used to detect secondary metabolites like tannins, steroids and terpen, flavonoids, coumarins. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated in vitro by determining the ability of the extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, degradation of deoxyribose. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated on lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase. Acute toxicity evaluated in NMRI mice showed that the ethanolic extract of <em>C. acutangula</em> show no toxicity. Tannins, steroids and terpen, flavonoids, coumarins have been detected in the extracts. <em>C. acutangula</em> showed good activity with an inhibition of 50.71 ± 2.51% at 100 μg / ml on lipid peroxidation, of 66.105 ± 1.26% on deoxyribose degradation and 8.625 ± 1.09% on hydrogen peroxide. It showed good activity on xanthine oxidase with an 81.5 ± 5.5% inhibition. For the effect on lipoxygenase it gave an inhibition of the enzyme at 43.11 ± 3.4%. This potential could be used in the fight against inflammatory diseases and that due to oxidative stress.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation</p> Pare Dramane, N’do Jotham Yhi-pênê, Hilou Adama ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Detection of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism (C677T) In Sudanese Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia <p>Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a kind of cancer that affects the white blood cells and resort to progress slowly through many years. It’s occur at any age, but is most common in older (60-65 years) of age. This is a cross sectional study aimed to detect MTHFR gene polymorphism (C677T) among Sudanese patients diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia and conducted at the research laboratory of the national center of neurological sciences (NCNS), Khartoum, Sudan.50 patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) diagnosed as BCR-ABL positive by RT-PCR used as a cases and 50 apparently healthy individuals as a control. A 5 ml of blood samples were collected in EDTA anticoagulant container for DNA Extraction and white blood cells count, hemoglobin level and platelets count. Genotyping of the MTHFR was carried out using PCR technique and the SNP (C677T) confirmed by sequencing a subset of samples. The results were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. The results showed; the most affected age group in the patients was 51-60 years followed by 41-50 years which constituted 32% and 30%, respectively. The hematological findings revealed that, the mean of TWBCs was 47.4, HB was 11.9 for patients, 7.2 and 14.1 respectively for control group (P = 0.000). PLT was 313.5 for patients and 287.5 for control group (P = 0.187). MTHFR gene was detected in the all patients (198pb) by the PCR, Sequence results were aligned with the reference sequence of MTHFR gene, the polymorphic C &gt;T was found to be matched with the registered mutation in NCBI data base. This study provides the first evidence for associations of MTHFR gene polymorphism with the risk of chronic myeloid leukemia in Sudanese patients. The C &gt;T genotype of the rs 677 polymorphism in MTHFR gene may have a promoting effect on chronic myeloid leukemia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), DNA, PCR, RT-PCR, MTHFR</p> Negood Abdelhameed Osman, Alsadig Gassoum, Sanabel Alhussien Ahmed, Nihad Elsadig Babiker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 HPTLC method development and validation of stigmasterol from different extracts of Tagetes erecta and Capsicum annuum <p>A new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of stigmasterol was developed and validated for the determination of stigmasterol in different extracts. A new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of stigmasterol was developed and validated for the determination of stigmasterol in different extracts. Analysis of stigmasterol was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. Linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase consisting of Hexane : Acetone (8:2 v/v) at room temperature. (25 °C ± 2 °C) Camag TLC scanner III was used for spectrodensitometric scanning and analysis in absorbance mode at 490nm. The system was found to give compact spots for stigmasterol. (<em>R</em><sub>f </sub>value of 0.44 ± 0.02) The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with <em>r<sup>2</sup> </em>=0.9997 ± 0.0002 in the concentration range 200-1200 ng spot<sup>−1 </sup>with respect to peak area. According to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines the method was validated for precision, recovery and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of stigmasterol.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Tagetes erecta, Capsicum annuum</em>, stigmasterol, HPTLC, method validation</p> Mohal Lal, Aboli Kadam, Aishwarya S. Padole ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A Novel Derivatization Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Amlodipine Besylate Using Benzoyl Chloride <p>The present research work aims to develop a novel ultraviolet UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of Amlodipine Besylate using Benzoyl Chloride as a derivatizing agent, which is simple, rapid, sensitive, selective, and accurate method for the spectrophotometric determination of Amlodipine Besylate in powder form. &nbsp;Synthesis is based upon the Schotten Baumann Reaction. In this method, derivatization of aliphatic amine group of Amlodipine Besylate carried out with benzoyl chloride and aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH).The λmax was found to be 237 and 226nm for assay of Amlodipine Besylate and synthesised product respectively. The linearity was found in concentration range of 1-10 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient (r<sup>2</sup>)was found 0.9985. The regression equation, intercept (a) and slope (b) was found as Y=0.0762x - 0.0077, 0.0077 and 0.0762 respectively. Method was developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, interday and intraday. The LOD and LOQ for estimation of Amlodipine besylate were found as 0.2367, 0.7178 respectively. Recovery of Amlodipine besylate was found to be 93.30%.The proposed method is found to be simple, rapid, selective and highly sensitive than most of the Spectrophotometric methods available in literature.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Derivatization, Ultraviolet spectrophotometry, Amlodipine besylate, Validation, Synthesis.</p> M. Siddik N Patel, Siraj N Shaikh, Mo. Javed A Khan, N. I. Deshmukh, MD Shoeb A Khan, usama Z Kazi, Siddique J Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Nov 2019 11:40:32 -0600 An Overview : Natural Bio-enhancer’s in Formulation Development <p>Bioenhancers are chemical entities that are obtained from synthetic as well as natural sources. They are mainly used in formulation development to enhance the bioavailability of poorly solubilized drug molecule. The ideal characteristic of bioenhancers includes inertness, nontoxic, cost effective and decrease the dose of active constituents. There are lots of natural bioenhancers available such as piperine quercetin niaziridin, genistein, glycrrhyzin, curcumin. The review focus on plant based bioenhancers and their active principle that produces those effects. There is a need of extensive study on natural bioenhancers which can be utilized in formulation development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> bioenhancer, bioavailability, piperine, curcumin</p> Chander Pal Singh Verma, Santosh Verma, Mahendra Singh Ashawat, Vinay Pandit ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A Review on Mouth Dissolving Film <p>Mouth dissolving film is the most advanced oral solid dosage form due to its flexibility and comfort in use. Mouth dissolving films are oral solid dosage form that disintegrate and dissolve within a minute when placed in mouth without taking water or chewing. This dosage form allows the medication to bypass the first pass metabolism so bioavailability of medication may be improved .Mouth dissolving film has potential to improve onset of action lower the dosing and eliminate the fear of chocking. Formulation of mouth dissolving films involves both the visual and performance characteristics as plasticized hydrocolloids, API taste masking agents are being laminated by solvent casting and semisolid casting method. Solvent casting method being the most preferred method over other methods because it offers great uniformity of thickness and films prepared having fine glossy look and better physical properties. Mouth dissolving films are evaluated for its various parameters like thickness, physical property like folding endurance, disintegration and dissolution time. This review gives an idea about formulation techniques, evaluation parameters, overview on packaging and some available marketed products of mouth dissolving films.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Mouth dissolving film, solvent casting, fast disintegration</p> Rajat Pawar, Ravi Sharma, Pravin Sharma, G.N. Darwhekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 15 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0600