Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> The Effect of Meditation in Insomnia due to Stress: A Case Study <p><em>Meditation</em> is the seventh of the eight limbs of <em>Yoga</em> in <em>Patanjali</em>'s <em>Yoga</em> Sutras, is also called as <em>Dhyana</em>. <em>Meditation</em> is the process of quieting the mind in order to spend time in thought for relaxation or spiritual purposes. Insomnia is a sleep disorder that regularly affects millions of people worldwide due to stress. Causes of insomnia include psychological factors, medications and hormone levels. <em>Yoga aasanas, Pranayama</em> and meditation are commonly using to manage stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of meditation in a patient suffering from insomnia due to stress. A case study was carried out in District Ayurveda Hospital - Mullaitivu. A 65 years old female patient came to the Out-patient Department for sleep disturbance. During the interrogation, found that she was in stress. Meditation technique was demonstrated and advised to visit to the clinic alternative days for 2 weeks. The technique was applied for 30 minutes and she felt calm, relax and sleepiness during the procedure. She advised to do regularly in night times. The patient was relived 50% of stress and could be able sleep well after 2 weeks. According to this study Meditation is good for stress management and can be suggested to the patients who have insomnia due to stress. Further study should be made on large study population, control study and standard meditation protocol for confirmation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Yogic Meditation, insomnia, stress</p> Krishna Sujeethasai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 1 3 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4065 Acute toxicity of Aristolochia longa L. of aqueous extract in mice <p><em>Aristolochia longa</em> L. (<em>Aristolochiaceae</em>) is widely used to treat breast cancer in Algerian traditional medicine. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ingestion of aqueous extracts of different parts of the plant on liver and kidney functions in wistar albinos mice. Acute oral toxicity was performed to determine DL<sub>50</sub>, this toxicity was carried out by the oral administration in single doses of 0–12 g/kg for tubers aqueous extracts and 2 g/kg and 5 g/kg for aerial and fruit aqueous extract respectively.&nbsp; General behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to 14 days. The animals were sacrificed and biochemical study was done. The acute oral toxicity result revealed that LD50 of the tubers and fruit aqueous extracts was respectively more than 12 g/kg and 5 g/kg, but DL<sub>50 </sub>of the aerial aqueous extract was at 5 g/kg. The result revealed also that liver and kidney function of different groups receiving high doses was affected as ASAT, ALAT, Urea, creatinine was significantly increased as compared to control group. Histological examination showed alterations of the renal parenchyma and the liver which is greater in animals treated with high dose. Thus, caution should be exercised with its usage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Acute toxicity, Biochemical parameters, Histological examination<em> Aristolochia longa </em>L.</p> Nawel Merouani Rachid Belhattab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 4 10 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4055 Efficient Enhancement in Itraconazole Solubility through its Cyclodextrin-Water Soluble Polymer Ternary Inclusion Complexes <p>The aim of this work is the enhancement of the hydrosolubility behaviour of a poorly soluble, weakly basic drug, using itraconazole (ITZ) as a case example. Binary inclusion complexes of ITZ with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) are prepared in 1:2 molar ratios of ITZ to β-CD by co-evaporation method. Both solubility and dissolution behaviour are compared with that of the pure drug. Ternary complexes can be obtained by adding the polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) which is a highly water soluble polymer, in the ITZ/ β-CD complex formation. Actually, Solid state analysis is performed for all formulations and for pure ITZ applying the Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (pX-RD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Solubility tests indicate that with all formulation, the solubility of ITZ formed with β-CD or β-CD and PVP proved to be increased. The obtained results show that the pure drug has a poor dissolution property, and the ternary inclusion complexes resulted in fast and extensive release of ITZ.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Itraconazole, β-cyclodextrin, polyvinylpyrrolidone.</p> Dounia SID Milad BAITICHE Zineb ELBAHRI Ferhat DJERBOUA Sabrine MESSALTI Mokhtar BOUTAHALA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 11 14 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4046 A Herb-drug interaction study: Screen the inhibitory effects of Insulin plant extract on rat liver CYP2D6 isoenzyme upon concurrent administration of Aripiprazole <p>Aripiprazole belongs to the atypical antipsychotic category of drug. Cytochrome2D6 (CYP2D6) is one of the prominent enzymes that play a key role in the metabolism of Aripiprazole and further formation of an active metabolite, Dehydroaripiprazole takes place. Patients under the treatment with this potent moiety have been reported with the high blood glucose level as a side effect. In addition to this, literature suggests that the leaves of Insulin plant (<em>Costus igneus</em>) are usually administered by diabetic patients (2-3 times) to manage the sugar level without concerning to the physicians. There might be probability while concurrent administration of (Aripiprazole and Insulin plant leaves), leaves inhibit the enzyme and ultimately Dehydroaripiprazole exhibit poor pharmacological action. Hence, the present work was done to investigate the inhibitory effect of Insulin plant extract (IPE) on CYP2D6, with the co-administration of Aripiprazole (to examine the changes in a metabolite of Aripiprazole). In order to carry out this protocol firstly, IPE was prepared by the successive extraction method. Methanolic extract of Insulin plant was found enriched with the Quercetin, which was used as a marker to carry out this study. Presence of Quercetin was confirmed with the Ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical methods. Characterization of Aripiprazole was done with the help of different analytical tools such as: HPLC, melting point, and UV. Aripiprazole alone and with the several dilutions of IPE were incubated using isolated rat liver microsome (RLM) and analyzed using HPLC. HPLC data demonstrated that the, mixture of IPE+Aripiprazole (herb and drug in liver microsomes), in comparison to Aripiprazole+RLM (alone drug in liver microsomes) has not shown any significant inhibition of the enzyme, and inhibitory concentration (IC50) value found to be 4.49µg/ml. Therefore this study concluded that IPE has shown safe results even at the highest clinical dose after oral administration i.e., 20-1000µg/ml and did not show any significant CYP2D6 inhibition. Nevertheless, to confirm these observations, inclusion of <em>in vivo </em>studies will be advantageous. As per our knowledge, this is the first attempt made on the detection of Herb- Drug interactions (HDI’S) between Insulin plant and Aripiprazole.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Harshita Gupta Bhagyashree Kamble ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 15 23 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3976 Utilization pattern of antibiotics and drug related problems in the orthopedic department at a tertiary care hospital: a prospective study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Antibiotics are generally prescribed for both prophylactically and to treat ongoing infections in the orthopedic department. Assessment of prescribing pattern at regular interval is essential to avoid inappropriate use of drugs.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To know the utilization pattern of antibiotics and drug related problems like adverse drug reactions (ADR) and drug-drug interactions (DDI) in hospitalized patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted among hospitalized patients using WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) methodology for one month duration in orthopedic department at a tertiary hospital. Standard data collection forms were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 196, most of patients (72.96%) were male and most of patients (34.69%) were from the age group 21-30 years. A total of 782 drugs were prescribed during study period and among them 262 were antibiotics. None of the drugs were prescribed in generic name. Ceftriaxone (33.58%) was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Average cost of drug therapy per patient was NPR 3125.7. DDD/100 bed-days were highest for Cefixime (27.9).&nbsp; A total of 233 ADRs were suspected in 64 patients (32.6%). Thrombophlebitis (26.2%) was the commonest ADR. Potential DDI were found in 51 patients (26.02%). The most common interacting pairs were Cefuroxime and Rabeprazole (15 encounters).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Generic prescribing is urgently needed for cost minimization. The prevalence rate of ADR occurrence and DDI was high. The study finding benefits the hospital policy makers to formulate and address policies for rational use of antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Adverse Drug Reactions; Antibiotics; Cost; Drug Utilization; Drug-Drug interaction</p> Dinesh Kumar Yadav Kadir Alam Anil Kumar Sah Deependra Prasad Sarraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 24 30 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4056 Assessment of In Vitro Antidiabetic Potential of Purified Anthocyanin Extract from Floral Petals of Wild Balsam Species <ol> <li> <p>Diabetes is a notorious and growing clinical and public health issue. The International Diabetes Federation assumes that 592 million had diabetes by 2035 and that by 2040 the number will increase to 642 million. Cardiovascular&nbsp;<a href="">corollary</a>&nbsp;accounts for four million deaths annually attributable to diabetes. Evidence reveals that certain glucose-lowering phytochemicals can improve vascular outcomes with type 2 diabetes, which, together with better understanding of using multiple therapies concurrently, offers opportunities for beneficial personalization of medication regimens. Anthocyanins are coloured pigments and are natural antioxidants. Keeping this in focus, this study was undertaken to evaluate the <em>in vitro</em> antidiabetic activity in the petals of wild <em>Impatiens balsamina</em> L. The anthocyanin was extracted from floral petals of wild balsam species and purified to homogeneity using chromatographic techniques. Evaluation of <em>in vitro</em> antidiabetic properties of anthocyanin extract revealed a dose-dependent increase in the inhibitory effect on the alpha-glucosidase (200 μg/ml) and alpha-amylase enzymes (500 μg/ml) and was comparable with the standard acarbose drug (189 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml). These results indicated that anthocyanin could be used as a source of functional food and nutraceuticals. This information from wild species will be useful in finding more potent antidiabetic principle from the natural resources for the clinical development of antidiabetic therapeutics. Future studies are planned to substantiate the antidiabetic power of anthocyanin using <em>in vivo</em> animal models.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;Alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase, diabetes, herbal remedies, <em>Impatiens balsamina</em> L.</p> </li> </ol> R ARATHY K MURUGAN KV DINESH BABU GS MANOJ ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 31 35 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4050 A Prospective Observational Study on Rational Use of Antibiotics for Paediatric Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Antibiotic drug overuse and inappropriate antibiotic drug selection are associated with increased drug resistance among respiratory pathogens (most notably, Streptococcus pneumoniae), possible progression to chronic disease, and increased treatment costs<sup>.[1]</sup> The selection of an antibiotic for prophylaxis should be based on known or likely target pathogens, for a short duration of time.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate Rational use of antibiotics in Paediatric patients suffering from Respiratory tract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; infections.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> It was Prospective, observational study conducted by random selection of patients. Based on diagnosis, the study population was categorized into 2 groups: Upper respiratory tract infections and Lower respiratory tract infections. The study population was interviewed after obtaining written informed consent for information like demographics, diagnosis, treatment and antibiotics prescribed.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> In our study population, it was observed that male patient (74%) were higher than female patients (26%). Total number of antibiotics prescribed during the study period is 83. Most commonly prescribed antibiotic was Augmentin (Amoxicillin +Clavulanic acid) of dose (450mg IV BD) which is the combination drug, i.e, more effective than individual antibiotic drugs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In the present study it is observed that 4-different classes of antibiotics-Pencillins,Cephalosporins,Macrolides and Aminoglycosides were prescribed and used for different Respiratory diseases.The percentage of average antibiotic utilization is highest in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection with (55.22%).Mostly used Antibiotic in males for both LRTI and URTI is Augmentin with the percentage of (52%) and (80%) respectively.Where as in females it is observed that in both LRTI and URTI mostly used Antibiotic is Augmentin with percentage of (38.8%) and( 80%) respectively.Overall Second mostly used antibiotic is Ceftriaxone.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> pediatrics, lower and upper respiratory tract infections, antibiotics.&nbsp;</p> Syeda Zaineb Kubra Hussaini G. Tulja Rani Dr. Murthy Sathish Kumar Shravya Dyavarishetty Cherala Laxmi Prasanna Goli Praneeth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 36 41 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4051 Prescription Pattern Analysis of Type II Diabetes Mellitus Inpatients and Associated Co-Morbidities <p><strong>Background</strong>: The present study was planned to assess the prescription pattern analysis of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and associated co-morbidities. As per WHO, the worldwide prevalence of DM will reach 366 million by 2030. Evaluating drug prescription pattern is a major aspect of patient care, which is used as a measure of the quality of care provided. <strong>Objectives</strong>: Primary objectives of the study were to highlight the current prescription pattern trends in patients having diabetes mellitus with or without other co-morbid conditions, to ensure safety and rational use of prescribed regimen. And the secondary objectives of the study were to analyse the demographic information of the enrolled patients and also to identify and analyse the prescriptions with polypharmacy. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A prospective observational study was conducted to analyse the prescribing pattern of anti-diabetic drugs. The study incorporated 100 Type II DM inpatients having comorbid conditions. The study has been conducted with the help of WHO prescribing indicator scale. It is used to analyse drug class, generic and branded drugs, fixed dose combination and dosage form. Patient data was collected and medical data records were analysed daily till discharge from hospital. <strong>Results</strong>: It was found that most of the drugs have been prescribed are purely from Karnataka Essential Medicine list (KEML). And percentages of medicines prescribed on their generic name were 76%. About 51% of patients were treated only with oral hypoglycemic agents. Whereas, 38% were treated with Insulin and 11% were treated with both oral hypoglycemic agents and Insulin. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Improved rational use of prescription by using Essential Medicine List (EML).And also ensured the appropriateness of prescription by using WHO scale. Several Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR)have been reported and which leads to improved&nbsp; prescription pattern.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Type II Diabetes Mellitus, Prescribing Indicator, Co-Morbidities.</p> Purnima Ashok Vijesh Thollur Subrahmanian Rinju Raj Rahul Rajendra Babu Ramshad T. P. Kevin L. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 42 47 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3977 Modulatory Effects of Honey on Gastric Acidity and Plasma Postprandial Bicarbonate in Wistar Rats <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Honey is a naturally occurring sweet substance of plant origin composed mainly of fructose, glucose, water, antioxidants and other constituents. Its enormous constituents confer it with medicinal and nutritive usefulness.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess the modulatory effects of honey on gastric acidity and plasma postprandial bicarbonate in wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A total of 24 male wistar rats weighing 200-250g were divided into four groups of six rats each; Group I served as control, Group II received 50% Honey (10ml/kg), Group III received omeprazole (20mg/kg) and Group IV received a combination of Omeprazole and Honey. The pH of gastric effluents in each rat was measured 15, 30 and 45mins using a pH meter after administration of the respective substances in each group.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion: </strong>Both honey and omeprazole respectively caused significant increases in the pH of gastric effluents, however, while that of honey was slow and steady, that of omeprazole was sharp and sustained. The 45-min pH level of omeprazole group was significantly higher than that of honey group. The combined group showed an initial sharp rise similar to omeprazole alone but gradually declined in the succeeding time interval. A combination of omeprazole and honey resulted in 27% reduction in the postprandial serum bicarbonate whereas omeprazole alone caused 41% reduction</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concludes that honey modulated gastric pH to levels possibly favourable to gastric function by either a direct action of reducing gastric acidity or acting as an antacid or both. Honey therefore could be described as a buffer in omeprazole stimulated gastric acid inhibition and a potential antacid.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Honey, Gastric acidity, Gastric pH, bicarbonate.</em></p> Uchechukwu Ifeanyichukwu Apugo Onyebuchi Obia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 48 50 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3978 Formulation and Evaluation of Protein Bound Paclitaxel Nanoparticles for Injectable Suspension <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of present study is to develop Paclitaxel nanoparticles for injectable suspension, an anti-neoplastic drug formulation.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong>&nbsp; Mention the design of the study here.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Sagar Institute of Research &amp; Technology- Pharmacy, Ayodhya Bypass Road, Bhopal, between June 2017 and June2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in the human blood with a half-life of 19 days. It can reversibly bind hydrophobic drug substances, transport them in the body and release drugs at cell surface. The formulation is prepared by homogenization at high-pressure of paclitaxel in the presence of human serum albumin into a nanoparticle colloidal suspension. Paclitaxel nano particles have been stabilized by human albumin and maintain the average size of 100&nbsp;nm</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The particle size of the reconstituted solution is checked using the laser diffraction Technique the particle is White to yellow lyophilized after reconstitution the particle become homogeneous milky suspension without visible particulates. Reconstitution time NMT 25 minutes 20.45 sec. The assay was performed by HPLC and found to be 90.0% to 110.0% of label. The retention time of Paclitaxel peak obtained in sample corresponds to the respective standards obtained from standards the pH NLT 6.00 to NMT 8.00 Particle size NLT 100 nm – NMT 200 nm. Sterility test was comply as per USP &lt;71&gt;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The nano-delivery systems could have the potential to be free of Cremophor EL and ethanol, enhance Paclitaxel solubility, improve Paclitaxel pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo, decrease its side effects, passively or actively target to tumor sites due to the EPR (Enhanced Permeability and Retention) effect and the use of targeting ligands, respectively, nanotechnology is a very active research area in both academic and industrial settings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>paclitaxel, Anti-cancer, nanotechnology, Injectable, Suspension</p> Surendra Kumar Jain Suchi Thakur Ruchi Jain Nilesh Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 51 57 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3979 Preparation and Evaluation of Chewable Tablets of Syzygium cumini Seed Powder <p>Aim of this study is to develop chewable tablets of <em>Syzygium cumini</em> seed powder. It has been chosen to do so as there are no oral solid dosage forms of this seed powder developed so far. There are numerous health benefits and nutrient properties of this seed powder, thus it can be used as a nutraceutical. Phytochemical screening of the <em>Syzygium cumini</em> seed powder has been conducted and the various phyto constituents present were detected. Seven different formulations have been developed by direct compression method out of which five were optimized. All these formulations were developed with <em>Syzygium cumini</em> seed powder as the active ingredient and lactose, acacia, glucose, talc, magnesium stearate, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, sodium alginate, guar gum and stevia were used as excipients. Various evaluations tests were performed to check the stability of the chewable tablets. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was conducted to check the interactions among the seed powder and the excipients. Anti-bacterial activity of the chewable tablets was tested against three different species of bacteria (<em>Escherichia coli </em>and<em> Bacillus subtilis</em>) by agar diffusion method. It is concluded that the <em>Syzygium cumini</em> seed powder and the developed chewable tablets were active against <em>Escherichia coli </em>and<em> Bacillus subtilis. </em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Syzygium cumini, </em>Chewable tablet, anti-bacterial activity</p> Sushesh Srivatsa Palakurthi Deeksha Jakka Harpreeth Singh Sahithi Bollavaram Sininandini B Durga Nitya Pinnamraju Abbulu Konde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 58 64 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4069 Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of Banana Starch Tartrate and its Application as Disintegrant in Telmisartan Tablets <p>The present investigation was aimed to isolate banana starch (BS), synthesis of banana starch tartrate (BST), characterization, and application as a novel disintegrant in telmisartan tablets. Starch tartrate was synthesized by the esterification process by the treatment of tartaric acid on the backbone of the BS. Synthesized BST was found to be fine, slightly free-flowing and crystalline powder. The synthesized BST was subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and micrometric evaluation. Flow properties of BS and BST were determined as an angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, etc. BST exhibited good swelling properties and showed no gelling at 100°C but it was transformed into a clear solution. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) did not show the presence of any significant interaction between BST and Telmisartan(T). The direct compression technique was employed in formulating telmisartan tablets using BST sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone as a disintegrant.&nbsp; Tablets were comparatively evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and disintegration. The tablets formulated using BS and BST passed prescribed evaluation tests for weight variation, friability, hardness, and thickness. The tablets formulated using BST as disintegrant gave optimum disintegration compared to those tablets containing sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone sodium super disintegrants. Evaluations indicated that synthesized BST shows qualitatively and quantitatively good disintegration characteristics in comparison to super disintegrants in telmisartan tablet formulation. These results suggest that the synthesized BST could be used as a novel semi-synthetic disintegrant in dispersible tablet formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Banana Starch, Banana Starch tartrate, Telmisartan, Superdisintegrant</p> Abhijeet Vishnu Puri Prakash D. Khandagale Ankita U. Tiwari Rekhadevi H. Chaudhary Sonam B. Kartan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 65 72 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4089 Quality of Life Assessment of Hypertensive Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Jaipur <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is the well-known risk factor for mortality and morbidity. About 7.1 million population worldwide dies each year due to cause of hypertension. It directly effects persons quality of life.&nbsp; <strong>Methods: </strong>Total number of 128 Hypertension diagnosed Patient’s data were collected under this study who were admitted to the General Medicine wards of tertiary care teaching hospital. WHO BREF questionnaires were given and filled forms by patients were collected. <strong>Result: </strong>In physical health 42 Patients are with excellent health, 81 Patients are fall under the moderate health and 5 Patients are with poor physical health status. In psychological assessment 36 Patients are with excellent health 83 Patients are fall under the moderate health and 9 Patients are with poor physical health status. In Social relation, 15 Patients are with excellent health, 98 Patients are fall under the moderate health, and 15 Patients are with poor physical health status. In environmental assessment, 57 Patients are with excellent health, 41 Patients are fall under the moderate health and 31 Patients are with poor physical health status. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has shown overall moderate QOL with mean 3.25 and SD 0.63 among hypertensive patients according all four domains. Physical activities and marital status were important independent factors affecting both domains in QOL. Older age was associated with lower QOL in physical health. Presence of co-morbidity in hypertension patients are an important health issue influencing their satisfaction in physical health. Interventions targeted towards improving QOL of disadvantage patients are needed in the setting.</p> <p><strong>Keywords- </strong>Mental Health Assessment, WHO BREF, Quality of Life, Hypertension.</p> Kushagra Sharma Nikhil Mishra Ranjeet Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 73 75 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4074 Effect of Granulation Methods on Drug Release Studies in Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of a Poorly Soluble Drug prepared using Synthetic Polymers <p>Vomiting or emesis is the abnormal emptying of stomach and upper part of intestine through esophagus and mouth. It occurs due to stimulation of the emetic (vomiting) centre situated in the medulla oblongata. Domperidone, a D<sub>2</sub> receptor antagonist has antiemetic and prokinetic action is used as a model drug in the present work to prepare Sustained release matrix tablets using various synthetic polymers like Eudragit and HPMC K15 M. The tablets are designed to have a pH dependent release profile in order to prevent initial drug release in the stomach to reduce the possible gastro-irritant and ulcerogenic effects of the drug. Different polymer and diluent concentrations and various compression techniques like wet granulation technique and direct compression techniques were used in order to release the contents of the tablets in a sustained manner over a certain period of time. Domperidone is BCS Class II drug and its solubility was enhanced by preparing solid dispersions using solvent evaporation technique. In the present work solid dispersions containing drug and polymer mixture in the ratio 1:1 was further formulated into tablets by incorporating various synthetic polymers in three different concentrations. The tablets were prepared using different granulating techniques. Formulation (F3) containing drug and&nbsp; polymers in the ratio 1:1 prepared by wet granulation technique could sustain the drug release over a period of 12h and hence considering all the post compression parameters it was optimized as the better formulation. FTIR, DSC, X-Ray Diffraction, SEM studies were performed for optimized solid dispersion mixture and also the optimized formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Solubility enhancement, Solid dispersions, Solvent Evaporation, Wet granulation, Direct Compression.</p> Lakshmi usha Ayalasomayajula E. Radha Rani A.V.S. Ksheera Bhavani A. Vyasa Murty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 76 82 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4073 Comparative Study of Chitosan and Carboxy Methyl Chitosan Nanoparticles in Mefenamic Acid Drug Delivery <p>Nanoparticle based technologies improve the efficiency and speed of already existing processes.The larger size materials and reagents which are in reactive form, can be nanosized to give efficient output. Chitosan and the carboxy methyl chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by using solvent evaporation nanoprecpitation method, loaded with mefenamic acid, (anthranilic acid derivative) a poorly aqueous soluble drug. Mefenamic acid, if used as conventional dosage form, duration of action was 6 hours; when the drug loaded into Chitosan and the carboxy methyl chitosan nanoparticles the drug release profile was up to 26hrs. The particle size, entrapment efficiency, poly dispersity index, drug loading, drug release profiles of mefenamic acid were compared for both nanoparticles and it was observed that carboxy methyl chitosan nanoparticles released mefenamic acid more effectively than chitosan nanoparticles.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nanoparticles, Chitosan, Carboxy methyl chitosan, Mefenamic acid</p> Parankusham Vedavahini Chintha Sailu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 83 96 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3980 Anti-Inflammatulatory Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Bark Extracts of Piliostigma reticulatum Hochst (Caesalpiniaceae) and Analysis by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS of its Methanol Fraction <p>Use of plants as remedies dates back to the time of the oldest civilizations. Among these active ingredients, polyphenols play an important role. <em>Piliostigma reticulatum</em>, a plant whose barks are rich in condensed tannin is often used as an anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this work was to correlate the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts with their chemical composition through chromatography fractionation analyses (HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS)<strong>. </strong>The barks were extracted by moderate hydroethanol decoction followed by silica gel splitting with successively ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the method of carrageenan induced hind paw edema in Wistar rats. &nbsp;The chemical study was carried out by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS after isolation of the compounds by fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 gel. The bark hydroethanolic extract had shown ability to inhibit significantly the inflammation induced by carraghenan. Among the hydroethanolic bark extract fractions that methanol fraction had the best activity at 10 mg/kg with inhibition percentages similar to those of acetylsalicylic acid with 48.51% ± 2.26; 54.71% ± 5.13; 64.19% ± 6.70 vs. 54.69% ± 7.23; 57.83% ± 9; 65.13% ± 8.44 respectively. The HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the SF5 sub-fraction presented the best chromatogram with several peaks, three of which were high intensity. The latter would correspond to monomer, dimer and trimer of catechin according to the weights [M-H] + m / z: 291.07; 579.18; 867.27 obtained by HPLC-MS. The compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory activity would be condensed tannins. The latter would consist mainly of catechin oligomers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Keys words:</strong> <em>Piliostigma reticulatum, bark, a</em>nti-inflammatory activity, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS</p> Serigne Ibra Mbacke Dieng Céline Mathieu Madièye Séne kady Badji-Diatta Abdou Sarr Alioune Dior Fall ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 97 106 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4058 Antihyperglycemic activity of total extract and fractions of Anogeissus leiocarpus <p><em>Anogeissus leiocarpus </em>(Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant used by traditional practitioners to treat people living with diabetes mellitus in Togo. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the plant. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of <em>A. leiocarpus</em> roots was evaluated on hyperglycemic mice by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and on normoglycemic mice. The effect of the total extract and fractions was also measured on the adsorption and absorption of glucose respectively <em>in vitro</em> and <em>ex vivo.</em> At 30 minutes after glucose overload, the total extract and all fractions (supernatant and pellet) significantly (p&lt; 0.0001) reduced hyperglycemia compared to controls. However, this reduction in hyperglycemia was greater in mice treated with the supernatant fraction at 100<sup>-1</sup> during 180 minutes (p &lt; 0.01). In our conditions, the extract at the 500<sup>-1</sup> of the total extract in normoglycemic mice did not significantly decrease (p&gt;0.05) basal blood glucose levels compared to controls.<em> In vitro</em>, the extract and fractions of <em>A. leiocarpus </em>adsorbed glucose and inhibited glucose intestinal absorption <em>ex vivo. </em>The results of this study support the use of <em>A. leiocarpus</em> as an antidiabetic plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>&nbsp;Anogeissus leiocarpus</em>- fractions- antihyperglycemic- adsorption – absorption.</p> Enam Aku MOTTO Povi Lawson-Evi Yendube Kantati Kwashie Eklu-Gadegbeku Kodjo Aklikokou Messanvi Gbeassor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 107 113 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4078 Phytochemical, HPLC and FTIR Analysis of Methanolic Extract from Gracilaria dura (C Agardh) J Agardh. <p>Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds. They are also rich in novel biomolecules and can be explored for the development of drugs to combat lifestyle diseases like cancer, diabetes etc. Red algae are known for their nutraceutical and functional importance. But there are a lot of limitations regarding their availability and in estimating which algal fractions are biologically active. Similarly, the mode of digestion of such compounds in human body is not yet properly traced. In this juncture,&nbsp;the present study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the red alga, <em>Gracilaria dura</em>. Methanolic extract of <em>G. dura </em>showed the presence of reducing sugar, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins and terpenoids. Further, the HPLC analysis was attempted to fractionate the polyphenolics. Various phenolic acids such as of gallic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydroxybenzoic, phloroglucinol, catechol and cinnamic acid were identified. Subsequently, the methanolic solvent extract of <em>G. dura</em> was subjected to fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of the functional groups. The results based on the spectral data of FTIR revealed the presence of aliphatic constituents containing alkanes, ketones, alkyl halides, hydroxyl groups etc. Thus, the observed finding envisages that methanolic extract of <em>G. dura</em> contained potential bioactive compounds which can be used for analysing the various biological activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Gracilaria dura</em>, Phytochemical, Methanolic extract, HPLC, FTIR</p> S S Sumayya A S Lubaina K Murugan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 114 118 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3996 Assessment of Self-Care Practices among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Secondary Care Teaching Hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes is one of the major health problems worldwide that can be effectively managed by good self-care activities like medication adherence, exercise, monitoring of blood glucose, foot care and diet.<strong> Objectives: </strong>The study assessed the self-care activities of diabetic patients using summary of diabetes self-care activities scale (SDSCA) and the variables (Age, gender, educational level, socioeconomic status (SES)) associated with it.<strong> Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken in 400 Type 2 diabetic patients. Self-care practices of the patients were evaluated by using SDSCA and correlation with variables were determined statistically. <strong>Results:</strong> Among 400 diabetic patients about 215 (53.75%) had an average score of self-care. Self-care was poor in 184 (46%) subjects, and only 1 subject (0.25%) scored good. Blood sugar monitoring was the highest (100%) followed by medication adherence (92.75%) whereas inadequate levels of self-care were reported in foot care (1.5%), and physical activity (31.5%) domains. A significant positive correlation was found between self-care practices and socio-demographic variables such as age (r=0.298, p=0.000), income (r=0.490, p=0.000) occupation (r=0.433, p=0.000), education (r=0.582, p=0.000), and Socio-Economic status (r=0.599, p=0.000). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study revealed higher level of adherence to self-care activities in terms of blood sugar monitoring and medication taking behaviour in the current setting, but self-care in other domains such as foot care is critically low. Age, education and Socio-Economic status seems to affect the self-care practice by the patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp; Diabetes, Diabetes self- care, Diabetic foot care, Summary of diabetes self-care activities (SDSCA) score.</p> Jeeba Chinnappan Athira KP Faheem Iqbal Jasna V Purnima Ashok Rini Susan Varghese ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 119 124 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4098 Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Extract from Pituranthos scoparius (Coss. & Dur.) Growing in Algeria <p>This study aims to estimate the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins contents then to investigate both in vitro antioxidant capacity models of aqueous extract (AqE) from the stems of <em>Pituranthos scoparius</em>, growing in Algeria. Total polyphenol contents were determined using Folin Ciocalteu's reagent; flavonoids were quantified employing the AlCl<sub>3</sub> and method tannins using haemoglobin precipitation test. The in vitro antioxidant property was assessed by DPPH-scavenging radical and lipid peroxidation assays. The results revealed that aqueous extract presented a high total phenolic and tannins contents with values of 150.89 ± 0.68 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g and 71.24 ± 0.09 mg TAE (tannic acid equivalent)/g dry extract, respectively. This extract show an essential effect toward DPPH-scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition with 96.19 ± 0.00 µg/mL, 91.53 ± 0.98 %, respectively. This study indicates that the aqueous extract from <em>Pituranthos sciparius</em> has potent antioxidant effects and may prove to be of latent health benefit as well as supplementary sources for natural antioxidants drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Pituranthos scoparius</em>, aqueous extract, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds.</p> Ahlem Karbab Kamel Mokhnache Lekhmici Arrar Noureddine Charef ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 125 127 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4096 In Vivo Antioxidant Potential of Protein Hydrolysates of some Cucurbitaceae Seed <p>Nowadays, dietary proteins play a very crucial role against oxidation, which is a fundamental process in the occurrence of many diseases.&nbsp; The aim of this study was to hydrolyze globulin fractions from <em>C. moschata</em> (CMH), <em>C. lanatus</em> (CLH) and <em>L. siceraria</em> (LSH), and to evaluate their <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant potential.&nbsp; The <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant potential was conducted using <em>in vivo</em> catalase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) assay methods. The total protein content was also estimated using Bio-Rad protein assay and bovine serum albumin methods. For <em>in vivo</em> study, ethanol was induced into test animals for toxicity and oxidative damage for 15 days. The catalase and LOP of serum / liver homogenate were determined. The results showed that globulin hydrolysates decrease the MDA level and increase the catalase level in normal mice. Based on these findings, this study provides information about <em>in vivo </em>antioxidant activities of <em>C. moschata</em>, <em>C. lanatus </em>and <em>L. siceraria</em> hydrolysates. Globulin hydrolysates of <em>L. siceraria </em>showed effective antioxidant properties <em>in vivo </em>models, whereas globulin hydrolysates of <em>C. moschata </em>and <em>C. lanatus </em>exhibited remarkable antioxidant properties, as well. Thus, the results suggest that globulin hydrolysates might be used as a novel source in reducing the risk of oxidative stressed diseases and development of functional foods.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> cucurbitaceae<strong>, </strong>globulin, antioxidant, trypsin</p> Priyanka Dash Goutam Rath Goutam Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 128 132 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4091 Fractionation, Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Different Sub-Fractions from Pituranthos scoparius Roots <p>The purpose of this study was to prepare three sub-fractions from <em>Pituranthos scoparius</em> roots (PSR), characterize their phytochemicals contents and to investigate their free radical scavenging activity by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl scavenging activities. Tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and other bioactive compounds were found in the different sub-fractions. The Ethyle acetate extract (EAE) and chloroform extract (ChE) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity using ABTS (17.8 ± 0.87 µg/mL and 18.15 ± 0.68 µg/mL), respectively. Whereas, Crude extract (CrE) have been presented strong hydroxyl scavenging activity (14.9 ± 0.8 µg/mL). This study indicates that PSR extracts has potent free radical scavenging, and may prove to be of potential health benefit as well as additional resources for natural antioxidants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Medicinal plant; phytochemical screening; sub-fractions, free radical scavenging.</p> Ahlem Karbab Kamel Mokhnache Lekhmici Arrar Abderahmane Baghiani Seddik Khennouf Noureddine Charef ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 133 136 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4100 Formulation and Evaluation of Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Loaded Alginate Microbeads <p>Multiple unit dosage forms such as microbeads have increased acceptance because of added even spreading of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract, unvarying drug absorption, abridged local irritation and removal of undesirable intestinal retaining of polymeric material, when compared to non-disintegrating single unit dosage form. The purpose of the presented research is to develop microbeads of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride utilizing sodium alginate as the hydrophilic carrier in combination with HPMC as drug release modifier to lessen the dosing frequency and thereby advance the patient compliance. The microbeads were formulated by varying concentrations of HPMC and calcium chloride. The optimum formulation was chosen based upon <em>in vitro</em> drug release studies and further evaluated. The compatibility of drug-polymer was studied using FTIR analysis. The prepared formulation underwent evaluation for various parameters like drug entrapment, microbeads size, swelling index, mucoadhesive property and stability. No significant drug-polymer interactions were observed in compatibility studies and the formulation was found to be stable on 45 days storage. The formulations exhibited an extended drug release pattern which was the ultimate aim of the study. The microbeads represented good yield, high drug entrapment, low microbeads size and appropriate swelling property. The <em>in vitro</em> wash-off test indicated that the sodium alginate microbeads represent decent mucoadhesive properties. Henceforth, the formulated HPMC coated sodium alginate beads can be utilized as a substitute and cost-effective carrier for the oral controlled delivery of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>microbeads, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, sodium alginate, drug release</p> Rashmi Dahima ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 137 141 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4094 Evaluation of acute oral toxicity study of essential oils (Eos) from Pogostemon benghalensis and P. cablin in Wistar rats <p>The use of crude herbal decoctions in the traditional treatment of diseases is a common practice.&nbsp; <em>Pogostemon benghalensis</em> and <em>P. cablin</em> are commonly used for treatment of diverse categories of diseases such as infectious and non-infectious disease. Native people use the crude decoctions as bactericidal, antimalarial, anti-leshimania, anti-diarrheal and insecticidal activities. Its safety profile is not yet elucidated and therefore, this study was to analyze the acute toxicity of essential oils (Eos) from <em>P. benghalensis</em> and <em>P. cablin </em>as medicinal. Methods include acute toxicity study using male and female Wistar albino rats with single oral dose and followed up to 14 days as per the guidelines of OECD. Visual observations were carried regularly during the experimental period while body weight was measured weekly. Organ weight, clinical chemistry and hematology data were collected on the 7<sup>th</sup> and 14<sup>th</sup> days. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried. Oral administration of Eos from <em>P. benghalensis</em> and <em>P. cablin </em>revealed no treatment-related mortality in female rats up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg. In acute toxicity studies, no remarkable treatment related anomalies were observed compared to negative controls. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematology did not showed sound variation between controls and treatment groups. However, creatinine, triglycerides, and monocytes were lower in the treated groups in 7<sup>th</sup> day as compared to control groups. No significant variations between male and female groups in relative organ weight, hematology were noticed. In conclusion, the Eos from <em>P. benghalensis </em>and <em>P. cablin </em>showed LD<sub>50</sub> &gt; 3000 mg/kg in acute toxicity studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Pogostemon benghalensis,</em> <em>P. cablin,</em> traditional medicine, safety, plant medicine, adverse effect, acute oral toxicity</p> DP Pradeep K Murugan G S Manoj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 142 147 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4095 The Beneficial Effect of Paricalcitol (Zemplar) on Secondary hyperparathyroidism Refractory to Calcitriol (Calcijex) and Cinacalcet HCl (Mimpara) in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Prospective and Crossover Study <p>Paricalcitol, 19-nor-1, 25-dihydroxvitamin D2, is a novel 1,25–dihydroxyvitamin D2 analogue, which has greater potential to suppress parathyroid hormone without inducing significant hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.&nbsp; We therefore investigated its role in treatment of patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) who were refractory to conventional therapy with Calcitriol and Cinacalcet HCl.&nbsp; Eight patients were recruited in whom conventional therapy was stable over the past 3 months.&nbsp; After a washout period of 2 weeks, calcijex injections were replaced by Paricalcitol.&nbsp; Paricalcitol induced more suppression of iPTH compared to the conventional therapy without significant hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia or side effects.&nbsp; The conversion ratio was approximately 1:2.5 (calcitriol:paricalcitol).&nbsp; In conclusion, injectable Paricalcitol is superior to Calcitriol in treatment of SHPT.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cinacalcet, Calciferol, hemodialysis, hyperparathyroidism, Paricalcitol.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid Shaikha Al-Bader Salah El-Marzabani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 148 151 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3999 Antioxidant chlorophyll purification from maize leaves by liquid-to-liquid extraction method <p>Chlorophyll is the blood of plant possesses a medical-value for treating support of disease in human, and the paper focused on the purification of antioxidant chlorophyll extracting from maize leaves in Vietnam. Chlorophyll was extracted with 96% ethanol and segmented by different solvents, for example, n-hexane, 96% ethanol, and ethyl acetate, respectively. Ethanol fraction was running via the chromatography column of silica gel for collecting antioxidant purified chlorophyll. All fractions were analysed chlorophyll content, antioxidant activities (total antioxidant activity, reducing power activity, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) and run the thin layer chromatography for determining the chlorophyll purification degree and the R<sub>f</sub>. The results showed that the purification of antioxidant chlorophyll from maize leaves was by using the liquid-liquid segment and the column run, for example, in turn, ethanol, n-hexane, ethanol, and the silica gel chromatography. The highest value of chlorophyll content, total antioxidant activity, reducing power activity, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity was 0.563±0.003 µg chl equivalent/ml, 1.392±0.018 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/ml, 3.396±0,024 mg FeSO<sub>4</sub>/ml, and 76.34±0.81 (%), respectively, as the n-hexane/ethanol ratio of 1/1 (v/v). After the chromatography run, chlorophyll content, total antioxidant activity, reducing power activity, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity corresponded to 0.217±0.002 µg chl equivalent/ml, 0.628±0.013 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/ml, 1.928±0.019 mg FeSO<sub>4</sub>/ml, and 77.19±0.58 (%), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> antioxidant, chlorophyll, maize, purification, liquid-to-liquid</p> Dang Xuan Cuong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 152 158 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4104 Evaluation of the Acute Toxicity of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Roots <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dandelion (<em>Taraxacum officinale</em>) is a medicinal plant used in alternative medicine for its multiple therapeutic and preventive properties. However, insufficient data are available about its toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> dandelion roots total extract vas prepared by maceration for 24 hours and its toxicity was then assessed on 30 WISTAR male rats divided into four experimental groups receiving the extract at different rates, and one control group treated with the vehicle. Changes in renal, hepatic, lipid, and hematological parameters as well as signs of acute toxicity were noted during 15 days after the one dose extract administration.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion:</strong> The obtained results reveal a very significant (p&lt;0.01) disruption of transaminases but not renal, lipid and hematological parameters.</p> <p>The acute toxicity study demonstrated that dendelion roots extract has low intraperitoneal toxicity with a LD50 ranged between 500 and 5000 mg/kg.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Dandelion's richness in secondary metabolites and its low <em>in vivo</em> toxicity make it a good candidate as a source of drugs with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dandelion, Acute toxicity, LD50, Transaminases, lipids, hematology</p> imene Bekhaled Abdelkrim Benalia hayet mehida samira meziani luiza Tarfaoui Ahmed Abdelhamid Djjebar abdesslam Hicham Mai illias Bensaid Abassia demmouche ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 159 163 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4093 Ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Nigella sativa seed against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats <p><strong>Objective:</strong> &nbsp;The aim of this study is to investigate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Nigella sativa</em> (HANS) against CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty five (25) albino rats, with average weight (105±5g), were randomly grouped into five groups: A-E, of five (5) rats per group. Group A rats served as normal control, Group B (Negative Control) received intraperitoneal administration of carbon tetrachloride CCl₄ (0.4ml/kg, i.p.) only, Group C received CCl₄ and low dose HANS (400mg/kg, oral), Group D received CCl₄ and high dose HANS (800mg/kg, oral), and Group E (Positive control), received CCl₄ and Vitamin C (200mg/kg, oral), for 3 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using standard methods. &nbsp;Histopathological analysis of the liver was also carried out. <strong>Results:</strong> The extracts significantly stablized biochemical markers of hepatic injury, and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissues against CCl<sub>4</sub> damage. The protective effect was not dose-dependent, as low dose HANS (400mg/kg), showed better protection than the high dose HANS (800mg/kg). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>Nigella sativa</em> has antihepatotoxic effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: carbon tetrachloride, hepatotoxicity, medicinal plants, <em>Nigella sativa</em>, hydroalcoholic extract</p> Ikenna Kingsley Uchendu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 164 169 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4006 Antimicrobial and Hepatoprotective Potential of Pterospermum acerifollium leaves Extracts on Swiss albino mice <p>The objective of present study to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-alcohollic extract leaves of <em>Pterospermum acerifollium</em> against antitubercular drug induced liver damage in swiss albino mice and also performs antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay. Successive extractions was performed with different organic solvents viz; hydroalcohollic by cold maceration. The extract was analysed as antioxidant activity as a content of Total phenolic content, Total flavanoid content, Reducing power assay and DPPH Scavenging assay. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract was estimated by Agar well diffusion method. Antitubercular drug induced is used as toxicants in hepatoprotective studies in acute condition was analysed by serum biochemical estimations by AST, ALT, ALP and Total Bilirubin. <em>In-vivo</em> Antioxidant activity was performed by LPO, GSH, SOD and Catalase. During the collection of tissue for biochemical estimation piece of tissue cut and transferred for Histopathological estimation. The levels were measured and it indicated that the extract had significant antioxidant activity however the results obtained were dose dependent the higher the dose (400 mg/kg) the better activity. The extract administered at dose 400 mg/kg showed better activity. The treatment with hydroalcohollic extract of <em>Pterospermum acerifillium</em> reduced the elevated levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB and also reversed the hepatic damage towards normal which further supports the hepatoprotective activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Succesive extraction, <em>In-vivo</em>, Serum biochemical, Cold maceration</p> Deepa Varandani Sharmishta Sekhar Suman Trivedi Megha Jha Sourabh Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 170 174 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4032 Vimentin and Cytokeratin Immunostaining: The Role in Basic Diagnosis and Prognosis of Sarcomas <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Specific diagnosis which provides diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic information to guide patient care defines the primary goal of sarcoma management and care. The role of immunohistochemistry, using vimentin (mesenchymal linage marker) and cytokeratin (epithelial linage marker) as basic markers for diagnosis and classification of sarcomas for specific management strategies and prognosis was elucidated in the present study.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twenty four (24) archived paraffin wax processed tissue block sarcoma samples were randomly selected from the histopathology Laboratories and museums of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi and National hospital Abuja and necessary data obtained from records. Blocks were re-embedded with fresh paraffin wax and 3µ thick sections cut with the aid of a rotary microtome. Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method was employed to confirm diagnosis before proceeding to immunohistochemistry. Antibodies for vimentin and pancytokeratin were employed for immunohistochemistry while exposed mouse and rabbit specific horseradish peroxides/diaminobenzidine detection IHC kit was employed for immunostaining.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of patients was 26 years while the ages range from 11 to 48 years with 14 (58.3%) females and 10 (41.7%) males. Vimentin had strong positive immunoreactivity for all sarcoma samples whereas cytokeratin had positive immunoreactions for synovial sarcoma only, which also showed co-expression of both genes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Vimentin and cytokeratin may play vital role as basic biomarkers not only for diagnosis and characterization of sarcomas but for specific management regime and prognostication. However, IHC must be performed at high standard using appropriate antibodies, samples and reagents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sarcoma, immunohistochemistry, vimentin, cytokeratin, biomarker.</p> Samuel Ifedioranma Ogenyi Jonathan Madukwe Anulika Obianuju Onyemelukwe Anthony Ajuluchukwu Ngokere ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 175 178 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4033 Humoral response of broilers to live Newcastle Disease virus vaccines manufactured by different companies <p>Increased incidence and severity of fatal Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in commercial and domestic poultry has been reported from across Pakistan. The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various live NDV vaccines (Gallivac, Intervet and Ceva) by adapting different vaccination schemes in broilers. Antigenic count of each vaccine and its generated antibody were determined by Haeamagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition tests respectively. Two different NDV vaccination schemes were tested in such a way that one group had received three vaccines in different time periods whereas, the other after priming at 0 day, was followed by a single booster dose. For this purpose, healthy broilers were divided into four groups A, B, C, and D. On zero day of vaccination, there was no detectable anti NDV-HI titer for all vaccines (Gallivac=2, Intervet=2 &amp; Ceva=2). In first vaccination scheme, detectable anti NDV-HI titer was observed on 16<sup>th</sup> day of vaccination (Gallivac=3.8, Intervet=4.2 &amp; Ceva=3.6). All vaccines showed protective anti NDV-HI titer on 32<sup>nd</sup> day, post vaccination (Gallivac=5.8, Intervet=6.2, Ceva=5.8). In second vaccination scheme, detectable anti NDV-HI titer was achieved on 16<sup>th</sup> day of post vaccination (Gallivac=3.8, Intervet=4.2 &amp; Ceva=3.6). While on 32<sup>nd</sup> day vaccination, all vaccines showed protective anti NDV-HI titer (Gallivac=5.4, Intervet=5.6 &amp; Ceva=5.2). It is concluded that the two-dose vaccination program, with interval of 12 days, is much effective than the 3-dose vaccination scheme. However, in broilers, anti-NDV antibody titer was induced by all three types of vaccines manufactured by various companies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Newcastle disease virus, Humoral Response, Haemagglutination inhibition test, Vaccine schedule</p> Muhammad Danish Mehmood Huma Anwar Aamra Hashim Muhammad Ismail Sajjad Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 179 184 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4035 Development and Preclinical Testing of Nasal Aerosol for the Delivery of Novel Spray Dried Polyherbal Formulation to Treat Alzheimer’s Disease <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate anti-alzheimer’s activity of novel herbal aerosol spray formulation containing pure extracts of&nbsp;<em>Curcuma longa, Commiphora wightii and Withania somnifera</em>.Pressurized aerosol packs containing polyherbal spray dried dispersions in the concentration range of 0.5, 1 and 2% w/v dispersed in 10/90, 20/80, 30/70/ 40/60, 50/50) propellant blends of HFA-134a were developed in 3 in 1 aerosol filling machine and evaluated. Behavioural studies were performed in male wistar rats and histopathological studies were performed. The preparations were also assessed for AChE inhibitory activity. Results with P values &lt; 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Chitosan exhibited compatibility with the polyherbal extracts in FT-IR studies. DSC thermogram revealed an endothermic peak of 65ᵒC with chitosan. Spray dried poly herbal extracts exhibited a spherical morphology particle size distribution of 5-50µm with a practical yield of 20-30%. Aerosol formulations exhibited a particle size range below 10µm. average weight per actuation of canister was 7-8mg with a total 210 deliveries per pack. Zeta potential of the formulations was ±0.997. HPTLC fingerprinting showed band ranges at 256 and 366nm. The optimized aerosol spray in behavioral tests exhibited 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg intranasally reversed the scopolamine induced amnesia. Histopathological findings showed decreased Ach activity in male albino wistar rats. Percentage inhibition of formulation and standaed on AChE activity shoed an IC<sub>50 </sub>of 62% for 10mg/kg aerosol spray and 72% with 20mg/kg aerosol spray dosing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> alzhiemer’s disease; herbal; spray dried chitosan; aerosol; nasal spray;</p> Rama Rao Nadendla Nagam Santhi Priya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 185 194 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4112 Formulation and Evaluation of Herbo-Mineral Facial Scrub <p>The main objective of present study was to prepare a herbo-mineral facial scrub. Majorly facial skin comes in direct contact of dirt, pollution, dust particles and having large number of dead cells. In order to remove the dead cells and make the skin healthy, cleaned and nourished, some facial preparations required. The prepared scrub contains various natural ingredients which are safer for use and having fewer side effects and also they possess antiseptic, anti-infective, antioxidant, anti-aging and humectant properties. The scrub was prepared by using simple mixing method using various ingredients such as poppy seeds, neem extract, tulsi extract, aloe vera gel, almond oil, mixed in carbopol 934, rest of ingredients such as glycerin, triethanolamine, preservatives and perfuming agent were also added to this preparation with homogeneous mixing. The formulated scrub was evaluated for various parameters such as physical appearance, color, texture, odor, pH, viscosity, irritability, washability, homogeneity, extrudability, spreadability and found fruitful results for all the parameter tested. Thus the prepared formulation can be used effectively as it shows good scrubbing properties and it can be used to make a healthy, clean and glowing skin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Facial scrub, antiseptic, anti-aging, herbal, poppy seeds etc.</p> Shraddha Mahajan Devshree Gayakwad Abhilasha Tiwari G. N. Darwhekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 195 197 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4039 Psychological and Anxiety/Depression Level Assessment among Quarantine People during Covid19 Outbreak <p><strong>Background- </strong>Covid-19 outbreak results in lockdown of provinces by isolating the infected ones and quarantine the population to prevent community spread of corona virus. During quarantine people has to restrict their movement and keep themselves under self-isolation at their home to prevent infections. In long quarantine period it may create psychological or anxiety/depression problem for some people. The objective of our study is to assess and understand the level of psychological, anxiety/depression in quarantine people during covid19 outbreak.</p> <p><strong>Methods- </strong>Self-designed digital questionnaire has been used to assess the psychological and anxiety/depression level. The questionnaire contains questions about demographic, socio-assessment, anxiety/depression and psychological assessment. The questionnaire was circulated via digital medium.</p> <p><strong>Result- </strong>Total 181 quarantined people were participated in our study, most of our population ages between of 21-30. General health of our participants is moderately good, Socio-status of our participants is fairly effected may be due to restrict movement and conservative way of living during quarantine period. 60.8% of participants become nervous some of the time, about 50% of participants shows the anxiety/depression symptoms, about 30% of our participants are somewhat affected by their sleeping patterns and about 35% participants are sometimes unsatisfied or slightly satisfied during quarantine period. Apart from this out of 181 participants 15 people are having travel history of International or national destinations. The overall mean is 2.2 and SD is 0.6.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion-</strong>We found somewhat negative emotions (anxiety/depression, Socio status) in people during quarantine. Which may show low quality of life or low satisfactory life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Covid-19, lockdown, quarantine, anxiety, depression</p> Kushagra Sharma Joseph Saji Ranjeet Kumar Abins Raju ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 198 201 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4103 Statistical Retrospective Analysis of Spontaneous Abortions in Sidi Bel Abbes Region <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of our study was to identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these risks. <strong>Materials and Method:</strong> We carried out an epidemiological study of pregnancy loss in the Sidi Bel Abbes region from 2010 to 2015, with a total of 54720 livebirths and 4349 of spontaneous abortions (SA). The risk of spontaneous abortion related to the fetal loss age, maternal age; parity and previous spontaneous abortions was studied. <strong>Results</strong>: The rate of spontaneous abortions varies between 7% and 9% and appears to remain constant over the six years, with an average incidence of 8%. We also observed a significant increase in the incidence of SA with the increase in maternal age. 77% of SA occurred before 12 weeks of gestation. The peak incidence occurred during the second month of pregnancy, between 6th and 10<sup>th</sup>, the rate of AS is the highest among primigests. The incidence of SRA in our study is within the range suggested by these different studies, with a SRA rate of 5%. Fetal loss is high in women in their late 30s or older, irrespective of reproductive history. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The fact remains that the risk factors remain the same, namely, the increase in maternal age (inducing an increase in chromosomally unbalanced designs) and primigestity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Spontaneous, abortion, epidemiological, study, risk, factors.</p> Sarah Mellali Khadidja Haoud mohammed el amin Bouguetaia Mustapha Diaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 202 206 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4107 Acute Oral Toxicity Studies of the Crude Extract of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Annona senegalensis Pers <p>Establishment of safety and toxicity profiles of metabolites of endophytic organisms from known medicinal plants are crucial in their pharmacological and biological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral acute toxicity (LD<sub>50</sub>) of crude extract of endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Annona senegalensis </em>Pers. The endophytic fungal metabolite was extracted with ethyl acetate. The LD<sub>50</sub> was estimated following the method described by Lorke. Three dose levels (10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg) of the crude extract were administered to three mice each for the first phase using oral gavage needle in a single dose disposable syringe. The animals were observed for possible deaths or other side effects of the test substance in each group within 24 hours of the treatment. In the second phase, which was deduced from the first phase, eight mice were sub-divided into four groups of two mice each and they were treated with doses of 1200, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg orally. They were also observed within 24 hours and final LD<sub>50</sub>&nbsp;value was determined. Results showed that the endophytic fungal extract exhibited no mortality or any histological defect in the liver tissues of the mice. More so, the immunological parameter tested showed significant increase in neutrophils and lymphocytes relative to the control in all the fungal isolates. Additionally, the LD<sub>50</sub> for the crude metabolites was &gt; 5000 mg/kg. This study has revealed that crude extract of endophytic fungi isolated from <em>Annona senegalensis</em> Pers did not show oral acute toxicity in mice. Further studies will evaluate long term-toxicity of the crude extract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Endophytes, LD<sub>50</sub>, <em>Annona senegalensis, </em>Metabolites, Fungi</p> A. Ikechukwu Onah C. Franklin Kenechukwu P. Dinebari Berebon A. Akeem Agboke E. Chinedum Ibezim A. Anthony Attama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 207 216 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4052 Preventive and Curative Effects of Atriplex Halimus L. Aqueous Extract on Benzene Provoked Hepatic Injury in Rats <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study was designed to estimate the preventive and curative potency of aqueous extract of <em>Atriplex halimus</em> L. (Ah) aerial parts against benzene (BZ) intoxication in liver rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 30 male albino rats were divided into five groups of 6 rats each: Control, Ah, BZ, AhP+BZ, and BZ+AhC. BZ (100 mg/kg b.w) was added in drinking water for 15 weeks. Aqueous extract of <em>Atriplex halimus</em> was received intragastrically during the last 30 days of BZ exposure for curative treatment (AhC) and all the duration of BZ exposure for preventive treatment (AhP). At the end the experiment, body weight gain and relative liver weight were estimated and liver enzyme markers (AST, ALT, ALP and LDH) were analysed by spectrophotometry. Histopathological studies on hepatic tissue were also performed by the method of Hematoxylin and Eosin staining.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Benzene administrated to rats caused an alteration in physiological parameters (body and organs weigh) and hepatic enzymes markers (AST, ALT, ALP and LDH). In addition, Histopathological studies showed a massive degeneration in liver tissue in BZ-exposed rats. However, treatment by <em>Atriplex halimus</em> especially preventive effect ameliorated most of the adverse effects induced by benzene. Ah restored the altered of physiological, biochemical and histopathological changes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study suggests that <em>Atriplex halimus</em> extract could be a substantially promising hepatoprotective agent against benzene toxic effects and may be against other hepatotoxic chemical or drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Atriplex halimus</em>, Benzene, hepatotoxicity, Rats.</p> Zeghib Khaoula Boutlelis Djahra Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 217 222 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4053 Interferon: Role in health, current trends and therapeutic potentials <p>This mini review presents the current trends and topical issues on interferon. This article illustrates the theoretical background and details about interferon, its mechanism of action or roles in the prevention of microbial- or pathogenic disease progression, types and classes, and their therapeutic potentials. All the reported applications have shown that interferon has found its application in gene manipulation and expression of gene products; immunological techniques, viral disease treatment and in the treatment of cancers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Interferon, cancers, cancer therapy, viral infection, viral disease treatment.</p> Ikenna Kingsley Uchendu Nkiruka Peace Ojiako ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 227 230 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4005 Self-Emulsifying Formulations: A Pharmaceutical Review <p>The oral route of drug delivery is commonly utilized for administration of medicines and is particularly preferred for the treatment of many chronic diseases which require continuous ingestion over a reasonably prolonged period of time. However the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs presents a major obstacle because of their low aqueous solubility. The aqueous solubility of a drug is a crucial determinant of its dissolution rate, absorption and bioavailability. Drugs with relatively high intrinsic lipophilicity can be dissolved in appropriate mixtures of oils/lipids, surfactants, cosolvents which can rapidly form oil-in-water (o/w) fine emulsions when dispersed in aqueous phase under mild agitation or mixing. These isotropic self-emulsifying formulations or self-emulsifying drug delivery systems are effective for delivery of poorly soluble, lipophilic drugs by dispersing the drugs within fine oil droplets in emulsions and this solubilization of drugs can then improve its absorption, bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. The present paper reviews the concept, design, formulation, characterization and applications of self-emulsifying formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Self-Emulsifying Formulations, lipophilicity, emulsions</p> Chukwuma Agubata ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 231 240 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3981 SARS – COV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Critical Review on Novel Coronavirus Pathogenesis, Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment <p>The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and the disease is named COVID-19. The Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) caused pneumonia in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a highly contagious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it as a global public health emergency. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002–2003 and MERS in 2012. Currently, the research on novel coronavirus is still in the primary stage. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan by Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers. On the basis of current published evidence, we systematically summarize the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19. This review in the hope of helping the public effectively recognize and deal with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and providing a reference for future studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Coronavirus, pneumonia, Respiratory infection</p> Ruchi Jain Nilesh Jain Surendra Kumar Jain Ram C Dhakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 241 252 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3985 Articulation of Quality By Design Elements for Product Development and its Unique Applications <p>Quality by Design (QbD) is a methodical approach to pharmaceutical product development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process comprehension and process control based on sound science and quality risk management. Pharmaceutical development should lead to the design a quality product and its manufacturing process to meet the QTPP and CQA parameters. To arrive at the robust product development QbD articulation is important which is missing in most of the reviews. This review articulates the QbD elements in the product development. QbD process stars with identification of QTPP and source CQA from QTPP. CMAs and CPPs are derived with risk assessment from the product ingredients and process. Their impact on the CQAs can be studies with DoE tools. The information and knowledge gained from pharmaceutical development studies and manufacturing experience provide scientific understanding to support the design space and control strategy. Product process follows life cycle management approach with continuous improvement. PAT tools are utilized for the online monitoring of the processes. This review paper is dedicated to provide QbD element articulation in product development and its unique applications in the various areas of the product development such as Biotechnology, Nanotechnology products, Nasal products, Inhalation, Injectable products, Targeted drug delivery, complex Solid oral, Transdermal and topical products, Bioavailability and dissolution enhancement, Analytical processes and API manufacturing etc. Current trends in the technical application of the PAT tools are discussed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Quality by Design (QbD), Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP), Critical Quality Attributes (CQA) and Design of Experiment (DoE): Product development application of QbD</p> Dnyaneshwar Sitre Ravindra Kamble ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 253 261 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4080 Biological Potential of Tribulus terrestris <p>Plants have a significant role in preserving human health and improving quality of life. gokshura (<em>Tribulus terrestris</em> Linn.) one of such plants, is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts for various therapeutic properties like balya(strengthening),&nbsp; brimhana (nutritive), rasayana(rejuvenator), mootrala(diuretic), shothahara(anti-inflammatory), vajikarana (aphrodisiac) etc. and useful in the management of mutrakrichhra (dysurea), ashmari (renal calculi) etc. It is a perennial plant, grown predominantly in India and Africa. Its extract contains alkaloids, saponins, resins, flavanoids and nitrates. As its therapeutic values, a review has been done to gather information on different aspects of gokshura. Further Ayurvedic references, the present paper also emphasizes on recent researches carried out on this plant for its pharmacological evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Tribulus terrestris, </em>Diuretic, Pharmacology</p> Shantanu U. Dighe R.S. Jadhav D.N. Vikhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 262 264 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3982 Role of Micro Emulsion Based In-Situ Gelling System of Fluoroquinolone for Treatment of Posterior Segment Eye Diseases (PSED) <p>The in situ drug delivery system and colloidal formulation like micro emulsion has potential to use in ocular delivery. Micro emulsion provides better permeation of drug through the membrane and provides improved bioavailability. The in situ drug delivery system decreases pre-corneal drainage, increase the contact time of formulation with eye and prolong the release in ocular tissues. Again, in situ gelling system has advantage of delivering accurate and reproducible quantities each time, against any already gelled formulations. To combine the benefits of these two dosage forms, micro emulsion based in situ gelling system can be developed as a novel vehicle for ophthalmic drug delivery. Endophthalmitis is an infection of intraocular fluids like vitreous humor and ocular tissues. To combat the disease, the formulation which provides sufficient concentration in posterior segment eye diseases&nbsp;(PSED) is required.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Posterior segment eye diseases, micro emulsion, drug delivery system, ocular, formulation.</p> Eram Fatima Dr. Vivek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 265 272 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4079 A Review on Epilepsy and its Management <p>Today, people face various types of stress in everyday fast life and most people in the world suffer from various neurological disorder. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders of the brain, affecting about 50 million people around the world, and 90% of them are coming from developing countries. Genetic factors and brain infection, stroke, tumors and epilepsy cause high fever. It imposes a great economic burden on the health systems of countries associated with stigma and discrimination against the patient and also his family in the community, in the workplace, school and home. Many patients with epilepsy suffer from severe emotional stress, behavioral disorders and extreme social isolation. There are many different types of seizure and mechanisms by which the brain generates seizures. The two features of generating seizures are hyperexcitability of neurons and a hyper synchronousneural circuits. A variety of mechanisms alters the balance between excitation and inhibition in predisposing brain local or generalized hyperexcitability region and a hypersynchronia. Purpose of the review is to discuss the history, epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, classification of epilepsy, symtomps, diagnosis, management of epilepsy and future trends.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Anti-epileptic drugs, pathophysiology, seizures, epidemiology, hypersynchrony</p> V.V. Potnis Ketan G. Albhar Pritamsinh Arjun Nanaware Vishal S. Pote ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 273 279 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4090 Management of Hypertension with Conventional and Herbals Drugs <p>In this article, we have discussed about Types (primary, secondary, isolated, white coat, malignant, resistant and pulmonary hypertension), classification, adverse drug reactions of antihypertensive drugs (beta-blocker induce psoriasis and calcium channel blocker cause peripheral oedema. ACE inhibitor produce ankle oedema and thiazide diuretics causes hypenatremia and also hyperglycaemia. These are some of the serious adverse drug reactions associated with patients who are being treated with these drugs), measurement, management, diagnosis and associated diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease) lastly concluded about the herbal approach for management of hypertension&nbsp; .</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypertension, conventional drugs, Herbal drugs</p> , Marjina Amandeep Singh Amit Sharma Raj Kumar Narang Gurmeet Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 280 287 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.3998 Recent trends in management of common glomerulopathy <p>Diagnosis of glomerulopathy requires correlation between: (a) clinicopathological syndromes, (b) kidney histology for the abnormalities which are useful for the severity of disease, stage of activity and extent of chronicity.&nbsp; Subsequently, management dictates the choice of effective medications to avoid renal loss and long-term side effects.&nbsp; In this review article; we provide our practical experience with drug-therapy in common idiopathic and secondary glomerular diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>glomerulopathy, kidney biopsy, nephrotic syndrome, Rituximab, treatment.</p> Kamel El-Reshaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 288 292 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4004 Phytochemicals in Cancer Treatment : A Review <p>Cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and impaired</p> <p>cell cycle leading to the growth of abnormal cells that invade and metastasize to other parts of the body. Oxidative stress, hypoxia, genetic mutations and lack of apoptotic function are the main internal causes of cancer, whereas the external causes are related to increased exposure to stress, pollution, smoking, radiation and ultraviolet rays. Phytochemicals derived from plants, serve as vital resources for novel drugs and are also sources for cancer therapy. The objective of this review is to describe the active compounds derived from the natural products/plants, along with their pharmacologic action and molecular targets.&nbsp;</p> Priya Murugesan Thrisha Venkatajalapathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 293 299 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4075 A review on various aspect of COVID-19 <p>This review is virtually focused on the current pandemic (Covid-19) ,&nbsp; its pathogenesis and recent treatment available till date .As ,we know that covid-19, caused by SARS-COV 2 is highly mutating and transmissible virus which has put a new challange for development of vaccines and drugs to researchers worldwide. Among Corona virus, SARS-COV 2 is a 7<sup>th</sup> corona virus which is highly transmissible from human to human and no vaccines are available till date, due to this it has become a global threat for human being. It is believed to be zoonotic disease but no clean evidence of it main source has been known</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; SARS-COV 2, Pandemic, Pneumonia, respiratory system.</p> Lakpa Sangay Sherpa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 300 303 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4031 Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: A review and a debate based on available clinical trials/case studies <p>Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a drug grabbed serious attention of whole world in dealing with COVID-19 pandemic. Recently some in-vitro and in-vivo study showing possible inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by use of HCQ. However at the same time, some case studies showing NO clinical benefit/ poor clinical outcome with substantial detrimental adverse effects by use of HCQ in treatment of coronavirus disease-2019. Thus, the HCQ use (in COVID-19 treatment) is of current international interest, although a consensus has not yet been reached. More evidences are still required to prove efficacy of HCQ against COVID-19. In view of this, the present review highlights the current ongoing research related to use of HCQ in treatment coronavirus disease-2019. The present review will discuss the possible anti-viral mechanism of HCQ, prophylaxis strategy and effect of HCQ against SARS-CoV-2 virus in-vitro study. Further this review also summarizes and debates all available clinical trials/ case studies of HCQ use against COVID-19 (with clinical outcome). Finally possible detrimental adverse effects are also discussed considering the public health and pharmacovigilance concern.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Potency of hydroxychloroquine; COVID-19; Coronavirus disease-2019; Clinical trials; SARS-CoV-2; Adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine; Pharmacovigilance concern</p> Kirtikumar Chandulal Badgujar Ashish B. Badgujar Vikrant P. Patil Dipak V. Dhangar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 304 311 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4110 Reassessing the Restorative Prospectives of the King of Spices Black Pepper <p>Since ages, spices have been a crucial portion of human diets and trade.&nbsp;The bioactive principles in attendance are of noteworthy merit due to their advantageous probable against an array of disorders. Black pepper, amid piperine as its foremost element, holds affluent phytochemistry and also incorporates a number other important compounds like alkaloids, volatile oils and oleoresins. <em>Piper nigrum</em> is an imperative welfare spice owed to its anti-carcinogenic, antimicrobial, antioxidant apparent and gastro-defensive workings. Piperine also show evidence of speckled pharmacological characteristics like antidepressant, anti-inflammative, immunomodulatory, anticonvulsant, antihypertensive, antitumor, anti-tussive, pain reducing, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, and cholesterol worsening . Piperine augments bioavailability of quite a few drugs and nutrients by restraining a variety of metabolising enzymes. This review is aimed to provide restructured information in recent progression of pharmacognosy, chemistry and pharmacological behavior of this miraculous King of Spices.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Black Pepper, Piperine, Antioxidant, Bioavailability, King of Spices</p> Anindya Goswami Neelesh Malviya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 10 3 312 321 10.22270/jddt.v10i3.4111