Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> RARE AND UNCOMMON DISEASES http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3642 <p>The book contains topics on Rare &amp; Uncommon Diseases like Autistic disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Huntington disease, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Psychosis, Rabies, Migraine, Psoriasis, and many more. Each disease has been explained by their symptoms, diagnosis, causes and treatment. At the start, there is a summary of the whole chapter, so that one can easily take the concept within the limited time. Keywords are also included for quick indicator of the chapter. Introductory material for Pharmacy, medical, &amp; dental students, also M Phil, PhD for Pharmacology, Botany, Zoology, Microbiology, Pharmacy, Biotechnology and all other related health sciences subjects. It is also very helpful for Common people.</p> Muhammad Imran Qadir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s I I Topical Anti-inflammatory evaluation of new hydrazone: 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzylidene) isonicotinohydrazide http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3433 <p>The anti-inflammatory effects of the investigated compounds; Isoniazid, hydrazone, and Indomethacin were evaluated in this study. The experiment was performed using xylene induced topical ear edema method in mice model, at the dose of (0.5 mg/ear). Results showed that the compounds; Isoniazid, hydrazone, and Indomethacin exerted 85, 90 and 89% of inhibition percentages, respectively. The effect of hydrazone was statistically similar to the effect of indomethacin which is a standard anti-inflammatory drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: inflammation, hydrazone, ear edema<strong>, </strong>topical.</p> Kamel Mokhnache Ahlem Karbab Soraya Madoui Hanane Khither EL-Khamsa Soltani Noureddine Charef Lekhmici Arrar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 1 3 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3433 Study of the Association between Hypothyroidism and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3604 <p>Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).</p> <p>Methods: In a prospective observational study, the hypothyroidism patients were evaluated for NAFLD using ultrasonography. The participant’s characteristics such as age, gender, thyroid profile, history of diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease (IHD) were recorded using a data gathering form.</p> <p>Results: A total of 51 participants were included in this study. From 51 participants, 47 (92.18%) individuals were females whereas 4 (7.82%) individuals were males. Out of 51 participants 27 individuals had NAFLD. There was statistically significant difference in FT4 levels with the participants with NAFLD.</p> <p>Conclusion: Results from this study suggested that low FT4 concentration is associated with increased risk of NAFLD.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hypothyroidism, NAFLD, ultrasonography, FT4.</p> Anoop Uniyal Prashant Mathur Yogesh Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 4 6 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3604 In Vitro Quality Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Tablets Marketed in Dessie, Ethiopia http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3119 <p>Good quality medicines are a prerequisite for a successful treatment. Post marketing surveillance is very crucial to ensure product quality and eliminating substandard products to be distributed and, consequently, ensure better patient clinical outcome. Hence, this study assesses quality of six brands of ciprofloxacin tablets marketed in Dessie, Ethiopia using <em>in vitro </em>quality control tests. Weight variation test, disintegration test, dissolution test and assay for the content of active ingredients was done according to United sates Pharmacopoeia, 2007. The percentage content of ciprofloxacin tablets were within the range of 90-110% and the disintegration time was found between 2.375- 6.31 minutes. In addition, ciprofloxacin tablets released more than 80% of the drug after 30 minutes. Hence, all brands of ciprofloxacin tablets met the quality control parameters as per United States Pharmacopoeial specifications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ciprofloxacin; Quality; Substandard; Pharmacopoeial specifications</p> Haile Kassahun Desta Tekleab Teka Tekelehaimanot ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 7 10 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3119 Study of Prevalence Rate, Side Effect and Co-Morbidities Associated with Current Drug Therapy in Patients Suffering with Nephrotic Syndrome http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3589 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disease caused by damage to the cluster of small blood vessels in the kidney. Nephrotic syndrome causes misfunctioning of the kidney that affects metabolism of the body significantly. It causes complications of blood clots, high blood cholesterol and elevated blood triglycerides, poor nutrition, high blood pressure, acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease and various infections.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present investigation was objected to study prevalence rate, side effect of prescribed drugs and co-morbidity associated with current drug therapy in patient suffering with nephrotic syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Methodologies: </strong>The present observational study was conducted on 43 nephrotic syndrome patients. These patients were evaluated for effects and side effects of prescribed drugs. Co-morbidity related to drug current prescribed was assessed and prescribed drugs for co-morbidity for also assessed. Prevalence rate of nephrotic syndrome was calculated among the all investigated patients. Patients were investigated who signed consent form. Patients above 18 years of age were excluded from study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The involved 43 patients of nephrotic syndrome. These patients were prescribed with Corticosteroids (27%), Immunomodulator (8%), Immunosuppressant (5%), Diuretics (20%), ACE Inhibitors (5%), Angiotensin II receptor antagonist (5%). Co-morbidity were related to current drugs were observed and it was found that 9 (20%) patients were&nbsp; suffering from asthma, 3 (7%) patients were suffering epilepsy, 1 (2%) patients were suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, 5 (11%) patients were suffering from other diseases along with nephrotic syndrome. Prevalence rate of nephrotic syndrome was found 2.38% in patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study revealed that the current prescribed drugs for nephrotic syndrome causes side effects that are skin infection, behavioral changes, blood in urine and decreased neutrophils. And co-morbidity of asthma, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease and other disease were present in patients of nephrotic syndrome. 1 patient out of every 42 investigated patients was suffering from&nbsp; nephrotic syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nephrotic syndrome, corticosteroids, side effects, co-morbidity and prevalence rate.</p> Abhishek Prasad Prashant Mathur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 11 17 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3589 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TAFLUPROST OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3612 <p>The aim of the present study was to formulate, develop and evaluate ophthalmic solution containing Tafluprost. The selected prostaglandin analogue belongs to BCS - II. So to increase the solubility of the Tafluprost in WFI Beta Cyclodextrin was used by performing various trials variables of the experiments procedure Stirring time and speed were optimized to enhance the solubility. From the experimental procedure with different trails 20mg/mL of Cyclodextrins was fixed for the optimized formula. The product were characterized for appearance, physical state, colour and odour of the drug characteristics. The prepared formulations were evaluated for pH, osmolality and assay and found to be in acceptable ranges. Stability study was carried out for optimized formulation at 40°C±2°C /NMT 25%RH and 30°C ±2°C/ 65%±5% RH for 3 months, were evaluated for pH ,osmolality ,assay found to be within&nbsp; acceptable limits. Finally it can be concluded that the in house product Tafluprost ophthalmic solution was met with in the specification.</p> Pappula venkata tarun kumar A. Anil Kumar N. Srinivas Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 18 24 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3612 Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrolytic Cleavage, and Biological Activity Studies of 2-[(1e)-N-{2-[(2-{(Z)-[1-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)Ethylidene] Amino}Ethyl)Amino]Ethyl}Ethanimidoyl]Phenol http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3621 <p>A Schiff base ligand 2-[(1<em>E</em>)-<em>N</em>-{2-[(2-{(<em>Z</em>)-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene] amino}ethyl)amino]ethyl} ethanimidoyl]phenol L was hydrolyzed by copper cation which lead to formation of 8,8-dichloro-2H,3H,5H,6H-1,3-diaza-2-cupracyclopenta[1,3-a]1,3-diaza-2-cupracyclopentane hydrate (Complex), characterized by UV, IR, Powder XRD and by elemental analysis. In vitro antioxidant and anticoagulant, activities of L were evaluated. Antioxidant potential of L was assessed by DPPH scavenging, β-carotene bleaching test, hydroxyl radical scavenging method, ABTS radical scavenging test, and by reducing power test. In vitro anticoagulant effect of L at the 84 µg/mL; showed the maximum prolongation of plasma recalcification time which is comparable with that of the anticoagulant drug; heparin. In conclusion, results of the present investigation indicate that the ligand L can be a potential anticoagulant agent.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: Schiff base; Antioxidant; Free radicals; Anticoagulant.</p> Kamel Mokhnache Soraya Madoui Hanane Khither El-Khamsa Soltani Noureddine Charef Arrar Lekhmici ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 25 29 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3621 Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Epilepsy http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3583 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Estimation of Quality of life is a useful outcome measure to know about epilepsy care from patient’s perspective. Assessing QOL of epileptic patients is important so as to manage the epilepsy and to implement some interventional programs in order to improve the quality of life of these patients. The study aims to find out the impact of epilepsy on quality of life of epileptic patients</p> <p><strong>Material and method: </strong>This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study, conducted from March to August 2019 for a period of 6 months, after approval from Institutional Ethics Committee. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. The quality of life in epilepsy (QOLIE-31) was used for collecting data on health-related QOL.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The study group consisted of 65 patients of whom 48 were males (73.84%) and 17 were females (26.15%). Their ages ranged from 19 to 60 years. (mean age: 35.65). Majority of the patients were in the age range of 30-41 (40%). 50.8% participants were from nuclear family and 49.2% were from joint family system. Most of the patients had lower class socioeconomic status (61.5%). As regard to the employment status, 38.4% of patients were full time employed, 13.8% were part time employed. 29.2% were unemployed and 9.23% were retired and 9.23% were students.&nbsp; The medication analysis revealed that 30.6% of the participants were on monotherapy whereas 69.0% were on polytherapy. The mean total QOLIE-31 score was 39.12 (SD-5.00).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Epileptic patients had poor QOL with low total QOLIE-31 score, unemployment, use of combination therapy and people belonging to lower class were associated with lower quality of life in individuals with epilepsy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Health Related Quality of life, Epilepsy, Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31) questionnaire</p> Reenoo Jauhari Aarti Sati Nuvera Aqeel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 30 33 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3583 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Mimosa hamata (Willd.) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3596 <p>Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of roots, stems and leaves <em>Mimosa hamata</em> was investigated at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg using carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma technique in albino rats. The stem extracts showed significant activity in dose dependent manner as compared to control group. The observations suggested that the extract of <em>M. hamata</em> were effective in exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation i.e. in acute and chronic inflammation. The results obtained indicate that <em>M. hamata</em> has an anti-inflammatory activity that supports the folk medicinal use of the plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Mimosa hamata</em>, anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma.</p> N. I. Khan B.C. Hatapakki ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 34 39 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3596 Assessment of Quality of Life and Compare the Impact of Amitriptyline and Propranolol in Migraine Patients http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3597 <p>See PDF</p> Preeti Kothiyal Reenoo Jauhari , Annapurna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 40 43 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3597 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Schiff Bases of Aryloxy Moiety http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3635 <p>Schiff's bases are condensation products of primary amines with carbonyl compounds. Schiff bases (imines) possess wide variety of biological activities that include antibacterial and antifungal activity. In present work, Schiff bases from 3,5- Dimethoxyphenol (aryloxy moiety) as starting material synthesized. Esterification of 3,5- Dimethoxyphenol led to formation of (3,5-Dimethoxy-phenoxy)-acetic acid ethyl ester (1). (3,5-Dimethoxy-phenoxy)-acetic acid hydrazide (2) is derived from Compound (1) by hydrazination. Compound (2) was reacted with different aromatic aldehydes to yield novel imines or Schiff bases (3A-I). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral studies and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. All the synthesized compounds had shown antibacterial and antifungal activity. Schiff bases <strong>3C,</strong> <strong>3D, 3E and 3I</strong> had shown good antimicrobial activity among all newly synthesized compounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Schiff base, aryloxy moiety, imines</p> Purushottam R. Laddha Kailash R. Biyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 44 49 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3635 Analysis of the Use of Acid Suppressing Medications in Hospitalized Children in a Pediatric General Ward http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3636 <p>see PDF&nbsp;</p> Dr. Puja D.C. Dhasmana Saurabh Kohli Vipin Chander ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 50 52 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3636 Phytochemical and Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation of Herbal Gel Prepared from Bark Extract of Mesua Ferrea Linn http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3638 <p>The present research work involves formulation of herbal gel containing stem bark extracts of <em>Mesua ferrea </em>Linn and its evaluation for <em>in vitro </em>anti-inflammatory activity. The gel formulations were prepared using ethanolic extracts along with different polymer. The physiochemical parameters of formulations like; pH, viscosity and spreadability etc. also evaluated. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids, etc. The ethanolic extracts showed appreciable anti-inflammatory activity compared to the standard drug. Study confirmed that potential anti-inflammatory formulation can be developed from bark extract of <em>Mesua ferrea </em>Linn.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Mesua ferrea </em>Linn<em>., </em>Anti-inflammatory, Herbal Gel, Phytochemical, Albumin denaturation.</p> Harjeet Singh B. K. Sarkar Jagdish Chandra Arya Shashi Pal Ravi Kumar Veerendra Gupta Ravindra Singh S. C. Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 53 56 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3638 Formulation and evaluation of Zidovudine alginate microspheres http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3607 <p>The objective of the&nbsp; present&nbsp; study&nbsp; was&nbsp; to&nbsp; prepare&nbsp; and&nbsp; evaluate&nbsp; microspheres&nbsp; for&nbsp; the controlled release of Zidovudine from the prepared microspheres using different polymers. The microspheres were prepared by ionic gelation method. The prepared microspheres were characterized for FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the percentage drug content, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro dissolution studies. Accelerated stability studies were also carried out for the formulations. The microspheres were spherical in shape and free flowing. The entrapment efficiency was varying from 76 to 86%. The release of drug&nbsp; from&nbsp; the&nbsp; microspheres was extended up to&nbsp; 8&nbsp; to&nbsp; 12&nbsp; hours. FTIR studies showed the stable character of Zidovudine in the microspheres. SEM studies revealed that the microspheres were&nbsp; porous&nbsp; in&nbsp; nature.&nbsp; The release kinetics studies revealed that the prepared microspheres were best&nbsp; fitted&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; zero&nbsp; order for all eight formulations and peppa’s model. The release kinetics data and characterization studies indicated that the drug release from microspheres was diffusion – controlled and the microspheres were stable in nature.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Zidovudine, microspheres, controlled release, stability, ionic gelation, entrapment efficiency.</p> Pingali Srinivasa Rao Kanakam Vijayabhaskar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 57 64 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3607 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Oxidant Potential and Anti- Ulcer Activity of Leucas diffusa Plant Extract http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3647 <p><strong><em>Leucas diffusa</em></strong> (lamiaceae) a branched herb collected from the Guntur region, A.P. India. Phytochemical studies of <em>Leucas diffusa, </em>methanolic fraction subjected to column chromatography and estimation of total flavanoid content and to evaluate antioxidant potential and anti-ulcer activity of methanolic extract of <em>Leucas diffusa</em>. The plant powder was subjected to continuous hot extraction in Soxhlet Apparatus &amp; extracted successively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol solvents. The extracts prepared were tested for the type of chemical constituents present by known qualitative tests. Total flavanoid content of methanolic and ethylacetate extract of Leucas diffusa were done. In vitro Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was evaluated using hydroxyl radical, reducing power &amp; hydrogen peroxide scavenging abilities. Anti-ulcer activitiy of methanolic extract was evaluated through pylorus ligation method and ethanol induced ulcer models. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the tukey’s test for multiple comparisons. Our findings suggest that methanolic extract of whole plant <em>Leucas diffusa</em> have got profound antioxidant effect and showed significant anti-ulcer activity at higher dose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Leucas diffusa</em>; Antioxidant; Flavanoid; anti-ulcer activity.</p> D. Jagadeesh Y. Anil Kumar N. Tulasi Uma Rani A Prathyusha Shaik Abdul Mahaboobsubhani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 65 72 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3647 GC–MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds Present in Marketed Herbal Formulation Pykure Capsule http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3601 <p>It is more acceptable to believe that natural remedies are safer than synthetic subjects that with fewer side effects. The global market demand was increasing due to fusion of herbs. Standardization parameters and evaluation of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drug of therapeutic value. This study was carried out in order to determine the bioactive compounds present in the marketed herbal formulation pykure capsule by using the GC–MS instrument. The extract was prepared by using 20 capsules by removing the capsule shell with ethanol solvent by simple maceration method. Capsule extract was analyzed by using Agilent 6890 GC with 59739N MSD and GC -MS equipped with Elite–I fused with silica capillary column (Cpsil 8cb:30mm×25mm×0.25mm). The result of GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of 74 compounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pykure capsule, Ethanolic extract, GC-MS analysis.</p> Seema Firdouse Humaira Fatima Begum Parwez Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 73 104 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3601 Ayurvedic Management of Infertility W.S.R. Anovulation: A Case Study http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3626 <p>Patient was anxious to conceive after active married life of 5 years. The present case study was done to evaluate the role of Ayurvedic <em>Shodhana</em> therapy i.e. <em>Yogabasti</em> for two consecutive menstrual cycles in the management of anovulation. After completing two courses of <em>Yogabasti</em>, improvement was noticed i.e. Ovulation study (during treatment - anovulatory cycle, After treatment - ovulatory cycle). The line of treatment was followed in this case was to treat the provoked <em>Vata Dosha </em>and vitiated <em>Rasa Dhatu</em>. There were no adverse effects found during the Ayurvedic <em>Panchakarma</em> procedure i.e. <em>Yogabasti</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Anovulation,<em> Panchakarma,</em> <em>Shodhana, </em><em>Yogabasti</em></p> Neha Pandya Hetal P. Baraiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 151 153 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3626 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.): A review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3573 <p>Approaches for studying antimicrobial susceptibility and discovering new antimicrobial agents from the plants and other natural sources have been extensively utilized. <em>Withania somnifera</em>&nbsp;(L.) Dunal, commonly known as Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng or winter cherry, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal active compounds include several withanolide-type compounds. Various plant parts, like roots and less often leaves and fruits of Ashwagandha, have been used as plant-derived medicines. The plant possesses various pharmacological activities including antimicrobial activity. Many bacterial and fungal species have been used as a test microorganism for the assessment of the antimicrobial activity of extracts and purified compounds of various plant parts of Ashwagandha. In this article, we tried to compile and to discuss the information about the antimicrobial activity of <em>W. somnifera</em>. This will provide the platform for the researchers to select plants, plant parts, solvent system, test microorganisms, method of evaluation and other related factors affecting the analysis.</p> Nisha Khanchandani Prachi Shah Twinkle Kalwani Anujkumar Ardeshna Darshan Dharajiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 154 161 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3573 Generalizabilty Probability: Importance in Clinical Research http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3587 <p>International conference on harmonization (ICH) suggested that bridging study is important to extrapolate clinical results. and also us food and drug administration requires Substantial evidences regarding safety. The review explains about different approaches that are necessary for obtaining clinical results, various clinical results were performed between similar patient population within same or different regions. moreover no criteria on the&nbsp; evaluation of similarity of clinical results between regions is given .It is important in regulatory submission of new drug application .Mainly this review explains about how clinical results are reproducible.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: ICH, Generalizability, probability&nbsp; Reproducibility, clinical trails, bridging study.</p> Rada Santosh Kumar S. Sai Kiran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 162 163 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3587 Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3634 <p>Artificial intelligence is to reduce human cognitive functions. It is bringing an approach to healthcare, powdered by increasing the availability of healthcare data and rapid progress of analyst techniques. We can survey the current status of Artificial intelligence applications in healthcare and discuss its future uses. It is the most transformative technology of the 21th century. Healthcare has been identified as an early candidate to be revolutized by artificial intelligence technologies. This article aims for providing an early stage contribution with the decision making capacities of artificial intelligence technologies. The possible ethical and legally complex backdrop of the existing framework. I will conclude the present structures are largely fit to deal with the challenge of artificial intelligence are present will discuss clearly about the artificial intelligence contribution to the present health care. Artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning can assist with proactive patient care, reduced future risk and streamlined work processes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Artificial intelligence, machine learning, clinical decision support.</p> G.V.K.S. Abhinav S Naga Subrahmanyam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 164 166 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3634 Ayurveda Internal Medicine for the Management of Common Metabolic Disorders W.S.R. to Madhumeha and Sthoulya http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3637 <p>The metabolic disorders are major health issues of today’s scenario and incidences of metabolic diseases increases day by day due to the disturbed pattern of life style. Ayurveda texts have described term “<em>Santarpanjanya Vikaras</em>” which resembles diseases of defective tissue metabolism. Ayurveda mentioned that improper dietary habits and sedentary life style affects state of <em>Agni</em> which resulted <em>Ama </em>production and finally leading to the metabolic syndrome. The vitiation of <em>Dosha, </em>diminish state of <em>Dhatu</em> and blockage of channels, etc. also can initiate pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. The<em> Kayachikitsa</em> branch of Ayurveda recommended use of internal medicine for the management of various metabolic disorders. Considering increased health burden of society due to the metabolic syndrome present article explore role of ayurveda internal medicine for the management of metabolic syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda, metabolic syndrome, Santarpanjanya, Madhumeha </em>and<em> Sthoulya. </em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dhananjay S. Khot ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 167 169 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3637 A Comprehensive Review on Pharmaceutical Oral Dissolving Films http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3641 <p>Oral fast dissolving films are novel approach which are used now a days due to better patient compliance, rapid dissolution, onset of action . It was designed to overcome the disadvantages of orally disintegrating tablets. This technology is now found to be more effective and convenient as comparison to conventional dosage forms . These oral films are having water soluble polymers that quickly hydrate through saliva got disintegrate and starts its effect. Now a days this formulation is found to be more beneficial for both gediatric and pediatric patients . These films have greater advantage that it bypass the first pass effect due to which it directly reaches to its maximum concentration and produces good therapeutic effect.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Dissolution, Conventional dosage form, gediatric, pediatric.</p> , Priyanka Kapil Kumar Deepak Teotia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 170 174 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3641 Lallemantia royleana Benth. (Balangu): A Compendious Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Ethnomedicinal Uses http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3279 <p><em>Lallemantia royleana</em> Benth. is an annual, biennial or perennial herb, belonging to the family <em>Lamiaceae</em>, commonly known as Balangu. It is cultivated throughout Western Asia, India, Pakistan and Northern of Iraq. In Unani system of medicine it act as a <em>Mudire Baul</em>&nbsp; (Diuretic), <em>Muqawwi Qalb</em> (Cardiotonic), <em>Musakkin</em> (Sedative) etc and used for treatment of&nbsp; <em>Nazla wa Zukam</em> (Common cold) , <em>Humma</em> (Fever), <em>Dard Mafasil</em> (Joint pain), <em>Hudar</em> (Rheumatism), <em>Amraze Gurda</em> (Renal disorder), <em>Zofe Qalb</em> (Weakness of heart) etc. Traditional observation reports that this plant retains potential to cure infectious diseases. Nowadays, it is receiving substantial consideration by scientist and pharmaceutical research industries with the aim to explore for more effective substitute. The seeds contain linoleic, oleic, betasitosterol, palmitic and stearic acids, its gums are composed of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, protein, uronic anhydride and are generally used for the treatment of abscesses, inflammation and respiratory problems, also used in drinks due to its sedative effects. This plant seems to possess many undiscovered pharmacological properties which have to be explored.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Lallemantia royleana</em> Benth, Unani medicine, Traditionl medicine.</p> Afshan khan Aisha Siddiqui Anwar Jamal Gulnar Fatima ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-18 2019-10-18 9 5-s 175 177 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3279 New Frontier in the Treatment of Diabetes http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3375 <p>Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases recognized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in secretion in insulin, insulin action or both. There are different types of diabetes like Type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, secondary diabetes, wolfram syndrome and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are most common type of diabetes. Polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss slow wound healing, etc. are common symptoms of Diabetes. Diabetes can be genetic; autoimmune, medical related or even diet related. In this article causes and treatment of diabetes is discussed in detail. It includes glimpse of novel technologies like patches, pump and pens, etc. It also includes momentary of other treatment like oral and Injectable hypoglycemic drug and surgical treatments. A glance of latest innovation for measuring glucose level in body with help of sweat, breath and saliva are explained.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (TY2DM), Polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, clicksoft microinjection, insulin pen, v-go</p> Abhishek Jayesh Bhatt Arya Sudhanshu Vyas Devarshi Priyesh Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 178 187 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3375 Microsponges: A Promising Novel Drug Delivery System http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3649 <p>Microsponge is recent novel technique for control release and target specific drug delivery system. More and more developments in drug delivery systems are being integrated to optimize the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the therapy. Microsponges are polymeric delivery system containing porous microspheres having a size range from 5 to 300µm. Microsponge Delivery System (MDS) is a unique technology for controlled drug delivery. This review article mainly deals with Microsponge drug delivery along with its method of preparation, characterization, advantages and release mechanism of MDS. Microsponges are characterized by particle size, entrapment efficacy, true density, % drug content and % yield, dissolution studies, Resiliency, compatibility studies and in-vitro studies. Wide range of applications is also preferred to develop drug with enhanced safety and efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microsponge, Porous microspheres, Control release, Colon.</p> K. Naga Jyothi P. Dinesh Kumar P. Arshad M. Karthik T. Panneerselvam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 9 5-s 188 194 10.22270/jddt.v9i5-s.3649