Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <p class="MsoNormal">&nbsp;</p> <table class="MsoTableLightGridAccent2" style="width: 634.5pt; border-collapse: collapse; border: none; mso-border-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor: accent2; mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184; mso-padding-alt: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" border="1" width="846" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 189.9pt; border: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor: accent2; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="253"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #0070c0;"><a href="http://road.issn.org/issn/2250-1177-journal-of-drug-delivery-and-therapeutics-#.VqeN6Jp961s"><strong><span style="color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">ISSN: 2250-1177</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">UGC</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> Approved</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> (</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/journallist/ugc_admin_journal_report.aspx?eid=NDU3NDQ="><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;">Link</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/global-health/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Global Health</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101656626" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">NLM ID: 101656626</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">EBSCO</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 3.3in; border-top: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-top-themecolor: accent2; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; border-right: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-right-themecolor: accent2; mso-border-left-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-left-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="317"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/cab-abstracts/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Cab Abstracts</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="http://www.cas.org/products/other-cas-products"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">CODEN (CAS-USA): JDDTAO</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/crop-science-database/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">C</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">rop Science Database</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/journal/issue?issueId=30973&amp;journalId=40300"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">IndexCopernicus</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user=4UICAisAAAAJ&amp;hl=en"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Google Scholar</span></strong></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> H-Index: 19</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 207.0pt; border-top: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-top-themecolor: accent2; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; border-right: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-right-themecolor: accent2; mso-border-left-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-left-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="276"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">CrossRef DOI:10.22270</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">E-Mail: editor.jddt@gmail.com</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Phone: +91-9783920207</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Frequency: 6 Issue/Year</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Double-Blind Peer-reviewed</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal">Â&nbsp;</p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics (JDDT) </span></strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">is a </span><strong><em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">double blind</span></em></strong> <strong><em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">peer-reviewed</span></em></strong> <em><strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">bimonthly</span></strong></em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> journal dedicated to the publication of research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, ShortÂ&nbsp;communicationsÂ&nbsp;and case studies. It is theÂ&nbsp;official journal of<strong> Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats (SoPhTech)</strong>. This publication is aimed at a broad, interdisciplinary audience of academic and industrial researchers actively engaged in basic and applied laboratory practice, related to Pharmaceutical Science and Therapeutics.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 12pt 0in; line-height: normal; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #00b0f0;">Year of Starting: 2011</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #e36c0a; mso-themecolor: accent6; mso-themeshade: 191;">UGC</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 15.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #e36c0a; mso-themecolor: accent6; mso-themeshade: 191;"> Approved Journal</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #002060;"> (</span></strong><a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/journallist/ugc_admin_journal_report.aspx?eid=NDU3NDQ="><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">See Link</span></strong></a><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #002060;">)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><img title="j15_855" src="/public/site/images/jddtadmin/j15_855.jpg" alt="j15_855" width="855" height="129"></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <form action="https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr" method="post"> <p style="margin: 12pt 0in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">&nbsp;</p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">ARTICLE SUBMISSION CHARGES:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> Nil</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #7030a0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">ARTICLE PROCESSING FEES</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">:</span></strong> <span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #111111;">The fees to be paid following the acceptance of an article are indicated below:</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">1750 INR/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Indian Authors</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;">USD 45/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;"> for Authors from Low-Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">USD 55/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Authors from Low-Middle Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;">USD 65/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;"> for Authors from Upper-Middle-Income Countries</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">USD 90/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Authors from High-Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #00b050;">(No other hidden charges)</span></strong> <a href="/index.php/jddt/about/editorialPolicies#custom-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #669900;">More detail</span></a> <span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">for waiver policy.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: mediumblue;">Why publish in</span></strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: mediumblue;"> <strong>Journal of Drug Delivery &amp; Therapeutics?</strong></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">1.Â&nbsp;A broad ranging open access journal</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">2.Â&nbsp;Fast and efficient on-line submission</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">3.Â&nbsp;Rapid publication and High visibility</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">4.Â&nbsp;Constructive rapid &amp; Expert peer review</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">5.Â&nbsp;Archiving of your article in various international repositories</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">6.Â&nbsp;Our journal is indexed in various international indexing authorities</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">7.Â&nbsp;"Certificate of publication" to the authors of accepted articles (On Demand)</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><img title="sc111_328" src="/public/site/images/jddtadmin/sc111_328.jpg" alt="sc111_328" width="320" height="328"></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Other Related Journal:</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #0070c0;"><a href="/index.php/jddt/manager/setup/International Journal of Drug Regulatory Affairs" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #0070c0; text-decoration-line: none;">International Journal of Drug Regulatory Affairs</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"> (IJDRA)</span></strong></p> </form><form> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #002060;"><a href="http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #002060; text-decoration-line: none;">Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"> (AJPRD)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal">&nbsp;</p> </form> Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia by Iris kashmiriana baker http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2064 <p>A larger number of medicinal plants and their purified constituents have been shown beneficial therapeutic potentials. We present here the protective effects of an Indian medicinal plant <em>Iris Kashmiriana</em> as compared to Ofloxacin in <em>E. coli</em> induced peritonitis.<em> Iris Kashmiriana</em> is one of an important member of family Iridaceae, locally known as Mazarmund in Kashmir. The plant has been widely used in traditional medicine and modern clinical preparations to treat cold, flu, malaria, toothache, cancer, bacterial, viral infections and bruise. Rats were pre-treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg/bwt dose for 3 days and fourth day with <em>E. coli </em>(1×10<sup>8</sup> CFU/ml) strain and consecutively 3 days treatment. Mortality was monitored for 14 days. After the death of rats or completion of the experiment rats were sacrifice and kidney were used for our protocol. Colonies were count and statically analysis was done. Results showed dose dependent anti-microbial activity. Pretreatment of mice with <em>Iris Kashmiriana </em>improved bacterial clearance as well as improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of neutrophils. In the Ofloxacin treated mice although bacterial clearance was rapid, polymorph phagocytosis was depressed. Thus the results, obtained justify the traditional use of <em>Iris Kashmiriana</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Iris kashmiriana, E. coli</em> induced peritonitis, Neutrophils, Ofloxacin.</p> Javeed Iqbal Wagay Kirti Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 1 4 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2064 Novel application of mixed solvency concept in the development of oral liquisolid system of a poorly soluble drug, cefixime and its evaluation http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2167 <p>Application of mixed solvency has been employed in the present research work to develop a liquisolid system (Powder formulation) of poorly water soluble drug, cefixime (as model drug).<strong> Material and Methods: </strong>For poorly water soluble drug cefixime, combination of solubilizers such as sodium acetate, sodium caprylate and propylene glycol as mixed solvent systems were used to decrease the overall concentration of solubilizers required to produce substantial increase in solubility and thereby resulting in enhanced drug loading capacity of cefixime. The procured sample of cefixime was characterized by melting point, IR, UV and DSC studies. Stability studies of liquisolid system of cefixime were performed for two months at room temperature, 30˚C and 40˚C. All the formulations were physically, chemically, and microbiologically stable. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mixed solvency concept has been successfully employed for enhancing the drug loading of poorly water soluble drug, cefixime.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Solubility, cefixime, liquisolid system, mixed solvency concept.</p> Rinshi Agrawal RK Maheshwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 5 8 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2167 Screening and evaluation of ethanolic extract from Casuarina equisetifolia inflorescence on isolated chick rectum, frog rectum and frog rectus abdominus muscle for identification of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor’s action http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2068 <p>The present experiments were undertaken to justify the use of an ethanolic extract from inflorescence of <em>Casuarina equisetifolia, </em>Family: Casuarinaceae, influencing the nicotine responses on isolated chick rectum and frog rectum (Smooth Muscles) and frog rectus abdominus muscle (Skeletal Muscle). The isolated tissues were mounted in organ bath filled with physiological solution and was suitably aerated. After equilibration, responses were taken to different doses of nicotine (log doses) till a ceiling response was obtained. A sub-maximal dose of nicotine was selected and responses to this dose was taken and ensured that there is reproducibility of response. The drum was allowed to move for 1min., different concentrations of extracts into the organ baths were added and allowed to act for 1min without flushing the baths, then the sub-maximal dose of nicotine was added and allowed to act for 1min. this procedure was repeated (without extract) till the original response was obtained. The inference drawn from these experiments, the ethanolic extract of inflorescence of <em>Casuarina equisetifolia </em>antagonised the action of nicotine on isolated chick rectum, relaxed the effect of nicotine on frog rectum and it potentiated the effect of nicotine on frog rectus abdominus muscle. The nicotine receptors of rectus abdominus is activated, perhaps by the prevention of hydrolysis of acetylcholine by the extract. Based on the results obtained from the isolated chick rectum the ethanolic extract is having antinicotinic activity and it may act on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs<strong>) </strong>as well as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) on other isolated tissues. The extract might contain ganglionic blocking activity or non-specific activity or membrane stabilising activity also.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nicotine, Ethanolic extract, Inflorescence of <em>Casuarina equisetifolia,</em> Isolated Chick Rectum, Isolated Frog Rectum and Isolated Frog Rectus Abdominus Muscle.</p> O. Umamaheswar Rao M. Chinna Eswaraiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 9 13 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2068 Screening of antioxidant property of Eclipta alba http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2070 <p>The aim of the study was to examine the possible antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of medicinal plants, <em>Eclipta alba.</em> We examined for such properties such as nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity. Free radicals are atoms or molecules that have one or more unpaired electrons on its outer orbital, highly reactive, and could damage cell inside human body. Human body produce antioxidant to neutralize free radicals, but human ageing and stress oxidative conditions would increase the formation of free radicals, therefore an exogenous antioxidant are needed. Asteraceae is the largest family among the plant kingdom, therefore it has a great potential as source of exogenous antioxidant. The flavonoid content of the plant extract was estimated by the method of (Lamaison and Carnat, 1990). Briefly 1.0 ml of plant extract was mixed with 1.0 ml of aluminium chloride reagent and resultant colour was read at 430 nm. The flavonoid content of the extract was expressed as mg quercetin equivalent/gm dry wt. of extract. The coarsely powdered plant materials of <em>Eclipta alba</em> (2000 g) were extracted separately to exhaustion in Soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours by using methanol solvent The crude extract was filtered using 125 mm Whatman® qualitative filter paper under sterile condition. A methanol solution of the sample at various concentrations was added to 0.5 ml of 0.1 mM methanolic solution of DPPH and allowed to stand for 30 min at 25°C in darkness. The absorbance of the sample was measured at 517 nm. A 0.1 mM solution of DPPH in methanol was used as control, whereas ascorbic acid was used as reference standard.&nbsp; The absorbance of the pink chromophore formed during the diazotization of the nitrite with sulphanilamide and the subsequent coupling with naphthyl ethylenediamine dihydrochloride was measured at 546 nm. &nbsp;The percentage of inhibition of the extract shown 39% in 25µg and in 100µg it was 73 percent.</p> Rohit Mittal R Kumar HS Chahal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 14 17 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2070 Assessment of hemolytic effect of Cassia flower extracts on human RBCs http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2169 <p>RBC membrane can be affected by consumption of bioactive compounds from herbs and medicinal plants. This study aimed to assess hemolytic effect of crude ethyl acetate and acetone extract from <em>Cassia glauca </em>flowers. Both the extracts of <em>Cassia</em> flowers were prepared, using Soxhlet apparatus. RBCs were washed with phosphate buffered saline and resuspended in 0.9% normal saline. These RBCs were added to different concentrations of the extracts and then incubated. After centrifugation, absorbance of the supernatant was determined by UV spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The present work shows that the fractions exhibited anti-hemolytic potential as extracts of <em>Cassia</em> flower showed very less percent of hemolysis when compared to standard quercetin. IC<sub>50</sub>values were found to be 23.77μg/ml for (CF EA) and 12.50μg/ml for <em>Cassia</em> flower in acetone(CF A)against standard which was found to be 41.75μg/ml. Extracts of <em>Cassia</em> flower exhibited very low hemolytic activity. Hence, it can be considered as safe to human RBCs.&nbsp; In future recommend further <em>in vitro </em>and <em>in vivo </em>studies to evaluate the clinical efficacy of <em>Cassia glauca </em>extracts for treated several diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Extract, Acetone, Ethyl acetate, <em>Cassia glauca </em>flowers, Hemolytic effect, RBCs</p> Shital S. Phuse Zia. H. Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 18 20 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2169 Prescription auditing based on World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators: A case of Dilla University referral hospital http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2165 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Rational use of drugs requires that patients receive medications appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements for an adequate period of time, at the lowest cost to them and their community. The issues of irrational use of medicines is global and that a global approach coordinated by WHO with more vigorous implementation of leadership and evidence based advocacy of rational use of medicine is essential</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Cross-sectional descriptive and quantitative study was conducted at Dilla University Referral Hospital to determine the current prescribing practices. 1440 prescription were selected using systematic random sampling and reviewed retrospectively for a 2-year period from from September 01/2016 to August 31/ 2018 using prescriptions and Prescription registry.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 1.813&nbsp; ranging from 1 and 6. 1437(99.79%), 1287(89.38%), 1392 (96.67%), 1428 (99.17%) and 0(0%) of the analyzed prescriptions had name of the patient, date, medical record number, age and address of the patients respectively. Antibiotic and injection was prescribed in 842(58.47%) and 94(6.53%) of encounters respectively. The Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name and from an essential drug list was 85.33% (n=2227) and 97.43% (n=2543), respectively. Of the total 2610 drugs, 2431(93.14%) drugs were actually dispensed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Polypharmacy, percentage of encounters with with injection and percentage of drugs from essential drug list was within acceptable range. The prescribing practice for antibiotics and generic medicines shows significant deviation from WHO.</p> <h3>Keywords: Prescription auditing, WHO prescribing indicators,&nbsp; Dilla University Referral Hospital.</h3> Nigatu Addisu Bekele Jarsso Tadesse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 21 25 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2165 Evaluation of polyherbal ointment for wound healing activity in Wistar rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2072 <p>The aim of present study to formulate, evaluate and to check the wound healing activity of newly prepared polyherbal formulation (ointment) .Herbal ointment containing hydrochloric extracts of plants <em>Psorolea corylifalia, Achryanthes aspera</em> ,was formulated as ointment and the hydro alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration method. These Formulations were evaluated for the following parameters: pH, Spread ability, grittiness, skin irritation study, stability. The wound healing activity is assessed by the rate of wound contraction, Period of epithelisation and skin breaking strength.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Herbal Ointment, Wound Healing Activity.</p> Shilpa S. Kolhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 26 31 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2072 Phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antioxidant studies of selected species of Gomphostemma Wall. ex Benth. from Western Ghats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2074 <p>Plants are a rich source of bioactive compounds and have played a vital role in traditional medicine. Plant derived compounds are proved to have less side effects as compared to synthetic compounds. However, a truncated history on the contribution of plants to medicine together with lack of validation of plant derived components have led to massive research in phytochemistry and allied fields. Present study was intended to identify as well as to assess and compare different phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of selected taxa of <em>Gomphostemma</em> endemic to Western Ghats. Methanolic extracts of aerial parts of <em>Gomphostemma heyneanum</em> var. <em>heyneanum</em>, <em>Gomphostemma heyneanum</em> var. <em>rottleri </em>and <em>Gomphostemma eriocarpum</em> were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Quantitative estimation of phenols and flavonoids was done with Folin-Ciocalteu method and modified Aluminium chloride method respectively. Antioxidant potential was examined by DPPH assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and Reducing power activity. Preliminary screening indicated the presence of many secondary metabolites like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and steroids. Results of quantitative estimation revealed that <em>G. heyneanum</em> var. <em>heyneanum</em> has the highest concentration of phenols and flavonoids. Antioxidant potential determined in terms of inhibition percentage also displayed that <em>Gomphostemma</em> species have significant radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant potential exhibited by the plant species may be attributed to their phenol and flavonoid content.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Phytochemical constituents, <em>Gomphostemma</em>, Quantitative estimation, Total phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidant activity, DPPH assay, Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, Reducing power activity.</p> M. K Sajitha J. E. Thoppil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 32 37 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2074 Phytochemical screening of Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. treated with seaweed liquid fertilizer http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2195 <p><strong>Premise of the study: </strong>The objective of the work is to manitor the phytochemicals present in methanolic extract of <em>Lycopersicum esculentum </em>after treatment with different concentrations of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF). <strong>Methods:</strong> In this study SLF treated <em>L.esculentum</em> were characterized through gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to identify the phytochemicals constituents and functional groups of the compounds. <strong>Results: </strong>Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, terpinoids. Among the thirty nine phytochemical constituents octa decanoic acid, stigmasterol, hexa decanoic acid and Vitamin E are relatively present in higher yield. The active phytochemical compounds and their constituents were identified with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The retention time, percentage of area, molecular weight and chemical formula of phytochemical compounds were determined with help of NIST08 and WILEY8 libraries. The functional groups identified from the spectrum techniques are alcohol, aldehyde, iso cyanides, alkyl compound and chloro compounds. Accordingly hexadecanic acid, beta.-amyrin, gamma sisterol, octodecanic acid, phytol, stigmasterol, vitamin E, lupeol were derived from SLF treated i.e. compared to control plants. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of this study offer a platform of using SLF treated <em>L.esculentum</em> has an alternative source for various biological studies and it can be used as functional and pharmaceutical purposes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>SLF, <em>Lycopersicum esculentum</em>, Phytochemical, GC-MS and FTIR</p> M. Niranjanadevi K. Sivakumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 38 43 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2195 Single dose oral toxicity study of ethanolic extract from inflorescence of Casuarina equisetifolia in Wistar rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2075 <p>The purpose of the study was to evaluate the single dose oral toxicity of the ethanolic extract from inflorescence of <em>Casuarina equisetifolia</em>, Family: Casuarinaceae in female Wistar Rats. The acute toxicity study was carried out based on Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline 423. However, this plant safety evaluation data was not available so, selected the starting dose from 300 mg/kg body weight. The animals were orally administered a single dose of 300 mg/kg body weight and followed by 2000 mg/kg body weight in next step. Signs of toxicity and mortality were observed after 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 24h of administration of the extract and once daily for 14 days. There was no mortality in the tested animals and no abnormal clinical signs were observed related to test item. No abnormalities were detected in gross pathology observations in all the rats at both the dose levels. Based on observations of the present study, it can be concluded that the LD<sub>50</sub> of ethanolic extract from inflorescence of <em>Casuarina equisetifolia</em> is greater than 2000mg/kg body weight and can be classified as Category 5; however, further studies are needed to confirm long term toxicities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Acute oral toxicity, ethanolic extract from inflorescence of <em>Casuarina equisetifolia,</em> LD<sub>50</sub>, OECD Test Guideline, Wistar Rat.</p> O. Umamaheswar Rao M. Chinna Eswaraiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 44 47 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2075 In vivo antioxidant activity of Ethanolic extract from root of Smilax zeylanica on Aluminium Chloride Induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2078 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of the present study was to investigate the Evaluation of In vivo antioxidant activity of Ethanolic extract of root of <em>Smilax zeylanica</em>(EESZ)<em> on</em> Aluminium Chloride Induced apoptosis suppressing oxidative stress&nbsp; in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract from the roots of <em>S. china </em>by hot continuous percolation method. The rats were divided into 5 groups and each group consists of 6 animals. Rats were treated with EESC for 150 and 300 mg/ kg of body weight and piracetam, 0.5 mg/ kg of body weight for 14 successive days after inducing oxidative stress &nbsp;with aluminium chloride (100 mg/ kg of body weight) for 60 days. The lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and antioxidant activities like Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced Glutathione (GSH) were estimated in rats. Results: AlCl<sub>3 </sub>induced rats showed increased the TBARS and decreased the antioxidant enzymes like Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced Glutathione (GSH) when compared with the control group. The EESZ at higher dose 300 mg/ kg of body weight animals were significantly (P &lt; 0.001) reduced the TBARS and increased the anti oxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced Glutathione (GSH) when compared with the AlCl<sub>3 </sub>treated group <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings of the present study revealed that Ethanolic extract from roots of <em>Smilax zeylanica</em> &nbsp;may be used as a significant source of natural antioxidant, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>S. zeylanica</em>, antioxidant, ethanolic extract, TBARS, rats.</p> B. Sabari Senthil V.K. Kalaichelvan A. Kottai Muthu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 48 52 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2078 Preliminary phytochemical profile of Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) Lamouroux collected from Koothankuzhi Coast, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2079 <p>The present study was intended to discover the preliminary phytochemicals of <em>Dictyota dichotoma </em>(Huds.) Lamouroux from Koothankuzhi coast, Tirunelveli district, the south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted in seven extracts namely methanol, acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, hexane and benzene by Harborne method. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanin, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, catechin, coumarins, diterpenes, emodins, flavonoids, glycosides, leucoanthocyanin, lignins, phenols, phlobatannins, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and triterpenoids. Among the various phytochemicals studied, tannin showed the maximum presence, being found in seven different extracts and anthraquinones was observed in only one extract. From the results, it was noted that the extracts of <em>Dictyota dichotoma </em>(Huds.) Lamouroux was found to be the presence of a number of active secondary metabolites. This report will lead to the isolation and characterization of these active secondary metabolites for bioefficacy and bioactivity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytochemical, Bioactive compounds<em>, </em>Seaweed extracts, <em>Dictyota</em><em>, </em>Tamil Nadu.</p> Paul J John Peter ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 53 56 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2079 Effect of a novel succinamic acid derivative as potential anti-diabetic agent in experimental diabetic rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2080 <p>4-((benzyloxy) amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid which is a succinamic acid derivative has been synthesized in 3 step reaction with malic acid. Its structure confirmation was done by various techniques like <sup>1</sup>H NMR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR, &amp; HRMS and is recently proposed as an insulinotropic agent for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the effect of 4-((benzyloxy) amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid on plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic model was investigated.&nbsp; 4-((benzyloxy) amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid was administered orally (20 mg/kg b.w.) to streptozotocin + nicotinamide (STZ + NAD) induced diabetic rats for 28 days. A significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels, HbA1c levels, Serum lipid profile (TG &amp; TC) and in&nbsp; the levels of Malonaldialdehyde (MDA, end product of lipid peroxidation) was observed in STZ +NAD diabetic rats whereas the levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum insulin levels were significantly decreased&nbsp; in STZ + NAD induced diabetic rats The effect of 4-((benzyloxy)amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid was compared with glibenclamide, a reference drug. Treatment with 4-((benzyloxy) amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid and glibenclamide resulted in a significant reduction of fasting blood glucose levels with increase in plasma insulin levels in diabetic treated rats. 4-((benzyloxy) amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid also resulted in a significant improvement in serum lipids and lipid peroxidation products. Our results suggest the potential role of 4-((benzyloxy) amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus experimental rats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> 4-((benzyloxy) amino)-2-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoic acid, dyslipidemia, streptozotocin induced diabetes, lipid peroxidation</p> Nikhil Khurana Pankaj Sharma Sunita Bhagat Suman Bala Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 57 62 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2080 Formulation and evaluation of prazosin hydrochloride loaded solid lipid nanoparticles http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2170 <p>Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) are rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential application in drug delivery and research. Drugs having low aqueous solubility not only give low oral bioavailability but provide high inter-and intra subject variability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bioavailability enhancement of Prazosin Hydrochloride drug by formulating solid lipid nanoparticle. Prazosin Hydrochloride Drug is an antihypertensive drug with limited bioavailability so that solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) is one of the approaches to improve bioavailability. SLN were prepared using glyceryl monostearate by hot homogenization followed by Solvent emulsification-ultrasonication. Prazosin Hydrochloride loaded SLN were characterized and optimized by parameters like particle size, zeta potential, XRD, DSC. Proposing Hydrochloride loaded SLN having the particle size 263.8±1.88 and entrapment efficiency 89.29<strong>±</strong>0.65% shows better bioavailability and optimum stability in studies. The SLN studies prepared using glyceryl mono stearate&nbsp;&nbsp; as a lipid and Polaxamer 407 as a polymer leads to improve bioavailability of the drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Prazosin Hydrochloride, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Entrapment efficiency, DSC</p> Sandip Akaram Bandgar Pranali Dhavale Pravin Patil Sardar Shelake Shitalkumar Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 63 69 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2170 Formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system of verapamil hydrochloride http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2081 <p>The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate a matrix type of transdermal drug delivery system containing Verapamil Hydrochloride. The series of formulations containing Verapamil Hydrochloride were formulated by using different polymers like HPMC (hydrophilic), CAP (hydrophobic) and EC (hydrophobic) in different ratios by solvent evaporation technique. Propylene glycol and Dibutyl phthalate were used as plasticizers. The 20% and 40% of DMSO is used as the penetration enhancer. Formulated transdermal patches were physically evaluated for thickness, weight variation, drug content, flatness, tensile strength, folding endurance, and water vapour transmission rate. The in-vitro drug release study was carried out by using Franz diffusion cell. The data obtained from release study shows increased percentage of drug permeated in 20% of DMSO containing formulation than 40% of DMSO containing formulation. Drug permeation is enhanced in the formulation containing high concentration of HPMC (VH1). The VH2 and VH6 helped in maintaining the rate of release at a constant level (20% DMSO). But in case of 40% DMSO is used as the concentration of CAP increases the rate of permeation increases. Skin irritation study does not show any irritation on the skin of rabbit. There is no possible interaction between drug and polymers in FITR as well as DSC. XRD of selected formulation shows that drug present in the formulation is in crystalline form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Verapamil HCl, HPMC, EC, CAP, DMSO, TDDS, Solvent evaporation</p> S C Marapur D S Wali B S Hunasagi M Chetankumar R G Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 70 77 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2081 RP-HPLC method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of Cilnidipine, Atenolol and Chlorthalidone http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2205 <p>A simple precise and economical reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Cilnidipine (CDP), Atenolol (ATL) and Chlorthalidone (CTD).The chromatographic separation was achieved by using <em>Hypersil-</em> keystone C<sub>18</sub> (4.6 x 250mm, 5μm) under isocratic conditions The mobile phase consisted of methanol and triple distilled water (80/20, v/v) having pH 7 with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored at 225 nm for simultaneous measurement.The selected chromatographic conditions were found to effectively separate CDP (Rt: 3.25 min), ATL (Rt: 5.366 min) and CTD (Rt: 9.025 min) having good resolution. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, robustness and for system suitability parameters as per ICH guidelines. In this study, an excellent linearity was obtained with r<sup>2</sup> = 0.999, r² = 0.999, r² = 1, for CDP, ATL and CTD respectively. The developed chromatographic method proved to be simple, precise, accurate, robust and reproducible Thus, this method would be employed for routine simultaneous quantification of CDP, ATL and CTD in bulk form or tablet dosage form.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cilnidipine, Atenolol and Chlorthalidone, RP-HPLC.</p> Vishal Singh Solanki RAM SINGH BISHNOI Raviraj Baghel Deepti Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 78 82 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2205 Withania somnifera promotes stress resistant activity in Drosophila melanogaster http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2082 <p>Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain of an individual.&nbsp; In recent years nutritional antioxidants study have gain more attention in minimizing the stress like oxidative stress. The stress resistant ability in an organism can be increased by the supplementation of herbal resources. However, few plant extracts are known to have stress resistant ability and increases the tolerance capacity. Plants containing high antioxidant and other bioactive compounds promote tolerance capacity. An antioxidant rich plant has been proved to decreases the&nbsp;&nbsp; lipid peroxidation. Here, we investigated the potential protective effect of ethanolic extract of <em>Withania somnifera</em> (WS), against Paraquat toxicity on stress tolerance capacity using <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>. Wild-type fruit flies of Oregon-K strain were fed with standard food media with 1mg/ml and 10 mg/ml of WS.&nbsp; The oxidative stress was induced by exposing the extract supplemented flies to Paraquat (20 mM).&nbsp; The stress tolerance capacity of flies was measured by subjecting to desiccation and oxidative stresses. Further, locomotor activity, lipid peroxidation were also studied along with the quantification of triglycerides, glycogen in WS fed flies under stress conditions. Our result reveals that PQ induced WS fed flies showed greater survivability, better locomotor ability when compared to PQ induced flies.WS fed flies increases about 73.55% of resistance ability under oxidative conditions and increased by 59.15% under desiccation than PQ induced flies. WS was more effective in protecting against Paraquat toxicity. The flies fed with high dose of WS (10mg/ml) showed greater improvement of the tolerance ability when subjected to desiccation and oxidative stresses. Further, the data on biochemical analysis reveals that lipid peroxidation activities were found to be significantly low and the triglyceride as well as glycogen quantities were found to be significantly high in WS fed flies compare to –ve control under both desiccation and oxidative stress conditions.&nbsp; Together, these findings suggest that WS promotes stress resistant ability by modulating metabolism and reducing oxidative damage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Drosophila melanogaster, Withania somnifera</em>, Oxidative stress assay, Desiccation Assay, Negative Geotaxis,&nbsp;</p> B.P. Renuka Prasad J.S. Ashadevi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 83 88 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2082 Study of Prescribing Pattern, Identification of Drug Related Problems and Therapeutic Intervention in Cardio Vascular Diseases (CVD) Patients http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2088 <p>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a disorder of heart and blood vessels. CVD is one of the major causes of deaths in India, which contributed around 30 to 40%. The aim of the study was to study the prescribing pattern of drugs, identification of drug related problems and therapeutic intervention in CVD patients. A hospital based prospective and observational study was carried out for a period of nine months in a south Indian tertiary care hospital. Among 120 selected patients, 79 were male&nbsp; (65.83%) and 41 were female&nbsp; (34.16%), more number of patients (35) were between the age group of 55-64 (29.16%) of which 27 were males &amp; 8 were females, and very less number of patients (6) were between the age group 85-94 (5%) of which all the 6 were male. Hypertension is the most commonest and dominant disorder, which affected 47(39.16%) patients, in which 30 were male (25%) and 17 were female (14.16%). Most common risk factor is HTN followed with smoking and diabetes of 45 patients (37.5%). The most often prescribed pattern adopted in CVD is Dual therapy, it is most frequently used therapy 50 (41.66%) and quadruple therapy is less frequently 6(6.5%) used. The diuretics and calcium channel blocker combination were maximally prescribed class of drugs as a dual therapy. A total of 47 drug-drug interactions were found, among 12 were major, 15 were moderate and 20 were minor interactions. Clinical pharmacist has intervened with the help of other health care professionals in order to reduce the risk factor and minimise the drug-drug interactions. The study provides the benefits of presence of clinical pharmacist in a hospital setting, in order to prevent the medication related errors and provide the expertise pharmacotherapy opinion in CVD patients, which improves the patient compliance.&nbsp; Hence study justifies a need of active collaboration between clinical pharmacist, physician and other health care professionals for the better management of CVD patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Prescribing Pattern; Cardio Vascular Diseases; Drug Related Problems; Therapeutic Intervention.</p> S M. Biradar Mohammed Naveed P. Keerthi Sai H. Pruthvi Raju A. Harish Kumar Anand P. Ambali Vijaya Sorangavi B. Shivakumar N V. Kalyane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 89 93 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2088 Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of Ulva rigida C.Ag. collected from Koothankuzhi Coast, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2091 <p>The present study was concentrated to explore the phytochemicals present in the methanolic extract of <em>Ulva rigida</em> C.Ag., collected from Koothankuzhi in the south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India. &nbsp;The phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract was screened using the standard procedure for UV-Visible spectroscopic, HPLC and FTIR. The UV-Visible spectrum showed the compounds separated at the nm of 662, 603, 533 and 400 with the absorption 0.653, 0.331, 0.458 and 2.684 respectively. The qualitative HPLC fingerprint profile displayed fourteen compounds at different retention time of 1.770min, 2.230min, 2.540min, 2.870min, 3.090min, 3.377min, 3.900min, 4.257min, 4.797min, 5.340min, 5.853min, 6.520min, 7.730min and 9.220min. The result of FTIR analysis was found the presence of functional groups such as alkynes, sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids, carboxylic acid salt, aldehydes, aliphatic and unsaturated hydrocarbons.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ulva rigida, </em>UV-Visible, HPLC, FTIR</p> M. Muthu Sheeba J. John Peter Paul C. Iniya Udhaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 94 96 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2091 Extraction, Qualitative and Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites of Rumex Nepalensis Roots http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2092 <p>In the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine, <em>Rumex nepalensis</em> Spreng. (Polygonaceae) commonly known as Nepal Dock has wide-spectrum therapeutic potencies and is extensively used for centuries in traditional medicine systems. They act as a possible food supplement and are largely used in pharmaceutical industry. Extracts and metabolites from this plant exhibits pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal, purgative, analesic, antipyretic, anti-algal, central nervous system depressant, genotoxic, wound healing and skeletal muscle relaxant activity. Due to its remarkable biological activities, it has the potential to act as a rich source of drug against life threatening diseases. The aim of the present study is to examine <em>Rumex nepalensis </em>roots for phytochemical profile. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Quantitative analysis of phenolic and flavonoids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent method and aluminium chloride method respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oil and fats. The total phenolics content of roots ethanolic extract was (1.658 mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (1.048mg/100mg). The present study concluded that the crude extract of <em>Rumex nepalensis</em> is a potential source of various activates and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Rumex nepalensis, </em>Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis, TPC, TFC, Folins Ciocalteau</p> Azher Nawaz Khan Irm Bhat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 97 100 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2092 In Vitro Clot Dissolving Activity of Carbomer Based Gel Containing Ethanolic Extract of Calotropis Gigantea Leaves http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2093 <p>Blood clotting is an important and vital process that takes places in humans, animals and birds. At the same time blood clots sometimes considered an issue when developed in the circulatory system due to failure of hemostasis causes vascular blockage and leads to serious consequences in thrombolytic diseases such as acute myocardial or cerebral infarction which may cause death. Certain substances like Alteplase, anistreplase, streptokinase, urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator, Heparin and Aspirin are used as clot dissolving agents. Plants have also been proved to perform such activity. <em>Calotropis gigantea </em>L. is a traditional medicinal plant with several pharmacological properties belongs to the family Apocyanaceae of <em>Asclepiadaceous</em> was investigated for its efficacy for blood clot dissolving activity under <em>in vitro</em> conditions when incorporated into carbomer based gels. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of <em>C. gigantea </em>was prepare by soxhlation which upon analysis reported to contain alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins as usual components as were reported in earlier investigations. There were 3 gels with ethanolic leaf extract <em>C. gigantea </em>with 1 mg, 0.5 mg and 0.25 mg per gram of 1% Carbopol-940 gel containing methyl paraben, glycerol and water. The two gels containing sterile distilled water and 0.1 mg per gram gel streptokinase enzyme served as –ve and positive controls respectively. The <em>in vitro</em> thrombolytic of clot dissolving activity war performed on goat blood collected from slaughter houses. From the results the percentage clot dissolving activity of gels containing 1 mg, 0.5 mg and 0.25 mg <em>C. gigantea </em>extract per gram were reported as 34%, 27% and 14% respectively considered significant when compared to the activity of standard streptokinase in the gel. The activity of these experimental gels describes the possibility of development of new safe, and non reactive topical anti-clot gel products using herbal or plant components like <em>C. gigantea </em>extracts.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Calotropis gigantea </em>L, Streptokinase, Thrombolytic activity, Carbopol gel, Biopharmaceutical.</p> Prerna Alawa Mayank Tenguria Vijayshree Nilofey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 101 104 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2093 Physicochemical, Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaf and Bark of Bombax Ceiba L (Red Silk Cotton Tree) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2094 <p><em>Bombax ceiba L</em> is a big deciduous tree found in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and Australia. Conventional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani have been highlighted the use of <em>B. ceiba</em> parts (bark, leaves and flower) for the treatment of manydiseases like hypertension, HIV infections, inflammation, catarrhal affection, ulcer, acne, gynecological disorders, fever, dysentery, algesia, hepatotoxicity,&nbsp; piles and urinary infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate pharmacognostic, physicochemical, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of leaf and bark of <em>B. ceiba</em> collected from Bhopal region of Madhya Pradesh. The pharmacognostic studies out in terms of various investigations like organoleptic or morphological characters, microscopic or anatomical studies, physicochemical evaluations (loss on drying, ash value, extractive values and acid insoluble ash value). Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The detail microscopy of bark revealed the presence of cork cell, lignified fibre, calcium oxalate crystals, xylem vessels. Physiochemical parameters such as percentage of foreign matters, ash values, loss on drying swelling index, extractive values were determined. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and glycosides.&nbsp; In the procedure of quantitative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic&nbsp;&nbsp; compound was carried out by aluminium chloride Folins and Ciocalteau reagent method .In this methodthe totalflavonoids content and phenolic content of <em>B. ceiba </em>ethanolic and aqueous barks extracts was found to be 6.272, 3.363 and 2.607, 1.607mg /100mg respectively and total phenolic and flavonoids content of <em>B. </em><em>ceiba </em>ethanolic, aqueous leaves extracts was found to be 7.381, 4.590 and 3.200, 1.792 mg/100mg respectively. These information will also be helpful to differentiate <em>B. ceiba </em>from the closely related other species. The diverse array of phytochemicals present in the plant thus suggests its therapeutic potentials which may be explored in drug manufacturing industry as well as in traditional medicine.</p> Sarita Karole Girendra Gautam Shailesh Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 105 110 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2094 Qualitative and quantitative determination of secondary metabolites and antioxidant potential of Nymphaea nouchali flowers http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2095 <p>In the Indian ayurvedic system of medicine, <em>Nymphaea nouchali</em> is used for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, liver disorders, cutaneous diseases, blenorrhagia, urinary disorders, menorrhagia, menstruation problem, as an aphrodisiac, bitter tonic, antimicrobial agent and anti antihepatotoxic effect.&nbsp; The aim of the present study is to examine <em>Nymphaea nouchali </em>flowers for phytochemical profile, <em>in vitro </em>antioxidant activities. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Quantitative analysis of phenolic and flavonoids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent method and aluminium chloride method respectively. The <em>In vitro</em> antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of the flowers was assessed against nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide assay using standard protocols. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oil and fats. The total phenolics content of flowers ethanolic extract was (18.4 mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (12.4mg/100mg). The activities of ethanolic flowers extract against nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide were concentration dependent with IC<sub>50 </sub>values of 68.39 and 64.54 μg/ml respectively. The present study concluded that the crude extract of <em>Nymphaea nouchali</em> is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Nymphaea nouchali</em>, Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Nitric oxide, Hydrogen peroxide, Phenols, Flavonoids</p> Manjeet Singh Alok Pal Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 111 115 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2095 Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of Glipizide (Anti diabetic drug) Liposphere http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2096 <p><strong>Objective- </strong>The aim of the present study was to formulate and <em>in- vitro</em> study of glipizide liposphere by using melt dispersion technique.</p> <p><strong>Methods-</strong> Glipizide Liposphere system composed of paraffin wax, Stearic acid as lipid phase and sodium lauryl sulphate as surfactant. Glipizide lipospheres were prepared by using melt dispersion technique. Formulation of Glipizide was evaluated such as organoleptic properties, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency<em> in-vitro</em> study and stability of the lipospheres.</p> <p><strong>Result-</strong> The formation of glipizide lipospheres by using melt dispersion technique was done successfully. All the formulations have off- white in colour, characteristic odour and spherical shape. The formulation A4 has particle size 19.65 μm, drug content 84.93 %, entrapment efficiency 80.75 % and the percentage drug release was carried out by using USP type 2 dissolution apparatus in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer solution and drug release of glipizide lipospheres within 12 hrs was found to be 74.06 %.stability study of glipizide lipospheres revealed that the formulation was stable at 5<sup>o</sup>C ± 3<sup>o</sup>C.</p> <p><strong>Keywords-</strong> Lipospheres, Glipizide, Paraffin wax, Melt dispersion method, Dissolution Apparatus, Stability study</p> Sarika Saini Aman Mittal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 116 119 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2096 Evaluation of antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2098 <p><em>Glycyrrhiza glabra </em>Linn. is an Indian medicinal plant demonstrated to exert multiple health cures. This plant grows naturally in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. It is traditionally used as anti-acne, anti-arthritic, anti-convulsant, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti inflammatory, wound healing, anti-oxidant, anti-platelet, anti-stress and nootropic, anti-viral, diuretic and gastroprotective. The antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic root extracts of <em>Glycyrrhizaglabra</em>was studied in wistar rats using High Fat Diet (FD) induced hyperlipidemic model, at the doses of 400 mg/kg body weight. The efficacy of extract was compared with standard drug simvastatin. The ethanolic extracts, significantly decreased the serum lipid profile level in a dose dependent manner in wistar rats. Ethanolic extracts at 400 mg/kg have shown significant antihyperlipidemic action. These results support the fact that this plant is used traditionally as antihyperlipidemic. The study will help in exploring new plant source as an antihyperlipiedemic agent which can minimize the risk and side effects as compared to that of conventional medicine.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Glycyrrhizaglabra, </em>Antihyperlipidemic Activity, Simvastatin, High Fat Diet (FD) induced hyperlipidemic model.</p> Priya Tyagi Satish Kumar Sharma Pawan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 120 124 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2098 Stability indicating analytical method validation for hydralazine hydrochloride related substances method-I by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography in drug substances http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2099 <p>A simple, rapid, precise, accurate and cost effective stability-indicating reversed phase (RP) HPLC related substance method-1 was validated for Hydralazine Hydrochloride (HYD HCl) in Active pharmaceutical ingredient. All the analytical parameters were determined as per ICH Q2B guidelines. Good chromatographic separation was achieved with Inertsil ODS 3V column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm particle size) at a wavelength of 230 nm using phosphate buffer pH 2.5 and acetonitrile as mobile phase A and Methanol as mobile phase B with gradient programming with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min. The Resolution between Hydralazine peak and impurity-A should not be less than 3.0. From the statistical treatment of the linearity data of Hydralazine HCl, it is clear that the response of Hydralazine HCl is linear between 50 % to 150 % level. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.998. The developed method showed good linearity, Accuracy, reproducibility, precision and robustness and can be suitably applied for the routine quality control analysis in the estimation of commercial formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hydralazine hydrochloride, HPLC, Validation, Estimation</p> Swamy K. Reddy Pushpendra Sharma Asheesh Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 125 134 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2099 A novel approach for failed lumbar spine surgery with topical phytotherapeutic treatment: a unique case study http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2214 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the study was to treat successfully the failed Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery (LSFS) with topical phytotherapy within twelve-week.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A male patient, aged 45years, was cripple with acute pain due to slipped disc for 4years and subsequently undergone LSFS at L4-L5 3years back. Being failed in surgery, he was treated with topical application of phytoextracts of seven medicinal plants (<em>Cissus quadrangularis, Calotropis gigantea, Zingiber officinalis, Rosemarinus officinalis</em>, <em>Boswellia serratia</em>, <em>Curcuma longa </em>and <em>Withania somnifera) </em>mixed with sesame oil and beeswax with specialized technique for twelve-week.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;The percentages of improvement in international-approved pain related abnormalities and overweight were observed after post-treatment: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (Right leg: 94.91, Left leg: 94.87&nbsp; and Lower back: 93.62), WOMAC index&nbsp; (Pain: 88.23, Stiffness: 84.71 and Physical function: 74.07), Oswestry Disability index (ODI) (74.47), Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) (62.50), Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) (80.00) and Body Mass Index (BMI) (11.93) and substantial improvement in radiological images as assessed by KL grading scale (≥ 2).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Results showed the failed LSFS at L4-L5 can be successfully treated with specialized topical phytotherapy within twelve-week, evidenced by normalization of international acclaimed pain parameters such as VAS, WOMAC index, ODI, LEFS, KPS and BMI and radiological feature as assessed by KL grading scale.</p> <p><strong>Key word: </strong>Intervertebral disc degeneration; Failed spine surgery; Phytoextracts; Phytotherapy for failed LSFS;&nbsp; Medicinal plants</p> Apurba Ganguly Devika Ganguly ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 135 140 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2214 Gastro-protective effects of methanol extract of Tephrosia calophylla http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2100 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present research work was designed to investigate gastro protective potentials of methanol extract of <em>Tephrosia calophylla</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The aerial parts of <em>Tephrosia calophylla</em> were dried under shade, powdered and deffated with petroleum ether and then marc left over was subjected to methanol extraction using soxhlet apparatus. Antiulcer activity of methanol extract was determined against stress induced and aspirin induced ulcers in experimental animal models. The total number of ulcers formed, ulcer index, percentage inhibition, ulcerated area, protected area, pH and Total acidity were parameters in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Methanol extract of <em>Tephrosia calophylla</em> have significantly reduced the total number of ulcers formed, ulcer index, ulcerated area and total acidity in therapeutic groups compare to vehicle control and there by significantly increased percentage inhibition of ulcers and protected area which was evident by significant rise in pH of gastric content. The effect of extracts was dose dependent and results were comparable to that of standard drug omeprazole.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results obtained from the present work suggest that the methanol extract of<em> Tephrosia calophylla</em> possess significant anti-ulcer potentials against experimentally induced ulcers in albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Tephrosia calophylla</em>, Anti ulcer activity, Ethanol, Aspirin Ulcer index, pH, total acidity, Percentage inhibition and percentage of protected area.</p> C Ramesh A. Prameela Rani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 141 145 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2100 Wound healing prospective of pongamia glabra, piper nigrum and momordica charantia on albino rats using anemic burn wound model http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2104 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of present work was to evaluate wound healing potential of <em>pongamia glabra, piper nigrum and momordica charantia</em> using as herbal ointment formulation on albino rats using burn wound model.&nbsp; All the plant has the rich source of alkaloid, glycoside, tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids content and were used as anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-malarial and having wound healing potential. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Extract of all three plants has been separated by the Soxhlet extraction. Herbal ointment formulation has been prepared by mixing the extract of momordica charantia, pongamia glabra and piper nigrum with the wool fat and paraffin. Burn wound model has been utilized for the evaluation of wound healing potential. Histopathological evaluation has been also carried-out for the physical verification wound healing potential. <strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>The studies on burn wound healing model reveals that all twelve groups showed decreased wound area on the time and there was no mortality observed in the course of study. <strong>Discussion:</strong> These studies have indicated that herbal ointment formulation of <em>pongamia glabra, piper nigrum and momordica charantia</em> has been utilized for wound healing and it is safer for topical application. No toxicity and mortality have been observed during the experimental tenure.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Wound healing, <em>momordica charantia, pongamia glabra, piper nigrum, </em>burn wound model</p> Rashmi Shukla Varsha Kashaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 146 154 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2104 Extraction of Momordica charantia, Pongamia glabra and Piper nigrum: Qualitative and Quantitative assessment http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2105 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of present work was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative assessment of <em>momordica charantia, pongamia glabra and piper nigrum extract for the natural product present in them.</em> These plants were having the rich source of alkaloid, glycoside, tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids and were used as anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-malarial and having wound healing potential. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Extract of all three plants has been separated by the process of Soxhlet extraction. The extract of <em>momordica charantia, pongamia glabra and piper nigrum</em> evaluated for qualitative and quantitative measurement of alkaloid, glycoside, tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids content. Different solvent is used for the extraction of content includes petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, alcoholic and distilled water. <strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>Preliminary Phytochemical screening was performed for extracts of <em>Momordica charantia </em>fruits (FMC), <em>Pongamia glabra</em> (LPG) and <em>Piper nigrum </em>fruits (FPN). Identification test on extracts was shown the sign of alkaloid, glycoside, tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, flavonoids, proteins and amino acids content. <strong>Discussion:</strong> All results indicates that extracts of <em>Momordica charantia </em>fruits (FMC), <em>Pongamia glabra</em> (LPG) and <em>Piper nigrum </em>fruits (FPN) having a rich source of Glycosides, alkaloid and flavonoid content.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>momordica charantia, pongamia glabra, piper nigrum,</em> glycosides, flavonoid, extraction. </p> Rashmi Shukla Varsha Kashaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 155 165 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2105 Anti-bacterial activity, anti-cancer activity and nanofiber formation of certain poly (ester amides) from 2,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2107 <p>A new series of four poly(ester amides) were synthesized by direct polycondensation of 2,5-pyridine dicarboxylic acid&nbsp; with two different varying diols and diamines in pyridine medium using diphenylchlorophosphate as a condensation agent. The two diamines employed in the synthesis were 4,4’-diamino diphenyl methane and 1,4-diamino benzene. The arylidenediols 2,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone and 2,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) cyclohexanone were also used. The synthesized poly(ester amides) were characterized by qualitative solubility test, FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR spectra. The monomeric moieties were found by spectroscopic analysis to be well incorporated in the polymer back bone. The thermal phase transition behavior of the poly(ester amides) were investigated by differential thermo gravimetry (DTG). The nanofibers of synthesized poly(ester amides) with PVC and composite fibers with PVC/nanoclay were formed by electrospinning.&nbsp; The morphology of these composite fibers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These poly(ester amides) were screened for their anti-bacterial potential <em>in vitro</em> against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Bacillus subtilis. In vitro </em>anti-cancer activities of synthesized polymers were also evaluated against MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells. The results show that the polymers exhibited significant anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Poly (ester amides), Anti-bacterial activity, Nano fiber, Anticancer activity</p> V. Chitra D. Roop Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 166 173 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2107 The anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract powder bark of Anthocleista schweinfurthii Gilg (Loganiaceae) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2212 <p>&nbsp; Aqueous extract bark of <em>Anthocleista schweinfurthii </em>(ASE) was investigated for anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory activities and phytochemicals screening. Phytochemical screening was carried out according, to LC-MS procedures, the anti-inflammatory effect of ASE was evaluated <em>in vitro </em>inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) enzyme and&nbsp; proteinase inhibiting action assays. The anti-arthritic activity was performed according to the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) test. The chemical composition of ASE showed that it was mainly composed of isocyanate, biphenyltriol, methoxyflavanone, soscoparin and glucopyroside. In the anti-inflammatory assays, ASE showed selective inhibition of 15-lipooxygenase with IC<sub>50</sub> value of and moderate activity against the inhibition of proteinase action with IC<sub>50</sub> value of L. Both the methods&nbsp; showed that the ASE posses good anti-inflammatory activity. ASE had strong <em>in vitro</em> anti-arthritic activity with IC<sub>50</sub> of , the positive control Diclofenac had IC<sub>50</sub> value of &nbsp;The result of this study justified the use of this plant in traditional Cameroonian medicine in the treatment of inflammation. ASE may offer a new source of potential therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of arthritis and inflammation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Anthocleista schweinfurthii,</em> phytochemical screening, anti-arthritic activity, anti-inflammatory activity,&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Valdi Steve Djova Ascension Maximilienne Nyegue François-Xavier Etoa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 174 181 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2212 Qualitative and quantitative determination of phytochemicals from flowers of Spanish Cherry tree http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2108 <p>The present enquiry was intended to analyze the phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively from flowers of Spanish cherry tree. Flower powder was extracted using polar and nonpolar solvent by soxhlet apparatus. Percentage yield of crude extracts was determined and further the extracts were subjected to analyze the phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively by standard procedure. Qualitative analysis showed the absence of alkaloids while presences of tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols. Quantitative estimation of phytochemicals was determined using standard curve. Result revealed that the tannin content was 4.3±0.01 (mgTAE /gm), flavanols content was 0.28±0.05 (mgQE/gm). Saponins content was 3.6±0.7 % and terpenoids content was 1.47±0.37 %. A well conducted studies on phytochemicals revealed that they are vital for humans because they provide protection against a variety of ailments. Therefore, the present study is aimed to analyze phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytochemicals, Tannins, Saponins, Flavanols, Terpenoids</p> Vineeta Singh Anita Rao Shipra Pandey Vaibhav Sharan Pandey Vageshwari Vageshwari Neha Tiwari V. N. Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 182 186 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2108 Formulation and evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles of an antihypetensive drug labetalol http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2109 <p>Labetalol is an adrenergic receptor blocking agent used in the treatment of hypertension and characterized by high solubility and high permeability which corresponds to BCS class I drug. Plasma half life ranges from 6 &amp; bioavailability is 25%. Ethyl cellulose was used as a rate controlling polymer. Effects of addition of ethyl cellulose on <em>in vitro</em> dissolution were studied. Nanoparticles were formulated using different polymer ratios. <em>In vitro</em> drug release was carried out by using USP Type II at 50 rpm in 900 ml of acidic dissolution medium (p<sup>H</sup> 1.2) for 2 hours, followed by 900 ml alkaline dissolution medium (p<sup>H</sup>7.4) for 12 hours. Mean dissolution time is used to characterize drug release rate from a dosage form. Several kinetic models were applied to the dissolution profiles to determine the drug release kinetics. Excipients are selected by FTIR studies. Finally the nanoparticles were evaluated for various characteristics like encapsulation efficiency, percentage yield, partial size and the <em>In vitro</em> release for 12 hrs.&nbsp; The nanoparticles were found to be discrete, spherical, and free-flowing.&nbsp; The nanoparticles were uniform in size, and the microencapsulation efficiency was in the range of 52.5-81.7%. The surface morphology of prepared Labetalol nanoparticles was observed under scanning electron Microscopy. Nanoparticles had good spherical geometry. The stability study was performed at 40ºC ± 2ºC and 75 ± 5% RH for 6 months.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nanoparticles; Labetalol, Hypertension, Ethyl Cellulose, Dissolution, entrapment efficiency.</p> Surendranath Betala M. Mohan Varma K. Abbulu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 187 191 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2109 Effect of Cynodon dactylon on the haematological parameters and haematocrit of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2111 <p>The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> on the haematological parameters of freshwater fish <em>Ctenopharyngodon idella</em>. The study reveals that there was a slight variation noticed in total serum protein, globulin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. There was a significant variation observed in Red blood corpuscles (RBC), White blood corpuscles (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), MCH, MCHC, PCV in the blood of grass carp fed with control and <em>Cynodon dactylon</em> mixed diet. The protein content of experimental fishes showed higher value than other components. The result of the study indicates that the fish are rich source of animal protein and moderate amount of cholesterol and triglycerides. Hence, it suggested that the fish consumed medicinal plants are suitable for human consumption.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Grass carp, <em>Cynodon dactylon</em>, Haematology, Haematocrit.</p> S. Sangeetha K. Rajendran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 192 194 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2111 Physico-chemical standardization of Hansraj (Adiantum capillus-Veneris) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2229 <p>Ethno-botanical use and traditional knowledge of plants have been usually recognized all over the world. The outstanding characteristics of extracts obtained from this drug have been technically studied, attributing the main biological activity to its tannin and flavonoid content. Recent study about this drug&nbsp;<em>Adiantum capillus-veneris</em>&nbsp;Linn requires pharmacognostical evidences to develop quality-control methods for raw materials and extracts produced with this plant drug. &nbsp;In this research article macro and micro-scopic studies were proven the authentication of the real drug in which adulteration is allowed in commercial samples of this plant material. The parameters which were mention in this study all are according to WHO guidelines and Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP).&nbsp;The morphological characteristics present in this article can be useful for quick identification of the drug, particularly useful in the case of powdered drug. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash, loss on drying, percentage of foreign matter and extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening in different solvents showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, fats, tannins and phenolic compounds. The various phytochemicals presence in the drug are confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile. The study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for the presence of various phytochemicals. The results extracted from this study such as identification, phytochemical investigation etc. could be helpful in future research and uses</p> MD Nazim Dr Mohd. Aslam Rizwana Khatoon Dr. Mohd. Asif Shahid Shah Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 195 203 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2229 Study of the hyperglycemic condition in diseases of liver in obese clinical patients http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2112 <p>Hyperglycemia is best documented by Whipple´s triad: symptoms compatible with hypoglycemia, low blood glucose concentration and alleviation of symptoms after the glucose concentration is raised. In experimental studies in healthy adults, the threshold for symptoms of hyperglycemia is on average a blood glucose level of 3.0 mmol/l Mitrakou reported autonomic symptoms of hyperglycemia to begin at a blood glucose level of 3.2 mmol/l, and deterioration in cognitive function tests at a level of 2.7 mmo/l. When sensory evoked potentials were measured in relation to blood glucose concentrations in infants and children with episodes of hyperglycemia, abnormalities were noted at blood glucose levels less than 2.6 mmol/l.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Glycolysis.&nbsp;</p> Chander Jeet Singh Dinesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 204 208 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2112 Study of the hyperglycemic condition in diseases of liver in non-obese clinical patients http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2115 <p>Hyperglycemia is best documented by Whipple´s triad: symptoms compatible with hypoglycemia, low blood glucose concentration and alleviation of symptoms after the glucose concentration is raised. In experimental studies in healthy adults, fifteen out of the 19 patients who developed hypoglycaemia on the fasts during MT were re-tested 3 to 4 months after cessation of therapy. Fasting tolerance had improved in all of them. It had become normal in 10 out of 15 patients (67%). In 5 patients, blood glucose levels still fell below 2.7 mmol/l (range 2.0 to 2.6 mmol/l) after 16 hours of fasting. However, none had any symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Glycolysis</p> Chander Jeet Singh Dinesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 209 212 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2115 EXPLORATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL POTENTIAL OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM (SEHJANA) FRUITS/PODS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2223 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The physicochemical evaluation is an important parameter in detecting adulteration or improper handling, therefore, physicochemical and phytochemical standardization is considered a prerequisite for the assessment of biological activity and determination of biological standards of the plant material, and it provides the analytical characteristics which may prove to be useful in fixing the physicochemical standard for herbal drugs. So, it becomes imperative to standardize the drugs to ensure their identity, quality and purity to ascertain therapeutic efficacy of herbal drugs. <strong>Objective:</strong> Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and phytochemical standardization and quality control check of an important drug Sehjana (<em>Moringa </em>oleifera Lam) used for various diseases, <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The test drugs, Sehjana (<em>Moringa oleifera </em>Lam.) were collected directly from the herbal garden of department of Ilmul Advia AMU, Aligarh. Which includes parameters recommended by National Unani Pharmacopeia Committee, Qualitative analysis and chromatographic studies (TLC) were performed for proper identification and quality control these parameter include <strong>Results:</strong> Ash values, Total ash, (6.44%) acid insoluble ash, (3.94%) water soluble ash, (2.53%) Successive extractive values in different solvent; petroleum ether (3.03%), diethyl ether (1.3%), chloroform (1.0%), acetone (1.5%), alcohol (13.1%), aqueous (18.56%), solubility in alcohol (15.2%) and water (22.93%), loss on drying (9.13%), pH at 1% (5.45), &amp; 10% (4.81), bulk density (0.33%) and moisture content (8.6%). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Sehjana (<em>Moringa oleifera </em>Lam<em>.</em>) showed presence of alkaloid, steroids, phenol, amino acid, and terpenoids, carbohydrate and protein, which may be active compound, responsible for its wide activities.</p> ZAFAR JAVED KHAN Naeem Ahmad Khan Imrana Naseem A A Nami Shahab ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 213 220 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2223 2D-Molecular homology modeling of selected Enolase enzyme for Leishmaniasis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2117 <p>In present study, BLAST search was performed and an identity with <em>Trypanosoma brueei</em> is 79% Based upon and Pfam results Enolase- 2PTZ (protein data bank) was considered as an ideal homologue and used as a template for homology modeling due to its higher X-ray resolution at 1.65. Sequence alignment between enolase and 2PTZ was done using align 123 followed by manual modification. The final alignment was carefully evaluated and evidenced to be matching the conserved residue data for chain A of enolase in <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em> well Superimposing of the model was done over the template 2PTZ. Further research on the comparison of the models for the inhibitors may eluciadate the mechanism of enolase ligands interactions. This study has shown that some formation of favorable hydrogen bonds, hence it is predicated from this study that these novel compounds may act as potent inhibitors for Leishmania Enolase. These compounds may be used further for synthesis, their wet lab activity against Enolase, animal model study and clinical trials and then can be implicated for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Those models are considered to be used in designing new leads for hopefully more active compounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Enolase, Leishmaniasis, Enzyme, 2D-moleculare Modeling</p> Jayprakash Mahato R Sivaperumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 8 6-s 221 223 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2117 Molecular Modeling of Cathepsin B protein in different Leishmania strains http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2118 <p>Cathepsin B like cysteine proteases representing a major component of the lysosomal proteolytic repertoire plays an important role in intracellular protein degradation. Comparative models of cathepsin B (CatB) protein of six different Leishmania strains were developed using MODELLER. The modeled three-dimensional (3-D) structure has the correct stereochemistry as gauged from the Ramachandran plot and good 3-D structure compatibility as assessed by PROCHECK and the DOPE score (DS2.1, Accelrys). The modeled proteins were energy minimized and validated using standard dynamic cascade protocol (DS 2.1). Seven different disulfide bonding sites are predicted in CatB protein of Leishmania. Two domains were identified and different motifs are present in catB protein of Leishmania like aspargine glycosylation site, protein kinase phosphorylation site, Protein kinase C activation site, N-myristoylation site. Considering that cathepsin B is essential for survival of Leishmania, including for virulence to the mammalian host, it may be viewed as an attractive drug target.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Molecular Modelling<strong>, </strong>Leishmania, Discover Studio, Protein Binding.&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Jayprakash Mahato ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 224 226 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2118 In-Silico evaluation of Anti-Leishmanial compounds of selected pharmacophore http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2119 <p>In this study, out of sixteen compounds, only thirteen compounds have shown hydrogen bonding with the modeled cathepsin B protein of <em>L donovani, </em>remaining compound (C1D13416238, Posaconazole. and CID 6082033) did not show any hydrogen bonding with ligands. So, these 13 compounds which show hydrogen bonding with modeled protein could be considered as most potent lead compounds having inhibitory activity at either promastigote stage or amastigote stage of <em>Leishmania donovani</em>. Few compounds demonstrated better docking score to either AutoDock4.0 or GOLD v2.l but some compound did not show any hydrogen bonding with modeled protein in either docking software tool. Thus, it could be concluded that generated experimental compounds could have potential as pharmacological tool against Visceral Leishmaniasis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cysteine Protease, Vinyl Hydrazide, Antileishmanial Drugs, Licochalcone, Visceral Leishmaniasis.</p> Sindhuprava Rana R Sivaperumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 227 229 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2119 Virtual screening and molecular docking of Anti-Antileishmanial for selected pharmacophore for visceral Leishmaniasis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2120 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: DNA amplification of Cysteine protease of <em>Leishmania donovani </em>and study the interaction of cysteine protease inhibitors, antileishmanial compounds with cysteine protease receptor in various computational programs.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Cysteine protease DNA of <em>Leishmania donovani </em>was amplified by PCR. The sequence of cysteine protease has been modeled and docked with suitable inhibitors by using various servers and computational tools. The model was designed, compared and validated by DOPE and Verify 3D scores. The model and the compound interaction were studied by LibDock and other programs.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Cysteine protease DNA of <em>Leishmania donovani </em>was successfully amplified by PCR. The structural modeling was done to achieve effective enzyme inhibition, inhibitors block the binding sites of that protein. Homology modeling of cysteine protease has been done and docked with suitable inhibitors by using various servers and computational tools. The model was designed, compared and validated by DOPE and Verify 3D scores by using DSv3.5. Licochalcone-a alone showed 37 LibDock conformations with 6 different poses, were suitably docked at the site 1 with hydrogen bond formation. The study would help to design the novel drugs in respect of resistant one for the treatment of harmful visceral Leishmaniasis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The molecular interaction of vinyl sulfones, hydrazide derivatives, antileishmanial drugs molecules and carbohydrazide derivatives have exhibited ideal molecular interaction with cathepsin B, a cysteine protease of <em>L. donovani, </em>amino acids such as Cys29, Hisl88 and Asn208 has been found to be active residues. Licochalcone-a and hydrazide derivative may become future antileishmanial compounds, which needs to be tested in in vitro and in vivo.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cysteine Protease, Vinyl Sulfone, Hydrazide, Antileishmanial Drugs, Licochalcone, Visceral Leishmaniasis.</p> Sindhuprava Rana R Sivaperumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 230 235 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2120 A study of method development and validation for estimation of Azelastine hydrochloride in nasal spray formulations by RP-HPLC method http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2222 <p>A simple reverse-phase HPLC method for the estimation of Azelastine hydrochloride in nasal spray formulations has been developed. The method is simple, accurate, precise, specific and linear over the analysis range. This developed method has been validated according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline with respect to system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, and robustness. An isocratic condition of mobile phase comprising Phosphate buffer (pH 3.1): Acetonitrile in a ratio of 60:40, v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/minute over RP C18 (octadecylsilane (ODS), 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, CHROMOSIL) column at ambient temperature was maintained. Besides, the chromatographic peak was observed sharp &amp; symmetric. The proposed method was successfully applied for the estimation of the Azelastine hydrochloride in nasal spray formulation.</p> Charansingh H. Gill Pankaj N Kulkarni AMOL S NIPATE Chetan K Jadhav Asha V Chate Alaknanda M Dodake-Supekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 236 240 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2222 Biochemical tolerance of Suaeda maritima L. (Dumort) as a potential species for phytoextracting heavy metal and salt in paper mill effluent contaminated soil. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2121 <p><em>Suaeda maritima</em> is a halophyte that has been evolutionary adapted to cope with saline and heavy metal conditions. The aim of the present study was to examine the biochemical response of <em>Suaeda maritima</em> against phytoextracting heavy metals and salts from paper mill effluent.<em> Suaeda maritima</em>&nbsp; seedlings have been grown for 120 days with an irrigation solution of 250 ml of 75% raw paper mill effluent after four drenching. Analysis of biochemical parameters revealed that maximum synthesis of chlorophyll, protein, phenol, proline and glycinebetaine may be involved in their ability to cope with heavy metal and salt stress. The present study confirms that the accumulation and increase of biochemical constituents can be considered as an efficient ROS scavenger and also maintain cellular homeostasis and metabolic functions in photosynthetically active leaves in <em>Suaeda maritima</em>, during phytoextraction studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: phytoextraction, paper mill effluent, <em>Suaeda maritima</em>, biochemical, heavy metal and salts</p> Zakir Hussain Malik K.C. Ravindran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 241 245 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2121 Efficacy of Vaitarana Basti with respective to Ayurveda http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2122 <p><em>Vaitarana</em> means a river which can bring back dead to live, <em>Vaitarana Basti</em> has described as a <em>Shodhana Basti</em>. <em>Vaitarana Basti</em> is classified by <em>Acharya Vangasena</em> and <em>Acharya Chakradutta</em> of its different combination. <em>Vaitarana Basti</em> mainly indicated in <em>Amavasthajanya Vikara </em>and <em>Vata-Kapha Pradoshaja Vikara</em>. <em>Vaitarana Basti</em> is best modality in the condition of <em>Ama</em> and <em>Leena Dosha</em> for <em>Shodhana</em> and <em>Dosha Nirharana</em>. <em>Vaitarana Basti</em> helps in the removal of <em>Ama-Shula-Shotha Avastha</em> and <em>Kaphavarana</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Vaitarana Basti, Shodhana Basti, Acharya Vangasena, Acharya Chakradutta</em></p> Amit Mukherjee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 246 250 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2122 Formulation and characterization of choline fenofibrate sustained release capsule http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2124 <p>The drug ABT-335 (Fenofibricacid ) choline fenofibrate found to be useful in the treatment of dyslipidemia as compare with other fibrate. So the present investigation to developed mini-tablets to overcome the dose dumping problem by regular shape, uniformity, smooth surface excellent size and encapsulated in capsule to improve the efficacy and bioavailability of the drug. Different formulations were developed by utilizingcontrolling of the release rate and gel forming polymers like microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose by dry granulation technique. Among all formulation SRM-3 having the drug release for longer period of time as compare to other formulation. SRM-3 was found to be stable during stability study for one month.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ABT-335 (Fenofibric acid) choline fenofibrate, like microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, sustained release matrix tablet.</p> Nidhi Jain Rohit Jain Surendra Dangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 251 254 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2124 Comparative Evaluation of Two Different Marketed Brands of Enalapril maleate http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2127 <p>Efficacy of pharmaceuticals dosage form generally depends on their formulation properties and manufacturing methods, hence it is likely that the quality of dosage form may vary. Renin acts on angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor increases blood pressure by increasing vasopressin&nbsp;production and aldosterone secretion. Enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril, inhibits ACE, hence decreases levels of angiotensin II resulting in less vasoconstriction and decreased blood pressure. The study was exclusively experimental that used IP and other standard books to check in vitro quality of enalapril maleate tablet using different analytical techniques and procedure. Test for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution were conducted. The dissolution test was performed at pH 6.8 for both the brands of the tablet. Further all the tablets passed weight variation, hardness, friability and disintegration test as per the pharmacopoeial standard. Hence we can conclude that both the brands of tablets are equal and both the brands contain equal quantity of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Both the brands having higher and lower costs exert similar action.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Enalapril maleate, <em>In Vitro</em>, Dissolution test, Enalapril</p> Manish Kumar Shahnwaj Tyagi Shailendra Bhatt A. Pandurangan Vipin Saini Anuj Malik Md Shamshir Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 265 268 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2127 Anti-inflammatory activity and phytochemical analysis of Moringa oleifera ethanol and acetone leaves extract http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2129 <p>This present investigation stated that acetone and ethanol extract of <em>M,oleifera</em> leaves was estimated that presence of phytochemical constituents by biochemical test and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammation activity was assessed by calculating inhibition of protein denaturation, proteinase activity and membrane stabilization activity at different concentration of extract. The plant extract highly protective activity against heat induced protein denaturation and the IC50 results values 271.25±2.74 and 304.25±2.33μg/ml, for acetone and ethanol extract respectively. Heat induced haemolysis was 50% inhibited for acetone and ethanol extract at the concentration of 271.43±0.73 and 322.10±1.34 μg/ml, respectively. The membrane stabilization activity (IC<sub>50</sub>) was assessed by hypotonicity induced haemolysis at a concentration of 216.98±1.84 and 259.65±1.83μg/ml for acetone and ethanol extract, respectively. The results obtained in the present study indicate that ethanol extracts of <em>M.oleifera </em>leaves can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents compared than acetone extract and standard drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antinflammatory, plant extract, phytochemicals</p> K Padmalochana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 269 273 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2129 Anticancer (liver cancer cell lines) and antioxidant activity of Cassia auriculata flower extract from acetone and methanol solvents http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2130 <p>This research paper was communicated to elucidate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of acetone and methanol extract of <em>Cassia auriculata</em> flower. Antioxidant activity was assessed against DPPH and hydroxyl free radical. The anticancer activity was examined by inhibition on liver cancer cell lines. The highest antioxidant activity was found for methanol extract (IC50: 46.28 μg/ml) than acetone extract (IC50: 52.60 μg/ml) on DPPH free radical. The IC50 values for methanol and acetone extract was found to be 47.05 and 56.01±1.85 µg/ml, respectively on hydroxyl radical. The highest anticancer activity was found for methanol extract to be 36.10±2.46 µg/ml. Among these extract methanol extract have high antioxidant and anticancer activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antioxidant, anticancer, Plant</p> K Padmalochana ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 274 278 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2130 Drafting of comprehensive harmonized regulatory guideline for storage and disposal of radiopharmaceuticals http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2135 <p>Recent era has witnessed an inordinate rise in the demand for radiopharmaceuticals due to their multifarious biomedical and clinical application. Scientific fraternity worldwide is continuously working in developing different innovative radiopharmaceuticals of immense clinical importance both from specialized theranostics and personalized medicine point of view. However, this increased production and use of radiopharmaceuticals in various nuclear medicine procedures have been accompanied by an inevitable problem concerning their storage after use and final disposal. Keeping in view the inherently hazardous nature of radiopharmaceuticals due to the presence of radionuclide in them, it is imperative to have an adequate regulatory backup which if followed meticulously can assure their safe storage and disposal so that threat to men and environment is prevented. The present work has been aimed to draft comprehensive regulatory guidelines for the storage and disposal of radiopharmaceuticals which is in resonance with the global standards. For this, the methodology consisting of a thorough research of existing guidelines from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) exclusively on storage and disposal of radiopharmaceuticals in India has been done with the objective to identify and select various parameters not yet explicitly covered as is their scope. The guideline has been made to suitably address all sorts of necessary documentation, allocation of responsibility, ways of waste prevention, various mechanisms to deal with radiopharmaceuticals waste in all forms of matter and suggestive recommendations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Radiopharmaceuticals, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Regulatory guidelines of radiopharmaceuticals</p> Sandeep Sharma Ashish Baldi Rajesh K. Singh Rakesh Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 279 286 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2135 Detection of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from sputum samples http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2136 <p>NTM infections are an emerging global public health problem, especially in developing world. NTM and MTBC were proven to be responsible for various lungs, soft and skin tissues, and disseminated infections. Microscopy of AFB is rapid; however it does not discriminate between MTBC and NTM. Biochemical tests are time taking and interpretation of results may be difficult. The&nbsp; GenoType®&nbsp; Mycobacterium&nbsp; CM/AS&nbsp; assay&nbsp; is reliable and rapid detection method in species of mycobacteria, which can&nbsp; give&nbsp; patients&nbsp; with the onset&nbsp; of&nbsp; early targeted therapy. In present study, 189 patients detect by sputum sampling from total 3320 patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> NTM, Sputum, Diagnosis, Clinical, Lucknow.</p> Jyoti Umrao R Sivaperumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 287 289 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2136 Comparative analysis of different identification techniques for detection of mycobacterial species in clinical samples http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2137 <p>Out of 906 cultures isolates, 263 (29.0%) were confirmed as NTM and 724 (71.0%) were identified as&nbsp;<em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>&nbsp;complex. The diversity of NTM species was high and predominated by&nbsp;<em>Mycobacterium abscessus</em>&nbsp;(31.3%) followed by&nbsp;<em>M. fortuitum </em>(22%),&nbsp;<em>M. intracellulare</em>&nbsp;(13.6%),&nbsp;<em>M. chelonae</em>&nbsp;(9.1%), however,&nbsp;<em>M. abscessus</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>M. fortuitum</em>&nbsp;were the predominant species in both types of clinical isolates. Men (60.4%) and older patients aged greater than 55&nbsp;years were the predominated risk group for NTM infection. Additionally, three HIV/AIDS cases (1.1%), as well as thirty five cases were found to be type two diabetes mellitus infected with non-tuberculous bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>NTM, Technique, BacT/Alert, Biochemical Test, Tuberculosis.</p> Jyoti Umrao R Sivaperumal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 290 293 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2137 Anti-diarrhoeal activity of ethanolic extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2140 <p>Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in developing countries and second most common cause of infant’s death worldwide. Pterocarpus marsupium is a medicinal herb belonging to the family Fabaceae has been traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhoea. They were found to contain tannins, alkaloids, saponins, sterols, triterpenes and reducing sugars. This study evaluated the antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanolic extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in rat at 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. The doses were given orally and showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity comparable with that of the standard drug loperamide. The statistical analyses of results were carried out using one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by Student t-test.&nbsp; On the basis of these findings, it can be assumed that Pterocarpus marsupium could be a potential source for novel discovery for antidiarrhoeal. These results may support the fact that this plant is used traditionally to cure diarrhoea.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pterocarpus marsupium, Anti-Diarrhoeal, Castor Oil, Magnesium Sulphate, Loperamide</p> Bhawna Shridhar Munesh Mani Prevesh Kumar Shivansh Yadav Kamal Kumar Mahaur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 294 297 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2140 Formulation development and evaluation of medroxyprogesterone acetate injectable suspension http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2146 <p>The aim of the present work is to develop sustained release parenteral drug delivery system of contraceptive drug i., e medroxyprogesterone acetate. The formulation was prepared by sterile combining of API and excipient powders by rapid stirring method. Different excipients used in the formulation are PEG 3350, Poloxamer -188, Polysorbate-80, Benzyl alcohol and Sodium chloride. The prepared parenteral suspension was evaluated for all official parameters like sedimentation volume, measurement of zeta potential, pH, viscosity, osmolality, dissolution, assay, particle size determination, and stability studies. The dissolution profile was found to be more when compared with the innovator formulation. Stability studies were also conducted at 25ºC / 60% RH and 40ºC / 75% RH conditions up to 3M.All the parameters evaluated are within the specified limits.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Medroxy progesterone acetate, PEG 3350, Poloxamer-188, injectable suspension.</p> M. Sunitha Reddy B. Samatha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 298 303 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2146 Formulation and evaluation sustained release mucoadhesive gastroretentive pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate tablets for anti–ulcer http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2145 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this research work is to develop and evaluate the mucoadhesive gastroretentive tablets of an anti – ulcer drug for sustain release. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Mucoadhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression method using Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, Carbopol 940 NF and Guar gum in the various drug – polymer ratios.&nbsp; The prepared tablets were evaluated for their pre and post compression parameters. In this study the optimized formulation was obtained within the specified limits. <strong>Results:</strong> The final optimized formulation was showed mucoadhesion time 12 h, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were ready with HPMC K4M, Carbopol 940 NF and gum were found to be 45 g and the extreme proportion of drug release was obtained 97.11% at the completion of 12 h. The drug release mechanism for optimized formulations of pantoprazole mucoadhesive sustain release tablets was observed to be zero order kinetic model. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The formulation of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose showed excellent mucoadhesive ability and a suitable drug release pattern.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate, Gastroretentive, mucoadhesive polymers</p> M. Sunitha Reddy Bairapaka Jalajakshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 304 310 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2145 Zika virus (ZIKV) disease: past, present and future http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2076 <p>The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (positive-stranded RNA virus, ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak imposing by its extent and quick spread. This became the focus of a current pandemic and public health crisis all around the world because of the incessant geographic growth of both the virus and its mosquito vectors; it is often misdiagnosed with other disease like yellow fever, west nile, dengue and chikungunya because of same clinical manifestation. After unprecedented huge scale outbreak of ZIKV in Pacific, Micronesian island of Yap in 2007, though ZIKV infections are in general sporadic cases or causing mild self-limiting illness, harsh symptoms have been explained including neurological disorders, autoimmune disorder, fetal anomalies, impaired central nervous system of the fetus, microcephaly in newborns, meningoencephalitis, myelitis and Guillain Barre´Syndrome supposed to be linked with ZIKV. The virus is transmitted mainly by a mosquito Aedes aegypti, whereas, other routes of viral broadcast includes monkey bite, coitus and body fluids such as semen, blood and saliva which needs further corroboration. The relationship between these conditions with ZIKV infection is still not established and is under assessment. Till now there is no vaccine or specific antiviral against ZIKV, therefore the public health authority focuses on preventing infection, mainly in pregnant women and virus transmitted area. WHO and other health officials are working on the expansion of new projects and mosquito control techniques to manage up with infection as there is very fewer literature present on the pathogenesis of the ZIKV to help understand the clinical disease spectrum and target treatments to decrease or stop infection. The future status of ZIKV dispersal to other parts of the world is still unknown. The present review emphasizes various features of ZIKV and its history, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, progress&nbsp; and advances in developing effective diagnostics, vaccines and drugs/therapeutics along with accepting suitable avoidance and control strategies to undertake this deadly emerging disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Zika virus, Flavivirus, Aedes aegypti, Pregnancy, Transmission, Microcephaly, Africa</p> Sweety Khatri Chandni Dhanoriya Deepak Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 320 327 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2076 Unique Structures, Properties and Applications of Dendrimers http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2083 <p>Dendrimers are novel three dimensional, hyperbranched globular nano polymeric architectures. Attractive features like nanoscopic size, narrow polydispersity index and excellent control over molecular structure afford dendrimers with ideal&nbsp;drug&nbsp;delivery ability through encapsulating&nbsp;drugs&nbsp;in their interior or covalently conjugating&nbsp;drugs&nbsp;on their surfaces. The adaptable surface functionalization ability enables covalent conjugation of various targeting molecules onto the surface of dendrimers, thereby allowing for generation of various multifunctional nanodevices for targeted&nbsp;drug&nbsp;delivery applications. Drug delivery researchers are especially enthusiastic about possible utility of dendrimers as drug delivery tool. However, to get the maximum benefits of these novel class macromolecules, a research by collaboration is very much essential. Finally,&nbsp; it is one of the youngest and exciting fields of polymer researches where all branches of science can take part and hence, deserves more intensive attention.</p> <p>Keywords: Dendrimers, Drug Delivery, Targeting, Dual Drug Loading, PAMAM</p> Ankita Gupta Shaifali Dubey Mayuri Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 328 339 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2083 Sublingual route for systemic drug delivery http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2097 <p>Drug delivery via the oral mucous membrane is considered to be a promising alternative to the oral route. Sublingual route is a rapid onset of action and better patient compliance than orally ingested tablets. Sublingual literally meaning is “under the tongue”, administrating substance via mouth in such a way that the substance is rapidly absorbed via blood vessels under tongue. The portion of drug absorbed through the sublingual blood vessels bypasses the hepatic first‐pass metabolic processes giving acceptable bioavailability.&nbsp; Sublingual technology is convenient for dosing in geriatric, pediatric and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Sublingual drug delivery shows fast therapeutic action than orally ingested drugs with fewer side effects. This review highlights advantages, disadvantages, different sublingual Gland, sublingual formulation such as tablets, films drops, sprays etc, evaluation parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sublingual delivery, dysphagia, sublingual gland, improved bioavailability, evaluations.</p> Poonam P Pawar Hemant S Ghorpade Bhavana A. Kokane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 340 343 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2097 Management of Anidra through Ahara-Vihara, Natural Herbs and Shodhna Therapy: A Review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2077 <p>Ayurveda the science of healthy living deals with physical, mental and spiritual components of health. Ayurveda considered <em>Ahara</em>, <em>Nidra</em> and <em>Brahmacarya</em> as important parts of life for achieving goal of <em>Swasthavritta</em>. <em>Nidra</em> is a state of complete physical and mental relaxation of body which play vital role towards the good health status. There are some factors which may disturb physiology of <em>Nidra</em> leading to condition of sleeplessness/insomnia (<em>Anidra</em>).<em> Anidra</em> is abnormal physiological condition which greatly affects quality of life and this problem increasing day by day due to the enhanced level of stress, diversified environmental condition, disturb pattern of life style and bad dietary habits. It is very important for physician society to put focus attention to reduces prevalence of this issue. Ayurveda mentioned different therapeutic approaches for the management condition of insomnia including use of natural herbs, formulation, <em>Shodhna Chikitsa</em> and good conduction of <em>Ahara-Vihara</em>. Present article explored ayurveda view on <em>Anidra</em> along with its treatment modalities. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda</em>, <em>Nidra, Anidra</em>, <em>Insomnia</em>.</p> Seema G Chawardol Sapan Jain Sanjeev Khuje Jinesh Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 344 346 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2077 A brief review of some important medicinal plants used in the treatment of asthma http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2087 <p>Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affects about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (Tribal) medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. Unlike many diseases, which can be attributed to the life style of modern man, asthma is an ancient illness. There are number of medicinal plants have been reported for antihistaminic/anti-asthmatic activities like Achyranthes aspera, Tephrosia purpurea, Dolichos lablab, Eclipta alba, Jasminum sambac, Balanites aegyptiaca, Viscum album, Tridex procumbens, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Cassia fistula. Present review is focused on used of medicinal plants for treatment of asthama. It is suggested that formulation and patent of the reported medicinal plants is mandatory for further use against asthma and if possible, clinical trials should be done of these plants for their appropriate use.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Medicinal plants, Asthma, Mast cells, Antihistaminic.</p> Arshu P Patel M. Siddaiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 347 349 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2087 CO-CRYSTALS: A REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2194 <p>In development of new product major constraints are poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability. Crystallization is one the approach has been used for enhancement of solubility of poorly aqueous soluble drugs also helps to improve physicochemical properties such as melting point, tabletability, solubility, stability, bioavailability and permeability with preserving the pharmacological properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Different methods have been used for the synthesis of cocrystal such as grinding, slurry, antisolvent, hot melt extrusion, sonocrystallization, supercritical fluid, spray drying etc. The article highlights the co-crystallization, its methods and significance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shilpa Chaudhari Sarika Ankushrao Nikam Neetu Khatri Shubham Wakde ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 350 358 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2194 Computer system validation in the perspective of the pharmaceutical industry http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2102 <p>Computer Systems Validation (CSV) is a process used to ensure (and document) that a computer based systems will produce information or data that meet a set of defined requirements. If a system meets these requirements, it can be assumed that it is consistently performing in the way it was intended. Quality is an imperative for customers whenever they consider a product or service. It is also important as it relates to life-saving products such as pharmaceuticals. In this regard, the Food and Drug Administration introduced good manufacturing practice (GMP) to maintain and improve the quality of pharmaceutical products. GMP ensures that products are consistently produced and controlled according to the quality standards appropriate to the intended use and as required by the marketing authorization. One of the major GMP requirements is that all of the critical manufacturing equipment, utilities, and facilities in the pharmaceutical industries must be properly qualified and validated prior to production. Currently, this practice forms the core of the regulations that are strictly followed by pharmaceutical companies worldwide.&nbsp; A validation assessment program is a necessity in the pharma industry to ensure adherence to pharmaceutical cGMP guidelines, and to help companies maintain consistent quality. The same principles are applied in computer system validation to a computer system or an information technology system. It’s essential to maintain quality standards in pharma since non-conformance can have far-reaching consequences. Computer system validation checks the effectiveness and the efficiency with which the system is meeting the purpose for which it was designed. This study aims to identify needs of computer system validation of instrument/equipment practiced in the perspective of pharmaceutical industry.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Computer system validation, Validation, Qualification, GAMP</p> Asheesh Singh Pradeep Singour Parul Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 359 365 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2102 Ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities of Argyreia cuneata (Willd.) Ker Gawl. (Convolvulaceae) – A review. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2103 <p><em>Argyreia cuneata</em> (Willd.) Ker Gawl. is a sub-erect silky shrub and belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. An updated information on ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities of <em>A. cuneata</em> is presented in this review. The plant finds traditional uses as a remedy for human and veterinary ailments. The plant is used to treat diabetes, helminthic infections, skin cuts, to initiate labor pain and to ease delivery. As an ethnoveterinary practice, the plant is used against retention of fetal membrane, anorexia and swelling of throat. The plant is reported to contain phytochemicals such as alkaloids and flavonoids. The plant is shown to exhibit some pharmacological activities viz. analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, wound healing, antipyretic, anthelmintic and antidiabetic activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Argyreia cuneata </em>(Willd.) Ker Gawl., Ethnobotanical, Traditional uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activities</p> T.R. Prashith Kekuda K.S. Vinayaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 366 369 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2103 Gruhadhuma in Agada Yogas: a review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2106 <p>Gruhadhuma is an ingredient mentioned in Ayurveda pharmaceutics in a group of drugs termed as panchamrittika. It is an ingredient that is used in various formulations in the treatment of vishas (poisons). Many formulations for the management of various poisons like snake bite, keetavisha (insect poisons), etc. have been explained in Ayurveda treatise that contains it as an ingredient. The agada yogas (formulations for poisonous bites) mentioned for the management of various poisons in bruhatrayee contain ingredients that are both herbal and mineral in origin. Formulations having gruhadhuma have been mentioned for oral administration, as nasya (nasal inhalation), anjana (collyrium), lepa (anointment), etc.&nbsp; A literary search through the treatises of Ayurveda has put a light on the various formulations containing it.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Agadayogas, Gruhadhuma, poisons, formulations</p> Gazala Hussain Vinay R Kadibagil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 370 372 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2106 Antioxidants: a brief review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2116 <p>The field of free radical chemistry has gained a great deal of attention in recent years. Free radicals reactive oxygen species generated by our body by various endogenous systems leads to various pathological conditions. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is prerequisite for proper physiological function. Oxidative stress caused by generation of free radicals adversely alters lipids, proteins, and DNA and provokes a number of human ailments. Oxidative stress can be managed by using external sources of antioxidants. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be harmful for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidant activity has been escalated in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on antioxidants and natural sources of antioxidants in the management of human diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>free radical, Oxidative stress, antioxidants,</p> Rekha Bisht ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 373 376 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2116 Microparticulate hot melt pallets technology: a review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2131 <p>Recent advances in novel drug delivery (NDDS) aims to enhance safety and efficacy of drug molecule by formulating a convenient dosage form for ease of administration and to achieve better patient compliance. Depending upon functionality, it is possible to design different dosages forms which fulfill the therapeutic needs of the patient with improved bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs, taste masking and preparation of oral dispersible tablets, MUPS and multiple unit formulations. The hot-melt technology is one of the most commonly used method,&nbsp; is devoid of solvent use, solvent disposal, solvent evaporation and solvent treatment is not required.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Multiple Unit Pallet Systems, Lipid, Solubility, Hot-Melt Technology, Bioavailability, Absorption of Drug. </p> Shekhar Kokate Punit R Rachh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 377 383 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2131 Update Review Article: Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2133 <p>Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites. To describe spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in the context of currently accepted criteria for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. A review of SBP and its associated etiopathogenic factors is presented. Numerous studies on mechanisms of disease, bacteriology, epidemiology, diagnostic markers, and current guidelines for its diagnosis, treatment and prevention are discussed. Peritonitis in patients with ascites in the absence of secondary causes, such as perforation of a viscus, occurs primarily in patients with end-stage liver disease. Enteric organisms, mainly gram-negative bacilli, probably translocate to regional lymph nodes to produce bacteremia and seeding of ascitic fluid. Signs and symptoms of peritonitis are usually subtle. The ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte count is the best determinant for early diagnosis and treatment of SBP. Third-generation cephalosporins such as cefotaxime are considered the drugs of choice for treatment, whereas quinolones such as norfloxacin are used to decrease recurrence. Despite increased awareness, early diagnosis, and prompt and effective antimicrobial therapy, SBP recurs frequently and is associated with a high mortality rate. Patients with SBP should be assessed for candidacy for liver transplantation.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, Bacteriology, Epidemiology, Diagnostic markers, Cephalosporins </p> Priyanka Chouhan Rupal Dubey Neeraj Upmanyu Anoop Shrivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 384 393 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2133 Therapeutical and medicinal properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica) in context of Unani system of medicine: a review study http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2141 <p>Neem is very important medicinal plant which is used to treat different diseases in Unani System of Medicine as well as traditional system of medicine (Ayurveda, Homeopathic Chines and European “Materia Medica”). The use of traditional medicine and medicinal plants in most developing countries, as a normative basis for the maintenance of good health, has been widely observed. In the last century, approximately 130 pharmaceutical products have been discovered based on the information obtained from the traditional scientist and physician. The importance of the neem tree has been recognized by the US National Academy of Sciences, which publish a report in 1992 entiteled ‘Neem- a tree for solving global problems’. The scientific name of neem, <em>Azadirachta indica</em>, is derived from the Persian, Azad means “Free” dirakht means “tree” I-Hindi means “of Indian Origin” .Hence it literally means “the free tree of India”. The Chemical principles from natural sources have become much simpler and have contributed significantly to the development of new drugs from medicinal plants and because of these facts the domain market for plant derived chemicals, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, flavor’s, and color ingredients, alone exceeds several billion dollars per year. The present review highlights a Unani medicine literature as well as scientific on taxonomical, botanical, and pharmacological discussion on <em>Neem.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Neem, <em>Azadirachta indica, Unani Medicine, Nim.</em></p> Haider Ali Quraishi Naquibul Islam Arsheed Iqbal Shabir Ahmad Bhat Jameel Ahmed Syed Sabahat Ashraf Qamar Alam Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 394 399 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2141 Clinical potency of Patra-Pottali Sweda http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2142 <p><em>Swedana</em> <em>Karma</em> is one of the modality of ayurveda acts as <em>Sthambhaghna</em> (removal of stiffness), <em>Gourvaghna</em> (loss of heaviness of the body), <em>Sheetaghana</em> (loss of coldness in the body) and <em>Swedkaraka</em> (producing sweating in the body). <em>Swedana</em> is considered as <em>Bahirparimarjana Chikitsa</em>, one among the <em>Shadupakarmas</em>. It is employed to relieve symptoms like; <em>Shula</em> and <em>Stambha</em> associated with various diseases. Present article emphasized <em>Patra Pottali Sweda</em> (<em>Ela Kizhi</em>) which used to induce perspiration through heated pack of specific herbal leaves in the management of <em>Upastambhita Vyadhi</em> <em>Avastha</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ayurveda, Swedana Karma, Patra Pottali Sweda, Bahirparimarjana Chikitsa.</p> Amit Mukherjee O. P. Dwivedi Jinesh Jain . Sanjeev Madhukar Rao Khuje ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 400 403 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2142 Role of Basti Karma towards the management of Madhumeha: an Ayurveda perspective http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2143 <p>Ayurveda the Indian medical system mentioned <em>Madhumeha</em> as imbalance of the <em>Doshas</em>; <em>Vata, Pitta </em>and<em> Kapha</em>. <em>Madhumeha</em> correlated with diabetes as per modern medical science characterized by hyperglycemia and disturbance of water and electrolyte homeostasis. In Ayurveda (<em>Brihatrayi</em>) it is considered as <em>Ashta mahagada </em>as difficult to cure. It is also relates with life-style related metabolic disorder since consumption of junk foods, day time sleep, lack of exercises and sedentary habits may precipitate symptoms of diabetes. Now a day’s <em>Madhumeha</em> has become very common pathological condition affecting more than 20% of world population. <em>Madhumeha</em> may be managed by good conduction of <em>Ahara-Vihara,</em> <a href="http://drsonicakrishan.blogspot.in/2014/12/do-yoga-ayurveda-complement-each-other.html"><em>Yoga</em></a>, <em>Sodhana</em> <em>karma</em> and use of various ayurveda formulations, however recently <em>Panchakarma </em>has gain great attention towards the management of <em>Madhumeha</em> since some specific modalities of<em> Panchakarma</em> effectively removes vitiated <em>Doshas </em>and <em>Vasti Karma </em>is one of them. Considering this aspect present article summarized ayurveda perspective of <em>Basti Karma</em> towards the management of <em>Madhumeha</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Ayurveda, Diabetes, Madhumeha, </em><em>Panchakarma,</em><em> Basti Karma.</em></p> Pankaj Nigam Om Prakash Dwivedi Jinesh Jain Sanjeev M. Khuje ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 400 406 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2143 Concept of essential hypertension in Ayurvedic perspectives http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2144 <p>Essential hypertension is an instrumental disease which is the recent diagnostic invention of modern science. However there is no any reference which directly resembles with its pathophysiological views in Ayurvedic classics. Lots of works have been carried out on concept of hypertension to evaluate the perfect diagnosis and mode of treatment on the basis of Ayurvedic principles, but a widely acceptable theory is still not available. Different nomenclatures also have been adopted by Ayurvedic researchers like <em>Rakta pradoshaj Vyadhi, Uchharaktachapa</em> and<em> Uchharaktabhara</em> etc. on the basis of pathophysiology and symptoms of disease. Different diseases were considered parallels to hypertension such as; <em>Raktagata Vata, Raktavrita Vata, Pranavrita Vyana, Vyanavrita Prana</em> and<em> Shleshmavrita Vyana</em> etc. Ayurveda believe that pathophysiology of other diseases routes through hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda, hypertension, Rakta pradoshaj Vyadhi, Raktagata Vata</em> and<em> Raktavrita Vata.</em></p> Sandeep S. Kamble Sanjeev Khuje O.P. Dwivedi Jinesh Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 407 410 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2144 Metal ions as antibacterial agents http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2063 <p>Metals like mercury, arsenic, copper and silver have been used in various forms as antimicrobials for thousands of years. The use of metals in treatment was mentioned in Ebers Papyrus (1500BC); i.e, copper to decrease inflammation &amp; iron to overcome anemia. Copper has been registered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the earliest solid antimicrobial material. Copper is used for the treatment of different E. coli, MRSA, Pseudomonas infections. Advantage of use of silver is it has low toxicity to human’s cells than bacteria.It is less susceptible to gram +ve bacteria than gram –bacteria due to its thicker cell wall. Zinc is found to be active against Streptococcus pneumonia, Campylobacter jejuni. Silver &amp; zinc act against vibrio cholera &amp; enterotoxic E. coli. The use of metals as antibacterial got reduce with discovery of antibiotics in twentieth century, immediately after that antibiotic resistance was seen due to transfer of antibiotic resistance genes by plasmids also known as Resistance Transfer Factors or R-factors. Metal complexes are used to show synergistic activity against bacteria’s like copper &amp; chlorhexidine on dental plaque bacteria, silver nanoparticles &amp; cephalexin against E. coli &amp; S. aureus.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Metals, Oligodynamic effect, Copper, Silver</p> Sirisha Mittapally Ruheena Taranum Sumaiya Parveen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 411 419 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2063 Expository aspect for action of Ksharaplota http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2147 <p><em>Kshara Karma</em> or chemical cauterization described in <em>Ayurveda</em> as one of the <em>Anushastras</em> (Minimum Assess Surgery). It is considered superior in all types of <em>Anushstra</em> due to its efficacy in conditions where all other measures failed to cure diseases or surgical interventions. Healing of wounds and cuts is a very difficult if wound or cuts becomes worse and turned to <em>Dushta Varna</em> due to negligence and the inappropriate approaches of treatment. However wound healing is a natural defense mechanism of body but in complicated and severe cases there are need of therapeutic practices toboost healing mechanism of body. Father of Indian surgery <em>Sushruta </em>mentioned use of dressing materials such as; <em>Pichu, Plota, Kawalika </em>and <em>Vikeshika</em> for the management of <em>Dushta Vrana</em>, <em>Plota </em>used to clean &amp; covers the <em>Vrana</em> very deeply and helps to removes debris of wounds effectively. Considering these all facts present article emphasized mode of action of <em>Ksharaplota </em>(Alkaline Medicated Gauze) for exploring its surgical significance with logical interventions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>VranaShodhana, VranaRopana, DushtaVrana, </em>Action of<em> Ksharaplota, Alkaline </em><em>Medicated Gauze.</em></p> Anantkumar V. Shekokar Vijay P. Ukhalkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 8 6-s 420 423 10.22270/jddt.v8i6-s.2147