Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <p class="MsoNormal">&nbsp;</p> <table class="MsoTableLightGridAccent2" style="width: 634.5pt; border-collapse: collapse; border: none; mso-border-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor: accent2; mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184; mso-padding-alt: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" border="1" width="846" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 189.9pt; border: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor: accent2; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="253"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #0070c0;"><a href="http://road.issn.org/issn/2250-1177-journal-of-drug-delivery-and-therapeutics-#.VqeN6Jp961s"><strong><span style="color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">ISSN: 2250-1177</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">UGC</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> Approved</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> (</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/journallist/ugc_admin_journal_report.aspx?eid=NDU3NDQ="><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;">Link</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/global-health/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Global Health</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101656626" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">NLM ID: 101656626</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">EBSCO</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 3.3in; border-top: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-top-themecolor: accent2; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; border-right: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-right-themecolor: accent2; mso-border-left-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-left-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="317"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/cab-abstracts/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Cab Abstracts</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="http://www.cas.org/products/other-cas-products"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">CODEN (CAS-USA): JDDTAO</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/crop-science-database/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">C</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">rop Science Database</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/journal/issue?issueId=30973&amp;journalId=40300"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">IndexCopernicus</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user=4UICAisAAAAJ&amp;hl=en"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Google Scholar</span></strong></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> H-Index: 19</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 207.0pt; border-top: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-top-themecolor: accent2; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; border-right: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-right-themecolor: accent2; mso-border-left-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-left-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="276"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">CrossRef DOI:10.22270</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">E-Mail: editor.jddt@gmail.com</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Phone: +91-9783920207</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Frequency: 6 Issue/Year</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Double-Blind Peer-reviewed</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal">Â&nbsp;</p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics (JDDT) </span></strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">is a </span><strong><em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">double blind</span></em></strong> <strong><em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">peer-reviewed</span></em></strong> <em><strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">bimonthly</span></strong></em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> journal dedicated to the publication of research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, ShortÂ&nbsp;communicationsÂ&nbsp;and case studies. It is theÂ&nbsp;official journal of<strong> Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats (SoPhTech)</strong>. This publication is aimed at a broad, interdisciplinary audience of academic and industrial researchers actively engaged in basic and applied laboratory practice, related to Pharmaceutical Science and Therapeutics.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 12pt 0in; line-height: normal; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #00b0f0;">Year of Starting: 2011</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #e36c0a; mso-themecolor: accent6; mso-themeshade: 191;">UGC</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 15.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #e36c0a; mso-themecolor: accent6; mso-themeshade: 191;"> Approved Journal</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #002060;"> (</span></strong><a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/journallist/ugc_admin_journal_report.aspx?eid=NDU3NDQ="><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">See Link</span></strong></a><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #002060;">)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><img title="j15_855" src="/public/site/images/jddtadmin/j15_855.jpg" alt="j15_855" width="855" height="129"></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <form action="https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr" method="post"> <p style="margin: 12pt 0in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 16.0pt; color: #e36c0a; mso-themecolor: accent6; mso-themeshade: 191;">CALL FOR PAPERS</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 16.0pt; color: #111111;">:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 12pt 0in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #7030a0; font-weight: normal;">Vol 8, Issue 5, 2018</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #111111;">. </span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #7030a0; font-weight: normal;">Authors can submit manuscript by online submission system or email us at </span></strong><a href="mailto:editor.jddt@gmail.com"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #000077;">editor.jddt@gmail.com</span></a><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #7030a0; font-weight: normal;"> (Issue Releasing Date: 15-September-2018)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">ARTICLE SUBMISSION CHARGES:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> Nil</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #7030a0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">ARTICLE PROCESSING FEES</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">:</span></strong> <span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #111111;">The fees to be paid following the acceptance of an article are indicated below:</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">1750 INR/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Indian Authors</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;">USD 45/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;"> for Authors from Low-Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">USD 55/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Authors from Low-Middle Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;">USD 65/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;"> for Authors from Upper-Middle-Income Countries</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">USD 90/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Authors from High-Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #00b050;">(No other hidden charges)</span></strong> <a href="/index.php/jddt/about/editorialPolicies#custom-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #669900;">More detail</span></a> <span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">for waiver policy.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: mediumblue;">Why publish in</span></strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: mediumblue;"> <strong>Journal of Drug Delivery &amp; Therapeutics?</strong></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">1.Â&nbsp;A broad ranging open access journal</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">2.Â&nbsp;Fast and efficient on-line submission</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">3.Â&nbsp;Rapid publication and High visibility</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">4.Â&nbsp;Constructive rapid &amp; Expert peer review</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">5.Â&nbsp;Archiving of your article in various international repositories</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">6.Â&nbsp;Our journal is indexed in various international indexing authorities</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">7.Â&nbsp;"Certificate of publication" to the authors of accepted articles (On Demand)</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><img title="sc111_328" src="/public/site/images/jddtadmin/sc111_328.jpg" alt="sc111_328" width="320" height="328"></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Other Related Journal:</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #0070c0;"><a href="/index.php/jddt/manager/setup/International Journal of Drug Regulatory Affairs" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #0070c0; text-decoration-line: none;">International Journal of Drug Regulatory Affairs</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"> (IJDRA)</span></strong></p> </form><form> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #002060;"><a href="http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #002060; text-decoration-line: none;">Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"> (AJPRD)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal">&nbsp;</p> </form> Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THESPESIA POPULNEA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1718 <p>Most of the drugs available today are directly or indirectly derived from plants. The objective of present review is to provide advance information including traditional uses, phyotochemical, Pharmacognostic and pharmacological of <em>Thespesia populnea</em> for easy access of researchers intending to work on the wide range of active chemical constituents in this plant. A fast growing ever green shrub native to saline, sandy, volcanic, limestone and rocky soils especially in tropical and subtropical areas could be seen anywhere and easy to propagate and grow. Its activity spectrum ranges from memory enhancing to cytotoxic to immunmodulatory to antidiuretic. Here we discussed the latest development in the activities of different parts of the plant <em>T. populnea.</em></p> <p>Keywords: Pharmacological activity, Phytochemical screening, Ethnomedicine, <em>Thespesia populnea</em>.</p> CH. Malathi Suvarna P. Sriya MD Arshad K. Pavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 1 4 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1718 AN UPDATED REVIEW ON MODIFIED RELEASE TABLETS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1722 <p class="Default">For some time now modified drug release has been studied and used extensively during the development of pharmaceutical drug products because of its advantages over immediate release formulations. As per the forecasting by Global Business Intelligence (GBI) research, the growth in oral drug delivery market will uplift in the coming years. Modified release drug products allow at least a two-fold reduction in dosing when compared to a drug that is presented in a conventional immediate release form. Modified release drug products are designed to release active pharmaceutical ingredient over a longer duration of time; At least, longer than an immediate release (I.R) formulation. Many Pharmaceutical companies also utilize the proprietary advantages of Modified release formulations to extend the patent life cycle of commercial products thereby bringing in new business.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Immediate release (I.R), Modified release (M.R), Novel drug delivery systems (NDDS), Loading doze (LD), Maintenance doze (MD), New Drug Application (NDA)</p> Gaurav Gujral Devesh Kapoor Manish Jaimini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 5 9 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1722 FAST DISSOLVING ORAL FILMS: A TABULAR UPDATE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1724 <p>Fast-dissolving oral films have emerged as alternative dosage forms for the patients who experience difficulties in swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms such as tablets, capsules, and syrups etc.   These dosage forms disintegrate or dissolve very quickly within seconds when placed in the mouth cavity without need of water or chewing. Due to fast dissolution it provide faster onset of action, bypassing the first pass metabolism, reducing gastric degradation and metabolism of drugs and thus enhance their oral bioavailability. These properties of oral films with patient convenience and compliance made popular and accepted dosage form for pediatric and geriatric as well as adult population. These formulations are suitable for cough, cold, sore throat, allergenic conditions, nausea, pain, hypertension and CNS disorders, epilepsy and many more diseases. The present review provides up to date review in fast dissolving oral films in tabular form so researches can easily track various technologies/research in design and development of oral fast dissolving film.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>:</em> Mouth dissolving films, Oral dispersible film, Oral dissolving film, Oral disintegrating film.</p> Ashish Jain Harish C Ahirwar Shivam Tayal Pradeep K. Mohanty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 10 19 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1724 GASTRO RETENTIVE NON-FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY APPROACH: A REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1725 <p>Gastro retardation is attractive approach to enhance bioavailability of narrow absorption window drugs. Drug retardation in stomach is more beneficial for certain gastro intestinal disorders like gastro esophageal reflex disease, ulcer and other gastro intestinal conditions. Gastric site retardation is one of the challenging technique, however various techniques are applied to keep the drug and achieve the enhancement of bioavailability. To achieve gastro retentive commonly two approaches are considered, they are floating drug delivery system and non-floating gastro retentive drug delivery system. The floating drug made-up by low density polymers, this approach was not fit many of the drug molecule and floating drug has some limitations like sufficient level fluids in stomach and not to be dosed just before going to bed. In this review describe the various high density (sinking) system (non-floating) drug delivery systems like super porous hydrogels, expanding system, bio/mucoadhesives system, and magnetic system and mechanism, desirable drug characters, advantages and disadvantages.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Bioavailability, gastro retentive, magnetic system, mucoadhesive, non-floating and sinking system. <strong></strong></p> M Ramanathan S Manikandan L Subramanian P Solairaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 20 23 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1725 GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1788 <p>Oral route of drug administration is the most preferable route because of its flexibility in formulation, ease of administration, and patient compliance. But this route has certain limitations like limited gastric residence time (GRT) for sustained drug delivery system and for the drugs which are absorb from specific region of gastrointestinal tract (GIT). To overcome these limitations, various approaches have been proposed to increase the gastric retention time of the delivery system in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. Gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) prolongs the GRT by targeting site-specific drug release in upper part of GIT. GRDFs enable continuous and the extended duration of drug release and improve bioavailability of drugs that have narrow therapeutic window, by this way they prolong dosing interval and increase compliance of the patient. The purpose of this article is to compile the various gastroretentive approaches. In order to understand various physiological difficulties to achieve gastric retention, we have summarized important factors controlling gastric retention. Finally the evaluation parameters of gastroretentive drug delivery systems are covered. The present review addresses briefly about the current status of various leading gastroretentive drug delivery technologies, developed until now, i.e. high density (sinking), floating, bio- or mucoadhesive, expandable, unfoldable, super porous hydrogel, magnetic systems etc. In addition, important factors controlling gastroretention, advantages and finally, future potential are discussed.</p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Floating Delivery, Gastro retentive system.</p><p> </p> Swapnil More Kaustubh Gavali Onkar Doke Prasad Kasgawade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 24 35 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1788 NIPAH VIRUS INFECTION: A GROWING DEADLY PARAMYXOVIRUS AND THE RECENT STATUS OF POTENTIAL THERAPEUTICS IN INDIA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1739 <p>Nipah virus is an RNA virus that is part of the Paramyxovidae family that was first identified as a zoonotic pathogen after an outbreak involving severe respiratory illness in pigs and encephalitic disease in humans in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999. Nipah virus can cause a range of mild to severe disease in domestic animals such as pigs. Nipah virus infection in humans causes a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection (subclinical) to acute respiratory infection and fatal encephalitis. Nipah virus can be transmitted to humans from animals (bats, pigs), and can also be transmitted directly from human-to-human. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are the natural host of Nipah virus. There is no treatment or vaccine available for either people or animals. A recombinant measles virus (rMV) vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins is proposed but is still under trial. The primary treatment for humans is supportive care. Nipah virus is an emerging threat to the human life with history of outbreaks chiefly in Bangladesh, India &amp; Malaysia. Categorized as zoonotic biosafety level 4 (BSL4) agent depending upon the geographic locations of outbreaks, it is responsible of case mortality between 40% to 100% in both humans and animals thus one of the most deadly virus known to infect humans. The present review article cover current potential therapeutics in India against nipah virus infection.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nipah, Virus, Infection, Hendra virus, paramyxoviruses, Human being</p> Asheesh Singh Parul Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 36 41 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1739 ROLE OF NUTRACEUTICALS ON HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION: A REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1759 <p>Nutraceuticals have received considerable zest for their expected safety, potential nutritive and therapeutic effects. These were used as alternative to modern medicines that promote quality of health, increases nutritive value of the diet and prolongs life expectancy. Major constituents of the nutraceuticals are herbals, various nutrients and dietary supplements are involved in preventing different diseases and minimizing pathophysiology of the disease too. It also acts as immune boosting, natural antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, organoprotective agent in addition with different health promoting effects. Ultimately, they ensure better quality of life and the purpose of this review is to provide summary of current scientific impression in this regard which might be helpful to formulate further innovative research plan in new domain on nutraceuticals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nutraceuticals; Disease prevention; Health promotion; Nutrients; Nutrition<strong></strong></p> Sangita Dutta Kazi Monjur Ali Sandeep Kumar Dash Biplab Giri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 42 47 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1759 ANTI-CANCER HERBLE DRUGS: AN OVERVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1749 <p>"Cancer" is the term we give to a large group of diseases that vary in type and location but have one thing in common: abnormal cells growing out of control. It continues multiplying uncontrollably and the result of this accumulation of abnormal cells is a mass of cells called a "cancer". The Plant Kingdom produces naturally occurring secondary metabolites which are being investigated for their anticancer activities leading to the development of new clinical drugs. With the success of these compounds that have been developed into staple drugs for cancer treatment new technologies are emerging to develop the area further. New technologies include nanoparticles for Nano-medicines which aim to enhance anticancer activities of plant-derived drugs by controlling the release of the compound and investigating new methods for administration. This review discusses the demand for naturally-derived compounds from medicinal plants and their properties which make them targets for potential anticancer treatments. The purpose of this brief review is to assemble current literature on some herbal drugs and to focus on their beneficial roles and drug targets in cancer therapy and chemoprevention.</p> <strong>Keywords</strong>: 20 Herbal drugs, Cancer, Cell cycle Sonali R Pawar Sampada S Jangam Santosh A. Waghmare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 48 58 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1749 A STUDY ON MEDICINAL HERB SPINACIA OLERACEAE LINN: AMARANTHACEAE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1767 <p><em>Spinacia oleracea</em> is an edible green vegetable plant, belong to the family of Amaranthaceae<em>. Spinacia oleracea</em> have various pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-histaminic and hepatoprotective. The present paper is an attempt to provide a detailed botanical description, classification, nutrient contents, traditional uses and pharmacological properties of this medicinal herb.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Medicinal Plant, Hepatoprotective, Natural drug, Non-toxic<strong></strong></p> Sunita Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 59 61 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1767 MEDICINAL POTENTIAL OF LANTANA CAMARA: VERBENACEAE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1771 <p><em>Lantana camara</em> is a shrub that belongs to the family of Verbanaceae. <em>Lantana camara</em> is one such notorious weed which is affecting ecosystem, and causing biodiversity loss at greater extent. It is highly invasive and currently occupies a large percentage of the vegetation cover wherever it was introduced. But, <em>Lantana camara</em> is well known to cure several diseases and used in various folk medicinal preparations. It<em> </em>used in many pharmacological activities. These studies established the therapeutic potential of <em>Lantana camara</em> in modern medicines and a possible candidate for the drug discovery. The present review aims to document the taxonomy, ecology, morphology and medicinal properties of <em>L. camara</em>.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Invasive, Ecology, Medicinal, Pharmacological, Weed.</p> Sunita Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 62 64 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1771 SOFT CHEWABLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: ORAL MEDICATED JELLY AND SOFT CHEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1784 <p class="Default">Oral route is most commonly used for administration of medicament since they are economical, easy to administer, &amp; high patient acceptance. Due to difficulty in administration of therapeutic agents to dysphagia patients it becomes necessary to develop a formulation in order to overcome such inconvenience. Jellies are semisolid dosage form they are transparent, non greasy, &amp; can be used internally as well as externally. Its matrix include large amount of water &amp; they resemble to mucilage but possess jelly like consistency. Advantages of chewable formulation are that it does not require water for ingestion, aesthetic appearance, and good texture. Soft chew is solid, single dose formulation. It is used as acute medication since it is mobile drug delivery systems. They are formulated using heating &amp; congealing technique. It serves as novel dosage form with wide applications in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and over the counter medicines</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Jellies, Soft chew, Nutraceuticals</p> Ruheena Taranum Sirisha Mittapally ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 65 72 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1784 Overview on Chemokine Co-Receptor-5 (CCR-5) HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1794 <p>In the 21st century, HIV-1 has turned into a noteworthy global challenge in medication. As per WHO report 2017, HIV is one of the deadliest diseases adding to an aggregate of 36.7 million contaminations until December 2016 among which 1.8 million were analyzed in 2016 itself. In 2016, 19.5 million individuals experienced to anti-retroviral treatment summing up to US$ 11 billion. With regards to rising resistance from anti-retroviral medication in HIV treatment, the advancement of most recent medication classes with a newer mode of action stays essential. The CCR5 co-receptor inhibitors suppress the fusion of HIV with the host cell by upsetting the connection of gp-120 protein with the CCR5 receptor. Though severalCCR5 antagonists are assessed in clinical trials, just Maraviroc has been endorsed for clinical use in the treatment of HIV infected patients. The efficacy and safety profile of CCR5 adversaries with a consideration on maraviroc are assessed here in conjunction with their use in newer and developing clinical trials. In the beginning time of HIV-1 infection in the most of patients, the HIV utilizes CCR5 receptor for passage in CD4 cell of the host (CCR5-tropic infection). Maraviroc did not decrease virus load (compared to optimized background therapy) in patients with CXCR4 or dual-tropic virus. Before prescribing a CCR5 blocker HIV tropism testing is recommended. Viral tropism is defined as the capability of the viruses to enter as well as infect the host cell, and it is based on the binding capacity of the viruses to receptors on those host cells. The co-receptor type should be recognized before the treatment started with a CCR5 blocker.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> CCR5, CXCR4, HIV-1, CD4 cell, Tropism, CYP3A4.<strong></strong></p> Kavita Pant Anita Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 73 79 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1794 AYURVEDA REVIEW ON “DADIMASHTAKA CHURNA” AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1804 <p><em>Dadimashtaka Churna</em> a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation mainly used for gastro intestinal problem such as; diarrhea. <em>Tawaksheeri, Twak, Patra, Ajamoda, Dhanyaka, Ajaji, Granthi, Pippali, Dadima </em>and<em> </em><em>Sita</em> are the main ingredients of formulation. <em>Dadimashtaka churna</em> prepared by mixing various herbs with sugar and traditionally it is recommended to take 3 to 5 grams of formulation with warm water/rice soup after meal. However it should be used cautionary with diabetic patients. The presence of various chemical constituents of different herbs makes this formulation worth full for gastric trouble especially digestive problems. The folklore use of <em>Dadimashtaka churna</em> needed to explore to enhance global acceptance of this formulation, considering this fact current article summarizes various aspect of <em>Dadimashtaka churna.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Ayurveda, Dadimashtaka Churna, Sita </em>and<em> </em>Diarrhea<em>. </em></p> Ranjit Narang Isha Herswani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 80 82 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1804 VARIOUS HISTORICAL ASPECT OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES DESCRIBED IN ANCIENT KALA OF VEDA AND SAMHITA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1805 <p>The development of medical system in India witnessed by all common era and the seeding of ancient ayurveda science starts from early development of civilization. The emergence of traditional medical system involves description of religious medicine practiced from the Vedic period in India. The initial development phase of natural medical system later on shaped as Ayurveda which encompasses various logical and rational concept related to the health and well being. The theory and practice of ayurveda mainly based on experimental conclusion of <em>vaidya</em> and ancient practitioners. Similarly the historical perspective of infectious diseases is very vast as per the modern and traditional science. Ayurveda researchers and practitioners described various types of infectious diseases time by time and also offered textual evidences of pathogenic organisms. This article presented historical review on infectious diseases as per ayurveda in a view to explore ayurveda perspective of such diseases and their causative organisms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ayurveda, Sankramak disease, infections, microbes, pathogens, Vedic period. <strong><em></em></strong></p> Ashutosh Kumar Jain Jinesh Kumar Jain O.P. Diwedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 83 86 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1805 Role of Panchakarma in Various Disorders Associated with Pain; W.S.R. to Sciatica, Spondylitis and Osteoarthritis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1809 <p>Ayurveda is a system of medicines practicing in India anciently. The concepts and belief of ayurveda based on logical reasoning and experimental observations. Ayurveda not only mentioned approaches of disease prevention but also described preventive measure to maintain good health status. The therapeutic measures of ayurveda not only involves use of medicine but also utilizes other approaches such as; <em>Panchakarma.</em> <em>Panchakarma</em> is a <em>Shodhana Chikitsa</em> and approved as vital therapy for the management of various disorders. <em>Panchakarma </em>offer various therapeutic benefits such as; detoxification, improved circulation, relief spasm and pain. The efficacy of <em>Panchakarma</em> also well proven in pain related diseases. This article presented role of <em>Panchakarma</em> in pain W.S.R. to Sciatica, Spondylitis and Osteoarthritis.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong>: </strong>Ayurveda, <em>Panchakarma, Shodhana Chikitsa, Shoola roga, </em>Sciatica<em>.<strong> </strong></em><strong> </strong></p> Ashish Mishra Pankaj Nigam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-17 2018-07-17 8 4 362 364 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1809 Application of ImageJ for processing Shilajit exposed PBMC images http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1774 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>In this study, application of ImageJ for processing Shilajit exposed PBMC images were studied.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In present study experiment was designed with human PBMC treated with Shilajit in high concentration (18mg/ml).Digital images were taken after one hour exposure with Shilajit and image processing steps were implemented.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Acquired images from Shilajit exposed human PBMC had low contrast and substantial background noise as media was mixed with Shilajit. So images were processed by adjusting brightness and contrast, applying median filter, thresholding and watershed algorithm.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A high concentration of shilajit (18mg/ml) was detrimental to human PBMC. ImageJ can be efficiently used to process and extract information from low resolution images. <strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> ImageJ, Shilajit, PBMC</p> Madhurima Ghosh Jhinuk Chatterjee V. Krishnamurthy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 87 89 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1774 OVERVIEW STUDY ON MURRAYA KOENIGII (MITHA NEEM): RUTACEAE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1795 <p><em>Murraya koenigii</em> (Rutaceae) commonly known as “Curry leaves” and “Meetha neem”. It is an important leafy vegetable. Its leaves are widely used in Indian cookery for flavouring foodstuffs. The leaves are used traditionally as spice. The aim of the present study is to information about classification, origin, morphological characters, traditionally use of <em>Murraya koenigii</em> by tribal community of Jhunjhunu District of Rajasthan in many cures of diseases.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Medicinal Plant, Traditionally, Antibacterial, Antioxidant<strong></strong></p> Sunita Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 90 92 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1795 LIQUID CRYSTALLINE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE LOADED WITH AN ANTITUBERCULAR DRUG http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1719 <p class="Default">In present study, LCs were formulated and evaluate for desirable properties, Sonication conditions were firstly investigated to determine their effects on the morphological and dimensional characteristics of liquid crystals and optimized according probe sonication condition (Ultra Tarrux T25), liquid crystals with reproducible narrow particle size distribution and mean particle size of 168.0 ± 2.1 nm were obtained. The structure of the dispersed cubosomes was revealed by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) as a liquid crystalline phase. To overcome the dose frequency and increase drug loading rate, <em>in vitro</em>-dissolution, method, ultracentrifuge be firstly develop liquid crystals containing Rifampicin. The encapsulation efficiency determined by UV spectroscopy was 93.86 ± 0.11% and stability studies in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solutions further confirmed that Rifampicin was successfully encapsulated in liquid crystals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cubic phases, liquid crystals, GMO, Rifampicin, high speed homogenization (Ultra Tarrux T25), probe sonication.</p> Monika Ola Rajveer Bhaskar Gaurav R Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 93 101 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1719 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TOPICAL FORMULATION FOR CUTANEOUS TUBERCULOSIS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1723 <p>Cutaneous Tuberculosis is also known as dermal tuberculosis or tuberculosis cutis (extrapulmonary tuberculosis) which can occur in any age group and patients who may or may not be suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. The current treatment given for the disease is oral therapy of anti-tubercular drugs which has many side effects such as hepatotoxicity, headache, anxiety, euphoria, insomnia, eosinophilia, hepatitis. Hence to avoid these side effects and to increase efficiency of current therapy a topical proniosomal gel of isoniazid was formulated. Coacervation phase separation method was used and proniosomal gel was formulated by using Span 20, soya lecithin, and cholesterol. Optimum concentration of 3 factors Span 20, soya lecithin, and cholesterol were determined using Box Behnken design with at 2 levels and vesicle size and entrapment efficiency as responses. The optimized proniosomal gel was characterized by vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release, skin retention studies, skin irritation studies and stability studies. The optimised batch showed vesicle size of 2.27±1.82 µ, and entrapment efficiency of 98.15±0.25 %. The optimised formulation was stable under refrigeration condition (5°C) in amber coloured bottle, was non-irritating and showed 98.10±1.28 % release and 85±1.53 % permeation after 6 h and 436±12 µg drug was retained in the skin after 3 hrs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cutaneous tuberculosis, isoniazid, proniosomal gel, stability</p><p> </p> Monica Rao Manali Kadam Shivani Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 102 116 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1723 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES OF GLICLAZIDE HYDROCHLORIDE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1735 <p>This article illustrates the Formulation and Characterization of Mucoadhesive microspheres of Gliclazide Hydrochloride.The mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by the Emulsion Solvent Evaporation method by using Eudragit L 100 and Ethyl Cellulose 22 CPS polymers &amp; PEG 4000 added as a pore forming agent . Formulated microspheres were evaluated for various parameters. The characteristics like shape and structure of prepared microspheres were determined by Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The prepared microspheres exhibited prolonged drug release (12 hrs) the mean particle size increased as the concentration of Eudragit L 100 increased. Decrease in size of microspheres leads to decrease in mucoadhesion time, % drug loading and faster the drug release. The optimized formulation shows following cumulative release after 12 hrs i.e. 96.40%. The microspheres exhibited 80% mucoadhesion and showed good drug entrapment efficiency i.e. 80.13±0.91% as well as drug loading efficiency is 26.70±0.75%.  It can be concluded that the present mucoadhesive microspheres can be an ideal system to deliver the Gliclazide Hydrochloride in the sustained release manner for management of Type II Diabetes Mellitus.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Mucoadhesive, Gliclazide Hydrochloride, Microspheres, Eudragit L 100, drug entrapment efficiency.</p><p> </p> Siraj N Shaikh Shaikh Saad G.J. Khan Sharukh Y Pathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 117 125 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1735 PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ASSESSMENT OF HERBAL EXTRACTS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1736 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> Linn (PZME), <em>Datura stramonium </em>(DSME) and <em>Argemone mexicana</em> Linn (AMME) with its polyherbal methanol extract (PHME) composition.</p> <p><strong>Material and method:</strong> All the extracts were screened for the presence of various phytochemical by known and standard methods. Qualitative estimation of some potential phytoconstituents like flavonoids and polyphynolics was characterized by TLC (thin layer chromatography) and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy<strong>).</strong> The quantification of the Rutin (flavonoid) and Gallic acid (polyphenol) were carried out using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of methanolic plant extracts and their combinations were assessed by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) method. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard and the antioxidant potential were evaluated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/ml concentration.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The phytochemical characterization of PZME, DSME and AMME revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids.The polyherbal methanol extract (PHME) was found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity with maximum free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of 82.79% as compared to standard ascorbic acid (92.92%) at a concentration of 8 mg/ml and was found to be significantly greater than individual methanol plant extracts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study revealed a potent synergistic antioxidant effect of methanol extracts of <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> Linn, <em>Datura stramonium</em> Linn and <em>Argemone mexicana</em> Linn which can be successfully used to mitigate oxidative stress associated complications and other regenerative therapies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> Linn, <em>Datura stramonium</em> Linn, <em>Argemone mexicana</em> Linn, Antioxidant, DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil), FTIR, Rutin, Gallic acid.</p> Suresh Kumar Dev P K Choudhury Rajnish Srivastava Maya Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 126 133 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1736 EVALUATION OF CYTOPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF ARISAEMA LESCHNAULTII BLUME AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN TUMOR BEARING MICE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1738 <p>Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used antineoplastic drug, it is used for the treatment of several malignancies. However, upon treatment, it induces severe toxicity due to its oxidative stress capability  In this study we evaluate the cytoprtective efficacy of <em>Arisaema leschnaultii blume</em> (AL) against cyclophosphamide induced hepatotoxicity in tumor bearing mice due to its antioxidant property. Female Swiss albino mice were used. Group I-Naive control, Group II-DAL bearing, Group III-DAL + CP, Group IV-  DAL + AL + CP,  Group V- DAL + AL + CP, Group VI-DAL + Amifostine + CP. CP induced hepatic damage as indicated by significant elevation (P &lt; 0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase, organ weight, and evidence by the histological study. CP also induced hepatic oxidative stress as indicated by significant elevation (P &lt; 0.05) in malondialdehyde content, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) generation, nitrite level, and the level of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase crashed in the CP treated group. AL enhanced the antioxidant defense system as indicated by elevation in GSH level, catalase activity, and GSH‑S‑transferase activity and by inhibiting MDA.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: hepatotoxicity, glutathione, antioxidants, cytoprotective etc.<strong></strong></p> Yogendra Mavai Suman Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 134 141 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1738 LAXATIVE ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF PUTRANJIVA ROXBURGHII. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1741 <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study was aimed to assess the possible laxative effect of <em>roxburghii</em> hydroalcoholic leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva</em> in albino’s Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Rats were divided in 5 groups of 6 animals each, I group served as control, II group as standard (sodium picosulfate) while group III, IV and V were treated with leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva roxburghii</em> at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg respectively. The statistical analysis of results were carried out using and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by Student t-test.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong> The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the hydroalcoholic leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva roxburghii</em> and reference also evaluated. The hydroalcoholic leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva roxburghii</em> administered orally at three different doses produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependent manner. The effect of the extract at 500 mg/kg (p.o.) was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results showed that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of <em>Putranjiva roxburghii</em> has a significant laxative activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Laxative, Loperamide, Constipation.</p> Shivansh Yadav Prevesh Kumar Bhawna Shridhar Divaker Shukla Ved Pal Baiga Munesh Mani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 142 144 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1741 SYNTHESIS AND COMPARISON OF PEG-IBUPROFEN AND PEG-KETOPROFEN PRODRUGS BY IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1743 <p>Pain is an unpleasant sensation experienced by all individuals and classified as acute and chronic pain. NSAID’s were most widely used for treatment of Analgesia and Inflammation. Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Polyethylene glycol 1500 &amp; PEG 6000 were used as drug carriers and Glycine was used as spacer to link the drugs through ester linkage. Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen belong to propionic acid derivatives of Anti-inflammatory drugs and are non-selective COX inhibitors. PEG 1500/PEG6000-Ibuprofen/Ketoprofen and PEG 1500/PEG 6000-Glycine-Ibuprofen/Ketoprofen were synthesized and are subjected to <em>In Vitro</em> dissolution studies which revealed that the drug release was higher at 7.2 pH rather than at 1.2 pH. The results of <em>In Vivo</em> evaluation studies of both synthesized prodrugs revealed that these prodrugs retained their Analgesic activity by hot plate method and acetic acid method, Anti-inflammatory activity by paw edema method and cotton pellet method. Both the prodrugs had exhibited good ulcer protective activity when compared to parent drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Prodrugs, Polyethylene Glycol 1500, Poly Ethylene Glycol 6000, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen.</p> Durgaprasad Kemisetti Sarangapani Manda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 145 154 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1743 IN-VITRO STUDY ON THE HEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT CROTON BONPLANDIANUM WITH PHYTOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION: A NEW ERA IN DRUG DEVELOPMENT http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1747 <p>In this study different extracts of the leaves of <em>Croton</em> <em>bonplandianum</em> were screened for the haemolytic activity towards human erythrocytes. The haemolytic activity was performed by modified spectroscopic method at four different concentrations (300, 150, 75, 25 μg/ml). The haemolytic activity of the different extracts of <em>Croton</em> <em>bonplandianum</em> was found in the following order Ethyl acetate extract &gt; Chloroform extract &gt; Benzene extract. However, all the extracts alone and in combination with each other exhibited very low haemolytic activity. <em>E. ganitrus </em>did not exhibit any haemolytic activity at any dilution. Hence, they can be considered as safe to human erythrocytes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hemolytic activity, <em>Croton</em> <em>bonplandianum, </em>Erythrocytes</p> Tanmay Ghosh M K Biswas Sandipan Chatterjee Pradipta Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 155 160 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1747 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC TABLETS OF GARCINIA INDICA EXTRACT http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1752 <p>The present study deals with the development and evaluation of controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) tablets containing inclusion complexes of ethanolic extract of <em>Garcinia indica </em>fruit rind. Wet granulation method was used for the development of core tablets. Core tablets were incorporated with different concentrations of sodium chloride as osmogen and additives. The CPOP tablets were coated with cellulose acetate as a wall forming material and HPMC acts as pore forming material in SPM. The formulated tablets were evaluated for FTIR, DSC, pre-compression parameters, post compression parameters, <em>in vitro </em>drug release study and scanning electron microscopy study. The optimized formulation had no significant effect on the pH and agitation intensity. SEM images revealed that no pores were found before dissolution and after dissolution had shown the porous nature of the membrane. It was found that the optimized formulation (P4) delivers a drug at a zero-order rate for 24 hours. Short term stability study at 40±2ºC /75±5% RH for the months on the optimized formulation indicated that there was no significant change in weight variation, % friability, drug content and <em>in vitro </em>drug release.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Osmotic system, cellulose acetate, pore former, controlled porosity, <em>Garcinia indica</em></p> Prajakta Chandrakant Jagtap Vijayalakshmi Prakya Kiran Sanjay Bhise ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 161 169 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1752 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES ON ANTIBIOTIC USE AND RESISTANCE AMONG DOCTORS IN B.P. KOIRALA INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1753 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of antibiotic prescription among doctors may help in developing guidelines to improve antibiotics use and decrease resistance.</p> <p><strong>Aims and objectives:</strong> Our aim was to evaluate KAP regarding antibiotic use and its resistance among doctors.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A cross sectional, questionnaire based study was conducted among the doctors of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal between January-March 2016 and their KAP regarding antibiotic use and resistance was assessed by using a five point Likert scale. The data were analyzed by calculating percentage and frequency.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Almost half of the doctors (50.2%) used to prescribe antibiotics more than once daily. Nearly two thirds of the doctors (65.3%) received antibiotic education at a formal lecture on ward rounds. Most of the doctors (87.4%) agreed that antimicrobials are overused. One hundred thirty four doctors (42.3%) agreed that patients’ demands for antibiotics contribute to its overuse. Nearly two third doctors (70.7%) believed that locally developed antimicrobial guidelines would be more useful. Most of the respondents (89.9%) wanted more ongoing education on antibiotic use and its resistance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our study reveals that antibiotics are overused and patients’ demand contribute to this. Locally developed antimicrobial guidelines would be more useful. More CME on antibiotic use and its resistance should be conducted to enhance the awareness among doctors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antibiotics; Attitude; Antimicrobial drug resistance; Knowledge.</p> Deependra Prasad Sarraf Dillisher Rai Gajendra Prasad Rauniar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 170 175 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1753 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CLOPIDOGREL DRUG IN THE DRUG SUBSTANCES AND DOSAGE FORM BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1756 <p class="Default">The present work describes a validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for estimation of Clopidogrel in the drug substances and dosage form. The quantification was carried out using Ultron ES OVM (150*4.6) mm, 5µm and mobile phase comprised of Buffer, Acetonitrile and in proportion of 70:30 %v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 220 nm. The selected chromatographic conditions were found to effectively quantitate Clopidogrel at retention time of about 3.8 min. Linearity were found to be in the range of 11-75 μg/ml. The percentage recoveries of all the drugs were found to be 99.3-101.1%. The proposed method was found to be fast, specific, accurate, precise, and reproducible and can be used for estimation of the Clopidogrel drugs.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Clopidogrel, Reversed-phase HPLC.</p> Rishabh K Dagariya Rakesh K Jat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 176 178 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1756 COMPARATIVE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA AND CALOTROPIS PROCERA ROOTS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1757 <p>Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites produced by all plants in which some has medicinal uses. The comparative Qualitative and Quantitative phytochemical analysis of root extracts in aqueous, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of <em>Calotropis gigantea </em>and <em>calotropis procera </em>Linn. were investigated. The comparative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, phenols group in varying concentrations. The comparative studies result of the above two plants gives a basis of its use in traditional medicine to manage ailments and disorders. It also contains some biologically active constituents worthy of further investigations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Comparative, Qualitative, Quantitative, phytochemical,<em> Calotropis gigantea </em>and <em>calotropis procera</em><strong> </strong></p><p> </p> Pratibha Mishra Khushwant S. Yadav Girendra Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 179 184 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1757 FORMULATION OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE TABLETS OF ONDANSETRON HCL http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1763 <p>The aim of the work is to design Gastroretentive tablets of Ondansetron HCl for gastric retention by using 3<sup>2</sup> factorial designs. Floating tablets of Ondansetron HCl were prepared by direct compression method using polymers, sodium alginate and excipient. Gastroretentive tablets of Ondansetron HCl were successfully prepared by effervescent technique using different gel forming polymers- HPMC K200M, and sodium alginate. Formulation was optimized by design expert software. Floating tablets were evaluated for floating time, floating lag time, drug content, raft measurement and in vitro dissolution profile. The lag time is between 17-22 sec and floating time of the formulations for 12 hrs. The best fit model is Korsemeyer Peppas Model. From the study it is proof that the sustain release by floating tablets of Ondansetron HCl can be develop. Optimized batch selected was A3, The prepared gastroretentive test formulation was found to exhibit satisfactory physico-chemical characteristics at the end of 3 months, during the stability studies. The optimized formulation A3 was found to be stable at 40<sup>0C</sup>/ 75% RH.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gastric retention time, Ondansetron HCl, HPMC, sodium alginate, measurement of raft, Factorial design, stability studies.</p><p> </p> Siraj N Shaikh Band Afzal Abdul Razzak G. J. Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 185 195 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1763 Development and in-vitro evaluation of candy based medicated lollipops: a novel system of drug delivery http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1764 <p>Lollipops or lozenges are defined as the flavored medicated dosage forms intended to be sucked and held in the mouth or pharynx containing one or more medicaments usually in the sweetened base. Lollipops are commonly used for the purpose of local or systemic effects through the buccal mucosa. Advantages of the lollipop as dosage forms include increase in bioavailability, reduction in dose size, gastric irritation and bypass first metabolism<sup>1</sup>. Lollipop is designed to improve patient compliance, acceptability, transportation etc<sup>2</sup>The lollipops were prepared by heating and congealing method in a candy based industry with sucrose base. All the formulations prepared were subjected to various physicochemical parameters like hardness, content uniformity, friability, weight variation etc. Thickness of lollipop ranges from 12-13.2 mm. The hardness of these lollipops ranges between 10-11.5 kg/cm... Results of in-vitro release profile indicated that formulation L3, L6, and L10 were the most promising formulations as the extent of drug release from this formulation was high as compare to other formulations up to 30 mins. The <em>in vitro </em>release of medicated lollipop of ambroxol hcl was found in the release of drug from the lollipop depends on the type and concentration of polymer used. As per all satisfactory evaluation parameters, the batch L3 is found to be optimized batch. The stability studies showed that there was no change in the formulation after 90 days. The medicated lollipops can provide an attractive alternative formulation in the treatment of mucolytics in pediatric patients.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>Amboxol HCl, Lollipops, mucolytic and mucokinetics.</p> Minakshi Rathod Sandesh Sul Sachin Poharkar Yuvraj Pandhare Monali Muneshwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 196 204 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1764 PREVALENCE OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH ANTENATAL DEPRESSION AMONGST WOMEN http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1766 <p><strong>Background: </strong>A prospective cross sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence rate of postpartum depression and its association with antenatal depression among women coming to the antenatal Clinic and birthing at HAHC Centenary Hospital, New Delhi.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Methods: </strong>149 women by the assistance of EPDS (Hindi version) were screened at 6 weeks of their delivery. The participants were then divided on the basis of presence and absence of depression into two groups as depressed and non-depressed women.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>19 out 149 postnatal women scored ≥ 10 on EPDS which suggest the 12.75% prevalence rate of postnatal depression. Moreover 8(42.1 %) women among 19 depressed postnatal women and 25(19.3 %) women among 130 non-depressed postnatal women were found to have depression since their time of pregnancy thus a significant association (p-value= 0.025) was obtained.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>PPD is a major health problem in our community. Moreover, presence of depression during pregnancy significantly predisposes the postnatal mothers to be a victim of PPD. Therefore an early screening of the perinatal women is needed to unreveal the hidden cases as well as to prevent the mothers from the cruel penalties of PPD.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Postpartum Depression, Screening, perinatal women, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.</p><p> </p> Farhin Zaidi Rubi Anjum Aruna Nigam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 205 208 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1766 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTION OF ANALGESIC DRUG http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1770 <p>The purpose of this study was to formulate and evaluate Parenteral Intraarticular Sustained-Release Formulation of an analgesic drug using the technology of in situ forming gel, based on temperature change mechanism in order to reduce the frequency of dosing and increase patient compliance in the treatment of knee pain. The formulation was optimized, prepared, filled aseptically, sterilized and evaluated for prerequisites of parenteral and other parameters like gelation temperature, gel strength, viscosity, drug content, in vitro and in vivo studies and stability studies. It was prepared using cold method and optimized by 32 factorial design, comprising of drug, Pluronic F127, HPMC K 100M and HPMC K4M was found to be clear, colorless, isotonic, sterile, pH as 6.8-7, viscosity of 1800 cps, syringeable through 18 gauze needle, forming a stable in-situ gel at knee joint temperature having gel strength of 43.80 gm/cm showing a drug release of 95.88 % in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 120hrs. The sterile formulation packed in transparent ampoule was found to the stable with most suitable storage condition at the refrigerator temperature. Thus a biocompatible, stable parenteral formulation was developed which can be an alternative and convenient approach to the patients that require frequent parenteral administration, reducing the frequency of dosing and ultimately increasing patient compliance and comfort.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tramadol HCL, In situ gel, Pluronic F127, intra-articular<strong></strong></p> Reshma Mirajkar Rutuja Kurkute Ashwini Madgulkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 209 217 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1770 STUDY OF SWELLING BEHAVIOR AND DETERMINATION OF SWELLING PARAMETERS OF SPHERICAL HYDROGELS IN WATER http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1775 <p>Spherical Hydrogels are having the tendency to absorb the large amount of water. This results in swelling of the hydrogels that leads to the increase in mass and volume of hydrogels. In the present work this change in the mass and volume of spherical hydrogels at different time interval has been studied. The different swelling related parameters like mass swelling ratio (MSR), equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR), swelling constant (K) which is the characteristic of polymer network of hydrogel bead, diffusional exponent (n) characterizing the mechanism of diffusion of the solvent into the network ,equilibrium water content (EWC), diffusion coefficient of water (D) , number of absorbing sites per unit mass of dry hydrogel ( ρ<sub>M</sub>) and  number of absorbing sites per unit volume of dry hydrogel (ρ<sub>N</sub>) were determined for four different colored (Red, Blue, Orange and Green) spherical hydrogels. The linear relationship of log ( ) is observed with log (<em>t</em>) and also between change in volume and change in mass of hydrogel.   The water intake and volume of hydrogel increases with time initially and later there is no appreciable change in water intake and volume due to maximum water absorption i.e. equilibrium swelling of hydrogels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Spherical Hydrogels, Swelling ratio, parameter, water<strong></strong></p> Prashant Ashtaputrey Santosh Ashtaputrey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 218 222 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1775 Study on Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effect of FangXiangTongLuo-cervical Plaster http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1777 <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>: </strong>To study the anti-inflammatoryandanalgesic effects of FangXiangTongLuo-cervical Plaster. <strong>Methods:</strong> Preparation of FangXiangTongLuo cervical ointment. Using the model of the mouse ear swelling inflammation which is caused by xylene. The analgesic mode of hot-plate method and acetic acid wrinkle method, in order to study the anti - inflammatory and analgesic effects of FangXiangTongLuo-cervical Plaster. <strong>Result: </strong>The results showed that Fangxiangtongluo cervical plaster can effectively reduce the number of writhing in acetic acid-induced mice and increase the rate of writhing inhibition and analgesic percentage (p&lt;0.01). In the hot plate experiment, Fangxiangtongluo cervical plaster can effectively improve the pain threshold of mice. With the increase in medication time, it can also significantly extend the time of the first mouse licking foot, thereby increasing the pain threshold of the mice. At the same time, Fangxiangtongluo cervical plaster can also significantly inhibit the degree of swelling of the mouse auricle caused by xylene, reducing the exudation of inflammatory substances in the body of mice.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Fangxiangtongluo cervical plaster has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.</p> Linfeng Li Ruomei Che Siqi Li Dandan Du Dandan Han Yutong Li Chen Liu Nan Hao Haonan Wu Shihui Sun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 223 228 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1777 IN VITRO TOXICITY STUDIES ON THE EXTRACT OF MEDICINAL PLANT EVOLVULUS NUMMULARIUS AS A POTENT MICROBICIDAL CANDIDATE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1778 <p>The herb<em> Evolvulus nummularius </em>(L). L generally grown as an ornamental plant. This herb has found many applications in traditional folk medicine. There was however insufficient scientific data to back its safety to be used on humans. Methanolic extract of <em>E. nummularius</em> was used to check for its safety as a vaginal microbicide through various safety tests such as cell viability using MTT assay on three female genital tract epithelial cell lines, vaginal (VK2/E6E7), endocervical (End1/E6E7) and endometrial (HEC-1-A). Quantification of hemolytic activity was done on human red blood cells (RBCs). Determination of cellular integrity was checked by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) assay and permeability by fluorescent microsphere assay. At 24 hours, application of the extract for cell viability assay showed extensive cell death with cell disruption. IC<sub>50</sub> of VK2/E6E7 and HEC-1-A cells were found to be 2 mg/ml, IC<sub>50</sub>of End1/E6E7 was 1 mg/ml. For hemolytic assay, with treatment of the extract for one hour did not show hemolysis till the concentration of 2.5mg/ml. In TER and microsphere permeability assays, polarized HEC-1-A monolayer 24 hours post treatment had significant drop in TER and enhanced fluorescence from passage of microspheres implying disruption of the epithelial monolayer. The study revealed the crude methanolic extract appeared to be toxic towards human RBCs and female genital tract epithelial cells. Due to its toxic nature, its direct applications to the human vaginal tissue <em>in vivo </em>should be done with caution.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Medicinal plants; Microbicide; <em>Evolvulus nummularius </em>(L). L; MTT assay; Transepithelial electrical resistance; Fluorescent microsphere assay.</p> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> Jhinuk Basu Mullick KVR Reddy Susmita Saha Tahir Bashir Samrat Hore Samir Kumar Sil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 229 236 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1778 Preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Smilax zeylanica L. (Smilacaceae) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1779 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong><em>Smilax zeylanica</em> L. is a large, dioecious, scandent climbing shrub and an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Smilacaceae. The present study evaluates antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of leaf and fruit extracts of <em>Smilax zeylanica</em> L. (Smilacaceae).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Extraction of powdered leaf and fruit materials was carried out by maceration process using methanol. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was carried out by standard tests. Antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated by Agar well diffusion and Poisoned food technique respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and Ferric reducing assay.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and sterols in both leaf and fruit extracts. Leaf extract was shown to display marked antibacterial activity than fruit extract. Highest and least susceptibility to extracts was observed in case of <em>Bacillus cereus</em> and <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em> respectively. Leaf extract caused highest inhibition of test fungi than fruit extract. Susceptibility to extracts was greater in case of <em>Bipolaris</em> species than <em>Aspergillus niger</em>. Both leaf and fruit extracts scavenged DPPH radicals and exhibited ferric reducing potential in a dose dependent fashion. Leaf extract scavenged DPPH radicals more efficiently with IC<sub>50</sub> value 20.80µg/ml than fruit extract (IC<sub>50</sub> value 35.85µg/ml).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Leaf and fruit extracts of <em>S. zeylanica</em> were shown to exhibit antimicrobial and antioxidant activity which may be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and sterols. Further studies on isolation of active principles from extracts and their bioactivity determinations are to be carried out. <strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Smilax</em> <em>zeylanica</em> L., Maceration, Agar well diffusion, Poisoned food technique, DPPH, Ferric reducing</p> VS Dhanya Shree Ayesha Arbin GK Saema Noorain BK Sahana TR Prashith Kekuda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 237 243 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1779 BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF BOUGAINVILLEA GLABRA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1780 <p>The crude methanolic extract of <em>Bougainvillea glabra</em> leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of the cytotoxic activity. All the extracts of the plant were screened for their cytotoxicity by using brine shrimp nauplii (<em>Artemia salina</em>) lethality bioassay. The toxicity was assessed in terms of LC<sub>50</sub> (lethality concentration), 10 nauplii were taken into three replicates of each concentration of the methanolic leaf extract. Brine shrimps were checked for the mortality during 24 hrs period, surviving brine shrimps were counted and LC<sub>50</sub> was evaluated. The results showed that all the extracts were showing potent toxicity to the nauplii. The LC<sub>50</sub> values were compared to the standard potassium dichromate. It indicates that the extracts are toxic even at low doses. Further investigation is needed to study the acute and subacute toxicity of the extracts for its safe application to the humans.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Artemia salina</em>, cytotoxicity, <em>Bougainvillea glabra</em>, mortality</p> Sudheer K Dokuparthi G Lakshmi A Anjana Syed F Fatima P Ashwini Suresh Kandagatla Suthakaran Raj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 244 246 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1780 GC-MS ANALYSIS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF AEGLE MARMELOS (L.) CORRÊA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1781 <p>The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activities of leaves of <em>Aegle marmelos</em> and to identify the bioactive compounds by performing GC-MS analysis resulting in the presence of volatile and semi volatile compounds. The IC<sub>50</sub> of DPPHË™ radical scavenging assay was 78.36µg/mL concentration respectively. Also, the IC<sub>50</sub> of Phosphomolybdenum reduction and ferric reducing power assay were 41.35 and 20.58µg/mL concentration respectively. Also, total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined, in which flavonoids were found to be predominantly higher. The results of this study portray the effective antioxidant activity of <em>Aegle marmelos</em> and further studies are required to isolate the active compounds from various parts of this species and their mode of action. From the study it can be concluded that the plant might be promising as a curative for many diseases associated with free radicals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Free radicals, <em>Aegle marmelos,</em> Antioxidant, Dot plot, DPPHË™ assay, IC<sub>50</sub>, GCMS.</p> Arumugam Perumal Saraswathi Krishna Madhusree Madhusree ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 247 255 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1781 AWARENESS, RISK PERCEPTION AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINICS IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1782 <p><strong>Background</strong>: In addition to its adverse health effects on mother and fetus, self-medication is believed to be one of the main driving forces behind the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. This study aimed to assess the awareness, risk perception and practice of self-medication among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in Sokoto, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 pregnant women (selected by a two-stage sampling technique) attending the antenatal clinics of the Primary Healthcare Centres in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Data were collected with a set of pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 20 statistical package.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Whereas, almost all the respondents (98.4%) were aware of self-medication, less than half of them (47.3%) perceived it as a serious threat to their health and the health of their unborn baby. Majority of respondents (67.9%) had self-medicated, with the most commonly self-medicated drugs being analgesics/antipyretics (35.1%), antimalarials (31.3%) and antibiotics (24.3%). The most commonly cited reasons for self-medicating were financial problems (28.5%), lack of the required drugs in the hospital (16.8%), lack of time (12.6%), and sickness being mild (9.8%). Self-medication practice was influenced by respondents’ age, marital status, educational background and perception of risk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study showed low risk perception and high prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria. Sensitization of members of the public on the hazards of self-medication, poverty alleviation, and provision of comprehensive healthcare services at subsidized prices for pregnant women are hereby suggested.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Awareness, risk perception, practices, self-medication, pregnant women<strong></strong></p> Aisha Attahiru K. Joseph Awosan Mairo Hassan S. Adeniyi Arisegi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 256 262 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1782 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKED FAST DISSOLVING TABLET OF PRAZOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1785 <p class="Default"><span>The objective of this study was to control the elevated blood pressure in the patient with sudden episode of high blood pressure having markedly reduced function ability and restlessness. In such a case rapid onset of action is required. Prazosin Hydrochloride is drug with short biological half life. The purpose of study is to mask the bitter taste of drug and provide rapid onset of action. Inclusion complex of drug and β-Cyclodextrin can prepare by kneading method to mask the bitter taste of drug. 3<sup>2</sup> full factorial design was implemented, direct compression method were used to prepare tablet. F2 batch among all other batches showed disintegration time 55 sec with 98.56%drug release within 5min. thus it can be concluded the fast dissolving tablet can be formulated for antihypertensive drug.</span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span>Keyword</span></strong><span>: Prazosin Hydrochloride, β-Cyclodextrin, Kneading method, Inclusion Complex, Antihypertensive, Drug Release.</span></p> Smita Aher Ravindranath Saudagar Dhanshri Chaudhari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 263 271 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1785 ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SALIX AEGYPTIACA BARK EXTRACT ATTRIBUTE TO ITS ANTICANCER EFFICACY http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1786 <p><em>Salix aegyptiaca </em>has been used traditionally from the ancient time for its beneficial effects. The protective action of this plant is not well understood so far. Oxidative stress and inflammation are generally linked with carcinogenesis. In the present study, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of hydroethanolic bark extract of <em>Salix aegyptiaca</em> have been studied. The results of DPPH assay indicated the free radical scavenging ability of the bark extract (2-20 µg/ml). The inhibition of Ë™OH radical induced damage of pBR322 plasmid DNA by the extract (20 µg/ml) depicted its antioxidant property. This bark extract (5-800 µg/ml) exhibited the anti-inflammatory activity against heat induced protein denaturation. The medicinal property of <em>S. aegyptiaca</em> could be attributed to its free radicals scavenging ability and anti-inflammatory activity. Further, the extract (5-40 µg/ml) has shown anticancer activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. However, the underlying mechanisms related to its anticancer effect need to be explored.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><em>: Salix aegyptiaca</em>, antioxidants, inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma.</p> Mohd Nauman Lalita Lalita Raosaheb K. Kale Paulraj Rajamani Rana P. Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 272 276 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1786 Evaluation of wound healing potential of methanolic Azadirachtaindica leaves extract in normal and diabetic rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1787 <p>The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of <em>Azadirachta </em><em>indica </em>leaves extract on<strong> wound healing</strong> activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methanolic extract ointment was applied on excised wounds in healthy non diabetic and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. This exhibited significant increase in mean percentage wound contraction and tensile strength in excision and dead Space wound models respectively, in both normal and diabetic rats when compared with control. The extract promoted wound contraction, reduced the wound closure time and induced proliferation of fibroblast as well as angiogenesis and re-epithelialization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Wound Healing, <em>Azadirachta </em><em>indica, </em>Tensile strength, wound contraction</p> Amit Jain Sandeep Jain Murari Lal Soni Atul Kaushik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 277 281 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1787 STUDY ON BIOSYSTEMATIC AND BIOACTIVITY OF Nocardiopsis flavescencs RRMVCBNR OBTAINED FROM NICHE HABITATS OF VALPARAI HILL STATION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1792 <p>In this work, the soil samples were collected niche habitats of Valparai <a title="Hill station" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hill_station">hill station</a> to screen the diversity of actinomycetes. The actinobacterial were isolated by serial dilution and plating method on starch peptone agar media. In totally 8 different morphological were isolated on the basis of colony characteristics on starch peptone agar and dominative isolate were screened and plated on point inoculation. RRMVCBNR 1 isolate was biosystamatically characterized on the basis of microscopic, colony morphology, biochemical and phenotypic studies. Phenotypic studies indicated that strains belonged to genus of Nocardiopsis which was further confirmed by genotypic studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences followed by phylogenetic tree construction. 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain used in this study exhibited sequence similarity in the range of 99-100% with those of selected isolate and it was identified as of <em>Nocardiopsis flavescencs</em> RRMVCBNR. The sequences of <em>Nocardiopsis flavescencs </em>16S rRNA genes were deposited in genbank http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank and received the accession number MG287120.The biological activity of <em>Nocardiopsis flavescencs</em> strain showed detectable antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and<em> Klebsiella pneumonia<strong> </strong></em>has been studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Nocardiopsis flavescencs, </em>Starch peptone agar, Muller Hinton Agar, Mountain soil.SEM</p> M Vineeth R Ragunathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 282 290 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1792 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL PRONIOSOMAL GEL FOR ORAL CANDIDIASIS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1793 <p>Fluconazole is a synthetic antifungal drug, belonging to triazole group and mostly used to treat oral candidiasis caused by the yeast <em>Candida albicans</em>. Fluconazole commercially available in tablets that offer poor bioavailability, due to hepatic first pass effect and gastric instability leads to frequent dosing. Buccal drug delivery can bypass such problems of tablet and leads to increase in bioavailability. Due to low molecular weight, fluconazole can suitably administered by buccal route, hence local and targeted action can achieve. The present study was conducted to develop proniosomal gel of fluconazole by coacervation phase separation method using Span 20, cholesterol, soya lecithin, ethanol and aqueous vehicle. Based on preliminary studies surfactant and aqueous vehicle was selected. The Box Behnken design was employed to optimized proniosomes by evaluating responses like entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and drug release. The optimized proniosomes were evaluated with entrapment efficiency (96.83%), vesicle size (2µm),<em> in-vitro </em>drug release 85.66 % (3 h) and <em>ex vivo</em> mucosal permeation (85.67 %) with flux (394.09 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>h). The optimized proniosomes were incorporated into 2% w/w Carbopol gel 934 (1:1) to obtain proniosomal gel. This optimized proniosomal gel was found with good viscosity, good spreadability and adhesiveness, also it shows maximum drug release and permeation as compared to plain gel of fluconazole. In microbiological studies, optimized formulation shows the maximum inhibitory effect as compared to plain gel of drug, which concluded that optimized proniosomal gel exerted local and targeted buccal delivery with good fungistatic effect than plain gel of fluconazole against <em>Candida albicans</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> proniosomal gel, oral candidiasis, fluconazole, mucoadhesion, <em>Candida albicans.</em></p> Monica Rao Priyanka Kamble ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 291 301 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1793 Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Lophopetalum wightianum Arn. (Celastraceae) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1796 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong><em>Lophopetalum wightianum</em> Arn. (Celastraceae) is a lofty evergreen tree reaching around 40m in height. The present study was carried out to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of leaf and bark extract of <em>L. wightianum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The shade dried and powdered leaf and bark were extracted by maceration process using methanol. Extracts were screened for phytoconstituents present by standard protocols. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts was evaluated by agar well diffusion and poisoned food technique respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing assays.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Phytochemicals viz. alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols, saponins and triterpenoids were detected in both leaf and bark extracts. Inhibitory activity against test bacteria of bark extract was marked than leaf extract. Bark extract displayed more or less similar activity against test bacteria while leaf extract was more effective against <em>Escherichia coli</em>. In antifungal activity, leaf extract showed highest inhibitory against <em>Bipolaris</em> sp. than <em>A. niger</em>. Bark extract showed more or less similar antifungal activity against <em>A. niger</em> and <em>Bipolaris</em> sp. Bark extract scavenged DPPH radicals more efficiently with IC<sub>50</sub> value 7.03µg/ml than leaf extract which scavenged radicals with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 24.64µg/ml. Reducing potential exhibited by bark extract was higher when compared to leaf extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Overall, bark extract displayed marked antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. The plant is shown to contain bioactive principles with activity against pathogenic microorganisms and free radicals that cause oxidative damage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Lophopetalum wightianum</em>, Maceration, Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant</p> Nitish A Bharadwaj K.K. Karthik Udupa S Karthik K.S. Vinayaka T.R. Prashith Kekuda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 302 307 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1796 A VALIDATED RP-HPLC ASSAY METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF GEMCITABINE LOADED NANOSIZED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1800 <p>A novel reverse phase HPLC assay method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride (dFdCH) along with solid lipid nanoparticles SLNs and conjugated with mannose to targeting the lungs for chemotherapy. Methanol was used as the extracting solvent for preparation of tissue sample. Methanol: Ammonium acetate buffer; 10:90 v/v (pH 5) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.5 mL/min at pressure of 102/101 bars using Luna Phenomenex, C18 (4.6mm×250 mm; 5 µm bead size) at wavelength 269 nm. The column oven temperature was optimized at 35<sup>0</sup>C. The biodistribution studies were conducted to evaluate the target potential at the sites of interest in liver, spleen, lung and kidney respectively, the calibration curve was found to be linear over the concentration range of 100-5000 ng/mL(r<sup>2</sup>=0.9980, r<sup>2</sup>=0.9980, r<sup>2</sup>=0.9990, r<sup>2</sup>=1 respectively). Plain drug have greatest access to liver and secondarily to spleen and then kidney but on the contrary the concentration of drug was greatest in lung when treated with mannosylated SLNs, data suggested that the mannose attachment has provided the access for the drug in the lungs via the formulation in greater quantity than free drug due to interaction of mannose with mannose receptors present on lung macrophages. The developed method was validated in accordance to ICH guidelines.<strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mannosylated SLNs, Macrophage Mannose, Receptor (MMR), Lung Cancer, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride.<strong></strong></p> Namrata Soni Neetu Soni Pramode W. Ramteke Himanshu Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 308 313 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1800 FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE BILAYER FLOATING TABLET OF FAMOTIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1801 <p>The present study aims to formulate bilayered tablets of famotidine hydrochloride with a fast release layer using sodium starch glycolate, cross povidone and a sustaining floating layer using polymers like HPMC K100M and HPMC K15M by effervescent approach. The release characteristics were studied on the basis of gel forming polymer, methocel with different concentration of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. The <em>in vitro</em> buoyancy and floatability were found to be optimum in combination of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and methocel at concentration of 13 mg, 6 mg and 90 mg respectively. The drug release from floating tablets was found to be 93.87% for F1 with methocel K15M. The drug release was sustained for a period of 20-24 hours. When compared different grades of methocel (K100M and K15M), the methocel K15M (low viscosity grade) provided better-sustained release characteristics with excellent <em>in vitro </em>buoyancy. The IR study reveals that there is no any possible interaction between drug and excipients used for such formulation. The data from release studies were fitted in different models viz. zero order, first order and Korsemeyer’s equation. The result indicated the coupling of swelling and diffusion mechanism so called as Fickian diffusion of famotidine from floating tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bilayered tablets, Fast release layer, Floating layer, Polymers: HPMC, K100M, HPMC K15M, Methocel, Citric acid, Sodium bicarbonate, Famotidine hydrochloride.<strong></strong></p> Rashmi Dahima Mithlesh Sahare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 314 319 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1801 NEW SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM USING WOOL FAST BLUE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1802 <p>The new, selective and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of Esomeprazole in bulk and in pharmaceutical preparations. This method is based on the reaction with wool fast blue, in the presence of buffer at P<sup>H</sup> 1.5 to form a colored species with a λ<sub>max</sub> 590nm.  Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 50-250µg/ml for both the methods.  The method was extended to pharmaceutical formulations and there was no interference form in any common pharmaceutical excipients and diluents. The result of analysis has been validated statistically and by recovery studies.  <strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Spectrophotometric determination Wool fast blue, Esomeprazole.</p> MMV Yoganda Swamy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 320 322 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1802 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT - Hybunthus enneaspermus L. F. Muell http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1803 <p><em>Hybanthus enneaspermus</em> (L.). F. Muell is a small suffrutescent perennial herb distributed in the trophical and subtropical regions of the world. It grows 15-30 cm in height with many different diffuse or ascending branches and is pubescent in nature. The plant is popularly known as Rathanapurus or Pursharathna (Sanskrit, Hindi) and Orithazhthmarai(Tamil). This herb is considered to extremely beneficial to men, hence it is called Rathanapurush. Traditionally the plant is used as an aphrodisiac, demulcent, tonic, diuretic, in urinary infections, diarrhea, leucorrhoea, dysuria and sterility.  The plant kingdom shows many species of plant conataining substances of medicinal value which have yet to be identified. Phytochemical analysis of major phytoconstituents which are possessing many biological activities, hence this study creates a presence of different extracts alkaloids, flavanoids, carbohydrates etc., The medical plants <em>Hybunthus enneaspermus</em> was from in an around Rasipuram,Namakkl district. Preliminary photochemical studies were performed for the presence or absence of Alkaloida, Proteins and Amino acids, Flavnoids, Phenolic compounds, Carbohydates and Phytosterol. Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol, Ethanol and Isopropyl alcohol extracts of<em> Hybunthus enneaspermus </em>were investigated for antibacterial activity was tested against pathogenic bacteria. The petroleum ether extract inhibited maximum zones of inhibition were observed in <em>E.Coli</em>. Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Ethanol extracts of<em> Hybunthus enneaspermus </em>were investigated for antifungal activity. The Methanol and Ethanol extract inhibited maximum zone of inhibition were observed in <em>Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus.</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Medicinal plant, Bacteria, Fungi,  Phytochemical and <em>Hybunthus enneaspermus</em> L<strong></strong></p> M Murugan M Kamaraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 323 330 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1803 PHYTOCHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF AYURVEDA FORMULATION DARVYADI RASKRIYA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1806 <p>The study represents phytochemical standardization and antioxidant potential of ayurveda formulation <em>Darvyadi Raskriya.</em> The study involves development of high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysis of formulation. The study utilizes analysis of glycyrrhizin in<em> </em>formulation which is the phytoconstituent of <em>Glycyrrhiza glabra </em>one of the component of formulation. The sample in ethanol was applied on aluminium TLC plates using Linomat 5 spray (CAMAG). Linear ascending development was performed in twin trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase. The mobile phase consisted of ethyl acetate-methanol-formic acid (10:5:1 v/v/v). The spectrodensitometric detection was performed at the wavelength of 254 nm. The regression analysis was found to be linear with r<sup>2</sup>=0.997 in the concentration range 5-25 ppm. The antioxidant activity of formulation was also found to be significant as compared to control.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Standardization, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhizin, HPTLC, Antioxidant.</em><strong></strong></p> Biresh Kumar Sarkar Ravi Kumar Vikas Kumar Reeta Reeta Shashi Pal C. Murali Krishna SC Verma Ravindra Singh Ramaiah Maddi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-14 2018-07-14 8 4 331 334 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1806 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ONION HAIR NOURISHING SHAMPOO http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1810 <p>Shampoo is the most basic cosmetic used for hair, containing antimicrobial agent and other ingredient commonly used. The main function of shampoo is to clean the hair properly and reduce the dandruff.  In present work we have formulated onion and eucalyptus oil herbal shampoo for the dry hair. The most common problem in people is related to the dry. Hence research was carried out on dry hair remedy. The formulation was evaluated for various parameters. The formulation of F2 batch shows best result of evaluation parameters as compare to the F1 and F3. The Formulation F2 showed good efficacy. The optimized batch formulation of F2 showed good microbial activity. The advantage of the this herbal shampoo is better nutrient and nourishment to hair follicles and to promote the hair growth and to overcome on dryness problem .The onion  used in this formulation as it promotes hair growth  and the eucalyptus oil used for the antimicrobial activity for the preparation. <strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>onion, eucalyptus oil, herbal shampoo, nourishing property</p> Naziya Rafik Patel Swapnali Arun Mohite Rutuja Rajendra Shaha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-17 2018-07-17 8 4 335 337 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1810 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLET FOR INDOMETHACIN http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1811 <p>The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluate floating tablets of indomethacin by wet granulation method. Indomethacin is used as a potent anti-inflammatory drug with prompt anti pyretic action, mainly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis with half-life of 4.5 hrs. Indomethacin is stable in neutral or slightly acidic media. In this study, excipients like HPMC 5cps, sodium bi carbonate were incorporated in a nine different concentrations (F1-F9) along with other excipients (PVP K30, lactose, talc, and magnesium stearate) to formulate floating tablets by wet granulation method. Then all the nine formulations were evaluated for<strong> </strong>uniformity of<strong> </strong>weight, hardness, thickness, friability test, floating lag time, drug content, dissolution studies and stability studies. The dissolution profile of trial-6 (formulation 6) was observed to be better than other formulations. In trial-6 indomethacin was formulated as a floating tablet by using HPMC 5cps (120 mg) as a matrix forming polymer and sodium bi carbonate (40 mg) as a gas generating agent. Trial-6 formulation showed a good dissolution profile for a controlled period of time which was noticed to be as 97.78 % at the end of 12<sup>th</sup> hour. Thus, it can be concluded that the floating drug delivery system of indomethacin using the appropriate polymers in right amount may enhance the activity of the drug by prolonging the gastric residence time or reducing the floating lag time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Indomethacin, HPMC 5cps, Sodium bi carbonate.</p> Yashpal Singh Chauhan Udichi Kataria Ashok Dashora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-17 2018-07-17 8 4 338 345 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1811 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF GASTRO-RETENTIVE FLOATING BEADS OF DICYCLOVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1760 <p>Floating Drug delivery systems are designed to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration. Dicycloverine is used for irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal pain, motion sickness and other conditions. Dicycloverine works by relieving smooth muscle spasms of the gastrointestinal tract. It is more soluble in water, alcohol and chloroform and slightly soluble in ether. Precipitation of the drug occurs in the intestine, which adversely affects the absorption in the lower sections of the intestine. So there is a need for systems that reside in the stomach over a relatively long period and release the active compound in a sustained manner. The aim of the present study was to develop a delivery system wherein the retention of Dicycloverine could be achieved for increasing local action in the gastric region against irritable bowel disease (IBD) and GIT spasms with the development of sodium alginate floating beads containing Dicycloverine. Various formulations (FB1- FB7) of floating beads of Dicycloverine were developed using different concentrations of polymers like Ethyl cellulose, PVP, HPMC etc. The beads were prepared by Ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as a cross-linking agent. Floating beads were characterized by polymer compatibility by using FT-IR, DSC &amp; Calibration. The prepared beads were evaluated for particle size, surface morphology, buoyancy, actual drug content, and entrapment efficiency in <em>vitro </em>drug release and stability studies. Finally batch FB1 is concluded as optimum formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Dicycloverine, colon, IBD, gastric residence time, polymer mixture, ionotropic gelation.</p> Monika Setia Kapil Kumar Deepak Teotia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-17 2018-07-17 8 4 346 355 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1760 PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOLANUM VIARUM DUNAL LEAVES EXTRACT FOR ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1812 <p>The family Solanaceae consists of many plants, one of them is <em>Solanum viarum </em>Dunal. This plant contains chemical constituents like Solasodine which is found in many plants of Solanaceae family. The Solasodine have many medicinal properties and used as cardiotonic, antifungal, antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and as antipyretic. The study was carried out to ascertain analgesic and antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of <em>Solanum viarum</em> Dunal leaves. The ethanolic extract of Solanum viarum Dunal leaves at 100 and 200mg/kg oral single dose treatment show a significant difference (p&lt;0.0001) in reaction time in terms of analgesic activity before and after treatments comparable to standard drug Diclofenac (10mg/kg body weight) and also reduced the elevated body temperature induced by Brewer’s yeast. The extract also shows significant (p&lt;0.0001) decrease in elevated body temperature at 100 and 200mg/kg comparable to standard drug Paracetamol (150mg/kg body weight).</p> <p><strong>Keywords </strong><em>Solanum viarum </em>Dunal, Analgesic activity, Antipyretic activity.</p> Meena Kausar B.K. Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-17 2018-07-17 8 4 356 361 10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1812