Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <p class="MsoNormal">&nbsp;</p> <table class="MsoTableLightGridAccent2" style="width: 634.5pt; border-collapse: collapse; border: none; mso-border-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor: accent2; mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184; mso-padding-alt: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" border="1" width="846" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 189.9pt; border: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor: accent2; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="253"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #0070c0;"><a href="http://road.issn.org/issn/2250-1177-journal-of-drug-delivery-and-therapeutics-#.VqeN6Jp961s"><strong><span style="color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">ISSN: 2250-1177</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">UGC</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> Approved</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> (</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/journallist/ugc_admin_journal_report.aspx?eid=NDU3NDQ="><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;">Link</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/global-health/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Global Health</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101656626" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">NLM ID: 101656626</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 5;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">EBSCO</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 3.3in; border-top: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-top-themecolor: accent2; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; border-right: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-right-themecolor: accent2; mso-border-left-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-left-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="317"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/cab-abstracts/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Cab Abstracts</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="http://www.cas.org/products/other-cas-products"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">CODEN (CAS-USA): JDDTAO</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://www.cabi.org/publishing-products/online-information-resources/crop-science-database/?newtitlesonly=0&amp;letter=J"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">C</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">rop Science Database</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/journal/issue?issueId=30973&amp;journalId=40300"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">IndexCopernicus</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Cambria','serif'; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi;"><a href="https://scholar.google.co.in/citations?user=4UICAisAAAAJ&amp;hl=en"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; text-decoration-line: none;">Google Scholar</span></strong></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> H-Index: 19</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 207.0pt; border-top: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-top-themecolor: accent2; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid #C0504D 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-themecolor: accent2; border-right: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-right-themecolor: accent2; mso-border-left-alt: solid #C0504D 1.0pt; mso-border-left-themecolor: accent2; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" valign="top" width="276"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">CrossRef DOI:10.22270</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">E-Mail: editor.jddt@gmail.com</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Phone: +91-9783920207</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Frequency: 6 Issue/Year</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; mso-yfti-cnfc: 1;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Double-Blind Peer-reviewed</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal">Â&nbsp;</p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics (JDDT) </span></strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">is a </span><strong><em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">double blind</span></em></strong> <strong><em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #0070c0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">peer-reviewed</span></em></strong> <em><strong><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; color: #00b050; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">bimonthly</span></strong></em><span style="font-size: 13pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> journal dedicated to the publication of research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, ShortÂ&nbsp;communicationsÂ&nbsp;and case studies. It is theÂ&nbsp;official journal of<strong> Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats (SoPhTech)</strong>. This publication is aimed at a broad, interdisciplinary audience of academic and industrial researchers actively engaged in basic and applied laboratory practice, related to Pharmaceutical Science and Therapeutics.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 12pt 0in; line-height: normal; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #00b0f0;">Year of Starting: 2011</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #e36c0a; mso-themecolor: accent6; mso-themeshade: 191;">UGC</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 15.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #e36c0a; mso-themecolor: accent6; mso-themeshade: 191;"> Approved Journal</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #002060;"> (</span></strong><a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/journallist/ugc_admin_journal_report.aspx?eid=NDU3NDQ="><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman';">See Link</span></strong></a><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: #002060;">)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><img title="j15_855" src="/public/site/images/jddtadmin/j15_855.jpg" alt="j15_855" width="855" height="129"></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <form action="https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr" method="post"> <p style="margin: 12pt 0in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">&nbsp;</p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">ARTICLE SUBMISSION CHARGES:</span></strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"> Nil</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #7030a0; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">ARTICLE PROCESSING FEES</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 16pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif; color: #002060; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">:</span></strong> <span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #111111;">The fees to be paid following the acceptance of an article are indicated below:</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">1750 INR/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Indian Authors</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;">USD 45/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;"> for Authors from Low-Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">USD 55/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Authors from Low-Middle Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;">USD 65/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #e36c0a;"> for Authors from Upper-Middle-Income Countries</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">USD 90/</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">article</span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;"> for Authors from High-Income Countries.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #00b050;">(No other hidden charges)</span></strong> <a href="/index.php/jddt/about/editorialPolicies#custom-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #669900;">More detail</span></a> <span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #0070c0;">for waiver policy.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: mediumblue;">Why publish in</span></strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: mediumblue;"> <strong>Journal of Drug Delivery &amp; Therapeutics?</strong></span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">1.Â&nbsp;A broad ranging open access journal</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">2.Â&nbsp;Fast and efficient on-line submission</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">3.Â&nbsp;Rapid publication and High visibility</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">4.Â&nbsp;Constructive rapid &amp; Expert peer review</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">5.Â&nbsp;Archiving of your article in various international repositories</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">6.Â&nbsp;Our journal is indexed in various international indexing authorities</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; color: #002060;">7.Â&nbsp;"Certificate of publication" to the authors of accepted articles (On Demand)</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt 0.5in; text-indent: -0.25in; background-image: initial; background-position: initial; background-size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"><img title="sc111_328" src="/public/site/images/jddtadmin/sc111_328.jpg" alt="sc111_328" width="320" height="328"></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;">Other Related Journal:</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #0070c0;"><a href="/index.php/jddt/manager/setup/International Journal of Drug Regulatory Affairs" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #0070c0; text-decoration-line: none;">International Journal of Drug Regulatory Affairs</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"> (IJDRA)</span></strong></p> </form><form> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; color: #002060;"><a href="http://ajprd.com/index.php/journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #002060; text-decoration-line: none;">Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"> (AJPRD)</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal">&nbsp;</p> </form> Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>Â&nbsp;</p> TOPICAL DELIVERY OF NANOEMULSION FOR ANTIPSORIATIC DRUGS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1914 <p>Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder of the skin characterized by relapsing episodes of inflammatory lesions and&nbsp;hyperkeratotic&nbsp;plaques with worldwide occurrence of around 2–5%. Psoriasis is a disease known to be caused by multitude of both genetic and environmental factors such as trauma, drugs, infection, alcohol, smoking and stress but its accurate origin is still not known. Further, available treatment options are associated with both inappropriate cosmetic appearance and related toxicities leading to poor patient compliance in long term use. Nanotechnology based drug delivery system has immense potential&nbsp;to enhance the bioavailability&nbsp;and effectiveness&nbsp;of drugs in their dosage forms, especially lipophilic drugs. Lipid based carrier system can overcome the lipid imbalance and normal moisturizing factors. Nanoemulsions, as one of a new carrier apparently have the prospective to conquer numerous problems related with topical antipsoriatic therapy. This delivery system could perhaps offer a good alternative in topical psoriasis treatment. Not only on how nanoemulsions prepared, but it depends on the active ingredients used and the selection of oil could as well enhance the efficiency of topical treatment towards psoriasis. A good combination of both active and suitable oils would result a better treatment and better effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Topical nanoemulsion, Antipsoriatic therapy, Critical quality attributes.</p> Bharat Khurana Daisy Arora RK Narang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 1 11 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1914 THE VISHAGHNA PROPERTIES OF MANJISHTHA (Rubia cordifolia) IN AYURVEDIC AND CONTEMPORARY SCIENCE: AN OVERVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1923 <p>The present concept is given to help for to establish as bridge between <em>Ayurveda</em> and contemporary science. The Concept of <em>Ayurvedic vishaghna </em>properties is near about detoxifying action (Antidote action) in modern era. It is may be beneficial integrated concept for metabolic toxicity, substance acquired acute and chronic toxicity, biological toxicity, cumulative toxicity etc. and it also help to understand the detoxifying phenomenon. The single and multiple preparations of <em>manjistha</em> are available which indicates its utility in many poisoning. All aspects of <em>manjishtha</em> are studied in detail especially in field of detoxification. Selection of all logical references are done and collection, correlation and explanation as per requirement. According to indication and detoxifying therapeutic use of <em>manjishtha </em>are highlights, which described especially in <em>Ayurvedic</em> and modern text. All <em>ayurvedic</em> and contemporary references regarding <em>vishaghna </em>are collected from <em>Ayurvedic </em>fundamental books and various textbooks, research article, international journals. Theoretically, it will breakdown the pathogenesis of toxicity and progress forward to denaturized any poison. It can be useful for disease which comes under area of any field of toxicity. We can prevent and treat much toxicological disorder. On the basis of concept of <em>vishaghana </em>properties of <em>manjishtha</em>, it can be broadly used in today’s era for preventive as well as curative disease free life from toxicological agent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>; <em>manjishtha</em>,<em> vishaghana </em>properties, detoxifying uses</p> Rohit Kumar Khatik Ashish Khatik Anita Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 12 15 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1923 FLOATING TABLETS AND ITS POLYMERS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1928 <p>Oral drug delivery system is the most preferred route of administration for drug delivery. In the development of the drug delivery system many components play important role. Polymers are amongst those components which have evolved with the drug delivery system. Polymers are the macromolecule compound containing many monomer units joined to each other by bonds. The floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) become an additional advantage for drugs that are absorbed primarily in the upper segments of gastrointestinal (GI) tract, i.e., the stomach, duodenum and jejunum. The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to focus on the types of floating drug delivery systems, principal and mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention and polymers used in floating Drug delivery systems. Polymers used in the drug delivery system are of two types Natural and Synthetic based on their origin. Both types of the polymers have some advantages and disadvantages. This particular article gives information about the different types of natural and synthetic polymer used in the drug delivery system. Natural polymers like guar gum, chitosan, xanthan gum, Gellan gum and sodium alginate are mentioned in the article. Synthetic polymers mentioned are HPMC, Eudragit, and Ethylcellulose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Floating Drug Delivery System, Polymers, Natural gums, HPMC.</p> Shaika Saadia Zubedi Shahid Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 16 24 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1928 CONCEPT OF MARDANA: A REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1929 <p>Rasashastra is a branch of Ayurveda pharmaceutics that deals with preparation of formulations using mineral, metals, marine drugs, gemstones, etc. It is a branch that has mercury as its center. Many processing types have been mentioned in Indian alchemy, most of the processes mentioned are for making Parada develops lohavada and dehavada property. There are also procedures and samskaras mentioned to potentiate the formulations or drugs. One such samskara (process) is mardana samskara that is used as a purification procedure of Parada as well as a bhavana for preparing Khalviya yogas (preparation made in mortar and pestle).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rasashastra, Mardana, shodhana, processes</p> Gazala Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 25 27 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1929 Ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Lamiaceae): A comprehensive review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1930 <p><em>Clerodendrum</em> L. is an important genus in the family Lamiaceae in terms of its medicinal values and pharmacological properties. The genus comprises of more than 500 species distributed worldwide. In this review, we present an updated information on ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of <em>Clerodendrum</em> <em>paniculatum</em> L. (Lamiaceae). The plant is one the most spectacular <em>Clerodendrum</em> species and is grown commonly for ornamental purpose. The plant is reported to have ethnomedicinal importance as the plant is used as remedy for ailments and disorders such as wounds, typhoid, snakebite, jaundice, giddiness, malaria, anemia and hemorrhoids. Various phytochemicals such as rutin, quercetin<strong>, </strong>β-sitosterol, β-amyrin, lupeol, oleanolic aldehyde acetate, stigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one, and (3<em>β</em>)-stigmasta-4,22,25-trien-3-ol have been identified in <em>C. paniculatum</em>. The plant is shown to exhibit biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, insecticidal and anti-ageing activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Clerodendrum</em> <em>paniculatum</em> L., Ethnobotanical, Traditional, Phytochemicals, Biological activities</p> T.R. Prashith Kekuda S.J. Sudharshan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 28 34 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1930 REVIEW ON A POTENTIAL OF ANTIBIOTICS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1936 <p>Observations about the growth of some microorganisms inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms have been reported since the late 1800s. These observations of antibiosis between microorganisms led to the discovery of natural antibacterial.&nbsp;This paper deliberates important findings of the educations conducted by numerous national and international combined organizations on a brief indication of the antibacterial agents׳ detection in recent years.&nbsp; In India especially the developing antibiotics, need to institute methods for the suitable choice of drug conduct a compound problem involving prescribers, dispensers, and consumers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antibiotic, Antibiotic resistance, bacterial Infection<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> Pawan Singh Navneet Verma Prevesh Kumar Priynaka Nagu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 35 40 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1936 PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF TRADITIONALLY USED MEDICINAL PLANT ARGYREIA SPECIOSA (LINN. F.) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1937 <p><em>Argyreia speciosa</em> (Linn.f.) (Family: Convolvulaceae, Synonyms: <em>Argyreia nervosa</em>) is used in the traditional Ayurvedic systems of medicine as well as in local health folklore. It is commonly known as Vidhaara in Hindi and Hawaiian Baby Woodrose and Elephant creeper in English. It is the large climber and seen throughout India up to an altitude of 500 m. <em>A. speciosa</em> possess various pharmacological activity such as anti-aging, gastroprotective, analgesic &amp; anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, antiviral, antidiabetic,&nbsp; anticonvulsion, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antiulcer, central nervous system depressant, nematocides, nootropic, anticancer and many more. Apart from this numerous phytoconstituents have been isolated from <em>A. speciosa</em>. Its seeds principally contain lysergamides, eragine and isoeragine which responsible for its hallucinogenic properties. The present paper efforts bring to light the available literature on <em>A. speciosa</em> with respect to traditional, ethnobotanical, phytoconstituents and review of different pharmacological activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Argyreia speciosa, Vidhaara, Anti-aging, Hallucinogen, Ethnobotanical</p> Bhagat Singh Jaiswal Mukul Tailang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 41 46 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1937 STUDY OF MEDICINAL HERBS AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY: A REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1938 <p>The beneficial medicinal effects of plant materials typically result from the secondary products present in the plant although, it is usually not attributed to a single compound but a combination of the metabolites. The medicinal actions of plants are unique to a particular plant species or group, consistent with the concept that the combination of secondary products in a particular plant is taxonomically distinct.The screening of plants usually involves several approach; ethno botanical approach is one of the common methods that are employed in choosing the plant for pharmacological study. In the present review paper, antimicrobial properties of various medicinal plants were reviewed. The present review deals with the antibacterial activity of various medicinal plants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antimicrobial, Herbal Drugs, WHO, Cup-plate Method, Anti-bacterial Activity.</p> Tapan K Mahato K Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 47 54 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1938 A REVIEW ON AYURVEDA PERSPECTIVE AND THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATION OF OLIGOZOOSPERMIA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1939 <p>Male infertility is one of the burning problems now a day’s and incidences of this problem increases day by day due to the disturbed pattern of living style. The Oligozoospermia is one of the conditions related to male infertility which associated with low sperm count. Ayurveda the science of Indian medical system described various terms related to male infertility such as; <em>Kshina shukra, Kshina retasa, Alpa retasa</em> and<em> Shukra dosha</em> which resembles conditions associated with oligozoospermia. Ayurveda also described various treatment modalities for the management of oligozoospermia such as use of herbs &amp; formulation, conduction of balanced life style and diet control, etc. This article presented a conclusive review on ayurveda perspective of oligozoospermia and its management.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ayurveda, Male Infertility, Oligozoospermia, Sperm, Vajikarana. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Bhupendra Singh Chouhan Surendra Singh Rajput Ramakant Dwivedi AK Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 55 58 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1939 NOOTROPICS AGENTS: PHARMACEUTICAL ASPECT, COMMON EXAMPLES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1940 <p>Nootropics compounds are one of the important categories of medicinal agents act as cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective. These agents mainly used to improve memory related functioning of brain. Nootropic compounds exhibited various neural activities and boost functioning of central nervous system including improvement of intellectual, memory and learning capacity. These agents also offer significant relief in various neurodegenerative disorders such as parkinson disease and alzheimer disease. Drugs, nutraceuticals, supplements and functional foods may be used as nootropics agents to enhance concentration and memory. Various synthetic &amp; semi synthetic agents, material from natural origin such as; herbs, animal products and minerals may also act as potent nootropic agents. This article presented a pharmaceutical consideration of nootropic agents in a view to explore this area for future perspective.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nootropics, Memory, Cognitive, Brain, Neuroprotective &nbsp;</p> Leena Sakhare Vitthalrao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 59 61 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1940 CHEMICAL PENETRATION ENHANCERS FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1952 <p>In present scenario more than 70% of the drugs that are taken by oral route are found to be less effective as desired, to overcome this constraint Transdermal drug delivery system has emerged as an innovative area of research, this system helps in delivering the drugs and macromolecules through skin into systemic circulation. At present, the worldwide market of Transdermal patch has reached 2 billion pounds. Many drugs like Estrogen, Progestrone, Nitroglycerine, Clonodine etc. are fabricated in form of Transdermal patches due to its ability to deliver the drug in non-invasive manner and also to overcome the problems associated with oral route. Although the Transdermal patches deliver the drug at predetermined rate<sup>1</sup>, the partitioning of drug from the system to the skin and then penetration through different layers of skin can be altered by adding penetration enhancers that can be physical or chemical in nature. This article deals with the role of different chemicals that can be used as penetration enhancer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Penetration enhancer, Layer of skin, Fatty alcohol and glycol</p> Anupriya Kapoor Shashi Kiran Mishra Dharmesh Kumar Verma Prashant Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 62 66 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1952 STRESS MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR ATHLETES DURING SPORTS: A CRITICAL REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1956 <p>Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. This paper attempts to look at the strategies for sports coaches in managing stressful situations in sports competitions. This paper therefore, writes in the introduction, the concepts of stress, competition based stress, management, stress management in sports, stress in sports psychology. The paper also examines the sources of stress. It looks critically at the levels of stress in competitive sports. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the individual’s biological vulnerability (i.e., genetics, constitutional factors), psychosocial resources, and learned patterns of coping. Psychosocial interventions have proven useful for treating stress-related disorders and may influence the course of chronic diseases. The paper also highlights some specific stress management strategies which sports coaches have to employ to aid excellent performance in sports competition. It also identifies the educational implications of stress management in sports competitions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Psychosocial stressors, Stress responses, Sports, psychosocial interventions, Stressor interactions, Stress management.</p> Brajendra Bhadauriya Rajesh Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 67 72 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1956 REVIEW ON SWERTIA CHIRATA AS TRADITIONAL USES TO ITS PYHTOCHEMISTRY AND PHRMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1957 <p><em>Swertia chirata</em> (Gentianaceae), is a popular medicinal plant native to temperate Himalaya. The plant of <em>Swertia chirata</em> is found at an altitude of 1200-1300m, from Bhutan to Kashmir and in the Khasi hills at 1200-1500m. It also can be grown in sub-temperate territories between 1500-2100m altitudes. <em>Chirata</em> has an erect and about 2-3 ft long stem.&nbsp; Herbal medicinal plants are necessary for about for about 80% of the world population in developed and developing countries for their basic and primary health care required owing to better tolerability, superior empathy with human body and having lesser side effects. Herbal plants are considered as rich source of phytochemical ingredients. The main chemical ingredients are Swertiamarin, Amarogentin, Swechirin, Mangiferin, Sweroside, Gentianine, Amaroswerin, Oleanolic acid, Swertanoone, Ursolic acid. Phytochemical analysis divulges alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, triterpenoids, saponins, xanthones and ascorbic acid in all samples. Nepali <em>S. chirata </em>was found to have finest TLC (thin layer chromatography). People have been using traditional medicinal plants for thousand years ago. Traditional plants play a very important role in preventing and treating of human diseases. Medicinal usage of <em>Swertia chirata </em>is reported in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the American and the British pharmacopoeias and in the different traditional systems of medicine (Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha). <em>Swertia chirata</em> is commonly known as a bitter tonic in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of fever, loss of appetite, digestive disorders, diabetes, skin and various other diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Swertia chirata</em>, swerchirin, Anti-inflammatory, Oleanolic acid, Traditional medicine.</p> Abdul Aleem Hifzul Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 73 78 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1957 AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW ON CHEMOTHERAPY INDUCED NAUSEA AND VOMITING http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1958 <p>Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is the among most feared and debilitating adverse events experienced by the cancer patients. Left unaddressed, CINV symptoms not only decrease quality of life, but may also affect patients’ willingness to continue chemotherapy treatment. However, adherence to guideline recommendations continues to be suboptimal therapy, and many patients still suffer unnecessarily from CINV. In addition, breakthrough/refractory CINV continues to present particular challenges. The development of effective CINV treatments with diverse mechanisms of action has expanded the options available for preventing symptoms. The US Food and Drug Administration have recently approved several new therapies for the management of CINV. NEPA is a fixed-dose combination of Netupitant (300 mg) plus Palonosetron (0.5 mg). In combination with Dexamethasone, NEPA has demonstrated superior efficacy to Palonosetron alone in patients receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Rolapitant is a nextgeneration neurokinin-1receptor antagonist. Both palonosetron and rolapitant have proven particularly effective in controlling delayed CINV. Regimens that combine a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine–3 receptor antagonist, an NK1 receptor antagonist, and a corticosteroid now represent the standard of care for managing both acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> CINV, Seratonin, Dopamine, Neurokinin, Antiemetics.</p> P Bhulakshmi GV Nagaraju K Srilaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 79 81 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1958 RECENT PROMISING ADVANCES IN DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: A REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1959 <p>Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global threat. There is a global menace of antibiotic resistant “super bug”, though the extent and the severity of the problem varies. Resistance hampers therapeutic options and drives clinicians to use newer and more expensive drugs. In serious cases, multi-resistance provides no treatment options. To overcome resistance, a continuous supply of new antibiotics offers an obvious way; but the pipeline of agents in development by the Pharmaceutical industry is very limited. There is an ever-evolving need to develop and evaluate newer alternative strategies for countering a worsening clinical situation to overcome resistance and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The widespread distribution of Antimicrobial resistance has not been paralleled by the development of newer antimicrobials. This happens due to the process of drug discovery and clinical trials of new antimicrobials taking longer time and only a fewer new agents been approved for use. In modern era, where obstacles like chemo-resistance and mutations torment medicine, scientists across the world are looking to adapt lateral approaches in encountering diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>antimicrobial resistance, super bug, antibiotics</p> Mudasir Maqbool Geer Mohamed Ishaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 82 86 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1959 REVIEW ON NOVEL OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1961 <p>Novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) are the key area of pharmaceutical research and Development. The reason is relatively low development cost and time required for introducing a NDDS as compared to new chemical entity. Many conventional drug delivery systems have been designed to modulate the release a drug over an extended period of a time. Various designs are available to control or modulate the drug release from a dosage forms. Majority of oral CR dosage forms fall in the category of matrix, reservoir or osmotic systems. Osmotically controlled drug delivery systems (OCDDS) is one of the most promising drug delivery technology that use osmotic pressure as a driving force for controlled delivery of active agents. Drug release from OCDDS is independent of pH and hydrodynamic conditions of the body because of the semipermeable nature of the Rate controlling membrane and the design of deliver orifice used in osmotic systems, so a high degree of In vitro/In vivo correlation is achieved. Osmotic drug delivery systems release the drug with the zero order kinetics which does not depend on the initial concentration and the physiological factors of GIT. This review brings out new technologies, fabrication and recent clinical research in osmotic drug delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Osmotic, Matrix, Reservoir, Fabrication</p> AS Bansode K Sarvanan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 87 93 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1961 A REVIEW ON ALOE VERA-THE WONDER MEDICINAL PLANT http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1962 <p><em>Aloe vera</em>, a succulent plant that grows in arid and subtropical climates is best known for its medicinal properties and is used in Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic and Allopathic streams of medicine. It has been in use for a long time by people of varied cultures and traditional uses include applications to reduce perspiration, oral dosing for diabetes and to get rid of a range of gastrointestinal ailments. It is also used to treat burn wounds, minor cuts, genital herpes, and seborrheic dermatitis. The leaves of this wonderful medicinal plant contain numerous vitamins, minerals, natural sugars, enzymes, amino acids, and as well rich in various bioactive compounds that exhibit emollient, purgative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-helmenthic, antifungal, aphrodisiac, antiseptic and cosmetic values. Many cosmetic industries widely use this plant owing to its healing and nourishing properties.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Aloe vera</em>, Medicinal Uses, bioactive compounds, Cosmetic industries</p> Suseela Lanka ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 94 99 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1962 TRANSFEROSOME: A RECENT APPROACH FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1981 <p>Novel drug delivery systems are now a day is creating a new interest in development of drug deliveries. The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. Transferosomes are capable of transdermal delivery of low as well as high molecular weight drugs. This offers several potential advantages over conventional routes like avoidance of first pass metabolism, predictable and extended duration of activity, minimizing undesirable side effects, utility of short half life drugs, improving physiological and pharmacological response and have been applied to increases the efficiency of the material transfer across the intact skin, by the use of penetration enhancers and non-ionic surfactant vesicles. It is suitable for controlled and targeted drug delivery and it can accommodate drug molecules with wide range of solubility. Due to its high deformability it gives better penetration of intact vesicles. Transferosome possess an infrastructure consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties together and as a result can accommodate drug molecules with wide range of solubility. They are biocompatible and biodegradable as they are made from natural phospholipids and have high entrapment efficiency. In this review, we have focused on transferosome with discussions on novel drug delivery systems for targeted delivery of therapeutics and important issues and challenges for future clinical applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Novel drug delivery systems, Transferosomes, Transdermal drug delivery, Targeted drug delivery</p> Abhay Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 100 104 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1981 HANSRAJ (Adiantum capillus-veneris) -A REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2065 <p>Hansraj<em>(Adiantum capillus-veneris) </em>is an herbal plant used in Unanisystem of medicine since ancient time. Leaf, roots, stem of the plant are mainly used in the treatment ofkidney stone, diabetes, fungal infection, thyroid and respiratory disorder. This review article is presented to compose all the new information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. Studies indicate Hansraj<em>(Adiantum capillus-veneris) </em>possessesantioxidant, wound healing action, anti-microbial and anti-fungal, anti-diabetic, antipyretic activity, it is contraindicated in pregnancy due to its anti-implantation effect. Most common use of Hansraj (<em>Adiantum capillus-veneris</em>) in hair problem because it prevent from alopecia and dandruff. These results are very motivating and indicate this herb should be more explore to confirm these results and reveal other potential and protective effect. Clinical trials using Hansraj (<em>Adiantum capillus-veneris) </em>for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MD Nazim Mohd Aslam Shahid Shah Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 105 109 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2065 TRADITIONAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE OF UNANI MEDICINE AN UPDATED REVIEW http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2069 <p><em>Papaver somniferum</em> commonly known as Khashkhash /Afyon, belongs to family Papaveraceae. It is one of those traditional plants, which have a long history of usage as medicine. The opium poppy (<em>Papaver somniferum</em>) produces some of the most widely used medicinal alkaloids like morphine, codeine, thebain and porphyroxine which are the most important component of this plant. Apart from these alkaloids, opium poppy produces approximately eighty alkaloids belonging to various tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolinederived classes. It has been known for over a century that morphinan alkaloids accumulate in the latex of opium poppy. According to Unani literature, it possesses most important theurapeutic values as modern literature and research studies also prove its therapeutical importance. It is used as analgesic, narcotic, sedative, stimulant as well as nutritive, etc. It is also useful in headache, cough, insomnia, cardiac asthma, and biliary colic. In this paper we have provide a review on habitate, pharmacological actions, phytochemical with special refrence to Unani Medicine. In this review, an attempt is made to explore the complete information of <em>Papaver somniferum</em> including its&nbsp; phytochemistry and pharmacology.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Khashkhash, Biliary colic, Alkaloid, phytochemistry.</p> Masihuddin Masihuddin MA Jafri Aisha Siddiqui Shahid Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 110 114 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2069 REVIEW ON OCULAR INSERT DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1991 <p>An ocular insert represents an advanced technology in eye disease therapy. Designing and development of an ocular insert is a challenge ever faced by Pharmaceutical researchers or manufacturer. In the ophthalmology; eye drop have ever found to be an easy remedy from the administration point of view. In case of conventional dosage forms the fast precorneal loss of drug has been a major difficulty. To improve ocular drug bioavailability, there are significant guidelines have been directed towards newer drug delivery systems for ophthalmic administration. By means of ocular insert, the researcher has always taken efforts to release the drug at controlled rate to avoid frequent administration of drug. The ocular insert consist of controlled, delayed or sustained release biodegradable implantable components of different material in multiple layers. The inserts can be classified in various classes like Insoluble, soluble or biodegradable as per its solubility. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Ocular inserts, bioerosion, osmosis, bioerodible implant,</p> NV Devhadrao M Siddhaia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 115 121 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1991 CONCEPT AND MANAGEMENT OF PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (MUTLAZIMA QABL HAIZ ) IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1992 <p><em>Mutlazima Qabl Haiz (</em>Premenstrual syndrome) refers to a combination of physical and emotional disturbances that occur after a woman ovulates and resolves with start of menstruation. More than 200 symptoms have been ascribed to PMS<strong>.</strong> Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder ia a more severe form of premenstrual syndrome. The characteristic symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are mood swings, anxiety, and irritability and physical conditions – like headache, fatigue, bloating, sleep disturbances, nausea, and breast tenderness. 90% of the women all over the world experience these symptoms during their reproductive years. The PMS has unknown cause and does not have any specific proved diagnosis and medication in modern medicine. The main objective of this article is to review the potential treatment for premenstrual syndrome in unani medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Premenstrual Syndrome, Premenstrual Dysphoric Syndrome, Unani Management</p> Sofia Naushin Mubarak Ali Dr Mustehasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 122 125 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1992 FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ANGIOGENIC ACTIVITIES OF MEMECYLAENE NANOEMULSION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1915 <p>The present study was undertaken to formulate and evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-angiogenic activities of nanoemulsion of <em>Memecylaene</em>.&nbsp; <em>Memecylaene </em>was isolated from the leaves of <em>Memecylon malabaricum</em> by using various chromatographic methods<em>. </em>An oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion of <em>Memecylaene</em> was formulated by sonication method using sunflower oil (oil phase), Tween 80 (Surfactant) and Ethanol (co-surfactant). The prepared nanoemulsion was characterized for its droplet size, poly dispersity index and zeta potential. Stability studies were performed and the nanoemulsions were subjected to different biological activities. The formulated nanoemulsion had a particle size range of 52.02 nm to 59.47 nm and zeta potential of -1.27 mV. The enhanced activity of <em>Memecylaene</em>, encapsulated in O/W emulsions is evidenced by the inhibition of phospholipase (PLA2) enzyme and H<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup> -ATPase and thus showing anti-inflammatory and anti-secretagogues effects. The <em>in vitro</em> anti-oxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical and Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Further, the inhibition of the growth of neo vessels formation in <em>the in-vivo </em>model system of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, which is angiogenesis dependent, was also observed. The above findings would help in understanding the putative potential of <em>Memecylaene</em>-loaded nanoemulsion as a therapeutic agent.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Anti-angiogenesis, Anti-oxidant, Gastric (H<sup>+</sup> K<sup>+</sup>), <em>Memecylaene</em>, Nanoemulsion, Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)<strong>. </strong></p> ND Rekha Dattatri K. Nagesha PH Rajasree N Shruthi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 126 131 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1915 EDX AND XRD, FT-IR SPECTRA, ANALYSIS CONTAINING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM METAL ION ADSORPTION PRESENT IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON TO PHOSPHORIC ACID (H3PO4) ACTIVATED MIMUSOPS ELENGI LEAVES CARBON http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1917 <p>Adsorption studies were carried out by observing the effects of various experimental parameters removal of Chromium from Aqueous solution. Morphology of adsorbent due to adsorption has been analyzed P<sup>H</sup>, FT-IR spectra, EDX and XRD analysis. Adsorption interactions of hexavalent chromium metal ion onto PTMAC and STMAC from aqueous solution. Using FT-IR spectra, and XRD techniques.and EDX studies revealed that the possibility of partial chemisorption though maximum adsorption is physical in nature. EDX showed the morphological observations of loaded and unloaded adsorbents. XRD studies exhibited the crystalline nature of unloaded adsorbent compared with loaded adsorbent.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>P<sup>H</sup>, FT-IR spectra, EDX and XRD analysis, PTMAC, STMAC.</p> A Elavarasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 132 138 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1917 ANTI-CSC COMBINATION THERAPY USING WNT SIGNALING-TARGETED DRUG http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1921 <p>Dysfunctions of Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch pathways are evident in multiple tumor types and malignancies. A number of studies have suggested that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurs in human breast cancer. Specifically, inhibition of Wnt/ β-catenin pathway is implicated in arresting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subset of cancer cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into heterogeneous tumor cells. Here, we investigated tumor initiating property of breast cancer stem cell <em>in-vitro</em> with XAV-939 an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling with this inhibitor represents a promising strategy to suppress metastasis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cancer Stem Cell, 3D Mammosphere, Wnt/β-catenin, metastasis, CD44+/CD24</p> Muthu Dhandapani Babu Balakrishnan Ganesan Sivamani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 139 142 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1921 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY (PHENOL AND FLAVONOID CONTENT ) OF THREE DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF PIPER BETLE L. (PIPERACEAE) http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1978 <p>In the present study, an attempt has been made for the estimation of total phenol and flavonoid content and their radical scavenging properties using <em>Piper betle</em> (L.) leaves. In that, Cultivars i.e., Nov Bangla (NB), Sirugamani-1 (SGM-1) and Halisar Sanchi (HS) were selected for this study. The total phenolic content was ranged from 95.04 to 127.33 mg/100g equivalent to gallic acid and flavonoids were ranged from 51.72 to 61.08 mg/ 100g equivalent to standards of Catechin.&nbsp; <em>In vitro</em> antioxidant activity was estimated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), free radical scavenging activity, improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among all the cultivars, The highest Phenol content (93.79%) was observed&nbsp; for Sirugamani-1 by DPPH method&nbsp; and highest Phenol content (96.12% &amp; 6791.86 (µg/g) was obtained&nbsp; for Halisar Sanchi by ABTS assay and FRAP activity&nbsp; respectively. The study revealed that the leaves of <em>Piper betle</em> (L.) has higher amount of antioxidant activity and it could be used for any novel drug preparation.</p> SAPARA SEKHAR HARINI Pagadala R Sougandhi DR SHOBHA RANI TENKAYALA Kamalamma Ramalingam Gopinath ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 143 148 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1978 SUN PROTECTION FACTOR DETERMINATION STUDIES OF SOME SUNSCREEN FORMULATIONS USED IN COSMETICS FOR THEIR SELECTION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1924 <p>The study involves determination of sun protection factor (SPF) values of some sunscreen formulations for their use in cosmetics.&nbsp; The Sun Protection Factor (SPF) is a very popular instrument in the marketing of sunscreens. Sun protection factor is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen, the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against the ultraviolet radiations causing sunburn. It is often not understood how sunscreens work and where the limitations of the SPF are. A lot of aspects of the SPF are confusing, e.g. the race for higher and higher numbers, the effect on SPF when less sunscreen is applied and if sunscreen should be used at all because they may block the Vitamin D synthesis. The study explains how sunscreens work, how the SPF is determined and where the limitations of the current methods exist. The dynamic view of 'UV radiation applied' and the 'UV dose transmitted' through the sunscreen onto the skin as well as onto a substrate in vitro help in the understanding and are also promising approaches in the in vitro assessment. The study is helpful in selection of some sunscreens formulations used in cosmetics with better safety and high SPF values.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sun Protection Factor, SPF, Sunscreens</p> Masheer Ahmed Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 149 151 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1924 Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant potential and in-vivo hepatoprotective activity of root extract of Quercus oblongata D. DON http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1925 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main potential target is attempt to investigated evaluation of <em>in-vitro </em>antioxidant potential and <em>in-vivo</em> hepatoprotective activity of root extract of <em>Quercus oblongata D. DON</em> belonging to family fagaceae.<strong> Material &amp; Methods: </strong>The root of plant was extracted by different solvents like n-hexane (NHEQO), Chloroform (CEQO), Ethyl acetate (EAQO) Hydroethanolic (HEEQO) and Ethanol (EEQO). The antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by the possible four complementary test assay methods namely total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, Inhibition of&nbsp; 2,2 diphenyl -1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and ABTS (2-2’<strong>- </strong>azinobis) radical scavenging activity or quenching activity, in the hepatoprotective experimental&nbsp; animal albino wistar rats (120-180gm) were divided into 6 group, each group content 5, Group I: Received distilled water (5ml/kg. p.o) once daily, and served as normal control. Group II: Received paracetamol suspension (640 mg/kg suspended in 1% methyl cellulose; orally as toxin control. Group III: Received standard drug Silymarin (25 mg/kg. p.o.) + paracetamol suspension (640 mg/kg suspended in 1% methyl cellulose; orally once daily Group IV, V, VI administered HEECB at different doses300, 400, 500 mg/kg orally + paracetamol suspension (640 mg/kg suspended in 1% methyl cellulose; for 21 days. And collect blood from experimental animals by retrorbital puncture for estimation of biochemical parameters and other parameter also evaluate like physical histological changes in livers of rats.<strong> Results: </strong>Experimental finding reveal that Paracetamol produce significant change in physical (increase liver weight) biochemical (increase alkaline phosphate, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyuruvic transaminase, total protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and decrease the level of total protein and albumin) histological (damage to hepatocyte) and in liver parameters. Pretreatment with extract significantly minimization of physical, biochemical, histological and functional change induced by Paracetamol in liver<strong>. Conclusion: </strong>Experimental data and analysis of different parameter declare that hydroethanolic extract of <em>Quercus oblongata </em>could be a useful hepatoprotective agents and antioxidant potential.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Clematis buchananiana</em>, paracetamol, hepatoprotective, alkaline phosphate, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyuruvic transaminase.</p> Anita Singh Manoj Bisht ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 152 161 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1925 EFFECT OF ECLIPTA ALBA ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1926 <p>The present study deals with the evaluation of potential effects of Eclipta alba (EA) in memory impairment of mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p) in animals. To assess learning and memory in mice Morris water maze test was employed. The acetylcholinestrase enzyme (AChE) activity in brain was measured to evaluate the central cholinergic activity. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)in brain were estimated to assess the degree of oxidative stress. Scopolamine treatment produces significant impairment of learning and memory in mice, as reflected by a significant decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress (increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH) levels. EA (300 and 600 mg/kg,oral) significantly prevented scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with decrease of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress levels. It may be concluded that <em>Eclipta alba</em> has significant protective action against scopolamine induced memory deficits in mice that can be attributed to its anti AChE and anti oxidant actions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>&nbsp;Alzheimer disease, Oxidative stress, Morris water Maze, Scopolamine</p> Harmel Singh Chahal Shailendra Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 162 168 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1926 CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF NEONATAL SEIZURE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NEUROIMAGING: A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL BASED STUDY http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1932 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Seizures are most common and distinct clinical manifestation of neurologic dysfunction in the newborn. Its frequency is around 1.5-14/1000 neonates. The occurrence of seizure is positively correlated with structural brain damage and its consequent sequelae are later stages of life. Therefore, we need to initiate an early diagnostic workup to determine the causes. This study was conducted to determine the etiology of neonatal seizure as well as to find out how neuroimaging is useful in early diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> The study was carried out with the objectives to find out the etiology of neonatal seizure, especially by using the neuroimaging facilities and to look at the spectrum of brain lesion.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Hospital based observational study conducted over a period of 2 years (August 2015 to July 2017) at neonatal wing of SCB Medical College, Cuttack, India. All newborns with history of seizure and those who developed seizure during hospital stay were included in the study. Detailed antenatal histories, examination of the newborn and clinical detail of each seizure episode were recorded. Various data obtained were displayed in tables, charts, statistical analysis of the observations were done using percentages, averages etc.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 365 cases which had seizure, 233 (63.8%) were males. Term babies (60.76%) and babies weighing more than 2500 gms (57.44%) showed seizures in this study. Most (60.42%) of the cases were born by vaginal delivery who had seizure afterwards. Hypoglycemia, as a cause was found in only 4% of cases. HIE was the commonest cause (51.8%) followed by metabolic abnormalities (23.2%). Most of them showed abnormality in TC-USG, CT-Brain, MRI brain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most common cause of neonatal seizure is HIE and in maximum cases it is seen in first 72 hours of life. Screening of high risk pregnancies should be strengthened and early referral should be arranged. Imparting NRP training to all health caregivers and improvement of NICU standard in tertiary care centre will reduce the morbidity and mortality.</p> Shantisena Mishra Saran Kumar Mohanty Arakhita Swain Saiprasanna Behera Pratibha Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 169 174 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1932 SELECTION OF PHOSPHOLIPID AND METHOD OF FORMULATION FOR OPTIMUM ENTRAPMENT AND RELEASE OF LAMIVUDINE FROM LIPOSOME http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1935 <p>The present investigation was aimed to compare various phospholipids and different methods that would be appropriate to produce liposomes having vesicle size in the range of 200-300 nm, PDI less than 0.500, maximum entrapment and delayed release of lamivudine. The phospholipids employed were Phospholipon<sup>®</sup> 90G, Phospholipon<sup>®</sup> 90H, 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glysero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glysero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). They were used in various molar ratio with cholesterol and blank liposomes were prepared initially by thin film hydration and ether injection method. The thin film hydration method was only found to be appropriate to produce liposome of desired size and PDI. Hence, the molar ratios of employed phospholipids:cholesterol that produced liposomes as per the expected parameters was then used to load lamivudine. The method of preparation, phospholipid: cholesterol molar ratio, hydrations above transition temperature and hydration time were showed direct influence on vesicle size, PDI, percentage encapsulation and <em>in-vitro</em> release. Phospholipon<sup>®</sup> 90H: cholesterol: lamivudine in the molar ratio 1:2:1 produced liposomes having desired vesicle size and PDI with maximum drug entrapment and sustained release. The encapsulation efficiency of drug in liposomes was in the order of Phospholipon<sup>®</sup> 90H&gt; Phospholipon<sup>®</sup> 90G &gt; DPPC &gt; DMPC.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Liposomes, Lamivudine, Phospholipid, Thin film hydration method, Ether injection method, encapsulation efficiency</p> Mangesh D Godbole Vijay B Mathur ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 175 183 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1935 IN-VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES OF CETUXIMAB LOADED POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1941 <p>Nanoparticles speak to one of the appealing choices in the compelling treatment of tumor chemo-treatment. In the present work, definition and improvement of a novel Cetuximab (MTX)- stacked biodegradable nanoparticles utilizing poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was done. The arranged nanoparticles were assessed for physicochemical properties, for example, molecule measure, zeta potential, discharge thinks about, and so forth. Molecule size of upgraded definition was &lt; 200 nm. Our essential outcomes exhibit that the created Cetuximab-stacked PLGA nanoparticles discharging the medication for delayed timeframe.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cetuximab; PLGA 50:50; nanoparticles</p> Ajinder Kaushik Hemant Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 184 188 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1941 ANTIOXIDANT AND AMTICICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF CRATEVA MAGNA (Lour.) DC http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1949 <p>In the present study, <em>Crateva magna</em> bark was extracted with various solvents in order to their standing in the polarity chart and the extracts were then subjected to preliminary phytochemical investigation. After that we have subjected the extracts to antioxidant assay using FTC, TBA, DPPH and Reducing Power assay as models and Antimicrobial assay. The Chloroform extract has shown potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity among all the extracts under evaluation. The findings here justify the ethnomedicinal claim against the plant under consideration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Crateva magna, </em>Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Ethnomedicine.</p> Saumendu Deb Roy Suvakanta Dash Debaprotim Dasgupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 189 195 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1949 DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF PURIFIED QUERCETIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES FROM IN VITRO CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA SW. AGAINST SELECTED CANCER CELL LINES AND ITS MODE OF ACTION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1950 <p>Tribal people use the floral extract of <em>Caesalpinia pulcherrima </em>to cure liver, stomach and skin prone disorders in traditional Indian medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of purified quercetin and its derivatives from <em>in vitro </em>cell suspension cultures of <em>C. pulcherrima</em> Sw. against SW 480, HeLa, MCF-7 and MCF 10A cell lines and&nbsp;its mode of action. Standard protocol was developed for callus induction using leaf explants<em>.</em> Cytotoxic effect was evaluated against SW 480, HeLa, MCF-7 and MCF 10A cells by MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated via Hoechst analysis,&nbsp; flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase 3 and 9 expression. 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), BAP (2.5 mg/l) + kin (1 mg/ml) was effective for remarkable callus induction. Further, cell suspension culture was established.&nbsp; Effect of elicitors on cell suspension culture was also carried. Sucrose, ABA and salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations influenced cell biomass and quercetin synthesis. Cells cultured on the medium fortified with 45 g/L sucrose without ABA/SA showed the highest quercetin content (16.5 mg/g). Quercetin was purified, fractionated by HPLC-DAD and was further analyzed by NMR revealed a major fraction of quercetin (3, 5, 7, 3’, 4’-pentahydroxyflavon). Insignificant cytotoxicity was noticed in SW 480, HeLa, MCF 10A when compared to MCF-7 cell lines exposed to different concentrations of purified quercetin for 24- 48 h. Similarly, the apoptosis by nuclei staining using Hoechst 33258 revealed a concentration dependent effect on MCF 7 cells only. This was further substantiated by caspase-9 and 3 induction and mitochondrial depolarization as revealed by flow cytometry. Overall, the results showed that quercetin and its derivatives induced effective apoptosis on MCF-7 cells. Quercetin isolated from the <em>in vitro</em> cell suspension culture of <em>C. pulcherrima</em> showed significant cytotoxicity and&nbsp;apoptotic activity towards MCF-7 cell lines as compared to other cell lines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp; <em>Caesalpinia pulcherrima;</em>&nbsp;quercetins; suspension culture; cytotoxicity;&nbsp;apoptotic.</p> JM Aswathy Greeshma Murukan Bosco Lawarence K Murugan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 196 208 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1950 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MONOTHERAPY AND COMBINATION THERAPY OF PANTOPRAZOLE WITH PREGABALIN AGAINST SURGICAL ESOPHAGITIS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1951 <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pantoprazole and pregabalin on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. The groups of rats fasted for 24 hours and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Rats of different groups received normal saline (3 ml/kg, po; sham control), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), pregabalin (30 mg/kg, po) and their combinations along with a parallel toxic control group. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, total acidity, free acidity and esophagitis index. The morphological changes were scrutinized by digital microscopy. The beneficial effect of pantoprazole and pregabalin against GERD could be attributed to the anti-secretory action of pantoprazole and reduction in the tracheal lower esophageal sphincter release rate by pregabalin. Combination therapy of gamma-aminobutyric acid derivative promotes proton pump inhibitor based healing of reflux esophagitis in animal model.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Esophagitis, Pantoprazole, Pregabalin, Pylorus ligation, Gamma-aminobutyric acid.</p> Rafat Afrin Sangeet Sangeet Surendra Tripathy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 209 214 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1951 CONTROLLED DRUG RELEASE OF GRAFTED PECTIN http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1953 <p>Modification of Pectin as natural polymer was accepted as new bio adhesive polymer, which was grafted with Maleic anhydride as vinylic monomore and insertion by using ceric ion it, was substituted with amino drugs produced amide polymer which do not lose their biological properties. This design carries controlled delivery which could release the entrapped drug over an extended period of time due to its slow digesting nature. The prepared adhesive drug polymer was characterized by FTIR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectroscopes, thermo gravimetric analysis TGA and DSC were careful. Physical properties of prepared polymer was quiet, Biological activity was studied for adhesive drug polymer, this new adhesive drug biological polymers were applied on different infected mice and wounds, It gave outstanding results and compliance mice infected with a full recovery by a short period of time. &nbsp;The prepared drug copolymer was analyzed in different pH values at 37 <sup>0</sup>C <em>in vitro</em> study and controlled drug release was messured through three days. The rate of hydrolysis in basic medium was found higher than acidic medium. It was concluded that modified drug release with extended drug action via slow release and&nbsp;<em>in vivo</em>&nbsp;performance was renowned to be talented.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Keywords:</strong> Pectin, controlled delivery, adhesive drug polymers, Graft Copolymer</p> Mohammed Ali Firyal Muthanna Ahmed Hameed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 215 222 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1953 USE OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL CARE PROGRAM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN DHULE CIVIL HOSPITAL http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1960 <p><strong>Aim &amp; Objective</strong>: The study was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmaceutical care on the control of medical parameters, such as Fasting plasma glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI also to evaluate drug therapy problems in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Setting: the study was conducted at SBHGM College, Civil Hospital in Dhule MS.</p> <p><strong>Research design and</strong> <strong>Methods</strong>: A prospective, Open label&nbsp; and randomized control study was conducted with 200 type 2 diabetes patients with glycosylated haemoglobin of higher than 7.5%, they were divided into two groups: (I) control group without pharmaceutical care program (n=100), and (II) pharmaceutical care program (intervention) group (n=100).They were monitored for 3 consecutive visits. Patients in the control group received usual medical care, but patients in the intervention group received both standard medical care and pharmaceutical care.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: At the end of the study, a statistically significant fall was observed in the glycemic levels, BMI of patients in the intervention group as a small reduction, which is statistically not significant, was observed in the control group. Additionally, the follow-up of the intervention group by a pharmacist contributed to the resolution of 118 drug therapy problems identified.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: pharmaceutical care program provide by pharmacist to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can give up measurable improvements in the glycemic control, BMI &amp; resolute of drug therapy problems and improvements in the adherence to antidiabetic medication.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Pharmaceutical care program, and Fasting plasma glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Body mass index (BMI).&nbsp;</p> Tabrej Mujawar Prakash Hiraman Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 223 227 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1960 ANATOMICAL STUDIES ON CORBICHONIA DECUMBENS (FORSSK.) EXELL, AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL HERB FROM RAJASTHAN http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1963 <p><em>Corbichonia decumbens </em>(Forssk.) Exell, commonly known as pater-chatti, is an annual or short lived perennial herb found in rocky habitats. It is used to cure kidney stone and gonorrhoea. The main objective of this study was to examine the anatomical characters of whole plant of <em>C. decumbens</em> for identification. The transverse sections of root, stem, leaf and flower have been examined and analysed. Photomicrographs were prepared with Sony HD (1920x1080/50i) digital camera. <strong>The microscopical studies revealed several</strong> interesting features viz., <strong>the presence of anomocytic stomata on both the surface; more on adaxial surface</strong> starch grains present in cortical region of root, rosette crystals in almost all vegetative parts that some time forms clusters, sclerenchymatous pericyle in stem and root presence of wide medullary rays in secondary xylem and bundle sheath around vascular bundles. The outcome showed many unique characters which may prove most important in taxonomical relevance. This study would be useful for correct identification and authentication of the plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: Anomocytic,</strong> Dorsiventral, Medullary rays, Bundle sheath, Rosette crystals</p> Sunita Arora Manju Saini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 228 231 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1963 ANTI-SOLAR STUDY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES CASSIA FISTULA http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1964 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study aimed at the phytochemical examination and anti-solar activity of <em>Cassia Fistula </em>(leaf) Ethanolic extract has more Flavonoid content based on this chemical substance photo protective activity was evaluated using UV visible spectrophotometry, where the method is diffused transmittance and the range of UV-visible about 200-400nm.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The pulverized dried <em>Cassia Fistula</em> was extracted with ethanol using soxhlet apparatus. Ethanolic extract were filtered &amp; evaporated to dryness. The photo protective activity was evaluated by using UV visible spectrophotometer, where the method it is diffused transmittance and the range of UV-visible about 200-400nm.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The UV scanning absorption spectra of the extract showed very strong absorption at 0.265 A with λ max at 268 nm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The extract has an ability to absorb in the entire UV range.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>UV rays, <em>Cassia Fistula</em>, Flavonoid content, ethanolic Extract, Anti-Solar</p> Varsha Gharge Tulashiram Lokhande Shobha Hadpad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 232 234 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1964 DESIGN AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE TABLET OF NATEGLINIDE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2012 <p>The aim of present study is to formulate and evaluate extended release matrix tablet of Nateglinide by direct compression method using different polymer like HPMC K4 and HPMC K15. Matrix tablet of nateglidine were prepared in combination with the polymer HPMC K4, HPMC K15, along with the excipients and the formulations were evaluated for tablet properties and <em>in vitro </em>drug release studies. Nateglinide matrix tablet prepared by using polymer such as HPMC K4 and HPMC K15, &nbsp;it was found that HPMC K15 having higher viscosity as compare to HPMC K4 therefore different concentration of polymer were studied to extend the drug release up to 12 h. The tablets of Nateglinide prepared by direct compression had acceptable physical characteristics and satisfactory drug release. The study demonstrated that as far as the formulations were concerned, the selected polymers proved to have an acceptable flexibility in terms of in-vitro release profile. In present the study the percent drug release for optimize batch was found to 94.62%.&nbsp; Hence it can be conclude that Nateglinide extended release matrix tablet can prepared by using HPMC. The swollen tablet also maintains its physical integrity during the drug release study</p> <p>Keywords: Tablet, <em>in-vitro</em> drug release, Nateglinide, HPMC</p> NILESH M MAHAJAN Kalyanee Wanaskar Yogesh Bhutada Raju Thenge Vaibhav Adhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 235 239 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2012 STUDY OF MAO-B INHIBITOR ANALOUGES FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE THROUGH CADD APPROACHES http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1965 <p>New derivatives are designed as target directed MAO-B Inhibitors for medical care of the patients for neurodegenerative disorder. Molecular design and estimated pharmacokinetic properties have been evaluated by using Inventus v 1.1 software. The binding mode of the proposed compounds with target protein i.e. 1S2Q was evaluated and the resulting data from docking studies explained that newly designed derivatives have high and better affinity towards target protein. Based on these properties, the binding affinities are used for speeding up drug discovery process by eliminating less potent compounds from synthesis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> MAO-B, Inventus, Target protein, Neurodegenerative, Docking.</p> Manish Bachhar BK Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 240 250 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1965 Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Prunella vulgaris for oral thrush http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1966 <p>Plant imitative products have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. In traditional Indian medicine or Ayurveda, <em>Prunella Vulgaris </em>and many other herbs have been used as medicine. Traditional uses of plants have led to investigating their bioactive compounds, which have resulted in the detection of a significant number of therapeutic properties. The aim of present investigation was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of chloroform and hydroalcoholic leaves extracts of <em>Prunella Vulgaris </em>against microbial strains causing oral infections. Both chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrate, triterpenoids/ steroids, flavonoids, tannin, phenolic compound and saponins were absent in only the chloroform extract. The bioactivities of the leaf extracts were qualified to their phytochemical constituents. Quantitative analysis of phenolic and flavonoids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent method and aluminium chloride method respectively. The <em>In vitro</em> antioxidant activity of chloroform and hydroalcoholic leaves extracts of <em>Prunella Vulgaris </em>was assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay using standard protocols. The antimicrobial activity of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of medicinal plants was evaluated using well diffusion method against <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Candida albicans</em><em>. </em>The TPC in chloroform extract was higher than that of the hydroalcoholic extract with concentration being 0.443 mg/g equivalent to gallic acid. The TFC in hydroalcohoilc extract was higher than that of the chloroform extract with concentration being 0.358 mg/g equivalent to rutin.&nbsp; The present study recognized leaves extract of <em>Prunella vulgaris </em>as a promising antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. However, further investigations are needed to understand the mechanistic basis of this effect of the extract and its chemical constituents thereof.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Prunella vulgaris</em>, Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial activity, Folins Ciocalteau reagent, Quantitative analysis</p> Amit Nayak Mohammed Azaz Khan Poornima Sharma RM Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 251 258 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1966 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEAVES AND STEM OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACT http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1967 <p><em>Tinospora cordifolia</em> is known as Giloe and Guduchi, with significant importance in the traditional medicinal systems. It is dioeciously plant. It is mostly used in Ayurved system. It is also known as a ‘Rasayans’ of medicinal system, which develops immune system of the body and protect against infection. The aim of this study is carried out to analyse the phytochemical compounds in leaves and stem extracts of <em>T. cordifolia </em>by using phytochemical screening tests and estimate total flavonoid content (TFC) by using aluminium chloride method in the sample extracts. The leaf and stem extracts of <em>T. cordifolia </em>expressed the presence of several phytochemicals <em>viz.</em>, flavonoids, amino acids, diterpines, protein, saponins and carbohydrates. The result of phytochemical screening tests revealed that diterpines and carbohydrates are positive in all extracts of <em>T. cordifolia</em>, but flavonoids and saponins only present in &nbsp;methanol and ethanol extracts. TFC of <em>T. cordifolia </em>was higher in ethanolic leaves extracts than mathanolic leaves extracts. The studies justify that <em>T. cordifolia</em> use in traditional medicines. The investigation further proposed that the phytochemicals present in stems and leaves of <em>T. cordifolia, </em>which can be use as natural antioxidants in medicinal drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Tinospora cordifolia</em>, Phytochemicals, Flavonoids</p> Praveen Garg Rajesh Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 259 264 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1967 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ACYCLOVIR LOADED NOVEL NANO-EMULSION GEL FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRAL INFECTIONS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1968 <p>Acyclovir has low bioavailability mainly due to low solubility. This study aimed to formulate an optimized acyclovir (ACV) nanoemulsion gel for the slow, variable and incomplete oral drug absorption in patient suffering from herpes simplex viral infection. The dispersion solubility of acyclovir was studied in various oils, surfactants and co-surfactants and by constructing pseudo phase ternary diagram nanoemulsion area was identified. The optimized formulations of nanoemulsions were subjected to thermodynamic stability tests. After stability study, stable formulation was characterized for droplet size, pH determination, centrifugation, % drug content in nanoemulsion, Zeta Potential and Vesicle size measurement and than nanoemulsion gel were prepared and characterized for spreadability, measurement of viscosity, drug content, <em>In-vitro</em> diffusion, <em>in-vitro</em> release data. Span 40 was selected as surfactant, PEG 400 as co surfactant and castor oil as oil component based on solubility study. The <em>in vitro </em>drug release from acyclovir nanoemulsion gel was found to be considerably higher in comparison to that of the pure drug. The <em>in-vitro </em>diffusion of nanoemulsion gel was significantly good. Based on this study, it can be concluded the solubility and permeability of acyclovir can be increased by formulating into nanoemulsion gel.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Acyclovir, Nanoemulsion, I<em>n-vitro </em>diffusion, Zeta potential, Stability</p> Swati Patel Prabhat Jain Geeta Parkhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 265 270 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1968 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF ACYCLOVIR MICROSPHERE USING NOVEL NATURAL POLYMER http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1971 <p>Acyclovir [9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanine] is an acyclic nucleoside analogue of guanosine that is a potent and selective antiviral agent. It has a relatively short plasma half-life (3 hr). When orally administered, it is slowly and scarcely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present work was to formulate and evaluate microspheres of Acyclovir and produced sustained drug delivery. In these 14 batches of acyclovir microspheres was prepared with using natural polymer Kondagogu gum and other ingredients by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for different parameters i.e % Drug yield, % drug entrapment, shape, surface morphology, particles size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and in-vitro drug release for 48 hrs in phosphate buffer 7.4. The best batch was performed stability studies for 6 months. The research concluded that Acyclovir microspheres could be an alternative for conventional dosage form and other phytochemical in herbs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Acyclovir, Microspheres, Kondagogu gum, Polydispersity index, in-vitro drug release</p> Priyanka Singh Shailendra K Lariya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 271 276 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1971 COMPARISON OF RP-HPLC AND UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF HALOPERIDOL IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1973 <p>An accurate, precise, sensitive and reproducible High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of haloperidol (HPD) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation. Different analytical performance parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined according to International Conference on Harmonization ICH Q2B guidelines. The RP-HPLC method was developed by the isocratic technique on a reversed-phase Thermo C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5µm) column with mobile phase consisting of Methanol: Acetonitrile (50:50v/v) at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The retention time for HPD was 2.238±0.3min. The UV spectrophotometric determinations were performed at 244 nm using 80% methanol as a solvent. The linearity range for HPD was 5-25 μg/ml for both HPLC and UV method. The linearity of the calibration curves for each analyte in the desired concentration range was good (r2 &gt;0.999) by both the HPLC and UV methods. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with percent relative standard deviation less than 2%. Moreover, the accuracy and precision obtained with HPLC co-related well with the UV method which implied that UV spectroscopy can be a cheap, reliable and less time consuming alternative for chromatographic analysis. The proposed methods are highly sensitive, precise and accurate and hence successfully applied for determining the assay and in vitro dissolution of a marketed formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>HPLC, UV Spectrophotometry, Haloperidol, Pharmaceutical formulation, Method validation, Quantitative analysis</p> AK Jain BK Dubey D Basedia S Dhakar M Ahirwar P Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 277 282 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1973 PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF FLAVONOID AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS OF THE ROOT, STEM AND LEAVES OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA LINN http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1974 <p>Herbal drugs are traditionally used in various parts of the world to cure different diseases. The purpose of present study is to characterize phytoconstituents in the various part of <em>Tephrosia purpurea</em>. The root, stem and leaves of <em>Tephrosia purpurea</em> were washed, air dried and then powdered. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of various part of <em>Tephrosia purpurea</em> were used for the phytochemical investigation to find out the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents in the plant. The result of the phytochemical analysis of <em>Tephrosia purpurea</em> showed presence or absence in addition to quantitative (mg/100mg) contents of flavonoid and Phenol in the plant.Present study will help to identify the different parts of the plant from which higher quantities of the phytochemical can be derived and for the development of new herbal drugs from<em> Tephrosia purpurea</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Phytoconstituents, Phytochemical, <em>Tephrosia purpurea</em>, Aqueous ethanolic extract, Flavonoid, Phenol.</p> R Nigam R Arnold ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 283 287 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1974 BIOANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LEVOCETIRIZINE IN BLOOD PLASMA BY USING RP-HPLC http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1977 <p>A rapid, selective, precise and sensitive reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the quantitative estimation of Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride (LD) in human plasma and pharmaceutical dosage form. Extraction of drug from plasma was done by employing optimized liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The sample was analyzed using acetonitrile: methanol: 20mM ammonium acetate buffer pH-5 (25:55:20 % v/v/v) as mobile phase. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Thermo C-18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5μ particle size) as stationary phase using isocratic elution (at a flow rate of 1 ml/min). The peak was detected using UV-PDA detector set at 232 nm and the total time for a chromatographic separation was 8 min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.9998) over the concentration range of 2-10 μg/ml. Method was validated for precision, robustness and recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation was 0.0057 and 0.174 µg/ml respectively. There was no significant difference between the amount of drug spiked in plasma and the amount recovered and plasma did not interfere in estimation. Thus, the proposed method is suitable for the analysis of LD in tablet dosage forms and human plasma.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> RP-HPLC, Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride, Human plasma, Liquid-liquid extraction</p> Sweety Khatri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 288 292 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1977 Enhancement of solubility & dissolution rate of Nifedipine by using Novel Solubilizer sepitrap 80 & Sepitrap 4000 http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2041 <p>The enhancement in solubility and dissolution rate of BCS class-II drug Nifedipine was achieved by simple physical mixture with sepitrap 80 &amp; sepitrap 4000 in 1:1 &amp; 1:2 proportion. The saturation solubility studies shows 263 % &amp; 368 % increase in the solubility in physical mixture of Nifedipine with sepitrap 80 &amp; sepitrap 4000 respectively. The physicochemical properties of pure Nifedipine compared to their physical mixtures with sepitrap 80 &amp; sepitrap 4000 were determined using FTIR, DSC &amp; PXRD. The FTIR and DSC studies shows no any interaction in Nifedipine and sepitrap, the marked broadening and distinct reduction in intensity with shifting of drug endotherm was displayed physical mixture with sepitrap demonstrate positive effect. The PXRD diffractograms shows distinctive peaks but reduction in peak intensity in terms of counts indicating conversion of drug in amorphous forms. The surface morphology of the prepared physical mixture was examined by SEM which indicating no significant change in its surface morphology due to no use any solvent during the preparation of physical mixture . Photostability studies shows that rate of photo degradation is very slow in Physical mixture with sepitrap as compared to pure Nifedipine. Dissolution studies in SGF &amp; SIF shows that significant enhancement by use of novel solubilizer sepitrap 80 as well as sepitrap 4000 in 1:2 proportions. The physical mixture containing sepitrap 4000 was found stable as there was no any significant change in appearance and drug dissolution after three month stability studies.</p> Rajesh Shankar Jagtap Rajendra Doijad Shrinivas Mohite ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 293 300 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2041 GREEN SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANO PARTICLES BY USING PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LEAF EXTRACT http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2025 <p>In this study, rapid, simple approach was applied for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract. The plant extract acts as both reducing agent and capping agent. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by using physic-chemical techniques viz, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer [FTIR], Particle size analyser and Scanning electron microscopy. UV-Visible spectrophotometer showed absorbance peak in the range of 419nm.The compounds responsible for silver ions and the functional groups present in plant extract were identified and investigated by FTIR technique. The characterization data reveals that the particles were in crystalline in nature with an average size of 62nm. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were rapidly synthesized using aqueous extract of guava leaf with AgNO<sub>3</sub> solution within 15min at room temperature, without the involvement of any hazardous chemicals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Nano particles, green synthesis, Silver,&nbsp; Psidium guajava and reducing agents.</p> DR SHOBHA RANI TENKAYALA Pagadala R Sougandhi Mekala. Reddeppa Sapara Sekhar Harini R. Gangadhara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 301 305 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2025 WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FLOWERS OF BUTEA MONOSPERMA LINN. IN DIABETIC ANIMALS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1979 <p>The main of our study is to evaluate the Wound Healing Potential of Methanolic Extract of Flowers of <em>Butea</em> <em>monosperma </em>Linn. in Diabetic Animals. Methanolic extract was prepared by continuous hot extraction method by soxhlet apparatus. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds and some glycosides. Diabetes was induced by single injection of Alloxan monohydrate in Wistar albino rats and their blood glucose levels were measured. Excision wound model was used for creation of wound in diabetic animals and methanolic extract was administered in diabetic animals to observe its effect. Methanolic extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level and highly significantly showed wound contraction in diabetic animals. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the <em>Butea monosperma</em> flower extract showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids. As per previous literature survey, flavonoids are responsible for anti-diabetic and wound healing activity. So this wound healing effect of <em>Butea monosperma</em> may be due to presence of flavonoids in plant. Hence present research supports traditional claims of the plant in wound healing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Butea monosperma</em>, Diabetic animals, Alloxan monohydrate, Methanolic Extract, Wound Area</p> Shweta Panwar Neetesh Kumar Jain MK Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 306 310 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1979 FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF FLOATING MICROSPHERES OF MEBENDAZOLE AS A GASTRO RETENTIVE DOSAGE FORM http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1980 <p>The present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating microspheres using Mebendazole (MBZ) as a model drug for improving the drug bioavailability by prolongation of gastric retention time.&nbsp; Ethyl cellulose, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose microspheres loaded with mebendazole were prepared by solvent diffusion evaporation method. The microspheres had smooth surfaces, with free-flowing and good-packing properties. The yield of the microspheres was up to 85.65±0.14% and ethyl cellulose microspheres entrapped the maximum amount of the drug. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed their hollow structures with sizes in the range 215.1 to 251.80 nm. The prepared microspheres exhibited prolonged drug release and Percentage buoyancy was found to70.25±0.15. The formulated batches were evaluated for percentage yield, particle size measurement, flow properties, percent entrapment efficiency, swelling studies. The formulations were subjected to Stability studies and In-vitro release and Release kinetics data was subjected to different dissolution models.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> solvent diffusion evaporation method, Mebendazole, Ethyl cellulose, Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose</p> Lokesh Parmar Mansi Gupta Geeta Parkhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 311 314 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1980 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GEL CONTAINING ETHOSOMES ENTRAPPED WITH TRETINOIN http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1982 <p>A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of ethosomes which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. Tretinoin is a widely used retinoid for the topical treatment of acne, photo-aged skin, psoriasis and skin cancer which makes it a good candidate for topical formulation. Yet side effects, like redness, swelling, peeling, blistering and, erythema, in addition to its high lipophilicity make this challenging. Drug loaded ethosomes had been prepared using phospholipid and ethanol, were optimized and characterized for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size, shape, <em>In-vitro </em>skin permeation, skin retention, drug‐membrane component interaction and stability. The ethosomal formulation having 0.5 %w/v of phospholipid and 20 %v/v of ethanol (F2) showing the greatest entrapment efficiency (80.25±0.23) with small particle size (205.40±2.31nm) was selected for further skin permeation studies. The skin permeation and skin retention studies were performed on ethosomal formulation, liposomal formulation (0.5 %w/v of phospholipid without alcohol), hydroethanolic drug solution and phosphate buffer saline (pH7.4) drug solution. Among them, ethosomal formulation showed higher cumulative percentage of drug permeation (93.36±0.45%) and 8 hours than the other formulations. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the three dimensional nature of ethosomes. Dynamic light scattering technique proved that the ethosomes has smaller vesicular size than the liposomes prepared without alcohol. FT‐IR studies revealed no interaction between the drug and membrane components. The ethosomal vesicles were incorporated in carbopol gel base and its anti‐acne was compared with the marketed gel. Our results suggest that the ethosomes are an efficient carrier for dermal and transdermal delivery of tretinoin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tretinoin, Ethosomes, Diffusion, Carbopol gels, Transdermal delivery<strong>.</strong></p> Rakhi Mishra Shradha Shende Prabhat Kumar Jain Vivek Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 315 321 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1982 DOCKING STUDIES OF AMINOHYDANTOIN DERIVATIVES AS ANTIMALARIAL AGENTS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1983 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Docking studies of aminohydantoin derivatives as antimalarial agents. A novel derivative of aminohydantoins was selected from the literature. <strong>Method:</strong> <em>in-silco</em> studies using docking methodology. The compounds were sketched and energy minimized using Chem draw ultra and Chem 3D ultra respectively. Further, the compounds were docked into <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> transferase inhibitor (3L7) using Molegro Virtual Platform. Twenty eight compounds were docked into the active site of Pf-lactate dehydrogenase cavity and all of them found to have similar binding interactions of a co-crystalized ligand. <strong>Result:</strong> The compounds were showed good docking score like moldock score and re-rank score. The finding of docking studies shows a typical molecular interaction pattern with lactate dehydrogenase. The binding interaction information derived from these molecules will be useful in future antimalarial agent design. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> From the docking study, it was observed that ligands bind to the electrostatic, hydrophobic clamp formed by the residues Asp 76(B), Tyr 190(B), Tyr 80(B) and Lys 72(B) which play an important role for <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> inhibition.&nbsp;&nbsp; The binding affinity, grid calculation and RMSD percentage lower and upper&nbsp;&nbsp; parameters were calculated.&nbsp;&nbsp; Hence, the observable data indicated that, above compounds can serve as good leads for further modification and optimization in the of treatment malaria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Molegro, Chemdraw, aminohydantoins and docking, studies as <em>Plasmodium falciparum</em>, 4RAO, moldock score.</p> Pooja Mali Shourya Pratap Raghvendra S. Badhauria Himanshu Gurjar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 322 326 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1983 Study on Fish Fauna Diversity of Bhusara maun under Muzaaffarpur district of Bihar http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1984 <p>The present study has been carried from Bhusara maun under Muzaaffarpur district of Bihar”. Fish diversity on this lentic water body has been studied in detail with its food value and commercial status. Twenty eight Fish species of fishes were recorded, which belonged to 20 genera and 14 families. A classified list of fishes has been given. The Indian major carps and few fresh species are commercially important groups in the Bhusara maun</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fish species, diversity, food value. Commercially important.&nbsp;</p> Nishi Kumari Ravindra Nath Pathak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 327 328 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1984 Study on the Diversity and seasonal variation of zooplankton in Bhusara maun under Muzaffarpur, Bihar http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1985 <p>Diversity of zooplankton in the Bhusara maun was studied during March 2010- Feb 2011. The population of zooplankton consisted of rotifers copepods and cladocerans. Total number of zooplankton recorded were 2335 per litre of which rotifers were 1461 (62.56%), cladocerans 226 (9.67%) and copepods 608 (27.75%). All the dominant groups of zooplankton present throughout the year. Diversity analysis showed that rotifers had 11 species cladoccrans four and copepode four species. High number of zooplankton were recorded in winter season. While low number was recorded in monsoon season.</p> <p>Keyword: Zooplankton, Bimodal distribution, Diversity richness</p> Nishi Kumari Ravindra Nath Pathak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 329 331 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1985 Isolation and characterization of bioactive compound anthraquinone from methanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa linn. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1987 <p>Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (Nyctaginaceae), commonly known as ‘Punarnava’ is a perennial creeping herb widely studied and has a long history of uses by the tribal people and in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines. Our previous study showed that in different extracts of Boerhavia diffusa (ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether, aqueous and hexane), <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/methanol">methanol</a>ic extract had significant&nbsp;<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/antioxidant">anti-oxidant</a>&nbsp;activity, but the active components present in that extracts are still unclear.&nbsp;In this study, <em>Boerhavia diffusa</em> Linn was investigated for the bioactive compounds present in its methanolic extract. Separation and purification of the compounds in the most active methanol extract was done using a combination of column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The compound was identified using gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry. The resulted compound anthraquinone which is also called as 9, 10 anthracenedione. In addition to their known use as natural dyes, it have several biological activities like antitumor, antiinflammatory,&nbsp; diuretic , antiarthritic, antifungal, antibacterial,&nbsp; antimalarial and antioxidant activities . This justifies the use of this plant in traditional medicine and indicates a promising potential for the development of medicinal agents from Boerhavia diffusa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antioxidant, Boerhavia diffusa Linn, anthraquinone, column chromatography, Thin layer Chromatograhy, GC-MS.</p> U Kanagavalli A. Mohamed Sadiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 332 337 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1987 A STUDY ON ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION AMONG PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1988 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) often suffer from psychiatric co-morbidities, such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of PCOS is increasing In India.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To Study anxiety and depression among PCOS Patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> It was a cross-sectional observational study, which was conducted in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of a tertiary care hospital. Patients diagnosed with PCOS were assessed on hospital anxiety depression scale and sociodemographic and clinical information was gathered using semi-structured questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The prevalence of anxiety of 36% and depression 16% were observed.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: PCOS patients were found to have high prevalence of anxiety and depression due to the Symptoms of PCOS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Anxiety, PCOS, psychological problems, Depression</p> Rahul Radhakrishnan Anna Verghese ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 338 340 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1988 THERAPEUTIC MICROEMULSION OF CURCUMIN FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1989 <p>Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a natural polyphenolic compound with potent anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant activities. However, its bioavailability is low as it is poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Microemulsions offer the potential to improve the solubility and bioavailability of bioactive compounds; the present work investigated the topical delivery potential of microemulsion gel loaded with curcumas. Curcumin microemulsion was prepared by spontaneous emul­sification method using oil (Oleic acid), surfactant:cosurfactant (S<sub>mix</sub>) (Ethanol and Tween 80, Span 80 and n Butanol) and water. The optimized formulations of microemulsions were subjected to thermodynamic stability tests. After stability study, stable formulation was characterized for droplet size, pH determination, centrifugation, % drug content in microemulsion, zeta potential and vesicle size measurement and then microemulsion gel were prepared and characterized for spreadability, measurement of viscosity, drug content, <em>In-vitro</em> diffusion, <em>in-vitro</em> release data. Tween 80, Span 80 was selected as surfactant, ethanol, n Butanol as co surfactant and Oleic acid as oil component based on solubility study. The optimized formulation contained Curcumin (10 mg). The <em>in vitro </em>drug release from curcumin microemulsion gel was found to be considerably higher in comparison to that of the pure drug. The <em>in-vitro </em>diffusion of microemulsion gel was significantly good. Based on this study, it can be concluded the solubility and permeability of curcumin can be increased by formulating into microemulsion gel.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Curcumin, Microemulsion, I<em>n-vitro </em>diffusion, Spreadability, Zeta potential, Stability, span 40</p> Shreyasi Sharma Eisha Ganju Neeraj Upmanyu Prabhat Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 341 347 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1989 Potential Drug-Drug Interactionsamong Adult Patients Admitted to MedicalWards at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital inEthiopia http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2056 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>A Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a decrease or increase in the pharmacological or clinical response to the administration of two or more drugs that are different from the anticipated response they initiate when individually administered.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess the prevalence and factors associated with potential DDIs among adult inpatients admitted to the medical wards of a tertiary teaching Hospital in Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective cross-sectional study design was employed on adult patients who were admitted to the medical ward in one year period. A total of 384patients’ medical records were checked for a possible DDI using Micromedex DrugReax® drug interaction database and analyzed consecutively using SPSS version 20.0.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 384 adult patients enrolled in the study, 209 (54.4%) of them had medications with at least one potential DDI in their prescriptions. Of the 209 potential DDI, 26.3% were with a minimum of one major potential DDI. The median number of potential DDI per patient was 2.2. Overall, 296 potential DDI were identified in the current study. Among 296 identified potential drug-drug interactions, most of the interaction (49.7%) had good documentation. The number of medication prescribed per patient showed a significant (p&lt; 0.001) association with the occurrence of potential DDIs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>More than half of the patients’ prescription contains potentially interacting medications. This study, additionally, revealed that there is a significant association between potential DDIs and number of medications prescribed per patient.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Drug-drug interactions, pharmacokinetic interaction, pharmacodynamic interaction, internal medicine</p> Samson Kibrom zelalem tilahun Solomon Assefa Huluka ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 348 354 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2056 PEDIATRIC NASAL SPRAY SOLUTION: FACTORIAL DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2067 <p>The work was aimed to develope the meter dose formulation of pediatric xylometazoline nasal spray formulation. The 3<sup>2 </sup>factorial design was utilized for development of the pediatric formulation. The independent factors were sodium cholate (X<sub>1</sub>) and Polyethyleneglycol 400 concentration (X<sub>2</sub>). The optimized formulation composition consisted of 0.105 g sodium cholate and 1.35 ml polyethyleneglycol 400. The formulation was evaluated for solution parameters like drug content, pH, viscosity, % diffusion, sterility and spray evaluation parameters like spray content uniformity, pump delivery, spray pattern, and weight loss. The results for spray content uniformity were in the range of 95-102 %, while pH in the range of 6.5 ± 0.3. The ovality of spray was 1.118, while perimeter and area of spray pattern were found to be 57.42 mm and 258.8 mm<sup>2</sup> respectively for optimized formulation. The least value for repriming was 97.6 % while the extreme value was 102.2 % indicating one actuation was satisfactory for repriming. The results for droplet size test were obtained in the range of 51.63 to 58.90 µm. The formulation along with its container closure was evaluated for its stability up to 12 months at long term conditions. The formulated batch PFE showed better performance for in-vitro drug release with marketed product thus providing another option for treatment of nasal congestion.</p> Falgun Bhuva LD Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 355 365 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2067 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TRANSDERMAL PATCHES OF GLIBENCLAMIDE http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1993 <p>The present study deals with the formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of Glibenclamide towards enhance its permeation through the skin and maintain the plasma level concentration. Transdermal patches were prepared by using polymers like Chitosan, HPMC 15cps and EC 20cpsat various concentrations by solvent casting technique employing dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer and iso-propylmyristate as permeation enhancer. The transdermal patches were evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and <em>in-vitro </em>drug release. The transdermal patches were found to be transparent and smooth in texture. Among the formulations studied, at the end of 12<sup>th</sup> hour, the minimum and maximum <em>in-vitro </em>drug release was observed for the formulations F12 and F4<em> i.e.</em> 80.012 ± 2.012 % and 98.365±3.012% respectively. The mechanism of drug release was found to be Non-Fickian diffusion controlled. FT-IR studies revealed the integrity of the drug in the formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Transdermal Patches, Glibenclamide, Chitosan, HPMC 15cps, EC 20 cps, <em>in-vitro </em>diffusion studies.</p> Syed Ata Ur Rahman Neeraj Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 366 371 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1993 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MODIFIED TAMARIND SEED GUM AS A NOVEL SUPERDISINTEGRANT http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1994 <p>The aim of present study was to preparation and evaluation of modified <em>Tamarind seed</em> as natural superdisintegrant. The extracted gum from the <em>Tamarind seed</em> was modified chemically by carboxymethylation of extracted gum was done to improve the hydrophilic nature of the gum. Futher, carboxymethylated gum was complexed by using calcium chloride to enhances&nbsp; the wetting capacity of the gum. The modification in functional group of extracted gum, carboxymethyled gum, Calcium complexed gum was studied by FT-IR spectrophotometer. The DSC studies shows that the changes in melting point of the carboxymethyled gum and the calcium complexed gum as compared to the extracted gum without undergoing chemical modification. The modified gum was then subjected to different studies like color, pH of gum solution, swelling indexetc. The dummy tablet prepared with calcium complexed modified Tamarind seed gum to check its disintegration effect of the tablet. The various pre-compression parameters of the tablet blend was determined like bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, angle of repose and Hausner's ratio. The disintegration time of these dummy tablet carry the calcium complexed tamarind seed gum was compared to formulate tablet with marketed superdisintegrant i.e. sodium starch glycolate . The disintegration time of calcium complexed Tamarind seed gum was observed to be 1 min. approx. 32.5 sec. -35.2 sec. showing good disintegrating property. It can be concluded that Fast disintegrating tablet using modified <em>Tamarind </em><em>seed </em>gum as natural superdisintegrant improves the disintegration time of the tablet.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> FDT tablet, Tamarind seed gum, Sodium starch glycolate, Swelling time.&nbsp;</p> Druv Dev Diksha Kumari Rehal DN Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 8 5-s 372 377 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1994 PREPARATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE LOADED CHITOSAN MICROSPHERES AND EVALAUTION OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1995 <p>In this work an attempt was made for the preparation and evaluation of controlled release chitosan microspheres using anti-diabetes drug Metformin hydrochloride. The microspheres were prepared by Ionotropic gelation method using chitosan as polymer and Sodium Tripolyphosphate (TPP) as crosslinking agent. The compatibility of drug and polymer is analyzed by using FTIR and DSC method. There was no interaction detected by FTIR and DSC study. Further the prepared microspheres were evaluated for particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, drug content, drug loading and in vitro drug release. Amongst all the formulation batch 7 shows the best release when compared to other batch. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) revealed that microspheres were spherical and porous. Finally it was concluded that Metformin hydrochloride loaded chitosan – TPP microspheres have been found suitable for controlled release formulation due to its bioavailability and biodegradability and thus lead to improved patient compliance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Microspheres, Metformin hydrochloride, Ionotropic gelation method, chitosan.</p> Mrs Kalpna Druv Dev Mohammad Shahnaz Jyoti Parkash DN Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 378 387 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1995 Anti-arthritic Evaluation of Different Extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. in FCA Induced Arthritis In Rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1922 <p>The main aim of study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic effect of different extracts of <em>Boerhaavia diffusa</em> in arthritic rats. Different extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction methods by using the various polar and non polar solvents and their % yields were calculated. Arthritis was induced by FCA induced arthritis model in rats and paw volume was measured on different days. Body weights of all animals were also measured simultaneously and at the end of experiment some haematological parameters were measured. On preliminary phytochemical studies extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, fatty acids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Among all extracts, methanolic extract significantly decreased the paw volume in all treated groups. Methanolic extracts also restored the body weight significantly. The results of our study revealed that all the extracts treated group’s causes significant alterations in the hematological parameters and maximal effects were observed at 400 mg/kg. Since methanolic extract showed best activity in arthritic model and its phytochemical study showed presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, so it may be possible that anti-arthritic activity of root extracts may be due to presence flavonoids.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Arthritis, FCA induced arthritis, <em>Boerhaavia diffusa, </em>haematological parameters, and Body weight</p> Deepika Parmar Neetesh Kumar Jain Vivek Tomar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 388 393 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1922 LONG-TERM INCIDENCE OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/1996 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and compare it with the incidence in HIV-uninfected women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In a cohort study of HIV-infected and uninfected women who had Papanicolaou tests obtained every 6 months, pathology reports were retrieved for women who had biopsy results or a self report of ICC. Histology was reviewed when reports confirmed ICC. Incidence rates were calculated and compared with those in HIV-negative women.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 3 ICCs were confirmed in HIV-seropositive women, and none were confirmed in HIV-seronegative women. The ICC incidence rate was not found to be associated significantly with HIV status (HIV-negative women [0 of 100,000 person-years] <em>vs</em> HIV-positive women [21.4 of 100,000 person-years]; P = .59). A calculated incidence rate ratio standardized to expected results from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database that was restricted to HIV-infected Women’s Interagency HIV Study participants was 1.32 (95% confidence interval, 0.27-3.85; P = 0.80).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Among women with HIV in a prospective study that incorporated cervical cancer prevention measures, the incidence of ICC was not significantly higher than that in a comparison group of HIV-negative women.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cervical Cancer, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Women, Cancer Prevention.</p> Subhash Kumar Mishra Golden Nidhi Vishnoi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 8 5-s 394 399 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.1996 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES OF INSULIN FOR NASAL DELIVERY http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/2002 <p>The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate nanoparticles containing insulin in different polymer ratio by ionotropic gelation method. The average particle size was found to be 130.4±3.4 -155.5±6.4nm. SEM indicates that nanoparticles have shown smooth and spherical shape. The zeta potential of optimized formulation was 35.5 mv which indicates moderate stability with no agglomeration. The average drug content was found to be 130.4±3.4 -155.5±6.4nm. The <em>in vitro</em> drug release data was analyzed using zero order, first order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. It was observed the best fit model for nanoparticles was higuchi model. The developed formulation in situ polymeric gel is designed in such a way that the gel will load insulin in higher concentration and it will also contain penetration enhancer which will enhance the absorption of release drug from gel to systemic circulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Insulin, Nanoparticle, <em>invitro</em> drug release study.</p> Subhendu Sekhar Mishra Ashish Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-10-16 2018-10-16 8 5-s 400 406 10.22270/jddt.v8i5-s.2002