Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</a>.&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Antioxidant and Antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic flower extract of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5247 <p><em>Woodfordia fruticosa</em> (L.) Kurz, (<em>W. fruticosa</em>) a member of the Lythraceae family, commonly known as dhaiphul, has been used in traditional medicine to cure common illnesses since ancient times. The most effective part of this plant is the flower which has a high demand in the national as well as the international market of the eastern south part of Asian countries. The present study focuses on exploring the presence of phytochemicals, antioxidants, and antidiabetic potential of hydroalcoholic extract of flower of <em>W. fruticosa. </em>Phytochemical test showed the presence of saponin, flavonoid, carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannin, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids in the extract, and it showed an effective result of total phenolic content, total flavonoid Content with the value of 371.96 ± 2.86 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of the extract and 113.82 ± 0.178 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight. <em>In vitro</em> antioxidant assay, for the DPPH assay, the IC<sub>50</sub> values were found 30.85 ± 0.36 μg/ml and 22.35 ± 0.54 μg/ml for the extract of <em>W. fruticosa </em>flower and ascorbic acid respectively and for the FRAP Assay, the reducing power assay of plant extract is lesser than standard &nbsp;(Ascorbic acid). <em>W. fruticosa </em>also showed significant hyperglycemic activity. In accordance with results, we can conclude that plant consists of a high polyphenolic and flavonoid group which help in antioxidant activity as well as the hydroalcoholic extract shows mild activity against diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Woodfordia fruticosa</em>, phytochemical, hydroalchoholic, antioxidants, antidiabetic, DPPH.</p> Simran Giri Ganesh Dey Tarun Kumar Dua ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 1 6 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5247 The Relationship between Antipsychotic Drug Use and Liver Enzyme Levels in People with Mental Disorders http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5266 <p>The long-term use of some drugs causes side effects in the form of elevated liver enzyme levels. Meanwhile, antipsychotic drug therapy in people with mental disorders induces liver injury which leads to an elevation in serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the relationship between the uses of antipsychotic drugs with elevated liver enzymes in people with mental disorders. This observational study used a cross-sectional design that included 69 people with mental disorders. The respondents were selected based on consecutive non-random sampling, while the data were collected using a questionnaire to obtain the universal characteristics of the subjects, therapy duration, and antipsychotic type, as well as an examination of AST and ALT levels using the ultraviolet test method. Furthermore, data analysis was conducted using the chi-Square test with a significance level of p&lt;0.05. The results showed that thirty-two among the respondents or 46.4% used atypical antipsychotics, while 37 or 73.0% received the drugs for 1-6 months. In the subjects receiving typical antipsychotics, 10 or 55.6% had a significant elevation in liver enzymes compared to others receiving atypical antipsychotics namely 6 (18.8%) or a combination of both drugs namely 6 (31.6%). Therefore, the type of antipsychotic used in therapy has a significant relationship with elevated liver enzymes in people with mental disorders (p=0.028).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>antipsychotics, drugs, elevated</p> Meiyanti Meiyanti Lyfanni Fiesa Mulia Mulia, Pusparini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 7 11 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5266 Preparation, evaluation and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticles composed of pantoprazole http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5154 <p>Nanoparticles are a promising medication delivery method that can deliver drugs in a controlled and targeted manner. They're made to release the medicine in close proximity to the target tissue. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are a new type of submicron-sized lipid emulsion in which solid lipid replaces liquid lipid (oil). The goal of this study was to create solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing pantoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) and improve the drug's entrapment efficiency in SLN. This was accomplished by integrating the medication into solvent-injection-prepared solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). During formulation development, the component concentrations were optimized, and then the particles were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, percent drug entrapment, stability studies, and drug release behavior. There was no interaction between the medication and the excipients in FT-IR experiments. The improved formulation's percent EE, particle size, and drug content were found to be 91.88±1.38, 7.16±0.26µm and 97.20±1.46 respectively. F6 was shown to be the most promising formulation among all created formulations in this investigation. For 30 days, stability tests were conducted (F6) at refrigerated temperature (4.0±0.2°C), room temperature (25-28±2°C), and 45±1°C. The current project also aims to improve the formulation's pharmacological acceptability.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Solid lipid nanoparticles, Pantoprazole, Solvent-injection method, Entrapment efficiency</p> Atiya Sheikh Sandesh Asati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 12 18 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5154 Formulation and Evaluation of Flax Herbal Suppositories http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5253 <p><em>The rectal route has proven its worth in terms of achieving successful drug delivery both locally and systematically. The primary goal of this invention was to develop and evaluate Flax suppositories. To administer its herbal powder to internal sites, suppositories are placed directly into the rectum. A suppository comprises flax as a main active ingredient, administered through the rectal route, used as a laxative, and treatment of haemorrhoids and bacterial infections of the anus. For the formulation of the present invention, the suppository preferably comprises flax in an inert base, which may comprise any suitable inert pharmaceutical carrier. The base may optionally be any suitable inert base that is solid at room temperature. The flax may optionally comprise the liquid or gel form or a dry extract of the juice, or any other form of flax, all of which are collectively termed “flax extract”. </em></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Flax extract, suppository, Gelatin, Glycerine, Herbal suppositories.</p> Preeti Mishra Rajat Singh Garima Kumari Neha Kumari Amit Kumar Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 19 22 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5253 Formulation and Evaluation of Essential Oil Encapsulated Mosquito Repellent Gel http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5265 <p>Mosquitoes can be found in almost every country. Many mosquito repellents have been introduced to the market in order to combat them. The mosquitos, on the other hand, developed a resistance to them. Not only that, but users are experiencing a variety of known and unknown negative side effects. As a result, a poly herbal insect repellent gel has been developed in an attempt to give dependable, long-lasting, and full protection from mosquito bites by destroying them. Three essential oils were included in the formulation of the mosquito repellent gel, as well as polymers such as tween 80, span 20, Carbopol 934, and triethanolamine. They were assessed based on their actions. Spreadibility, viscosity, swelling index, and mosquito repellent activity were used to evaluate the prepared mosquito repellent gel. As acceptance criterion, all parameters received favorable responses. The rheological study and mosquito repellent activity are highly correlated. Although the results of the current trials are promising, there is still room for more pharmacokinetic research.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Essential Oil, Emulsion Formulations, Gel, Mosquito Repellent Activity </p> Pramod Kumar Rohit Kumar Bijauliya Balbir Singh Priti Yadav Wasim Ahmed Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 23 29 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5265 Simulation method of brushing teeth with bass technique in elementary school children: Is it effective? http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5272 <p>Background: Dental and oral disease is the highest disease that people complain about in the province of East Nusa Tenggara where the prevalence of dental caries is 54.9%. Specifically for children aged 4-9 it was 50.0% and children aged 10-14 were 41.4%. This is related to the data on the behavior of brushing teeth properly after breakfast and before going to bed at night which is only 3.7%. Objective: This study was to analyze the effect of the simulation method of brushing teeth using the bass technique on the improvement of tooth brushing skills in elementary school children. Method: This study used a pre-experimental design with a pretest and posttest with a one group design. The research was conducted at SDN 2 Baumata Timur, Taebenu District, Kupang Regency. The research sample was taken by purposive sampling technique, as many as 100 students. The instrument for collecting data on brushing teeth skills used an observation sheet. Analysis of the research data using the Wilcoxon test. Result: simulation method of brushing teeth with bass technique is effective in improving brushing skills (p&lt;0.001). Conclusion: The simulation method of brushing teeth with the bass technique is effective in improving the brushing skills of elementary school children.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Simulation method, bass technique, brushing skills</p> Melkisedek O. Nubationis Agusthinus Wali Mery Novaria Pay Merniwati S. Eluama ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 30 32 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5272 Child Immunization: Knowledge among Mothers in a North Karnataka Hospital http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5170 <p><strong>Aim of the study: </strong>Immunization can be considered as a boon to the human kind as it helps to eradicate diseases. It has contributed to curtailing the mortality of children under-5 years in India. Giving awareness to the parents is the first and foremost factor to achieve the goal.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Materials: </strong>This study is carried out for a period of 8 months at Navodaya Medical College Hospital &amp; Research Centre, Raichur on the title “<strong>Knowledge of Mothers about the Children Immunization Status in Pediatric Inpatient and Outpatient Department</strong>” and the sample size was 2000 mothers who have visited department of paediatric with their children.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>It was observed that only 60% of the mothers were having knowledge about BCG, Hep A, Hep B, DTP and Polio. Although it is a fairly good knowledge score, the mothers were not informed about the need, dosing schedule of many vaccines.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study concluded that the extent of knowledge, attitude and practice of parents about child vaccination is very important. This study reflects that the majority of the respondents were having only partial knowledge about vaccination. The reason could be poor education and low awareness about immunization and vaccines in rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp; Immunization, vaccine, awareness, paediatric.</p> Nimmy N John N Stanley John Midhunya JV H. Doddayya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 33 35 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5170 Video media versus image media in dental health education about the bass brushing technique: Which is more effective? http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5275 <p>Background: Brushing teeth to maintain dental and oral health can be done by various methods. The proper brushing method is very important in achieving dental and oral hygiene. One of them is brushing teeth with the bass method. The bass method is one of the recommended brushing methods in dentistry. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of dental health education using video media on how to brush teeth with the Bass technique on the knowledge of brushing teeth in school children. Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest control group design. The sample in this study was taken by purposive sampling as many as 54 children aged 9-12 years. The research was conducted at the Al Istiqomah Mosque TPA, Sumberagung Village, Moyudan District, Sleman Regency. The research instrument used a questionnaire about brushing teeth. Dental health education in the intervention group used video media brushing teeth with bass technique, while in the control group used images media. Data analysis used descriptive analysis and independent t-test to compare the difference in knowledge scores of the treatment group and the control group. Results: the mean value of knowledge in the intervention group before was 11.19<u>+</u>1.54 and after was 12.11<u>+</u>1.33. The mean value of knowledge before in the control group was 11.24 <u>+</u>1.58 and after 11.44<u>+</u>1.22. The results of the knowledge dependent t-test in the intervention group were p=0.040 and in the control group were p=0.326. The results of the independent t-test were obtained p = 0.038. Conclusion: Video media is more effective in increasing tooth brushing knowledge than image media for school-age children</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Video media, image media, tooth brushing knowledge, bass technique, school age children</p> Quroti A'yun ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 36 38 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5275 Oxaliplatin Induced Severe Hypoxemia, Chills and Hypersensitivity Reaction http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5278 <p>Hypersensitivity reactions to platinum containing compounds are well described and potentially life threatening. The hypersensitivity reactions can occur either during, or shortly after the infusion of drug. The incidence increases with increase in the number of chemotherapy cycles. Hypersensitivity reactions can vary from mild reactions like rashes to severe reactions, which include laryngospasm, tachycardia, hypotension or hypertension. The combination of 5-flurouracil, leucovarin and oxaliplatin has been used in several studies to increase survival rates and reduce the risk of disease progression in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) and stage III colon cancer. We report a case of patient treated with oxaliplatin who developed Severe Grade-III Toxicity including Hypoxemia, Chills and hypersensitivity reaction like rashes all over the body with itching sensation about few hrs after the oxaliplatin infusion. Patient tolerated 7 cycles of FLOT chemotherapy well. During cycle 8 chemotherapy after 50% infusion of oxaliplatin patient developed severe reaction to oxaliplatin such as breathlessness, shivering, hypersensitivity reaction like rashes all over the body and itching sensation. The drug infusion was stopped immediately, vitals were checked which shows BP: 170/110mmhg, Temperature 100⁰F, Spo2 85% RA. It was confirmed as grade 3 toxicity of oxaliplatin.&nbsp; The adverse drug reaction assessment was done using Naranjo’s causality assessment scale which showed ‘definite’ type of adverse drug reaction with oxaliplatin. &nbsp;Prompt recognition of this event and symptomatic treatment with supplemental oxygen and corticosteroids and prolonging the infusion time of oxaliplatin can lead to better patient compliance and lesser hypersensitivity reactions to these regimens.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Oxaliplatin, Colorectal cancer (CRC), Dyspnoea, Hypersensitivity reactions, Chemotherapy.</p> Syeda Zaineb Humaira Hussaini Faiza Aftab Nisma Siddiqi Syed Ishtiaq Ahmed Syed Abdul Rehman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 39 41 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5278 Pop-up book as a media for dental promotion to increase knowledge of dental health in elementary school students http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5279 <p>Background: Elementary school children have a high risk of dental caries. The use of pop-up books as a medium so that elementary school students better understand the importance of dental health knowledge and how to brush their teeth properly and correctly. Purpose: This study was to analyze the effect of pop-up book media on increasing the dental health knowledge of elementary school students. Methods: The design of this study was a quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest with one group design. The sampling technique was purposive sampling as many as 56 students. This research was conducted at SDN Nglengking, Minggir District, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta Province from June to August 2019. The influence variable is the pop-up book media, and the affected variable is the level of dental health knowledge of elementary school students. Results: The results of the analysis of material experts and pop-up book media design experts showed a value of 35.5, meaning that it was very valid and suitable to be used as a dental health education media. The significant value of the level of dental health knowledge before and after dental health education was carried out with pop-up book media (p=0.000). Conclusion: pop-up book media about dental health is effective in increasing the dental health knowledge of elementary school students.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Pop-up media, knowledge, dental health, elementary school students.</p> Wiworo Haryani Irma HY Siregar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 42 44 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5279 Ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium improves learning and memory in Swiss albino Mice http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5276 <p>Learning and memory are vital attributes of human intelligence. These processes underlie the very nature of our self-awareness, planning and execution of task. The number of people living with dementia worldwide is currently estimated at 35.6 million. About 80% of the world’s population depend on herbal remedies to curb mental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effects of administration of ethanolic leaves extract of <em>Gongronema</em> <em>latifolium</em> (GL) on learning and memory in mice. Thirty (30) adult male Swiss white mice were assigned into three groups of ten mice each. Group I served as the control. Groups 2 and 3 received 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of GL extract respectively. All the animals were allowed food and water <em>ad libitum</em>. Learning and memory was assessed using the Morris water-maze. Results showed that the swimming latencies during the acquisition and reversal trainings, and probe trial were significantly (p&lt;0.001) decreased in the extract treated groups when compared with the control. The south-east duration was significantly (p&lt;0.001) increased in the extract treated groups when compared with the control group. There was a corresponding decrease (p&lt;0.001) in the south-east duration in the extract treated groups when compared to the control. In conclusion, extract of <em>GL</em> enhances visio-spatial learning and cognitive memory. It could therefore be of therapeutically use in cases of memory loss or impairment.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Gongronema&nbsp;latifolium</em>, learning, memory, Morris water maze, mice.</p> Gabriel Otu Ujong Justin Atiang Beshel Etah Nkanu Oden Patrick Ubana Ofem Effiong Ofem ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 45 50 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5276 Investigation of Proapoptotic Potential of Ipomoea carnea Leaf Extract on Breast Cancer Cell Line http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5172 <p>Cancer remains to be a major global healthcare burden as 18.1 million new cases and 96 million death occurred 2018 on the basis of report from the international agency for research on cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women causing the highest morbidity. <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extracts have been used as a chemotherapeutic agent due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the proapoptotic potential of <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extract on breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7). The proapoptotic potential of <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extract was assessed using an MTT assay. The cell morphological changes in <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extract-treated cells were observed under a phase-contrast microscope. The proapoptotic effect of <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extract was examined using DAPI staining. The MTT assay results showed a significant reduction in the viability of breast cancer cells after treatment with different concentrations of <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extract (5-80 µg/ml) for 24h. We observed the inhibitory concentration at 20 μg/ml. Morphological changes such as reduction in the number of cells, cell shrinkage, and cytoplasmic membrane blebbing indicate the hallmark features of apoptosis were observed in <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extract-treated cells. DAPI staining results showed that apoptotic nuclei are stained intensely, fragmented, and have condensation chromatin in treated cells. Therefore it can be concluded that <em>Ipomoea carnea</em> leaf extracts have a pro-apoptotic potential in the breast cell cancer lines (MCF-7).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Ipomoea carnea</em>, Breast cancer, MCF-7, Apoptosis</p> Anubhav Dubey Priyanka Yadav , Peeyush Preeti Verma Roshan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 51 55 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5172 Formulation and Evaluation of Enteric Coated Matrix Tablets of Mesalamine for Inflammatory Bowel Disease http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5176 <p>Mesalamine is a gold standard anti-inflammatory drug used to treat inflammatory bowel illnesses. It's usually used to treat and keep Ulcerative Colitis in remission in mild to moderate cases. Mesalamine is rapidly cleared from circulation after being consumed orally, with an elimination half-life of only one hour. Oral intake of delayed or slow released matrix formulations can acquire therapeutic concentration in the intestines. The goal of this study was to use guar gum as a carrier to develop colon-specific delivery methods for mesalamine. The matrix tablets were made using the direct compression process, which is today regarded as a cost-effective and straightforward manufacturing method. Dip coating was used to coat the tablets with varied concentrations of Eudragit L100 polymer. Tablets were studied in vitro in a variety of dissolution solutions, including 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2), phosphate buffers pH 6.8 and 7.4, and others. The optimized formulation was subjected to swelling tests. All of the formulations' physicochemical parameters were confirmed to be in line with pharmacopoeial norms. All formulations were subjected to stability tests in accordance with ICH recommendations. The tablets coated with Eudragit L100 (20 percent w/v) had a sustained release of 78.39 percent over 12 hours, while the uncoated tablets released the medication in 9 hours. Tablet stability tests revealed that under accelerated and room temperature storage settings for 6 months, there was reduced degradation. In the colon, the enteric-coated Eudragit L100 coated matrix tablets of mesalamine demonstrated promising site-specific drug delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Mesalamine, Guar gum, Eudragit L100, Direct compression, Inflammatory bowel illnesses</p> Nikita Chourey Khushi Chouksey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 56 61 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5176 Extraction, Isolation and Standardization of Herbal Species Sida http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5175 <p>The main focus of present is study is to find out the various extracts and active constituents from the Sida species which will be very useful in the treatment of many diseases. There are mainly four species (Sida acuta, Sida cardifilia, Sida rhombifolia and Sida spinosa) focused in this research. The aerial part and roots of these species have been collected and authenticated from botany department. The exhaustive solvent extractions have been used based on polarity. The aqueous solvents water, methyl alcohol, ethyl alchol and acetic acids have been used and non-aqueous solvents petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, carbon tetra chloride, hexane, heptanes, benzene, toluene have been used for the extraction of active medicaments. The extracts were collected and purified and then tested for pharmacological activities. The extracts or residue are further processed for the isolation of active constituents like vascine, ephedrine etc. These were separated and quantified by high performance thin layer chromatography.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sida acuta, Sida cardifolia, vasicine ephedrine, Extraction, Thin layer chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography.</p> , Karmvir Rakesh Kumar Jat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 62 71 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5175 Assessment of Drug Utilization Pattern and Rational Use of Antihypertensive Therapy in Geriatric Patients: A Prospective Observational Study http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5256 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Hypertension is one of the most frequently occurring noncommunicable diseases, and it causes a variety of cardiovascular complications and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment in elderly patients are very difficult due to their changes in physiology and physiological responses to the therapy. Drug utilization studies are plausible instrument in the evaluation in health care practice. <strong><em>Objective:</em></strong> To assess drug utilization pattern and rational use of antihypertensive therapy in geriatric patients. <strong><em>Materials and methods:</em> </strong>&nbsp;This is a prospective observational study that took place in 200 inpatients over the course of six months. The study includes subjects with age group of 65 years and above with all comorbidities. The collected data was statistically evaluated by appropriate descriptive statistical analysis. Here the prescription pattern and rationality were analysed. <strong><em>Results:</em></strong> In this study out of 200 patients, 53% of prescriptions contain combination therapy and remaining 47% contains mono therapy. Most commonly prescribed class as mono therapy was Calcium channel blockers 79. 00% (Amlodipine). Among two drug regimen Calcium channel blockers + Diuretics and the three-drug regimen Calcium channel blockers + Angiotensin Receptor Blocker + Diuretic combination are generally prescribed. Here the overall rate of adherence to JNC 8 is 95%. <strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong>&nbsp; In this study by analysing prescription pattern, we concluded that most commonly prescribed drug class was Calcium channel blockers (Amlodipine). The present study results demonstrate that, most of the physicians are adherent to the JNC 8 recommendations.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> Antihypertensive drugs, Adherence to JNC 8, Rational use, Prescription patterns.</p> AHM Viswanatha Swamy Mahindra Kumar R Sanat Nyamagoud Jaseen James Jesmitha James Manna Siby Anit Mathews ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 72 77 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5256 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Testicular Self Examination among Male Undergraduate Students of University of Nigeria Enugu Campus http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5281 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common cancer in males between the age of 15 and 34 years with an incidence rates for new cases rising on an average of 0.8% each year over the last 10 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is the recommended preventive approach to reduce testicular Cancer (TC) mortality and morbidity.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study examines the knowledge, attitude and practice of TSE among male undergraduate students.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive research design with a sample of 343 students was recruited for the study. The students were stratified based on their faculties and convenient sampling was used to select the respondents. A self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The findings showed that more than average (57.7%) have heard about TSE, but the level of knowledge is poor, as only (35%) have good knowledge. Their attitude is poor as (83.8%) feels it is embarrassing to touch their scrotum. Due to the poor knowledge and attitude, the majority of the respondents 133 (69.43%) did not practice TSE. Of those 59 (30.7%) that practiced, only 20 (33.9%) respondents carried it out monthly as recommended. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between their knowledge of TSE and TSE practices (p = 0.006). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: This suggests that information should be provided to the public especially; young men through television, billboard, and other media on the need for regular TSE and TSE should be integrated into the secondary school curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Testicular Self-Examination, Testicular Cancer, Nurses, Undergraduate, Enugu</p> Ijeoma Judith Ilo Oluchi Blessing Omeye Stephen Sunday Ede Veronica Chijioke Chisom Favour Okoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 78 85 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5281 Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Ketoprofen Loaded Transethosomes Gel http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5177 <p>Ketoprofen ([RS]2-[3-benzoylphenyl]-propionic acid) is widely employed as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Ketoprofen is offered in a variety of forms in the pharmaceutical industry, including coated tablets, capsules, topical gels, transdermal patches, liquid spray, and injection solutions. The purpose of present work was to look at the possibility of transethosomes gel formulations for transdermal distribution of ketoprofen and to see effect of lipid concentration, ethanol concentration, drug concentration, and stirrer time affected the results. Vesicle size, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, and stability studies were employed to characterise transethosomes. The viscosity, pH, drug content, extrudability, spreadability, and <em>in vitro</em> drug diffusion studies were employed to characterise the transethosomes containing gel. The optimised formulation of transethosomes had an average vesicle size (nm), percent EE, and zeta potential (mV) of 135.65, 76.65, and -39.98, respectively. The prepared gel TG-12 had a viscosity of 3540±15cps, a percent assay of 99.05±0.45, an extrudability of 175±0.25g, and a spreadability of 13.65±0.35 (g.cm/sec), respectively. Employed the Franz diffusion cell method, <em>in vitro</em> drug release from transethosomes gel was measured and determined to be 99.12 percent in 10 hours. The liberate of drugs from transethosomes gel formulations was establish to be exceedingly consistent and regulated. The ketoprofen-loaded transethosomes formulation in the gel was refined, and it may now be employed as a topical medication for its non-steroidal anti-inflammatory effects. The findings revealed that transethosomes gel was a viable choice for transdermal medication administration with tailored and long-term release. It also improves the penetration of many medications through the skin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transethosomes gel, Ketoprofen, Franz diffusion cell, NSAID</p> Vivek Gupta Narendra Kumar Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 86 90 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5177 In-silico ADMET profile of Ellagic Acid from Syzygium cumini: A Natural Biaryl Polyphenol with Therapeutic Potential to Overcome Diabetic Associated Vascular Complications http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5179 <p>Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs) are the primary source of natural antioxidants capable of neutralizing or eliminating harmful Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress contributes not only to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) but also to diabetic related vascular complications by lipid peroxidation. Oxidation induced DNA and protein damage leads to development of vascular complications like coronary heart disease, CVD, stroke, neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, CKD, and other long term complications associated with diabetics. Likewise Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major clinical challenges in cancer treatment and compromises the effectiveness of conventional anticancer chemotherapeutics. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been characterized as a major mechanism of MDR. Ellagic acid (EA) is a bioactive secondary metabolite widely distributed in vegetables and fruits (Strawberry, Grapes, Blackberry, Raspberry, Plums etc.) Chemically, EA is 2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxychromeno [5,4, -cde] chromene-5, 10-dione, a heterotetracyclic dimer of Gallic Acid (GA) molecules formed by oxidative aromatic coupling involving intramolecular lactonization. EA is associated with pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cardio-protective, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, multidrug resistance etc. EA has been marketed as a dietary supplement with claimed benefits against cancer, CVD, CKD and other metabolic disorders. However, pharmacological limitation of EA is attributed to its low solubility in water and reduced bioavailability. In the present study, bimolecular potential of EA has been bioprospected in the revised framework of ADMET pharmacoinformatics to further widen its biomedical applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>ADMET<strong>; </strong>Pharmacoinformatics; Ellagic Acid; Gallic Acid; <em>Syzygium cumini</em>; Alagarkovil Reserve Forest (ARF); Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)</p> S. Ramya M. Murugan K. Krishnaveni M. Sabitha C. Kandeepan R. Jayakumararaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 91 101 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5179 In-silico Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination and Toxicity profile of Isopulegol from Rosmarinus officinalis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5188 <p>Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs) have contributed to the development of many drugs for diverse indications. Worldwide interest in use of plants based natural products (PBNPs) has been growing, and its beneficial effects being rediscovered for the development of new drugs. Literature survey on indigenous traditional knowledge bestows ethnopharmacological potentials of PBNPs, which has inspired research in drug discovery; further it provides a baseline for the development of novel drug leads against selected pharmacological targets. Studies report that rosemary essential oil (ROEO) extracts have hepatoprotective, antifungal, insecticide, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. However, their application is limited because of their odor, color and taste. Owing to the widespread applications of phyto-compounds in ROEO - GCMS was performed. GCMS analysis detected 22 compounds of which 6 compounds were in abundant. In the present study, isopulegol - a Prenol Lipid (Monoterpenoid) from <em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em> has been ADMET characterized from biomedical application point of view.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Rosmarinus</em><em> officinalis</em>; Rosemary officinalis Essential Oils (ROEO); Pharmacological Activity; ADMET; GCMS; </p> R.V. Kalaimathi A. Jeevalatha Afroze Naveed Basha C. Kandeepan S. Ramya T. Loganathan R. Jayakumararaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 102 108 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5188 Preparation and Characterization of Ethosomes for Topical Delivery of Clindamycin http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5190 <p>Topical medication administration is the simplest and most convenient method of delivering localised drugs to any part of the body via ophthalmic, rectal, vaginal, and cutaneous channels. These are used in a wide range of cosmetic and dermatological preparations on both healthy and sick skin. Drugs are applied topically to have an effect at the application site or to have systemic effects. The goal of this study was to develop and characterise clindamycin ethosomes that could carry the medicine to the target site more efficiently while also avoiding the complications associated with oral drug delivery. The formulations were tested for vesicle size, shape, and surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug penetration using different amounts of ethanol (10-50 percent), HPMC (1-4 percent), and PVC (5-20 percent). Transmission electron microscopy and surface electron microscopy revealed ethosomes with an average size of 1.112m and a spherical shape with a smooth surface. The maximum percentage of ethosomes entrapped was 91.060.79%. The total amount of medication that pierced the biological membrane was found to be between 0.250.014 and 0.480.032 mg/cm2. The stability profile of the constructed system was evaluated for 45 days, and the results revealed that very little drug degradation occurred during storage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Clindamycin, Ethosomes, Topical delivery, HPMC, Acne, Vesicle size</p> Shweta Powale Vinod Kumar Chandel Sandesh Asati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 109 113 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5190 Profile of bioactive compounds in Rosmarinus officinalis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5189 <p>Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs) have contributed to the development of drugs for diverse indications. Worldwide interest in use of PBNPs has been growing, and its beneficial effects being rediscovered for the development of drug leads. Literature survey on indigenous traditional knowledge bestows ethnopharmacological potentials of PBNPs, has inspired research in drug design and discovery; PBNPs provide a baseline for the development of novel drug leads against various pharmacological targets. Reports indicate that rosemary essential oil (ROEO) extracts show biological bioactivities such as hepatoprotective, antifungal, insecticide, antioxidant and antibacterial. However, their application is limited because of their odor, color and taste. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence of phenol, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, glycosides, saponins, coumarins, terpenoids, quinones, steroids. Owing to widespread applications of phyto-compounds in ROEO - GCMS was performed. GCMS analysis detected the presence of 22 compounds (α-Pinene, Camphene, β-Myrcene, α-Terpinine, p-Cymene, trans-3-Caren-2-ol, 1,8-Cineole, γ-Terpinene, α-Terpinolene, Linalool, Isopulegol, Eucalyptol, Terpinen-4-ol, 2-Naphthalenol, (-)-Myrtenol, Verbenone, Terpine, α-Copaene, β-Caryophyllene, γ-Cadinene, Caryophyllene oxide) of which 6 compounds (α-Pinene, p-Cymene, Isopulegol, Eucalyptol, 2-Naphthalenol, Terpine) were in abundant. These compounds have been prospected for their molecular and biological properties in the present study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Rosmarinus officinalis</em>; Rosemary Essential Oils (ROEO); GCMS; Bioprospecting; PBNPs</p> A. Jeevalatha R.V. Kalaimathi Afroze Naveed Basha C. Kandeepan S. Ramya T. Loganathan R. Jayakumararaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 114 122 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5189 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activity of Ocimum suave Against Selected Human Pathogenic Bacteria http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5291 <p>Worldwide, the use of antibiotics is losing effectiveness due to the substantial resistance to the antimicrobial developed by many pathogenic bacteria. African populations including Rwanda, use frequently traditional medicine for primary care. This study aimed to determine the phytochemicals and the antimicrobial activity of <em>Ocimum. suave</em> (<em>O. suave</em>) against selected human pathogenic bacteria (two strains of <em>S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, </em>two strains of<em> E. coli, S. pneumonia, S. pyogene, K. oxytoca, H. influenza, S. sonei</em>). The leaf and stem extracts were prepared using maceration technique. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated using the impregnated disc and agar well diffusion methods. The tests revealed the presence of phytochemical substances such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids alkaloids and phenolics in leaves and only saponins in stem. <em>S. aureus</em> ATCC 43300 was the most sensitive while <em>H. influenza</em> was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Aqueous and methanolic crude extract of <em>O. suave</em> displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria (9-26.5 mm and 9-23.5 respectively) and Two-way ANOVA showed statistical significance difference between their means. T-test was used in comparison with standards antibiotics and showed that the distilled water extracts exhibited much higher activity against all tested organisms than activity of streptomycin. Combination of distilled water and methanol extracts with streptomycin revealed synergistic activity against <em>E. coli</em> ATCC 25922 and <em>S. pneumonia</em> ATCC 49618. The leaves of <em>O. suave</em> have a great potential antibacterial activity and should be fully explored for future treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> phytochemical; antimicrobial activity; <em>Ocimum suave</em>, Rwanda</p> Thierry Habyarimana Parfait Cyuzuzo Clémentine Yamukujije Callixte Yadufashije François N. Niyonzima ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 123 128 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5291 Spectrum of Biopsy Proven Primary Tubulointerstitial Diseases of the Kidney: A Single Centre Study http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5290 <p>Background: The tubulointerstitial diseases can be due to a wide variety of etologies and mechanisms which vary with age, race and geographical area. In this study we aim to study the clinicopathological spectrum of biopsy proven primary tubulointerstitial diseases among patients in North India.</p> <p>Methods: This is a 5 year retrospective, single centre cohort, observational study.The data base was searched to identify all patients with primary tubulointerstitial diseases in their native kidney biopsies.</p> <p>Results: A total of 3091 renal biopsies were studied of which 283 were primary tubulointerstitial diseases. The mean age of patients was 43.2 (±14.6) years. Most of the patients were males with acute kidney injury as the most common presentation. Tubulointerstitial nephritis was the most common disease occurring in 126 patients. Acute interstitial nephritis was seen in 81 patients and chronic interstitial nephritis was seen in 45 patients. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis was seen in 27 patients. There were four patients of pigment nephropathy, 83 cases of acute tubular necrosis and 19 cases of cast nephropathy.</p> <p>Conclusion: Primary tubulointerstitial diseases comprise about 9.1% of the total cases. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is the most common diagnosis in these patients. Tuberculosis is still a leading cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in our country followed by fungal etiology. Acute cortical necrosis affects mostly females post obstretric complications in our setup. Given the enemic nature of malaria in India, G-6PD deficiency is an important differential in patients presenting with pigment nephropathy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Biopsy, Tubulointerstitial Diseases of the Kidney, Tuberculosis, Acute cortical necrosis</p> Asif Sadiq Wani Zafirah Zahir Narendra Krishnani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 129 132 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5290 Abrus precatorius: A comprehensive insight into the phytochemical, pharmacological, therapeutic activities and safety http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5173 <p><em>Abrus precatorius L., </em>belonging to the family of Fabaceae is one of the potential herbal plants to be used as natural medicine. <em>A. precatorius</em> is capable of growing in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The leaves of <em>A. precatorius</em> contain pinitol, triterpene glycosides, glycyrrhizin, and alkaloids. The leaves of <em>A. precatorius</em> can also treat leukoderma, skin diseases, itching, eye pain, and wounds. The seeds of <em>A. precatorius</em> contain flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, anthocyanins, lectins, and fixed oils and can treat skin diseases, ulcers, and nervous system disorders. The roots of <em>A. precatorius</em> contain glycyrrhizin and alkaloid compounds and are able to treat rheumatism, alexiteric, sore throat, and vomiting. <em>A. precatorius</em> shows several therapeutic activities such as antimicrobial, anti-helminthics, antimalarial, antifungal, nephroprotective, immunomodulatory, neuromuscular, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, antiserotonergic, antidiarrheal, antitumor, antispasmodic, and memory enhancing properties. Inappropriate dose of <em>A. precatorius</em> will cause toxic effects. Thus A. precatorius can be a good potential herbal plant to be used as a natural medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Abrus precatorius</em>, Fabaceae, Medicine, Pharmacology, Phytochemistry<strong>.</strong></p> Rafif Khairullah Aswin Intan Solikhah Tridiganita Nur Muhammad Ansori Arif Amadea Puspitarani Gavrila Dewi Anggraini Dina Ann Villar Posa Gabrielle ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 151 157 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5173 A Brief Review on Herbs Used in the Treatment of Varicose Veins http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5161 <p>A weakening of the venous valves and walls is a common cause of varicose veins. Blood might flow back and pool in veins due to damaged valves, causing them to enlarge. Weakened vein walls are longer, broader, and less elastic than normal, causing valve flaps to split, resulting in increased blood pooling and twisted veins. Primary varicose veins are characterised by valvular incompetence and reflux, which have long been assumed to be the cause. Recent research, on the other hand, reveals that valve dysfunction may be preceded by alterations in the vein wall. This condition is referred to as "Siragranthi" in Ayurvedic literature (ie.Varicose vein). As a result, the current review critically assesses the possible utility of herbal medications in the treatment of varicose veins.</p> <p><strong>Keywords-</strong> Herbal Plants, Varicose veins, Types, Pathophysiology</p> Shweta Parihar , Sarswati , Chattarpal Devender Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 158 162 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5161 Recent Trends in developments of Superdisintegrants: An Overview http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5148 <p>Fast dissolving tablets are solid unit dosage forms that dissolve or disintegrate quickly in the mouth without using water. To provide this type of character in a dosage form, different excipients are required. Superdisintegrants are a class of novel agents that have emerged in recent years. Improving drug bioavailability in the pharmaceutical field is a challenge. The inclusion of superdisintegrants in the formulation enhances the formulation's efficacy. The main goal of this review article is to highlight current development in the superdisintegrants. Novel medication delivery techniques have recently advanced, resulting in a convenient dosage form for administration. New superdisintegrant formulations have recently investigated. These formulations are used to ensure patient compliance and safer, more effective drug delivery. This overview of superdisintegrants covers developed strategies, types (including synthetic and natural materials), dosage forms and techniques.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Synthetic superdisintegrants, Conventional superdisintegrants, Fast disintegrating tablets, direct compression, dissolution, disintegration, Natural superdisintegrants, Co-processed excipients.</p> Nisha Rani Dhruv Dev D.N. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 163 169 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5148 Superdisintegrants: Brief Review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5155 <p>Oral disintegrating tablets are a new trend in novel drug delivery systems that have seen a surge in popularity in recent decades. To improve the efficacy of solid dosage forms, super disintegrants are used. This is accomplished by reducing the disintegration time, which improves the rate of drug dissolution. Disintegrants are substances or combination of substances added to a drug formulation to aid in the breaking up or disintegration of tablet or capsule content into smaller fragments that dissolve more quickly than without them. Several newer agents known as ‘<em>Superdisintegrants</em>’ have been developed in recent years. Superdisintegrants classified as synthetic, semi-synthetic, natural, and co-processed blends have been used to create effective mouth dissolving tablets and overcome the limitations of traditional tablet dosage form. In the solid dosage form, superdisintegrants are typically used at a low level typically (1- 10%) relative to the total weight of the dosage unit. In present studies, includes all the information about Superdisintegrants, such as their types, advantage, selection criteria, incorporation methods, ideal properties and mechanism, which are used in the formulation to provide safer, more effective drug delivery while maintaining patient conformity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Superdisintegrants</em>, Disintegrants, Natural, Synthetic. </p> Jasmine Dhiman Dhruv Dev D.N. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 170 175 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5155 Article Reviewing Transdermal Drug Delivery System http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5159 <p>Topically applied pharmaceuticals in the form of patches that distribute medications for systemic effects at predefined and controlled rates are known as "transdermal drug delivery systems." The main function of TDDS is penetration of drug through skin. It works extremely simple, with the medicine being put within the patch and is placed on the skin. As a result, a consistent concentration of medication remains in the bloodstream for an extended period. They come in variety of forms, including single-layer drugs in adhesives; inter drugs in adhesives, buffers, and matrix systems. The market price of TDDS products is rapidly expanding. More than 35 items have now been authorized for sale in the United States, and roughly 16 active substances have been approved for usage as a TDDS globally. It is a drug delivery system that has a bright future. It helps in reducing use of syringes for administering a wide range of drugs, but the price is an essential aspect to consider because developing countries like India have the world's second-largest population, but TDDS is a secret part of treatment used for the general population due to rising costs. This review article on transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) contains information on the transdermal drug delivery system, Advanced development and the evaluation procedure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>TDDS</em>, Drug penetration, Bright future, Rising costs, Evaluation procedure.</p> Ankita Soni J.S. Dua D.N. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 176 180 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5159 Analysis of animal models based on pre-clinical symptoms of gout http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5270 <p>Gout is a type of arthritis, which is a group of related disorders caused by episodes of abnormal inflammation in the joints. It is a metabolic disease characterized by high levels of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism and hyperuricemia is caused by abnormalities of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for gout, heart disease, high blood pressure (hypertension), diabetes, and acute and chronic kidney disease. This research may attract widespread interest to researchers focusing on the different types of crystalline arthritis. There are over 100 types of arthritis. The most common forms are osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), rheumatoid arthritis, gout and pseudo-gout, septic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, still's disease etc.</p> <p>Many animal models are available to get rid of gout, mainly the hyperuricemia animal model, monosodium urate air pouch gout model, Intra-articular gout in rat, Paw edema, Gouty Arthritis Model, and Gouty nephropathy model. Various investigations have created a reliable and economical animal model for arthritis in a relatively short brief timeframe, manifested by long-term gross and behavioral abnormalities along with intra-articular monosodium urate deposition and tophi formation.</p> <p>Lately years, hyperuricemia disease has gradually increased in the world. There are many updates that can be made by taking the arthritis model. If such a situation prevails, then in a few years, the patients of gout can increase in great quantity and there is some treatment for this disease. In any case, further review is really needed to focus on its particular pathogenesis and drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Gout, Arthritis, Gout Animal Model, Inflammation, Hyperuricemia, monosodium urate, crystalline arthritis.</p> Yogendra Singh Pankaj Mishra Pushpendra Kannojia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 181 184 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5270 Recent Development in Floating Drug Delivery System: An Overview http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5171 <p>Floating medicines work well to increase drug absorption in the stomach. On the basis of current literature, a drug for a novel drug delivery system (NDDS) is established to explicate the floating drug delivery system (FDDS). The most recent FDDS progress involves the formulation as well as physiological aspects that may affect gastric retention and formulation. This review also discusses certain ways of producing a floating system, as well as evaluation methods, characterization, and classification for the FDDS pharmaceutical dosage form. By overcoming physiological hurdles such as short stomach residence times and unexpected gastric emptying times, scientific and technological achievements have been made in the study and development of controlled-release oral drug delivery systems in recent years. So, in general, float dose systems are key technological medication delivery systems that have a stomach-retentive nature and provide a variety of options. Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), also known as hydro dynamically balanced systems (HBS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bio-adhesive systems, modified-shape systems, high-density systems, and other delayed gastric emptying devices are now used to extend the GRT. The latest technological breakthroughs of FDDS, including patented delivery methods and commercialized products, are covered in this study, as well as their advantages and future possibilities for oral controlled drug administration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords- </strong>A novel drug gastrointestinal tract, types of <em>FDDS</em>, gastric residence time, evaluation of FDDS</p> Sachin Chaudhary J.S. Dua D.N. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 185 193 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5171 A Review of Plants with Remarkable Hepatoprotective Activity http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5283 <p>Liver being vulnerable to exogenous substances makes disease associated with it a matter of worldwide concern. Several research thus focus on hepatoprotection .Preventive and therapeutic activity of plants as a hepatoprotective agent is a topic of interest for researchers. Hepatotoxic agents like carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, isoniazide etc. increase the serum biomarkers of liver where ALT is more specific than AST in detecting liver injury. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) wherein more than 900 drugs have been implicated in causing liver injury. Plant phenolics include simple phenols, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, flavonoids, diaryl-alkanoids, stilbenoids, proanthocyanins, tannins, and anthocyanins some alkaloids. The greater the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in an extract, the higher the hepatoprotective activity possessed by the extract. This paper reviews some plants documented between the periods of 2011-2021 with remarkable heptoprotective activity and discusses the various hepatotoxic agents used, its mechanism and hepatoprotective agents present in the specific plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hepatoprotective plants, flavonoids, saponin, alkaloids,hepatotoxicity, drug induced liver injury, hepatotoxic agents</p> Sanjana Meshack Suchita Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 194 202 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5283 Recent Overview on Synthesis of 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole Derivatives and its Activities http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5166 <p>A novel series 2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylsulfanyl) -N-(4-oxo-2-phenyl-thiazolidin-3yl) Various aldehydes and 2-acetamides have been used to synthesise -acetamide 5a–j (5-phenyl-[1,3,4]-oxadiazol-2-ylmethylsulfanyl) - 1H-benzimidazole 6a–j derived from a variety of benzoic acids. These compounds were tested in vitro for antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, Gram negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The in vitro cytotoxic properties of brine shrimp were investigated using a bioassay. Compounds 5b, 5d, 5g, 5i, 6b, 6e, 6f, and 6i demonstrated excellent activity against a panel of microorganisms, according to the results. 5b, 5g, 5i, 6b, 6f, 6h, and 6i were found to have good cytotoxic activities. Elements, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS were used to characterise all of the newly synthesised compounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antibacterial, Antifungal, 4-Thiazolidinone,1,3,4-Oxadiazole, Cytotoxicity.</p> Poonam Devi Mohammad Shahnaz D.N. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 203 207 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5166 Rapid disintegrating tablets: an effective method for accelerating the therapeutic action of poorly soluble Drugs http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5174 <p>The ease of administration and increased patient compliance are critical factors in the design of oral drug delivery systems, which continue to be the dominant method of drug delivery despite numerous shortcomings. The rapid disintegrating tablet (RDT) could be a great alternative to traditional tablets because it dissolves quickly when it comes into contact with saliva. Rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) are currently more widely available than other tablets to treat various disorders. Due to its ease of manufacture and administration, oral administration is being investigated as the most frequently used route. Due to its rapid disintegration features, water-free use, and simplicity of swallowing, RDTs, particularly for pediatric patients, are effective drug delivery devices. Rapid disintegrating tablets are solid dosage forms that disintegrate in the mouth without water in less than 60 seconds. Rapid disintegration of tablets results in rapid dissolution and, thus, immediate action. The primary objective of this review paper is to discuss the benefits, drawbacks, formulation issues, manufacturing methods, patented technology and evaluation tests. Spray drying, freeze drying, direct compression, moulding, and sublimation are all traditional ways of preparation, however new technologies have been created for the production of RDTs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rapid disintegrating tablets, patient compliance, spray drying, freeze drying, direct compression.</p> Apeksha Joshi Narendra Gahelot Vikas Jain SC Mahajan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 208 213 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5174 The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and botanical description of Quercus infectoria galls (Mazuphal): A review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5178 <p>Ethno-pharmacological relevance- In Unani system of medicine Quercus Infectoria galls (QIG) (known as Mazuphal), have a long history of use in&nbsp;the management of many human ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhage, skin diseases, and many other. The QIG is a protective product of small shrub Quercus Infectoria and its medicinal applications of have become increasingly popular in Greece, Syria, Iraq and Iran.</p> <p><strong>Aim-</strong> The aim of the present paper is to provide a contemporary reviewed on the traditional uses and its toxinomy,&nbsp;phytochemical, analytical methods, pharmacological activities, toxicology, and drug interactions of QIG to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explore its therapeutic potential, and identify future opportunities for research.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods-</strong> Information on studies of QIG was collected from the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, and EMBASE) and libraries. Additionally, information was also obtained from local books and PhD and MD’s dissertations.</p> <p><strong>Results-</strong> QIG has played an important role in traditional Unani medicine. The main bioactive metabolites of QIG include&nbsp;tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids etc. Scientific studies on the QIG extract and its components have shown its extensive range of&nbsp;pharmacological activities, such as cholinesterase- and monoamine oxidase-inhibitory, antitumor, anti-hypertension,&nbsp;antidiabetic, antimicrobial, insecticidal,&nbsp;antiparasitic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions-</strong> In this review the traditional knowledge, ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, pharmacological, and analytical methods of QIG were highlighted, which gives the proper information for future studies and business exploration. QIG has a huge potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals applications. Moreover the toxicity studies of QIG be reported for the enduring the safety. Additional investigations are recommended to transmute the ethnopharmacological claims of this plant in folklore medicines into scientific rationale-based information. Research on pharmacokinetics studies and potential drug interactions with standard-of-care medications is still limited, which calls for additional studies particularly on humans. Further assessments and clinical trials should be performed before it can be integrated into medicinal practices.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Quercus infectoria</em> <em>galls, </em>Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology</p> Abrar Alam Javed Inam Siddiqui Uzma Viquar Mohammed Abdul Rasheed Naikodi Ishtiyaq Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-01-15 2022-01-15 12 1 214 221 10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5178