Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Global Epidemiology of COVID-19 and the Risk of Second Wave <p>NA</p> Arslan Habib Khalid Mahmood Anjum Zeeshan Ashraf Umutumwa Eric Principe Zahid Hussain Bilal Khalid Muhammad Ramzan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 1 2 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4653 Drug Supply Management in Health Care Institutions in Sri Lanka: A Case Study <p>National Health Policy, Primary Health Care Package and National Medicinal Drug Policy have emphasized the importance of adequate supply of safe &amp; effective drugs of acceptable quality in health care institutions. The Medical Supplies Division (MSD) of Ministry of Health is responsible for ensuring an optimum drug supply management, by strategically managing the key steps of Drug management cycle; Selection, Estimate, Ordering, Procuring, Storing, Distribution, Prescribing, and Use by patients. There are strategies followed at different levels.</p> <p>Objective of the study is to analyze the strategies to improve drug supply management in health care institutions in Sri Lanka. Data collection was carried out using KII, Inspection visits, Review manuals &amp; guidelines, Participation in discussion meetings and Review of secondary data. Prioritization was carried out using nominal group discussion and it was decided to select “Institutional level strategies” for in depth analysis to make recommendations.</p> <p>The strategies identified were categorized under; Policy; Finance; Process; Facilities &amp; Medicine; Human Resource and Public. Even though a large number of strategies are implemented, there are deficiencies in almost every strategy which leads to stock out of medicine. Root causes for “Deficiencies of Institutional Strategies” were identified using fish born diagram.&nbsp;</p> <p>Lack of terms of reference for Drug Therapeutic Committees; lack of rational prescribing and prescription audits; high demand for non-formulary drugs;&nbsp; unrealistic estimates, inadequate buffer stocks, delays in redistribution &amp; delays in local purchase; limited stores capacity and suboptimal store management and limited transport availability were found as root causes. Recommendations were made accordingly.</p> J.L. Himali R. Wijegunasekara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 3 7 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4464 Metabolic Syndrome Risk Associated with Atypical Antipsychotic Medication: A Case Report <p>People with schizophrenia are vulnerable group suffer from metabolic syndrome events. Atypical antipsychotics associated with weight gain, insulin resistance, and profile lipid abnormalities. The present case was 32-year-old man schizophrenia outpatient had experienced metabolic syndrome side effects. Metabolic syndrome characterized by central obesity, hyperglicemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, and several months feel an increase in appetite. Metabolic syndrome events might be associated with long-term atypical antipsychotics consuming and tobacco use. As pharmacists, We advised the patient to referral primary healthcare service for managing metabolic syndrome side effects. Pharmacists intervention through education and metabolic syndrome screening program have positive impacts on lifestyle modification such as decreasing number of cigarette consumption and caffeine intake, also increasing physical activity.</p> <p>Keywords: Antipsychotics, Atypical antipsychotic, Metabolic syndrome, Pharmacist, Schizophrenia.</p> Julaeha Julaeha Umi Athiyah Josephine P Ayuningtyas Verra Yuliana Andi Hermansyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 77 79 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4680 Treatment of high blood pressure in diabetic patients and risk of undernutrition in a population in extreme Western Algeria <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Assessing the risk of undernutrition in hypertensive diabetics is essential. It makes it possible to detect undernutrition for better care. The objective of our study is to describe the factors influencing this undernutrition.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 366 diabetics with hypertension and 326 with normo-glycemic hypertension aged 50 years and over. Patients were enrolled at the University Hospital in Tlemcen from January to June 2018. The data collection was carried out using a questionnaire: The MNA (The Mini Nutritional Assessment).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study made it possible to establish the profile of subjects at high risk of undernutrition. In our sample, age was not correlated with risk of malnutrition in diabetic hypertensives and normo-glycemic hypertensives respectively (p = 0.304 and p = 0.444). The linear regression model uses gender as an age-independent factor that affects the risk of undernutrition (p = 0.001). BMI was one of the most relevant variables for predicting the occurrence of undernutrition (p = 0.000). Thus, diabetic hypertensive patients in our study who were treated with an Angiotensin II receptor blockers , an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition or an ARB/diuretic combination were more at risk of undernutrition (p = 0.009, p = 0.026 and p = 0.013).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Particular attention should be paid to&nbsp;diabetic hypertensive subject.&nbsp; The treatment of hypertension in diabetics aggravates this malnutrition. Thus, a nutritional status assessment should be established in any diabetic hypertensive patient allowing appropriate therapeutic management to avoid all complications associated with undernutrition.</p> Hamza Nadjib Merad-boudia Majda Dali-Sahi Youcef Kachekouche Nouria Dennoun-Medjati Takwa Salmi Pr Abderahim Meziane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 8 12 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4467 Bioinformatic Approaches for Identification of Potential Repurposable Drugs in COVID-19 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Repurposing existing drugs approved for other conditions is crucial to identifying specific therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. Towards this attempt, it is important to understand how this virus hijacks the host system during the course of infection and determine potential virus- and host-targeted inhibitors.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study elucidates the underlying virus-host interaction based on differentially expressed gene profiling, functional enrichment and pathway analysis, protein-protein and protein-drug interactions utilizing the information on transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 infection from GSE147507 dataset containing COVID-19 case relative to healthy control and infected cell culture compared to uninfected one.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Low IFN signaling, chemokines level elevation, and proinflammatory cytokines release were observed markedly. We identified MYC-rapamycin and ABCG2-rapamycin interactions, and unique gene signatures in case (regulation of protein modification and MAPK signaling) as well as in cell (metabolic dysregulation and interferon signaling) different from known COVID-19 genes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Among a plethora of repurposable drugs those appearing here with unique gene signatures might be helpful in COVID-19</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, GSE 147507 dataset, protein-protein interaction, gene-drug interaction, repurposable drugs. </p> Manisha Mandal Shyamapada Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 13 22 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4472 Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Bilayer Tablets of Lansoprazole and Amoxycillin Trihydrate for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer <p>The present work involves the formulation development, optimization and In-vitro evaluation of bilayer tablet containing Lansoprazole in the immediate release layer and Amoxycillin in the sustained release layer, using sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant for the immediate release layer and the hydrophilic matrix HPMC K100M, hydrophobic matrix Ethyl cellulose are used in the sustained release layer. Bilayer tablet showed as initial burst effect to provide dose of immediate release layer Lansoprazole to control the acid secretion level and the sustained release of Amoxycillin for 24 hours. Immediate and sustained release tablets were formulated by wet granulation method because of the poor flow property of the blends. The prepared bilayer tablet was evaluated for their precompression parameters, physical characteristics like hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, uniformity of drug content, swelling index,&nbsp;<em>In-vitro&nbsp;</em>floating studies and&nbsp;<em>In-vitro&nbsp;</em>drug release. The release of the lansoprazole from the immediate release layer was found to be 97.46 ± 0.15% in 15minutes. The release of Amoxycillin Trihydrate for the sustained release floating layer was found to be 98.25 ± 0.14% in 12 hours. Lansoprazole potentiate the effect of Amoxycillin. Hence the bilayer tablets of Lansoprazole and Amoxycillin were used to improve patient compliance towards the effective management of ulcer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> bilayer tablet, Lansoprazole, and Amoxycillin, sustained release</p> Neha Singh Durga Pandey Nilesh Jain Surendra Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 23 31 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4481 Study on correlation of Antioxidant activities with presence of phenolic and Flavanoid contents in Emblica officinalis and Terminalia chebula <p><strong>Background: </strong>Reactive oxygen species have been known to cause cellular damages that have been implicated to be a causal of major diseases; therefore natural antioxidants have shown a significant impact on human robustness. The present study was carried out to appraise the anti-oxidant activities (In- vitro) and their correlation with presence of Flavanoid and Phenolic content in fruits of <em>Terminalia chebula</em> and <em>Emblica officinalis </em>fruit extracts which is common in herbal Kitchen of India.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The 70% extracts of fruits from <em>Terminalia chebula</em> and <em>Emblica officialis</em> were applied for the study of Anti-oxidant activity. Scavenging radical ability of extracts of these extracts were judged by radical like DPPH.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The capability of the extracts of Fruits in exhibiting Antioxidative properties follow the sequence of <em>Terminalia chebula</em> &gt; <em>Emblica officinalis. </em>Since the antioxidant activities were studied in comparison with the standards of Flavanoid, Phenolic and Ascorbic acid.&nbsp; The Flavanoid and Phenolic quantity / amount along with subsequent dilution of Ascorbic acid as in case of DPPH radical assay were assessed as 127.60 ± 0.001 mg/ml, 133.00 ± 0.003 mg/ml for Phenolic Content as Gallic acid equivalent per 100 mg of the Fruit extract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antioxidant, Phenol, Flavanoid, <em>Emblica</em>, <em>Terminalia</em>.</p> Ranjan Singh Suhas Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 32 35 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4667 Formulation and Evaluation of Bi-Layer Tablets of Ketorolac Tromethamine <p>The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate bi-layer tablets of Ketorolac tromethamine, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug with short half-life, that are characterized by initial burst drug release in the stomach and comply with the release requirements of sustained-release products. Each of the proposed bi-layer tablets is composed of an immediate-release layer and a sustained-release layer, anticipating rapid drug release that starts in the stomach to rapidly alleviate the symptoms and continues in the intestine to maintain protracted analgesic effect. Gastro retentive Bi-Layer tablets of Ketorolac Tromethamine were prepared by using hydrophilic polymers with direct compression on floating – matrix technology and evaluated. Ketorolac tromethamine is freely soluble in water, so it is suitable to develop it as gastro retentive bi-layer tablets using hydrophilic polymers. The developed formulation is equivalent to calculated theoretical drug profile in view of its in vitro release. Immediate release layer was prepared by using dry granulation method in which ac-di sol used as a disintigrant for immediate release of drug. Sustained release layer formulated by using HPMC as release retardant, two grades of HPMC that are HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M used to get sustained release profile for 24 hr. Various trial batches are taken to get desired release profile. Ketorolac tromethamine release from the developed floating formulation followed Higuchi model and nonFickian diffusion is found to be the main mechanism of drug release. The manufacturing procedure was found to be reproducible and formulations were stable after one month of stability studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>FTIR; Gastro retentive bilayer; ketorolac tromethamine; <em>in vitro </em>release; stability; higuchi.</p> Dhaval M. Patel Riddhi Trivedi Hardik Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 36 41 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4487 Formulation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablet of Fluvastatin Sodium <p>The purpose of this research work is to formulate and evaluate the Orodispersible tablet of Fluvastatin Sodium to enhance the bioavailability and effectiveness of the drug. The objectives of the drug work were to formulate and evaluate Orodispersible tablets of Fluvastatin Sodium, having adequate mechanical strength, rapid disintegration, and fast action. Precompression parameters like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index &amp; post-compression parameters like wetting time, water absorption ratio, in-vitro disintegration, and in-vitro dispersion time were studied. The hardness, friability, and drug content of all the formulations were found to be within the limits. The best formulation PK09 has shown good disintegration time, dissolution time, and dispersion time. The optimized formulation of batch PK9 gave the best in-vitro release of 99.60% in 3min in phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The release of the drug followed the matrix diffusion mechanism as compared to the commercial formulation. Formulation PK9 gives quick disintegration and better drug release. Hence it can be concluded that the formulation of PK9 is stable and effective for quick action and it is an alternative to the conventional tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Orodispersible Tablets, Fluvastatin Sodium, Fast dissolving/disintegrating tablets, GIT, bioavailability, first-pass metabolism, superdisintegrants </p> Pooja Kanathe Ruchi Jain Nilesh Jain Surendra Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 42 47 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4498 To establish bioequivalence of 50mg Metoprolol Succinate extended release tablets in normal, healthy, adult, human subject under fasting condition <p>Oral drug delivery is the most preferred route for the various drug molecules among all other routes of drug delivery, because ease of administration which lead to better patient compliance. So, oral extended release drug delivery system becomes a very promising approach for those drugs that are given orally but having the shorter half-life and high dosing frequency. Extended release Extended-release systems allow for the drug to be released over prolonged time periods. By extending the release profile of a drug, the frequency of dosing can be reduced. The study was an open label, balanced, randomized, three-treatment, three-period, three-sequence, single oral dose, crossover, bioequivalence study in normal healthy adult human subjects under fasting condition, with a screening period of 28 days prior to IMP administration in Period-I. In each study period, 27 blood samples, including one pre-dose blood sample, were collected from each subject except for the discontinued / withdrawn subjects to analyze the pharmacokinetic profile of the two test products (T1 and T2) as well as the reference product. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the plasma concentration vs. time profile by non-compartmental model using Phoenix® WinNonlin® Version 6.4 (Certara L.P.) for Metoprolol. Out of 18 subjects enrolled, data of 13 subjects were analyzed. Mean Cmax is 31.634 ± 22.6007 ng/mL, 31.241 ± 20.6090 ng/mL and 31.773 ± 23.1819 ng/mL, mean AUCo-t is722.992 ± 584.3793 ng hr/mL, 658.192 ± 492.3416 ng hr/mL and 706.219 ± 546.5064 ng hr/mL, mean AUC<sub>0-inf</sub> is 751.204 ± 631.9623 ng hr/mL, 676.939 ± 519.1306 ng hr/mL and729.505 ± 578.1691 ng hr/mL for test product (T1), test product (T2) and reference product (R).Test Products (T1 and T2) when compared with the Reference Product-R meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ for Metoprolol under fasting condition as per criteria set in the protocol.</p> Mahavir Singh Lalit Singh Ranawat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 48 59 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4497 Formulation and Evaluation of Ketorolac Tromethamine Mouth Dissolving Tablets <p>Due to more versatility and comfort, mouth dissolving tablets are the most advanced type of oral solid dosage forms. Compared to conventional tablets, it increases the effectiveness of APIs by dissolving within a minute in the oral cavity after contact with less saliva, without chewing and without the need for water for administration. Mouth Dissolving Tablets of Ketorolac tromethamine were prepared by direct compression method using various superdisintegrants like crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium, and Sodium starch glycolate in different concentrations. Prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time and in vitro drug release. Results of pre-compression and post-compression studies of all formulations were found within the standard limits. The tablets of all the batches were found to release more than 80% of drug in 5 minutes, which is the desired quality of mouth dissolving tablets that helps in faster absorption of the drug and quick onset of therapeutic effect. The the order of dissolution of various disintegrants was found to be Crospovidone˃ SSG˃ CCS. There was no significant variation in drug content of drug during stability studies for selected batch F3 in accelerated conditions over three months. It was concluded from the study that fast release of Ketorolac tromethamine from formulation F3 may reduce onset of drug action with better patient compliance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium, Ketorolac tromethamine, Mouth dissolving tablets, Sodium starch glycolate, superdisintegrants. </p> Rishabh Bindal Arpna Indurkhya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 60 64 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4502 Antipyretic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Colocasia esculenta <p>In this paper the antipyretic effect of the Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of <em>Colocasia</em> <em>esculenta</em> against Brewer yeast induced pyrexia model in Wistar rats of either sex was investigated.<em> Colocasia</em> <em>esculenta</em> (Apiaceae) is a tropical perennial plant. It contain flavonoids, alkaloids, apigenin, anthocyanin, carbohydrates, fiber, minerals, protein, fat, calcium and iron, &nbsp;Fever induced in the animal (rats) by the injection 15%w/v of brewer’s yeast suspension (10mg/kg according to body weight of rats) subcutaneously in the back below the nape of the neck. . After 18 hr. of Brewer’s yeast injection and rise in rectal temperature was recorded. The temperature of animal was recorded at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4hr after drug administration. Paracetamol (100 mg/kg p. o.) was used as standard drug. The group received Hydroalcoholic extract 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg showed significant decrease in rectal temperature respectively as compared with the group received standard drug. All the values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed for ANOVA. Differences between controls, standard ant test groups were considered significant at P &lt; 0.001 levels. . The Hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Colocasia</em> <em>esculenta</em> leaves (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) possesses dose dependent, significant antipyretic activity against Brewer yeast induced pyrexia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antipyretic activity, ethanolic extract, <em>Colocasia esculenta, </em>Dunnet’s t –test, ANOVA. </p> Chandrakanta Kushwah Nitu singh Raksha Goswami Nitesh Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 65 67 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4663 Development and Evaluation of Nutritious Supplementary Food Product in Phenyl Hydrazine Induced Anaemia in Wistar Rats <p><strong>Objective</strong>- Nutritional deficiency anemia mainly results from a lack of iron, but it also associated due to lack of folate/vitamin B12 and low vitamin C intake. From various studies this is found anemia in people is due to poor eating habits, such as not eating enough fruits and legumes such as beans and peas. Proper nutritional supplementation may be useful in such condition. The aim of the present work was to select a suitable iron rich food material, and prepared a suitable dosage form for management of anaemic condition and to evaluate anti-anaemic potential of nutritious supplementary food. <strong>Method</strong>- Anemia was induced by phenyl-hydrazine. Animals were treated with nutritious supplementary food throughout the study for 30 days. The haemoglobin concentration was determined after 30 days. <strong>Results</strong>- Nutritious supplementary food was found to be rich in folic acid, ascorbic acid, and iron. Following the induction of anaemia, the haemoglobin concentration decreased by 30%. Administration of standard hematinic preparation and nutritious supplementary food 2gm/day in divided dose resulted in significant increase (<em>P </em>≤ 0.05) in haemoglobin concentration when compared to the untreated phenyl hydrazine-induced anaemic rats. <strong>Conclusion</strong>- Nutritious supplementary food effectively raised the level of haemoglobin. Vitamin and minerals found in nutritious supplementary food are most likely active ingredients responsible for its hematinic effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords-</strong> Anaemia, nutrition, nutritional anaemia, iron, phenyl hydrazine</p> Dipali Hanamghar Shivani Salokhe Sachin Tembhurane Swati Kolhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 68 71 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4654 Formulation and Evaluation of Liposome by Thin Film Hydration Method <p>Liposomes are the most advance formulation for targeting and controlled drug delivery system. These liposomes are generally administered by intra-venous route. In this work the liposome was prepared by using thin film hydration method. The formulated liposome is evaluated or characterised by using zeta sizer, Encapsulation efficiency, Entrapment efficiency, In vitro drug release. Main things are drug which are used for formulation of liposome was Diclofenac sodium, it having anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effect. The Diclofenac sodium having several adverse effects, such as depression of renal function, Liver failure for repeated administration, Local mucosal irritation, gastritis. To avoid this adverse effect Diclofenac sodium are incorporate in liposomal formulation. By formulating liposomal formulation, the bioavailability of Diclofenac sodium increase. In conventional dosage form bioavailability of diclofenac sodium is 50℅. But in liposomal formulation bioavailability of this drug increase. The final result includes that diclofenac liposome formulation shows more sustained and prolong anti-inflammatory activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diclofenac sodium, Liposome, Anti-inflammatory activity.</p> Mahesh Umbarkar Swapnil Thakare Tanaji Surushe Amol Giri Vaibhav Chopade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 72 76 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4677 Respiratory function test data and maximum oxygen consumption of children playing football in a hot and humid environment <p>Nowadays, the achievement of a good sporting performance depends on a good development of physical capacities from a young age while respecting the different stages of growth. In spite of this, some football coaches and trainers have no mastery of the principles of training. They subject children to physical effort that does not correspond to the child's developmental stages. In order to evaluate the respiratory function and maximum oxygen consumption of children trained in football, series of test matches were organised by age group under a temperature of 38°C and a humidity of 60%. The results of the study show an increase in maximum oxygen consumption according to age with extremes of 36, 54 ml/min/kg and 55, 99 ml/min/kg. The classification of the values of V ̇O2max according to the spirometry values shows a representativeness of 13-14 year old children in the class of low spirometry values (CV, FEV1 and DEP) and a strong representativeness of 16-17 year old children in the class of high spirometry values (CV, FEV1 and DEP). A correlation exists between maximum oxygen consumption, spirometry equations and anthropometric parameters during the growth of children playing football.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Training, children, football, spirometry, Congo (Brazzaville)</p> Jean Michel BAZABA KAYILOU AΪPE Judith AHOUNOU Ghislain Aymard MOUKOUMBI MABIKA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-18 2021-01-18 11 1 80 83 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4505 Molecular Characterization of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales in Children with Diarrhea in Rural Burkina Faso <p>Background and objective: In recent years, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) resistance to antibiotics has dramatically increased leading to limitations of their treatment options. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella in rural Burkina Faso.<br>Materials and methods: Salmonella isolates were serotyped according to the Kauffman White scheme. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains was identified using 16-plex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), whereas antibiotic susceptibility was realized using the disk diffusion method. Furthermore, multiplex PCR assays were carried out using oligonucleotides to detect the presence of genes of the blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA and blaCTX-M types in all E. coli and Salmonella strains.<br>Results: The study highlighted high resistance rates of the identified bacteria to common antibiotics. Likewise, two strains of E. coli were imipenem resistant with carbapenemase-encoding genes. The genes detected were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), Verona integrin-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) and Imipenemase (IMP-2) reaching a rate of 40% each in E. coli strains. However, no Salmonella carbapenemases blaKPC, blaVIM or blaIMP were detected.<br>Conclusion: This study showed that for a real-time infection control and prompt application of antimicrobial chemotherapy, characterization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in patients is crucial.<br>Keywords: Antibiotics, Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacterales, children, Burkina Faso</p> René Dembélé Issiaka Soulama Wendpoulomdé Aimé Désiré Kaboré Ali Konaté Assèta Kagambèga David Coulibaly N'Golo Oumar Traoré Abdoulaye Seck Alfred Sababenedyo Traoré Nathalie Guessennd Amy Gassama-Sow Nicolas Barro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-18 2021-01-18 11 1 84 92 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4513 Natural Super-Disintegrant Agents Used in Various Oral Solid Dosage Forms <p>Super-disintegrating agents are one of the ingredients used in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. These substances play a vital role in formulation design.&nbsp; Natural super-disintegrants have gained more popularity due to their oral bioavailability. It disintegrates the tablets into smaller particles to enhance the dissolution rate. Fast dissolving, chewable tablets, and other orally administered dosage forms consist of super-disintegrating agents which shows rapid and quick action. Natural super disintegrating agents in pharmaceutical dosage forms are very effective due to their ecofriendly nature as well as these are biocompatible and biodegradable<em>.&nbsp;</em>These are abundantly and<em>&nbsp;</em>cheaply available from nature.Today the researchers are focusing on naturally available excipients.</p> <p>Keywords: Natural Superdisintegrants, Disintegration, Bioavailability, Biocompatible, Biodegradable. </p> V.T. Iswariya Nambaaru Sailaja CH. Vamsi Krishna G.S. Annammadevi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-21 2021-01-21 11 1 110 113 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4681 TNF-α: A Benificial or Harmful Pathogenic Cytokine in Cardiovascular System <p>Tumor necrosis factor (TNF- alpha) plays important role in pathophysiology of cardiovascular system and had been comprehensively studied over the last 20 years.&nbsp; These studies demonstrate both Detrimental and potentially conflicting roles of TNF-α in pathophysiology of heart. Beneficial effects of TNF-α includes cardioprotective action against ischemia, myocarditis, pressure overload and preventive action against potential adverse effects including development of atherosclerosis, reperfusion injury, hypertrophy, and heart failure. However, TNF-α is still controversial for its beneficial or harmful effects for cardiovascular system. This review includes evaluation of possible role of TNF-α in cardiovascular system specifically in pathophysiology and morphology of cardiomyocytes. Further this article mainly emphases on the claimed role of TNF-α pathways with concerning essential cardiac cellular processes which may have unswerving adaptive effects in the heart with respect to future research directions.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Tumor Necrosis Factor, Hypertrophy, Pathophysiology, Cytokine, Pathology, Cardiovascular System.</p> Sunny Dhiman Inder Kumar Priyankul Palia Shalini Jamwal Pankaj Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 114 120 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4507 A review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical aspects of remdesivir and favipiravir for the treatment of coronavirus disease <p>The coronavirus disease has spread all over the world. Till now no medicine, vaccine, and any other monoclonal antibodies have been approved for the diagnosis or prevention of COVID-19. In many countries, doctors are considering “repurposing” different approved drugs like interferon-ɑ, lopinavir/ ritonavir, ribavirin, and chloroquine phosphate, etc. to treat COVID-19. Remedesivir (GS-5734) is a prodrug of monophosphoramidate of adenosine analogue. Remedesivir block the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerease (RdRp). Favipiravir (T-705) is also a prodrug and was revealed during evaluating the antiviral activity of chemical agents concerning the influenza virus. This review summarizes the status, mechanisms, preclinical research, and clinical trial progress of remedesivir and favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19.</p> <p>Keywords: coronavirus disease, favipiravir, remdesivir, clinical trials, pharmacodynamics</p> Inder Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 121 129 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4475 Methylcobalamine (Vitamin B12): Water Soluble Vitamin with Various Pharmacological Aspect <p>Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a key role in the brain's proper functioning and nervous system, in blood flow, and in reducing weakness and tiredness. In their food, most people get adequate vitamin B12, but in some health conditions (e.g. inadequate sleep, stomach/intestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer), there could be a shortage. If left unchecked, severe Vitamin B12 deficiency results in anemia and nerve damage. Vitamin B12 deficiency is typically treated using parenteral and oral dosage formulations, but absorption and compliance problems are involved with these routes of administration. Most significantly, the function of this missing intrinsic factor has been shown to assist in vitamin B12 absorption and a deficiency known as pernicious anaemia. Vitamin B12 is only partially absorbed when delivered by mouth to patients with pernicious anemia, but hematologically re-absorbed in patients with pernicious anemia. Parenteral administration of the extrinsic element will treat pernicious anaemia satisfactorily. There are several roles and advantages of vitamin B 12 in the human body with therapeutic effects also.</p> <p>Keywords: Water Soluble Vitamins, Methylcobalamine, Vitamin B12, Pernicious Anaemia.</p> Roopesh Kumar Yadav Sudhanshu Mishra Deepti Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 130 137 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4488 Bioadhesive polymers, permeation enhancers and types of dosage forms for buccal drug delivery <p>The buccal delivery is defined as the drug administration through the mucosal membranes lining the cheeks (buccal mucosa). The main impediment to the use of many hydrophilic macromolecular drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Based on our current understanding of biochemical and physiological aspects of absorption and metabolism of many biotechnologically produced drugs, they cannot be delivered effectively through the conventional oral route. Because after oral administration many drugs are subjected to pre-systemic clearance extensive in the liver, which often leads to a lack of significant correlation between membrane permeability, absorption and bioavailability. Difficulties associated with the parenteral delivery and poor oral bioavailability provided the impetus for exploring alternative routes for the delivery of such drugs. This review covers the advantages, disadvantages of buccal delivery, drug and excipient selection especially bioadhesive polymers and permeation enhancers, and further a list of drugs developed as various dosage forms for buccal route of administration.</p> <p>Keywords: Buccal delivery, bioadhesive/mucoadhesive, permeation enhancer, dosage forms.</p> Kumara Swamy Samanthula Shobha Rani Satla Agaiah Goud Bairi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 138 145 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4495 A Systematic Review on Lamotrigine Induced Skin Rashes <p>Lamotrigine is a newer anti-epileptic drug synthesised in 1980s and approved by USFDA in 1994. It is mainly used for treating paediatric epilepsy and one of the frequently prescribing newer anti- epileptic drugs in European countries. In English scenario, lamotrigine is suggested as monotherapy for recently identified partial seizures (localized seizure) in children as its first line drug. Lamotrigine is recommended for generalized seizures as second line drug and as add on therapy in intractable generalized epilepsy. It is a treatment option after sodium valproate and ethosuximide for petit-mal epilepsy. It can be used as either single or in combination with other anti-epileptic drugs. It has lot of adverse effects like other anti-epileptic drugs. Major adverse effect associated with lamotrigine is skin rashes in newly administered patients up to 8 weeks. About 3-10 % of the patients experience skin rashes in their therapy with lamotrigine. Lamotrigine doses should be titrated properly in combination with other anti-epileptic drugs especially with valproic acid. Other less common adverse effects with lamotrigine include dizziness, ataxia, blurred vision, headache, nausea and diplopia. Moreover, lamotrigine has a safe drug profile and effective in both children and adults for the treatment of various types of seizures. The dose escalation should be monitored regularly to avoid serious adverse reactions.</p> T.T. Muhammed Anwar P.P. Muhamed Faris , Thansiha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 146 151 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4633 Research Opportunities in Unani/ Greco-Arabian Medicine <p>Unani medicine is a traditional system of medicine which was founded on the teachings of Hippocrates (460-377 BC). It is based on a holistic concept of health preservation, promotion and disease prevention. <em>Mizaj </em>(temperament), <em>asbab-e-sitta zaruriyah </em>(six essential factors), and <em>tabiy’at </em>(physis) are the basic concepts of Unani medicine which help in disease prevention as well as management. Unani medicine has a rich treasure of many effective preventive and therapeutic methods for lifestyle disorders, acute and chronic diseases, as well as psychological conditions. In this paper, we discuss the important research areas in Unani system of medicine, particularly related to present-day world.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Unani medicine, lifestyle, chronic diseases, <em>Mizaj</em></p> Mohammad Hashir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 152 155 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4634 Unani Medicine: Significance of Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya in times of Pandemic COVID-19 <p>SARS COV-2 belongs to the beta coronavirus genera, it is believed that bats as warm-blooded flying vertebrates are ideal hosts for coronavirus gene source. COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus was originated from Wuhan city of Hubei Province in China in December 2019. The common symptoms comprise fever, cough, malaise, and shortness of breath. The incubation period is between&nbsp; 2 - 14 days. In this paper we have deliberated the structure of viruses; varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS, and approach to tackling this problem with utmost effective Unani alternatives. Unani medicine endeavors to find the best conceivable ways by which a person can lead a hale and hearty life with minimum or zero sicknesses. Unani scholars believe by practicing important things like the use of fresh and clean water, breathing clean air and eating fresh food, upholding a balance between the mind and the body so that the metabolic processes can function effortlessly and the body wastes are evacuated, by enhancing immunity, and keeping an equilibrium between (<em>Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya</em>) six essential factors for life one can stay away from diseases.</p> <p>Keywords: COVID-19, Unani Medicine, SARS COV-2, <em>Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya</em>.</p> Araf Fatma Aisha Perveen Sana Ur Rehman Rabia Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 156 161 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4636 Niosomes: A Novel Carrier Drug Delivery System <p>Niosomes are a novel drug delivery system, in which the medication is encapsulated in a vesicle. The vesicle is composed of a bilayer of non-ionic surfactants. Niosomes are mostly preferred than liposomes because they are stable and cost effective. Niosomes potentiate the pharmacological action of the drug molecules by delaying the clearance of the drug from the circulation, protecting the drug from biological environment and restricting the effects only to the target cells. In novel drug delivery it has applications on treatment of cancer, used as a carrier in haemoglobin, delivery of the peptide drugs through oral route, in treatment of leishmaniasis, in ophthalmic delivery and as carrier in dermal drug delivery. This review article focuses on the composition, advantages, types of niosomes, methods of preparation, characterization and application of the vesicular system.</p> <p>Keywords: Niosomes, Composition, Types, Method of preparation, Factors affecting, Application.</p> Arumugam Kauslya Payal D Borawake Jitendra V Shinde Rajashree S Chavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 162 170 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4479 Microsponge as an Emerging Technique in Novel Drug Delivery System <p>Numbers of developments are implemented in drug delivery system to achieve the goals of optimized efficacy, cost effectiveness of therapy. One of the latest, novel and highly evolving technologies is microsponge drug delivery system which gives controlled release and site specific delivery of active ingredients. They are highly cross linked, porous and polymeric microspheres with size range of 5-300µm. This system is emerging as valuable option for topical delivery of drugs due to characteristics like decreased side effects, improved stability, better formulation flexibility, superior product performance. It is having number of applications in oral, topical, ocular and biopharmaceuticals delivery. The current review describes microsponge technology and details of the formulation methods, evaluation, programmable release mechanisms and applications.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Microsponges; Controlled release; Quasi emulsion solvent diffusion; Programmable drug release; Oral administration; Topical drug delivery.</p> Payal D Borawake Arumugam Kauslya Jitendra V Shinde Rajashree S Chavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 171 182 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4492 A Review on Solubility Enhancement by Solid Dispersion Method <p>The issues of solubility for the targeted drug delivery of the new drug affects, the delivery many existing drug. The minimum 40% of the novel drug from the pharmaceutical industries are showing poor ability of solubilization in water. Hence to increase the solubility of such drug in waters and to increase their bioavailabilities are the major challenges to the scientists. So to overcome such problems and increase dissolution, development of solid dispersion with carriers having good water solubility is beneficiary. Hence solid dispersion methods are found to be an effective method to develop the solubility factor of the drug which showing poor solubility in water. The review highlights the various aspect of solid dispersion type, rational, advantages, limitation and manufacturing processes for the limited commercialization of solid dispersion.</p> <p>Keywords: Solid dispersions, hydrophilic, carrier, solubility, polymer, bioavailability.</p> Laxmikant B. Dhande Madhuri T. Deshmukh Abhijit N. Khopade Rajkumar V. Shete Vaibhavi V. Kunjir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 182 187 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4489 A Review on Microsphere <p>The microsphere is having free-flowing powder properties that are incorporate proteins and synthetic or natural polymer. This polymer is biodegradable in nature and particle size having less than 200 µm. Advanced drug delivery system has various advantages over the mainstream multi dose therapy. The microsphere's drug delivery systems are acceptable for attained delay or sustained release formulation with minimum risk of dose repeatability and small gastric habitation time. The present review provides a complete discussion of therapeutic aspects of the microsphere drug delivery system into deliberation of the required area for microparticulate, types of polymers used, method of preparation, type of microspheres in detail, parameters &amp; targeting of microspheres &amp; practical aspects of microspheres.</p> <p>Keywords: Microspheres, bioavailability, types, classification, ideal properties, evaluation, etc.</p> Prafull Gavhane Madhuri Deshmukh Abhijit N. Khopade Vaibhavi V. Kunjir Rajkumar V. Shete ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 188 194 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4501 Tanqiya wa Tadeel (Evacuation and Rejuvenation): The Unani Concept as Evolutionary Basis for Conventional Stroke Management <p>The treatment of stroke has always been a challenge for all systems of medicine. The modern medicine has substantially been capable to treat and control both, the haemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in emergency situations. The current approach of modern medicine relies on thrombolysis, antithrombosis, neuroprotection and rehabilitation. While the former two approaches yield significant mortality and morbidity reduction with available thrombolytic and antithrombotic agents but the latter two approaches have limited success with prevalent neuroprotective agents and physical therapy. While the Unani medicine approach in treatment of stroke strongly resemble to that of modern medicine, the action of thrombolysis and antithrombosis exerted by Unani drugs; however, remains undesirably slow in acute stroke and may lead to relatively extended damage to brain tissues in comparison to significantly effective control achieved by modern medicine. The latter part of stroke recovery in the form of rehabilitation remains tardy with available modern approaches, however, several studies done in stroke rehabilitation, following the principle of <em>Tanqia</em> and <em>Tadeel</em> of Unani medicine, have shown promising results in relatively rapid recovery from various post stroke disabilities. Unani drugs used in various dosage forms under the rubric of <em>tanqia</em> and <em>tadeel </em>possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective properties represented by <em>Muhallil </em>(Resolvent), <em>Mulattif </em>(Demulcent), <em>Munaqqie Dimagh </em>(Brain Cleanser), <em>Mufatteh Sudad</em> (Deobstruent), <em>Muhallile Auram</em> (Anti-inflammatory) and <em>Jali </em>(Cleanser) terminologies, used for drug actions in Unani medicine. The explicable reason of early recovery during rehabilitation appears to be the rapid improvement in neuroplasticity of brain exerted by various active constituents of Unani drugs used in various combinations and permutations in different dosage forms. The term <em>tanqia</em> stands for evacuation of morbid material and <em>tadeel</em> for rejuvenation. The principle of <em>tanqia</em> and <em>tadeel</em> of Unani medicine offers all therapeutic approaches for various forms and stages of stroke and therefore provides theoretical and practical bases for the evolution of modern medical approaches in stroke management.</p> <p><em>Keywords: Falij; Istefragh; Munzij; Mushil; Nuzj</em></p> Mohd Nayab Hina V Kouser Abdul Nasir Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 11 1 195 200 10.22270/jddt.v11i1.4686