Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt <form></form> Vinita Nagar, Society of Pharmaceutical Technocrats, 1/7756, Street no. 1, East Gorakh Park, Shahdara, Delhi, India 110032 en-US Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2250-1177 <h4>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</a>.&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> A study of the Effect of Yogic Interventions on Varicose Veins http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5911 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Varicose Veins are a valve incomitance disorder of the veins. Most persons who suffer from Varicose Veins very often do not get substantially relieved by the current medical treatment. A holistic approach to yoga has the potential to prevent, reduce incompetents and cure the increased valve competent condition. It can be treated by changing lifestyle and dietary habits. But Yoga and Ayurveda are available to help reduce the symptoms and curb the Varicose Veins.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The main purpose of this study is to find the effect of the yogic intervention on KSRP Police suffering from primary varicose veins.</p> <p><strong>Design:</strong> 56 KSRP Police suffering from primary varicose veins were selected from KSRP 7<sup>th</sup> Battalion Police, Mangalore for the study. The age of the subjects ed from 30 to 60 years. The design used for the study was a pre-post design. Simple Random sampling was used for the collection of the sample.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was performed with 56 KSRP Police who gave information regarding the daily activities of the Police; pre-post values for the study were assessed based on the primary varicose veins. Yogic techniques were used as an intervention for a period of 3 months.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>90 days of Yoga Intervention resulted in significant changes in the score of the perceived parameters of questioners and doppler ultrasound test in the experiment group (p&lt;0.001) compared to the control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Yoga and Ayurveda can increase the resistance to the infection of Varicose Veins. The holistic approach of yoga can prevent and reduce the Varicose Veins condition. Adopting the yogic techniques and Ayurvedic techniques properly removes the impurities of the Varicose Veins, and further stagnation can be prevented.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Varicose Veins, Yogic Interventions, Ayurveda, KSRP Employees.</p> Rajashekhar Zulpe K. Krishna Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 X1 X4 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5911 Evaluation of acute, subacute toxicity and in vivo impact of aqueous decoction of Flemingia faginea Guill. & Perr. (Barker) leafy stems on NMRI mice and normotensive Wistar rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5819 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><em>: Flemingia faginea</em>, a Fabaceae family medicinal plant, has been used for a long time in Burkina Faso for the treatment of hypertension and excess salt. However, the safety of the preparations derived from this plant has not yet been scientifically documented. This study aimed to evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity of the leafy stems aqueous decoction of <em>F. faginea </em>(FAD) in healthy normotensive mice and rats and the impact on their normal blood pressure. <strong>Material and Methods</strong>: The acute oral toxicity study was conducted according to the toxicity class method of the Economic Cooperation and Development Organization (OECD) guideline 423. Subacute toxicity was carried out according to the OECD Guideline 407 for repeated dose chemical toxicity for 28 days. Hematological and biochemical analyzes of blood were performed after autopsy. An evaluation of the impact of the extract on the blood pressure of rats was performed using the non-invasive method. <strong>Results</strong>: A single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg bw to mice did not cause mortality or clinical signs or symptoms of toxicity during the 14-day study. The FAD was classified in the fifth category of the Harmonized System of Classification of the United Nations and considered practically safe with an estimated 50% lethal dose of 5000 mg/kg bw. Daily gavage of male and female rats with doses of 100,500 and 1000 mg/kg did not result in mortality or significant adverse effects during the 28days of experimentation. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, food &amp;water consumption or relative vital organ weights in treated animals. Analysis of the hematological and biochemical parameters of blood serum did not show significant differences between treated and control animals in this study. Additionally, no aberrant changes were found in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the test animals during the 28 days of inclusion compared to those of the control group. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The extract FAD could be considered safe within the doses tested for the results of the toxicological evaluation. However, microscopic, histopathological, and subchronic investigations will have to be carried out to confirm the safety of this extract use.</p> Windingoudi Rimwagna Christian OUEDRAOGO Lazare BELEMNABA Mathieu NITIEMA Boukaré KABORE Souleymane COMPAORE Moumouni KOALA Rasmané SEMDE Sylvin OUEDRAOGO ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 1 10 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5819 Pharmacological evaluation of analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic root extract of Amaranthus caudatus http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5878 <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Amaranthus caudatus</em> Linn, belonging to a family Amaranthaceae. <em>Amaranthus caudatus</em> is found in South America, India, or Indo-Chinese district, Mexico, and the Mediterranean area. <em>Amaranthus caudatus</em> contains different kinds of substance constituents which are responsible for its therapeutic potential. <em>Amaranthus caudatus</em> is usually utilized in the treatment of jaundice, amoebiasis, and kidney ailment, as a blood purifier, diuretic, abortifacient, vermifuge, astringents, and for liver illness. The research work deals with the screening of the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic root extract of <em>Amaranthus caudatus. </em>For this, the alcoholic extract of the selected plant was used for analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and anti-pyretic activities.</p> <p><strong>The result:</strong> In current investigation, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a standard drug. The effects of ethanolic root extract (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) of <em>Amaranthus caudatus </em>on Wistar albino rats for the assessment of analgesic, anti-inflammatory as well as antipyretic activities. The current research revealed that EEAC (200 and 400mg/kg,p.o.) possessed significant (P&lt;0.05) analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretics activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore EEAC (200 and 400mg/kg p.o) were effective as standard drug (Diclofenac sodium 10mg/kg, p.o). All these methods were performed under highly supervised conditions and by proper handling of experimental animals having been granted permission by IAEC.</p> <p><strong>The conclusion:</strong> In the present study, it was concluded that the EEAC was effective in a dose-dependent manner and possessed potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Amaranthus</em> <em>caudatus</em>, Analgesic, Anti-pyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Diclofenac sodium, Phytochemical screening.</p> Vivek Kumar Km Monika Bhawana Rathi Ruchi Agarwal Najam Ali Khan Sudhansu Ranjan Swain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 11 16 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5878 Design, Development and Characterization of Hyaluronic Acid Based pH Sensitive Liposomal In Situ Gel for the Treatment of Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5888 <p>The recent advances in ocular drug delivery have been successful in surpassing conventional therapy, owing to its considerable limitations. This study aims to develop and optimize <em>in-situ</em> liposomal ocular system to design once-daily liquid preparation to treat Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Liposomes of Hyaluronic acid were prepared using soya lecithin by a thin film hydration method.&nbsp; Eight trial formulations were made by keeping drug as fixed ratio and varying the concentration of cholesterol and soya lecithin. The optimized formulation was selected for the formulation of liposomal <em>in-situ</em> hydrogel. Optimization was carried out by Central Composite Design (CCD) studying the factors, amount of cholesterol and soya lecithin and its effects on the responses, % In- vitro drug release (R1) and Percent Entrapment Efficiency (% EE) (R2). The best predicted model for R1 was the Quadratic model and, for R2 was Two-Factor Interaction model (2FI) without any significant lack of fit. Optimum formulation was found to be at 1:1:4 (drug: cholesterol: soya lecithin) showed sustained drug release of 31.28% in 8 hours with highest %EE of 47.36%. Liposomal <em>in-situ</em> gel preparation retained better stability throughout the study period when stored at refrigerator temperature and displayed prolonged action (76.44%) when compared to liposomal formulation (68.72%).</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Liposomes, Hyaluronic acid, Optimized formulation, CCD, sustained drug release,<em> in-situ</em> hydrogel.</p> S Nagalakshmi Suthahar Teshini E Shoba Shyam Madhavan Suresh Shilpa S. Sintinya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 17 25 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5888 Synthesis, Characterization, and Anti-inflammatory activity of Some Novel Oxazole Derivatives http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5719 <p>A series of novel oxazole derivatives (A, A<sub>1</sub>, A<sub>2</sub>) were synthesized starting from acetone and urea. The compound (A) was obtained by heating it with acetophenone and urea in iodine. Compound (A) on treatment with 4-amino benzaldehyde (Z)-N-(4-amino benzylidine)-4-((E)-Penta-2, 4-diene-2) oxazole-2-amine afforded (A<sub>1</sub>). Acylation of compound (A) with 4-amino benzoyl chloride to obtain the corresponding N-(4 phenyl oxazole-2- yl)- benzamide (A<sub>2</sub>). The structures of compounds have been established employing FTIR and <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectral analysis. All oxazole derivatives were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by the carrageenan-induced Rat hind paw method. Derivative A1 shows maximum anti-inflammatory activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Oxazoles, anti-inflammatory, Benzamide, acetophenone, indomethacin.</p> Ajay Kumar Garg Ranjan Kumar Singh Vaibhav Saxena Saurabh Kr. Sinha Sanjay Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 26 28 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5719 An investigation of Baccharoides anthelmintica (L.) Moench seed extract for antibacterial and antioxidant activities http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5901 <p>Use of herbal remedies is on the rise in developed and developing countries. Plant kingdom is a gold mine for novel and affordable antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds. The medicinal properties of plants are due to metabolites especially secondary compounds produced by plant species around the globe. The current study was designed to investigate the seed extract of <em>Baccharoides anthelmintica </em>(L.) Moench for its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The antibacterial activity of the acetone, aqueous and methanol seed extracts was determined <em>in-vitro</em> against medically important pathogens such as <em>Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Yersinia</em> <em>pestis </em>by agar-well diffusion method using different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100%). Results showed low to significant antibacterial activity against the mentioned pathogenic bacterial species. The methanol extract of <em>B. anthelmintica</em> showed maximum zone of inhibition (20.40±0.68 mm) in the growth of <em>L. monocytogenes</em> which was followed by <em>P. aeruginosa</em> (19.10±1.77 mm), <em>S. aureus</em> (18.55±2.20 mm),<em> E. coli</em> (16.00±0.60 mm) and<em> Y. pestis</em> (16.00±0.00 mm) at 100% of its concentration respectively. Methanol seed extract was found to be more effective against selected pathogenic bacterial species as compared to acetone and aqueous seed extracts. Further the seed extract inhibited gram-positive bacteria more efficiently than gram-negative bacteria. The antioxidant capacity of the different seed extracts (methanol, acetone and aqueous) of <em>B. anthelmintica</em> was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg/mL). The plant showed 14.40±0.05 and 13.20±0.55 % DPPH radical scavenging potential in methanol and acetone extracts respectively at 100 µg/mL and exhibited no radical scavenging potential in case of aqueous extract. Therefore, the seed extracts of this plant can be selected for further investigation to discover or determine their ultimate therapeutic potential.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Baccharoides anthelmintica</em>,&nbsp; seed extract, agar well diffusion, zone of inhibition, DPPH </p> Ved Prakash ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 29 32 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5901 Formulation and Evaluation of Nanoemulgels for the Topical Drug Delivery of Posaconazole http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5896 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Posaconazole(POS) is an antifungal drug widely used in treatment of fungal infections. However, the drug has very low oral bioavailability due to high first-pass metabolism, thereby limiting its therapeutic effectiveness. The present study is aimed to prepare nanoemulsion of posaconazole to increase its solubility and to develop posaconazole-loaded nanoemulsion based gel for single dose topical administration to sustain the release of the drug, improve patient compliance and avoid repeated administration.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>:-FTIR-study was performed to determine compatibility of drug with excipients. Pseudoternary-phase diagram was constructed to optimize the Smix ratio. Optimization of nanoemulsion was done by Box-Behnken Design. The optimized formulation was evaluated for particle-size (nm), polydispersity index (PDI), (%) drug content and<em> in-vitro</em> drug release. POS-nanoemulgel (FNG) was developed using carbopol-934P (1%), which was evaluated for homogeneity, pH, viscosity, spreadability, percentage-yield and <em>in-vitro</em> drug release. The anti-fungal activity of POS-nanoemulgel was evaluated against <em>Candida Albicans</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The FTIR-study confirmed that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. The optimized selected nanoemulsion (FN1) exhibited particle size 79.19nm, PDI 0.357, drug content 95.90% and <em>in-vitro</em> release of 79.40% at 24 hour. The prepared nanoemulgel was homogenous, opaque with good spreadability 13.91±1.19, viscosity 3760±0.014, pH 5.6±0.06 and the zeta-potential was -29mV, indicating good stability. The drug release at 24h was 72.01%. Further, the developed nanoemulgel formulation exhibited better antifungal activity in comparison to the pure drug gel.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Hence, it can be concluded that nanoemulgel of posaconazole can provide better antifungal activity and improve patient compliance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nanoemulsion, Nanoemulgel, Posaconazole, Anti-fungal, Box-Behnken Design, Pseudoternary phase diagram.</p> Priyanka Priyadarshini Preeti Karwa Ayesha Syed A.N. Asha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 33 43 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5896 Direct nose-to-brain delivery of diazepam via trigeminal nerve contributes to rapid seizure suppression in pentylenetetrazole-induced status epilepticus model rats http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5886 <p>The purpose of our present study was to elucidate the involvement of the direct transfer to the brain after intranasal (<em>i.n.</em>) administration of diazepam (DZP), and to provide findings whether <em>i.n.</em> the administration could be used to obtain rapid onset of pharmacological action. We determined the blood and brain kinetics of DZP after administrations of <em>i.n.</em> and other routes, and the relationship between their concentrations and rapid seizure suppression effect; furthermore, and evaluated the distribution process of DZP to the brain. There was a negative connection between the plasma concentration and the amount of DZP delivery to the brain from the systemic circulation during the period that followed intravenous and intrarectal injection before the onset of seizure suppression. <em>I.n. </em>administration resulted in the seizure suppression time below the correlation curve: the seizure suppression effects were observed earlier than estimated despite the low plasma concentrations of DZP, suggesting the involvement of direct nose-to-brain delivery of DZP. The time to maximum concentration (<em>T</em><sub>max</sub>) in the forebrain, hindbrain, olfactory bulb (OB), trigeminal nerve (TN), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after <em>i.n.</em> the administration was 3 min, which was shorter than the <em>T</em><sub>max</sub> of the plasma concentration. In fluorescence imaging using Rhodamin-B-base, the TN and the area of the vicinity of the thalamus had stronger fluorescence 1 and 3 min after <em>i.n. </em>administration, compared with the OB and CSF. In summary, direct brain delivery of DZP requires the TN and it was suggested that distribution to the vicinity of the thalamus via the TN may be connected to the quick seizure suppression effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Status Epilepticus, Diazepam, Intranasal Administration, Nose-to-Brain, Trigeminal Nerve</p> Kazutoshi Watanabe Soichiro Kimura Yutaro Hazama Yasunori Morimoto Hideo Ueda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 44 56 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5886 Evaluation of the antioxidant potential and phytochemical analysis of Terminalia mantaly and Terminalia ivorensis two plants of the Ivorian pharmacopoeia http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5872 <p>The neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are characterized by a significant increase in oxidative stress that can lead to cellular damage to neurons. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of medicinal plants has become important in research against cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.</p> <p><em>Terminalia mantaly</em> and <em>Terminalia ivorensis </em>are two plants traditionally used to treat lesions, wounds, ulcers and hemorrhoids, malaria and yellow fever. In the present work, we evaluated the antioxidant power and determined the secondary metabolites contained in these two plants.</p> <p>The results show that <em>Terminalia mantaly</em> and <em>Terminalia ivorensis </em>have a good antioxidant activity.</p> <p>They can be studied in the search for drugs against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>&nbsp;: Alzheimer's disease, Neurons, Parkinson's disease, <em>Terminalia ivorensis</em> and <em>Terminalia mantaly</em></p> Gueyraud Rolland Kipré Don Josette Agré Bernard Nazaire Djyh Lacinan Ouattara Djaman Allico Joseph ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 57 60 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5872 Mother’s Mentoring Using GIGI.ID Application on Teeth Brushing Action of Elementary School Students http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5720 <p>This research is quantitative analytic with the correlation method aiming at&nbsp; determining&nbsp; the relationship between the variable mother's mentoring using the <em>GIGI.ID</em> application and the student's teeth brushing action variable. The population of this study is elementary school students who have received educational intervention from a social enterprise startup that focuses on dental and oral health in the form of a healthcare platform with teledentistry features. Samples were taken using a purposive sampling technique for 5th-grade students, with consideration that students have been able to communicate well and can work together. The respondents of this study were students and their respective parents. The results reveal a correlation between the mother's mentoring variable and the student's teeth-brushing variable, with a p-value = 0.017 and a correlation coefficient. The correlation between the mother's mentoring variable and the student's teeth brushing variable is strong and positively significant before and after the educational intervention using the <em>GIGI.ID</em> application.<strong>Keywords:</strong><em> GIGI.ID application, Mother’s mentoring, Teeth brushing action</em></p> Hermien Nugraheni , Sukini Nanang Qosim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 61 67 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5720 Formulation and Evaluation of a Turmeric Kombucha Facial Toner with Potential as an Anti-Acne Agent http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5721 <p><em>Propionibacterium</em><em> acnes</em> is one of the gram-positive bacteria that causes acne. Many acne treatments use synthetic drugs that have side effects. One alternative for treatment is using fermented products such as kombucha. The potential of kombucha as an anti-acne can be increased by adding turmeric during the fermentation process. The product is Turmeric Kombucha, which will be applied to the skin. The cosmetic dosage form developed is Facial Toner. The research to be carried out aims to formulate and test the activity of turmeric kombucha facial toner preparations against <em>P.acnes</em> bacteria. The novelties of this research include increasing the anti-acne activity of Turmeric Kombucha and the addition of Turmeric Kombucha as an active ingredient in facial toner preparations that meet the evaluation requirements, activity tests, and stability tests. The stages of the method started with Turmeric Kombucha fermentation with variations in turmeric concentration and fermentation time. The fermentation results will be tested for antibacterial activity using the paper disc diffusion method. Turmeric Kombucha, which has the highest activity, is then used as an active substance in facial toner preparations, which will be evaluated and tested for stability. The results of the evaluation of facial toner preparations, all formulas meet the requirements for organoleptic, pH, and viscosity tests. The stability test results for facial toner preparations show that F3 is a stable formula at room temperature storage and extreme temperatures. Based on the results of the irritation test, kombucha turmeric facial toner did not irritate. The antibacterial test results showed that all formulas could inhibit P.acnes bacteria with F3 as the formula with the most effective inhibition diameter of 7.33 ± 0.57 mm, then F1 and F4 6.33 ± 0.57 mm, and F2 6 ± 0 mm. This study concludes that fermented turmeric kombucha can be formulated as an anti-acne facial toner.</p> <p>Keywords: paper disc diffusion, <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em>, facial toner, Turmeric Kombucha</p> Soni Muhsinin Dini Zamzami Salsabilla Yanni Dhiani Mardhiani Garnadi Jafar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 68 75 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5721 Dapagliflozin efficacy as an add-on therapy in double and triple-drug regimens: A meta-analysis of randomized control trial http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5863 <p>Background: Diabetes is one of the most common diseases compared to others. There are many drugs available in the market to treat diabetes. Still, most of them have adverse drug reactions like hypoglycemia, weight gain, and subtherapeutic drug concentrations. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of drugs used as add-on therapy to treat type-2 Diabetes Mellitus. They act by inhibiting glucose reabsorption and increasing glucose excretion via the kidneys. In an average adult, two kidneys filter about 180g of glucose per day. About 98% of the glucose filtered in the kidneys get reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule back into the bloodstream, which can be inhibited by SGLT-2 inhibitors.</p> <p>Method:&nbsp; A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on randomized clinical trial data, extracted from PubMed, Cochrane and Embase. All data, including baseline and shift of baseline, standard deviation, and number of participants, were recorded for HbA1c, Fasting blood glucose (FBG), Bodyweight and SBP/DBP.</p> <p>Results: Twelve randomized clinical trials, including 8000 participants, were compared and divided into three groups of drugs: SAXA+DAPA+MET, SAXA+MET and DAPA+MET. The comparison is done for HbA1c (WMD:-6.78; 95% CI:-8.28; P &lt;0.00001) (WMD:-4.88; 95% CI:-6.93; P &lt;0.00001), FBG (SMD: -6.50; 95% CI: -8.55, -4.45; P &lt;0.00001) (SMD: -7.75; 95% CI: -8.84, -6.66; P&lt;0.00005,), body weight (SMD: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.33; P =1.00) (SMD: -1.00; 95% CI: -1.90, -0.10; P&lt;0.00001). Conclusion: Dapagliflozin, when given in combination, shows a major improvement in HbA1c and FBG levels and does not affect body weight. It was shown to be more effective when given in triple combination therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Dapagliflozine, meta-analysis, Sexagliptine, Metformin, Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2)</p> Deepjyoti. Saikia Akash Chathamvelli Lizanne Fernandes Kadambari Patil A Aswathi Pooja Mahajan Sanatkumar Nyamagoud ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 76 83 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5863 Traditional Herbal Remedies from Algeria for Treating Digestive Disorders http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5906 <p>Due to their efficiency in many treatments, the employment of herbal remedies has retained its importance for leading a human life. Traditional knowledge is passed from one generation to the next, which is protected. This research aimed to analyze traditional herbal remedies used in treating digestive disorders by El-Oued people (Southeastern Algeria). The research was conducted from September 2021 to June 2022. One hundred individuals, including thirty plant vendors, were selected from different regions. Personal interviews and questionnaires were employed to collect the data. SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel 2007 were used to organize the data and conduct the descriptive statistics analysis. This investigation enabled the discovery of 40 species in 16 families and different genres. Lamiaceae, with 22.5 % plants, were the most used sources for the treatment, and 54 % of herbs were spontaneous species. The use of seeds at 21 %, dry parts at 92 % and infusion method at 48 % was most commonly used in herbal remedies preparations. The participants cited Trigonella tibetana, Juniperus communis, and Punica granatum as sources of digestive disorders treatment. El-Oued region has an extremely high number of herbal remedy species, which suggests that the region's traditional medicine serves as a source of knowledge about medicinal plants for treating digestive disorders and illnesses associated with them.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Herbal remedies, Digestive disorders, Medicinal plants, Interviews<strong>.</strong></p> Ali Boutlelis Djahra Iman Lmhanat Mounia Benkaddour Salah Benkherara Ibtissam Laib Chaima Benine ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 84 92 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5906 A study on the reduction of antibiotic use by introducing organic acids in broiler chicken feed in the district of Abidjan - Ivory Coast http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5725 <p>The use of organic acids in the diet of animals is potentially beneficial for maintaining intestinal hemostasis and controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to experiment with organic acids as additives to antibiotics used by farmers. A total of 490 broilers were studied in this study and were divided into 5 lots of 98 subjects. The experimental core consisted of Fysal, Fysal-Selko, Selko, Patheryl (reference antibiotic) and Control. The experimental products were introduced in the drinking water (Selko pH) and in the feed (Fysal MP). A high feed consumption was noticed in the Fysal lot with 80.44±44g/chicken followed respectively by the Pteryl lots with 79.48 ± 42.25g/chicken, Fysal-Selko with 79.34 ± 43.62g/chicken, Selko with 77.27 ± 41.39g/chicken and finally Control with 76.01 ± 39.41g/chicken. The weight gain was high in the Fysal lot with 1770 ± 623.38g followed respectively by the Fysal-Selko lots with 1709 ± 606.05g, Pteryl with 1619 ± 577.70g, Selko with 1607 ± 567.90g against the Control lot with 1550 ± 544.41g. A mortality rate of 3.06% was recorded only in the Selko lot. Economically, the lots (Fysal, Fysal-Selko and Selko) that consumed the feed and water containing organic acids recorded higher profits compared to the Control and Pteryl batches. The organic acids such as Fysal MP and Selko pH could be used as alternatives to antibiotics in poultry farming.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Broiler, growth performance, organic acids, antibiotics</p> Lanan Wassy SOROMOU Fanh Serge KESSE Yacouba KONATE Mamadou Fodé CAMARA ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 93 98 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5725 GCMS and FTIR analysis of ethanol and methanol leave extract of Urena lobata (Caesar weed) for bioactive phytochemical constituents http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5722 <p>This study was designed to apply the highly sophisticated biological and chemical characterization techniques–(GC-MS) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and FTIR spectroscopy to screen for bioactive phytocompounds present in ethanol and methanol extracts of <em>U. lobata</em> .The leaves of the plant were collected from a farm in Umuode village in Osisioma Ngwa local government area of Abia state, Nigeria. Ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaves were prepared and analyzed using Buck M910 Gas chromatography system with HP-5MS column (30m in length x250µm in diameter x 0.25µm in thickness film). Analysis of functional groups in the phytocompounds were done using Buck scientific M530 USA FTIR.12 vibrational functional groups were revealed by the FTIR screening in the ethanol and methanol extracts of U. <em>lobata</em> leaves. Some of the functional groups were indicative of alcohols, phenols, aromatic compounds, unsaturated hydrocarbons, vinyl ethers, amines, isonitriles and aliphatic compounds. GC-MS analysis of the ethanol leaf extract revealed 41 bioactive compounds with the following being most abundant, 9-octadecenoic acid(16.8%), dodecenoic acid(13.43%),n-hexadecanoic acid(11.73%), octadecanoic acid (9.78%), 1-docosene(9.57%) while&nbsp; the methanol extract revealed 47 bioactive compounds with the following&nbsp; having the highest abundance, n-hexadecanoic acid (26.65%) and (9.11%), dodecanoic acid(6.89%), 1-docosene(6.06%), erucic acid(4.09%).These phytocompounds and many others present in the leaf have been reported to possess multiple therapeutic activities. This therefore explains the use of this leaf in ancient medicine to treat numerous disease conditions. It further implies that the leaf could be exploited for the formulation of therapeutic molecules.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Urena lobata</em>, GC-MS, FTIR, Spectroscopy, Phytocompounds, Functional group, Phytoconstituents</p> Collins Obinna Keke Winifred Njideka Nsofor Francis Koku Ras Kumabia Godian Chima Iloabuchi Juliet Chioma Ejiofor Olachi Lilian Osuagwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 99 115 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5722 Assessment of antibacterial activity of some extracts of Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill on pathogens bacteria http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5726 <p>Today, faced with the emergence of microbial resistance to antibiotics, the renewal of the arsenal of anti-infective drugs is acutely posed. In order to explore other sources of anti-infective drugs, this study therefore proposed to evaluate the antibacterial activity in vitro of several extracts of <em>Securinega virosa</em>, a well-known combretacea of populations in northern Côte d'Ivoire. To achieve this objective, the method of determining the diameters of the zones of inhibition on wells in an agar medium as well as that of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration were carried out. The results showed that the aqueous extract was not active on all the bacteria tested. The dichloromethane fraction at 500 mg/mL inhibited growth of <em>Shigella Typhi</em> (12.5 mm), followed by <em>Streptococcus</em> sp. (12.33 0.25 mm) and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> Meti-R (11.75 1.25 mm). The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited primarily Gram-positive bacteria with average diameters of 12 mm to 500 mg/mL. The ethanol fraction was most active on all bacteria with inhibition diameters ranging from 9 to 13.33 mm to 500 mg/mL. It showed the lowest MIC (3.12 mg/mL) on gram-positive and large Gram-negative levels ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/mL. This study through its results provides data in favor of the traditional use of <em>Securinega virosa</em> in therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords&nbsp;: </strong><em>Securinega virosa</em>, in vitro, antibacterial, activity</p> Mani Adrien KOUANGBE Messou TCHUMOU Monon KONE Karamoko OUATTARA Jean David N’GUESSAN ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 116 122 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5726 GC-MS (Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) analysis of methanol leaf extract of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. of District Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5908 <p>Plants are a rich source of secondary metabolites or chemical constituents with interesting biological activities. Therefore, a thorough validation of the herbal agents has emerged as a new branch of science emphasizing and prioritizing the standardization of the natural drugs and products because several of these phytochemicals have complementary and overlapping mechanism of action. Mass spectrometry coupled with chromatographic separations such as Gas chromatography (GC-MS) is generally used for direct analysis of components existing in traditional medicines and medicinal plants. Gas chromatography separates the components of the mixture and mass spectroscopy analyses each of these components separately. In recent years, GC-MS studies have been increasingly applied for the analysis of medicinal plants as this technique has proved to be a valuable method for the analysis of non-polar components, volatile essential oils, fatty acids, lipids, alkaloids etc. The present study was aimed to find out the bioactive compounds present in methanol extract of <em>Rhododendron arboreum</em> Sm. by using Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy. GC-MS chromatogram showed 10 peaks indicating the presence of ten phytochemical constituents in this plant. The results revealed Limonene (18.48%), Caryophyllene (13.01%), 3-Heptanoicacid methyl ester (11.00%) and Phenol, 2-(2-methyl-2-propenyl) (5.52%) as the major components in the methanol extract. The results support the use of <em>R. arboreum </em>in traditional medicines for controlling bacterial, degenerative and other diseases. Thus, the present study approves the medicinal value of this plant and scientifically validates it for use as a component of medicinal preparations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Rhododendron arboreum</em>, methanol, leaf extract, phytochemicals, Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)</p> Ved Prakash ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 123 126 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5908 In Vitro Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Anticataract Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cordia obliqua Willd http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5727 <p><em>Cordia obliqua</em> has a long history of use in the treatment of cataract and other eye-related problems in Indian traditional medicine. High oxidative stress is one of the major underlying causes of cataract which results in the precipitation of natural protein present in the lenses with aging. This research has been carried out to determine the anti-cataract activity of <em>Cordia obliqua</em> by performing various antioxidant techniques such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, ABTS radical cation and Ferric reducing antioxidant potential studies in oxidative stress–induced ex vivo cataract model. Results of the study conducted in the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of <em>Cordia obliqua</em> revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, etc. Total phenol and total flavonoid content was found to be 53 ± 3.21and 26.12 ± 2.54% respectively, which revealed that the plant contains a good amount of these compounds and hence possesses good antioxidant activity. Furthermore, IC<sub>50</sub> values obtained from all the methods gave strong evidence regarding the antioxidant potential of this plant. Anti-cataract activity was also investigated using goat eye lenses and promising results were obtained which speak voluminously about its anti-cataract potential and support its well-prescribed use. Results obtained with this study clearly supported the significant antioxidant potential and anticataract activity of this plant. Further, this plant demands great attention for the development of suitable novel dosage forms for the effective treatment of cataract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Cordia obliqua,</em> cataract, High oxidative stress</p> Arpit Shrivastava Harshita Jain Shikha Mishra Basant Khare Prateek Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 127 133 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5727 Application of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Drug Discovery and Development http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5867 <p>Drug discovery has traditionally been a time consuming and expensive endeavor. Additionally, drugs weren’t as effectively designed as those that are being predicted and developed through AI and ML today. Machine learning is a form of artificial intelligence that develops and evolves based on experience (similarly to the human mind), and is more recently being utilized in drug discovery and design. The integration of AI and ML into the drug discovery and development process has allowed for higher target precision, lower toxicity, and better dosage formulations. AI more generally has been introduced to and has been leveraged at, each step of drug development, including target identification and validation, hit identification, as well as hit to lead optimization, and has been key in shortening the previously lengthy drug screening process. AI and ML has also been applied downstream in drug formulation where it has maximized resource utilization and is allowing for web-based 3D printing of drugs. Application of AI in the drug development process has also been extended to the modeling of novel drug-like compounds to predict their ADMET properties. This review will address the stages of drug discovery and development in which the application of AI and ML modeling has altered the traditional development of drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Drug discovery, machine learning, artificial intelligence, computational drug development.</p> Madhukiran Parvathaneni Abduselam K. Awol Monika Kumari Ke Lan Manisha Lingam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 151 158 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5867 A Review on Strategies for COVID-19 Vaccine Development and Regulatory Requirements http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5868 <p>Scientists first identified Human Coronavirus in the year 1965. Then, a study was performed on different human and animal viruses, which were named based on their crown-like appearance. Human coronaviruses are responsible for many children's upper respiratory tract infections. At least five new human coronaviruses have been identified since 2003, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, which caused significant morbidity and mortality.<sup>1</sup> Per NL and the New Haven, the virus associated with upper and lower respiratory tract disease and likely common human pathogens are identified as the Group-I coronaviruses (SARS- CoV-I). The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-II), which appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, is responsible for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and causes respiratory symptoms that can feel like a cold, flu, or pneumonia. Geographical transmission of the virus and the sudden increase in cases are much faster than SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). COVID-19 is the first global pandemic caused by a coronavirus causing outbreaks in 211 countries. The vaccine against COVID-19 is an effective prophylactic strategy for controlling and preventing the virus. The vaccine is being developed in about 90 institutions worldwide. This research paper focuses on COVID-19 vaccine development strategies implemented by various institutions and pharmaceutical companies worldwide and regulatory requirements for vaccine approval.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Human Coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), COVID-19 vaccine development strategies</p> Rohan Kulkarni Sai Priya Kallepalli Samit Dharia Girish Kamble Madhukiran Parvathaneni ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 159 164 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5868 Habb-e-Azaraqi, A Potent Unani Pharmacopoeial preparation used in Neurological disorder: A review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5914 <p>Unani medicine relies on drugs of natural origin for the treatment of various medical conditions. It is practised throughout Asia and particularly in India. The rich natural drug asset of Unani medicine includes both single and compound drugs. <em>Habb-e-Azaraqi</em> is a polyherbal Unani formulation used clinically since decades for the management of various neurological disorders like facial palsy, paralysis, gout and arthritis. The explicit nature of <em>Habb-e-Azaraqi</em> rationalizes its use in nervine disorders. The main ingredient of <em>Habb-e-Azaraqi</em> is <em>Azaraqi mudabbar</em> (detoxified <em>Strychnos nux-vomica</em> L.) which is known for its diverse medicinal uses. This review highlights the traditional uses of <em>Habb-e-Azaraqi</em>, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of its ingredient.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong><em>Habb-e-Azaraqi;</em> Facial palsy; Paralysis; Strychnos nux-vomica; Unani medicine</p> Saba Bano Qamrul Islam Usmani Mohd Aleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 165 170 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5914 A Review on the Some Biological Activities of the Hydantoin Derivatives http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5904 <p>Hydantoin derivatives are commonly used anticonvulsants. In general, they are effective for partial-onset seizures and tonic-clonic seizures, but not for absence seizures. Phenytoin is the most important drug in this group, and other drugs, ethotoin, and mephenytoin, are also commonly used to treat epilepsy. Prodrugs such as derivatives have been created. Phenytoin is effective in some cases of trigeminal neuralgia and related neuralgia. Phenytoin is also used to treat arrhythmias. Hydantoins or glycolylureas are heterocyclic organic compounds with the formula CH2C(O)NHC(O)NH. It is a colorless solid formed by the reaction of glycolic acid and urea. It is an oxidized derivative of imidazolidine. In a more general sense, hydantoins can refer to groups and classes of compounds that share the same ring structure as their parent. For example, phenytoin (see below) has two phenyl groups substituted at the 5<sup>th</sup> carbon of the hydantoin molecule. Actual chemotherapy for epilepsy dates back to the 1850s when "inorganic bromides" were introduced. However, it is worth noting that around the 1920s, the therapeutic and beneficial use of 'phenobarbital' usheredin an era of meaningful treatment of epilepsy. Hydantoin ring chemistry is the synthesis of rings by various methods and their applications in the medical field. Previous descriptions of hydantoin-containing compounds have broad pharmacological and biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-immune, antimetabolite, antioxidant, antibacterial, CNS-related, anticonvulsant, antitussive, and cytoprotective activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hydantoin derivatives, anticonvulsants, partial-onset seizures and tonic-clonic seizures</p> Somnath Wadghane Rohit Bhor Ganesh Shinde Mahesh Kolhe Pooja Rathod ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 171 178 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5904 The Potentials of Herbal Plant against the Psoriasis http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5903 <p>Chronic autoimmune skin disease termed psoriasis is characterised by excessive keratinocyte multiplication, scaly plaques, severe inflammation, and erythema. T lymphocytes, leukocytes, vascular endothelium, and epidermal keratinocytes also contribute in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Increased leukocyte recruitment and increased levels of cytokines, growth factors, and genetic factors like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interferon (IFN), transforming growth factor (TGF), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3), 15-lipoxygenase (LOX)-2. The most important aspects impacting the treatment of psoriasis are coiled-coil alpha-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Various synthetic medicinal drugs have also been known to have the side effect of psoriasis. Due to their safety and accessibility, herbal medications may indicate the potential as effective anti-psoriatic agents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Psoriasis, Herbal Drug, <em>Silybum marianum, Thespesia populnea, Mahonia aquifolium</em></p> Jayshree B Sanap Anil V. Chandewar Nitin Kochar Shatrughna Uttam Nagrik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 179 182 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5903 The Current Trends in Microspheres: A Review http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5915 <p>The idea of targeted drug delivery is to concentrate the treatment in the target tissues while lowering the relative concentration of the drug in the non-target tissues. As a result, the medication is concentrated at the desired location. As a result, the medication has no effect on the tissues nearby. Therefore, by combining the drug with a carrier particle like microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes, etc. that regulates the release and absorption characteristics of the drug, carrier technology offers an intelligent way for drug delivery. Microspheres are naturally biodegradable powders made of proteins or synthetic polymers that flow freely and preferably have a particle size of less than 200 m. If improved, it is the trustworthy method for maintaining the desired concentration at the site of interest without unfavourable effects and reliably delivering the drug to the target site with specificity. Microspheres attracted a lot of interest for their sustained release as well as their ability to direct anti-cancer medications to the tumour. Microspheres will play a key role in novel drug delivery in the future by fusing together a variety of other strategies, especially in diseased cell sorting, diagnostics, gene &amp; genetic materials, safe, targeted, and efficient in vivo delivery, and supplements as miniature representations of diseased organs and tissues in the body.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Microspheres, controlled release, Types of microspheres, Methods of preparation, characterisation of microspheres, applications.</p> Tusharkumar Gautam Ingle Shrikant D. Pande Roshni Sawarkar Dipti Padole ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-01-15 2023-01-15 13 1 183 194 10.22270/jddt.v13i1.5915