Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2020-01-16T21:35:11-06:00 Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <form></form> Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Algerian Propolis Extracts (Region of Serdj el ghoul) 2020-01-15T02:29:29-06:00 El-Khamsa Soltani Kamel Mokhnache Noureddine Charef <p>Aqueous and ethanolic extracts (EAP and EEP) of propolis sample collected from Serdj El Ghoul, region of Sétif (east of Algeria), were prepared and evaluated to identify their biological activities. Total phenolic contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and found to be 164,690 ± 0,044 (EAP), 155,078 ± 0,176 mg cafeic acid equivalent/ g of propolis. Flavonoids were evaluated by AlCl<sub>3</sub> method and shown to be 9,839± 0,006 (EAP), 55,758 ± 0,128 (EEP) mg quercetin equivalent/ g of propolis. The free radical scavenging potential of the extracts was determined by the DPPH method, the IC50 are estimated at 0.0865 (BHT), 0.0223 (EAP), 0.0194 (EEP) mg/mL. We can conclude that propolis contains molecules that are considered first class of antioxidants and can be used for therapeutic applications, knowing that antioxidants contribute very effectively to disease prevention such as cancer, and cardiovascular disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Propolis, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, Antioxidant</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and evaluation of chewable tablets of Desloratadine prepared by aqueous and non-aqueous techniques 2020-01-15T02:29:29-06:00 Muhammad Abbas Musharraf Abbas Fatima Tariq Rabiya Yasin Muhammad Nabeel <p>In the modern era, chewable tablets are preferred over conventional dosage forms by pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients due to difficulty in swallowing, lesser amount of water for swallowing medications as well as unable to tolerate the bitter taste of certain drugs. Chewable tablets of Desloratadine (DS) were formulated by aqueous and non-aqueous granulation method using water paste and Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as a wetting agents respectively. Desloratadine is used to treat the symptoms of allergy such as sneezing, watery eyes. In the recent research, we have formulated eight trials by various concentrations of excipients. For instance; lactose, talcum, magnesium stearate, blue color, flavor, aspartame, mannitol, avicel 101 and polyvenylpyrollidine (PVP). Pre-compression and post compression parameters (thickness, hardness, friability weight variation and drug content) of the formulations were evaluated. B<sub>3</sub> was our optimum dosage form because its Hausner’s ratio, compressibility index, bulk density, tap density, angle of repose have optimum values i.e. 1.01, 5.1%, 0.66(g/cc), 0.69(g/cc), 26.1º respectively and post-compression i.e. thickness, hardness, friability weight variation and drug content have values, 2.9mm, 3.9(kg/cm²), 0.6%, 99.5% respectively. Tablets prepared by wet granulation technique showed reasonable release profile i.e. 100% within the required time i.e. 2 hours.&nbsp; Moreover, organoleptic evaluation of all formulations were performed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Desloratadine, chewable, magnesium stearate, aspartame, compressibility, granulation.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Qualitative Phytochemical Screening, GCMS Studies and In-Vitro Anti-Oxidative Properties of Aqeuous Leaf Extract of Gnetum africanum 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 A.S. Ezekwe P.C. Ugwuezumba P. Nwankpa J.N. Egwurugwu C.N. Ekweogu F.C. Emengaha D. Akukwu <p>This study aimed at carrying out a qualitative phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies and in-vitro antioxidant properties of aqueous leaf extract of <em>Gnetum africanum</em>. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of <em>Gnetum africanum</em> was done using standard procedures and revealed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glucosides and phenols. The GC-MS screening revealed the presence of 14 compounds, 6 out of the 14 compounds were most prominent. The compound with the highest percentage peak area was caffeine with peak area of 96.9%, followed by n-Hexadacanotic acid with peak area of 60.9%, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol with peak area of 55.9%, tetradacanoic acid with peak area of 50.3%, cyclopentaneundecanoic acid with peak area of 47.8% and 2-cyclo-penten-1-2-hydroxy with peak area of 43.6% respectively. In-vitro determination of antioxidant property of leaf extract of <em>Gnetum africanum</em> was done photometrically using 2,2-dyhenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The DPPH scavenging ability of the leaf extract (43.2, 60.5, 68.8, and 75.7) was statistically significant at p&lt;0.05 when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid (81.1, 82.6, 85.1, and 90.4) % at 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/l. In conclusion, the leaf extract of <em>Gnetum africanum</em> is loaded with a host of important phytochemicals and has antioxidant properties which increase in potency with increase dose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Phytochemical Screening, GCMS Studies, Anti-Oxidant, <em>Gnetum africanum</em></p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-Vitro Comparative Dissolution Study of Commercially Available Paracetamol Tablet 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Ayan Kumar Kar Banhishikha Kar <p>Quality is the most important issue in the pharmaceutical field due to the presence of a drug which is considered as safe and therapeutically active agent. In-vitro evaluation ensures their quality, bioavailability as well as optimum therapeutic activity. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) which are the active metabolites of phenacetin is commonly used for the relief of headaches and pains, and is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu remedies. Paracetamols are available in different brands in Indian market. The main objective of the present study was to conduct the comparative in-vitro dissolution studies of various brands collected from the local market to determine whether all the formulations used were equivalent or significantly different. The calibration curve was constructed covering the concentration range of 1 to 10 mcg/ml at 268 nm by UV spectrophotometer (UV 2203 Double beam spectrophotometer, Shimadzu). &nbsp;Five different brands of Paracetamol of 500 mg conventional tablets from different manufacturers were selected in the study and dissolution testing in Phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 was conducted from each brands for 90 mins by using dissolution testing apparatus USP type-II. The dissolution rate was subjected to various mathematical models like zero order, first order, Higuchi and Hixson-Crowell equations to elucidate the kinetic behavior of drug release from the test samples. Different release kinetics model of all the selected brands was assuring the quality standard of manufacturing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Paracetamol, Marketed Tablet, In-Vitro dissolution study, Release profile.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Benefit and Safety of Vitamin B Combination to Reduce Fatigue and Improve Quality of Life in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon Rosa De Lima Renita Sanyasi Esdras Ardi Pramudita <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients often have a chronic fatigue and lower QoL, thus may increase morbidity and mortality in CKD patients. <strong>Objective:</strong> The objective was to identify the benefit and safety of administration of intravenous vitamin B combination to reducing fatigue, measure the prevalence of fatigue and QoL in CKD patients. <strong>Method: </strong>This study was an observational non control study for 4 weeks in CKD patients with routine hemodyalisis 2 times/week. Every subject has a routine administration of intravenous vitamin B combination, consist of 100 mg vitamin B<sub>1</sub>, 100 mg vitamin B<sub>6</sub>, and 5000 mcg vitamin B<sub>12</sub>, after each hemodyalisis. Visual analogue scale (VAS) used to measure the degree of fatigue. QoL measured using SF-8 questionnaire, consist of total, physical (PCS), and mental component (MCS). <strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of fatigue is high. The mean VAS score was 3.4±2.1 at baseline and there were 46.7% subjects with VAS score above the mean VAS score. After 4 weeks administration of vitamin B combination intravenously, the mean VAS score was decreasing from 3.4 to 2.7. The prevalence of fatigue was decreasing from 46.7% to 41%. This shifting was statistically significant (p:0.008). There was a score reduction in total component (20.19±4.8 to 19.29±4.9), PCS (13.44±3.1 to 12.99±3.5), and MCS (6.75±2.1 to 6.31±1.9). This score reduction indicated a better QoL. However, the reduction was not statistically significant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of fatigue is high. Intravenous vitamin B combination considered to be effective and safe to reducing the degree of fatigue in CKD patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: chronic kidney disease, fatigue, hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B combination, quality of life</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Mirabegron in Bulk and Dosage Form 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Rahul Suryawanshi Siddiqua Shaikh Snehal Patil <p>A new, simple, precise, accurate and reproducible Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for Simultaneous estimation of bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Separation of Mirabegron was successfully achieve , C18, 250X4.6mm, 5µm or equivalent in an isocratic mode utilizing methanol water (70:30) at pH 5.0 Adjusted to OPA at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and eluate was monitored at 243nm, with a retention time of 2.584 minutes for Mirabegron. The method was validated and the response was found to be linear in the drug concentration range of 50µg/ml to150 µg/ml for Mirabegron. The values of the correlation coefficient were found to 0.999for Mirabegron. The Limit of Detection(LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) for Mirabegron were found to be 0.149 and 0.498 respectively. This method was found to be good percentage recovery were found to be 99 indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. The specificity of the method shows good correlation between retention times of standard with the sample so, the method specifically determines the analyte in the sample without interference from excipients of tablet dosage forms. The method was extensively validated according to International Council for Harmonisation(ICH) guidelines for Linearity, Accuracy, Precision, Specificity and</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Documentation of Indigenous Knowledge on Folk Medicine in Doddakavalande Doddakavalande Hobli, Nanjangud Taluk of Mysore District, Karnataka 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 M Nagalakshmi S Rashmi <p>An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to collect information from traditional healers on the use of herbal medicine in Doddakavalande Hobli, Nanjangud taluk of Mysore District. The indigenous knowledge of local healers was documented through questionnaire and personal interviews. In the present study, about 19 respondents of age group between 50 to 89 yrs gave information of traditional medicines used to cure different ailments. Of about 35 plant species belonging to 26 families were used for the treatment of human ailments. In which family Fabaceae and Polygonaceae contained 3 plant species, followed by Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Poaceae contained 2 species each, and the rest of the families Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Cleastraceae, Crassulaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae,&nbsp; Meliaceae,&nbsp; Olaceae, Phylanthaceae, Piperaceae,&nbsp; Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Rutaceae,&nbsp; Smilacaceae, Solanaceae,&nbsp; Styracaceae and Zingiberaceae. Habit wise analysis of medicinal plant species used indicated that herbs (19 species) were the most preferred life form followed by trees (8 species), shrubs (5 species) and climbers (3 species) for drug formulation. Herbal formulations were administrated either internally or applied externally depending on the type of ailment. Local people in the study area possess traditional knowledge of medicinal plants to treat various human ailments, therefore it is necessary to preserve the indigenous knowledge on traditional medicines by proper documentation, identification of plant species used, and herbal preparation.</p> <p>Keywords: Ethnobotany, Traditional knowledge, Medicinal plants, Mysore district.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Topical Gel Containing Leaves Extract of Andrographis paniculata 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Aney Joice Samuel Nida Mulla <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The present study has been undertaken with the aim to formulate and evaluate the gel contaning leaf extract of Andrographis Paniculata.</p> <p><strong>Methodology and results: </strong>The formulation was designed by using alcoholic extract of leaves of Andrographis paniculata.The gel was prepared by using&nbsp; carbapol 934, triethanolamine, propylene glycol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben and required amount of distilled water. The prepared gel was evaluated for physical appearance, pH, spread ability, viscosity, extrudability, albumin denaturation assay and stability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Carbopol gels with dried leaves extract of Andrographis paniculata could be prepared successfully.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Topical gel,Kalmegh, Spreadability, Albumin denaturation</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Sugammadex 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Rajashree Mashru Hemangi Parekh Parin Chokshi <p>A simple, precise, accurate, specific RP-HPLC method developed for sugammadex in bulk and simulated mixture. Chromatographic separation is achieved by C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5µ) in isocratic mode. The optimized mobile phase consists of acetonitrile and double distilled water in ratio of 20:80%v/v at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min and sugammadex was monitored at 210nm. Retention time of the drug was found to be 3.39min. The linearity obtained in range of 50 – 250 µg/mL.&nbsp; %RSD mean for precision and %Recovery mean of the sugammadex were found to be 0.63 and 99.04% - 99.84% respectively. Stability indicating nature of RP-HPLC method was established by applying the degradation condition. The results indicate that developed RP-HPLC method would be suitable for estimation of drug in presence of degradant product. The above developed method was validated according to ICH guideline.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Keywords:</strong> Sugammadex, Assay, Simulated Mixture, Forced Degradation, Validation.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and characterization of paclitaxel and embelin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for breast cancer 2020-01-15T02:29:31-06:00 Ajay Kumar Veerpal Kaur Amandeep Singh Neeraj Mishra <p>In an effort to develop an alternative formulation of combination of paclitaxel (PTX) and embelin (EMB) suitable for parenteral administration, PTX-EMB loaded sterically stabilized solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared, characterized and examined for <em>in vitro</em> cytotoxicity. The SLNs, comprising glycerol mono stearate (GMS) as a solid lipid core, Brij 35 used as surfactant and PEGylated phospholipid used as stabilizer, were prepared using a hot homogenization method. Optimized PTX-EMB loaded formulation, the particle sizes of the prepared SLNs were around 300 nm, suggesting that they would be suitable as a parenteral formulation. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the SLNs were homogeneous and spherical in shape. Entrapment efficiency of paclitaxel and embelin was 92.83 ± 2.2%, 83.25 ± 2.4% respectively. An <em>in vitro</em> drug release study were performed in PBS (pH 7.4) for 80 hrs and observed that paclitaxel and embelin released from the PEGylated SLNs was 93.91 ± 4.1 % and 75.63 ± 4.37 % respectively. Furthermore, treatment of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with PTX-EMB loaded SLNs yielded cytotoxicities comparable to PTX solution, PTX-EMB mixture solution and PTX loaded PEGylated SLNs. These results collectively suggest that our optimized SLN formulation may have a potential as alternative delivery system for parenteral administration of paclitaxel and embelin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Embelin, Apoptosis, Cancer, Cytotoxicity, Breast Cancer, Solid lipid nanoparticles.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Use of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques to Determinate the Epidemiology of Malaria Parasites in North Eastern Nigeria 2020-01-16T21:35:11-06:00 M.M. Lawan and M.I. Shago <p>The emergence of resistance to all antimalarial drugs in clinical use is now making it necessary to discover the markers responsible for the resistance. The principal aim of this research is the use of molecular diagnostic techniques to Determine the epidemiology of malaria parasites. Thirty blood samples were analyzed by microscopy and molecular techniques to monitor the relative efficiency in malaria diagnosis. Molecular analysis revealed 28 out of 30 samples as positive for malaria while Microscopic analysis revealed 27out of 30 samples as positive malaria parasite. The molecular analysis was particularly useful to unveil parasites presence in infections not detectable by blood smear analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, Epidemiology, Malaria Parasites</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ligand Decorated Embelin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Management of Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity 2020-01-15T02:29:31-06:00 Ajay Kumar M. Nikhat Khan Jovita Kanoujia Amandeep Singh Neeraj Mishra <p>Preparation of surface modified Embelin loaded nanoparticles (GA-PEG-PLGA) for the management of hepatotoxicity. Surface modified Embelin loaded GA-PEG-PLGA NPs were evaluated by NMR, FTIR, TEM techniques and <em>in vitro</em> release studies. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles was assessed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the cellular uptake study was evaluated using Hep G2 cells (liver cells lines). The hepatoprotecttive effect of the surface modified Embelin loaded GA-PEG-PLGA NPs was investigated in-vitro and in-vivo. The surface modified Embelin loaded GA-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles significantly increases the uptake of drug in liver by 2.5 folds more than plain drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Glycyrrhetinic acid, Receptor mediated, Surface functionalization, Embelin, PLGA nanoparticle.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bisphenol-A in Wistar Rats: Toxicological Study as Mitochondrial Disrupting Agent 2020-01-15T02:29:31-06:00 Ahmad Zahak Rohit Saraswat <p>BPA is an EDC which is continuously released into the environment because of its extensive usage as plasticizer and other industrial applications. The present study establishes BPA induced alterations in mitochondrial marker enzymes and hence cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies were performed to evaluate the histopathological changes in tissue on exposure to different doses of BPA for different time periods.&nbsp; Light microscopic examination of samples was done to evaluate the possible changes caused by treatment of different doses of BPA. After getting the results in light microscopy the changes and damage caused by BPA ultra-structurally were observed.&nbsp; Light microscopic study showed that BPA exposure for short duration of 7 days did not resulted in significant change in histology of Rat of treated animals. Light microscopic observations showed that low doses of BPA (5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) exposure for 14 days caused reduction in the number of cells in the layers of seminiferous tubules. Highest dose of BPA treatment for 14 days caused much damage to the seminiferous tubules. There were many ultra-structural changes found in the treated groups as compared to the control group. Hence it can be stated that due to the toxic effect of BPA the mitochondrial marker enzymes have shown marked reduction in their activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> BPA, EDCs, Light microscopic, Mitochondria and Toxicity.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analytical method development and validation for the determination of Brinzolamide by RP-HPLC 2020-01-15T02:29:31-06:00 Balakrishna Tiwari Mrunal K. Shirsat Amol Kulkarni <p>Brinzolamide is inhibitor of carbonic anhydride and is highly specific and non-competitive. The aim of the present study is to develop a simple, precise, accurate, sensitive RP-HPLC method for the determination of bulk drug. The objective of the method validation is to demonstrate whether the method was suited for the intended purpose. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The method was validated for linearity, precision (repeatability, intermediate precision), accuracy, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Cosmosil (4.6X250mm, 5 μ) column was used for separation. The selected wavelength for Brinzolamide was 254 nm. The mobile phase consists of Acetonitrile: Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (40:60). Flow rate was delivered at 1.0 mL/min. Appropriate dilutions of standard stock solutions were prepared to get desired concentrations in the range of 100-500 mcg/ml. The equation od standard curve was y = 441.8x + 1132 and R<sup>2</sup> = 0.998. The RT obtained was 6.6167 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Brinzolamide, UV spectroscopy, RP-HPLC, ICH</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Estimation of Cilnidipine 2020-01-15T02:29:31-06:00 Balakrishna Tiwari Mrunal K. Shirsat Amol Kulkarni <p>Cilnidipine is one of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. It was created combinedly by Fuji Viscera Pharmaceutical Company, Ajinomoto and Japan and was approved in the year 1995. Cilnidipine acts on N-type calcium channel where exist the end of sympathetic nerve in addition to common L-type calcium channel like that of other calcium antagonists. China, Japan, India, Korea and several other countries approved this drug. The objective of the method validation is to demonstrate whether the method was suited for the intended purpose. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The method was validated for linearity, precision (repeatability, intermediate precision), accuracy, specificity, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Cosmosil (4.6 X 250mm, 5 μ) column was used for separation. The selected wavelength for Cilnidipine was 241 nm. The mobile phase consists Methanol: Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (50:50). Flow rate was delivered at 1.0 mL/min. Appropriate dilutions of standard stock solutions were prepared as per the get desired concentrations in the range of 100-500 mcg/ml. The RT obtained was 4.8165 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cilnidipine, UV spectroscopy, RP-HPLC, ICH</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Targeted Based Drug Delivery System for Colon Cancer 2020-01-15T02:29:29-06:00 Veerpal Kaur Amandeep Singh Amandeep Singh Kirandeep Kaur Goutam Rath <p>Regardless of so many advancements in the treatment, colon cancer still stands third in cancer-related deaths worldwide. Toxicity associated with conventional drugs is one of the major problems associated with chemotherapy. Targeted delivery works by concentrating the medication in the tissues of interest and reducing the concentration in remaining tissues. This delivery system helps the drug molecule to reach preferably to the desired site. The targeting will lower the requirement of a higher dose of the drug thus reducing the dosage frequency. The present review focuses on the various parameters of targeted drug delivery including the criteria for selection of drug and factors affecting the targeted drug delivery and also includes the brief discussion about different targeted drug deliveries for colon cancer therapies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>colon cancer, targeted drug delivery, chemotherapies</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cubosomes: A Novel Carrier for Transdermal Drug Delivery 2020-01-15T02:29:29-06:00 Avantika Dhadwal Dev Raj Sharma Vinay Pandit Mahendra Singh Ashawat Pravin Kumar <p>Cubosomes are square and rounded particles with internal cubic lattice. Cubosomes are thermodynamically stable and consist of honeycombed (cavernous) structures separating two internal aqueous channels and a large interfacial area. Cubosomes are nanoparticles which are self assembled liquid crystalline particles of certain surfactants with proper ratio of water with microstructure that provides unique properties of practical interest. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phase is optically clear and very viscous material has the unique structure at nanometer scale. The word bicontinuous refers to the division of the two continuous but non-intersecting aqueous regions by lipid bilayer that is twisted into space filling structure. Hydrating a surfactant or polar lipid that forms cubic phase and then dispersing a solid like phase into smaller particles usually forms a cubosomes. Self-assembled cubosomes as active drug delivery systems are receiving more and more attention and interest after the first discovery and nomination. They exhibit different internal cubic structure and composition with different drug-loading modalities. It has high internal surface area and cubic crystalline structures, relatively simple preparation method, biodegradability of lipids, the ability of encapsulating hydrophobic, hydrophilic and amphiphilic substances, targeting and controlled release of bioactive agents. Cubosomes are having wide range of applications in various fields and they can be characterized by various evaluation parameters. So, Cubosomes are gaining more attention in pharmaceutical field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cubosomes, Liquid crystal, drug-loading, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, amphiphilic.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Burden of Atrial Fibrillation as Stroke Risk Factor in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon Niyata Hananta Karunawan <p><strong>Introduction</strong> Stroke is the most burden complication in a patient with atrial fibrillation. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the common cardiac arrythmia in stroke patients. The epidemiology study of AF-associated stroke were limited published research in southeast. This study may prove valuable in routine clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify the latest evidence on the epidemiology of AF related stroke in southeast Asia regions.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We performed a comprehensive search on prevalence or incidence of atrial fibrillation related stroke from inception up until September 2019 through PubMed and Cochrane Central Database. The keywords were the combination of the following words:&nbsp; “stroke”, “epidemiology”, “atrial fibrillation”, and was then used with the name of each country in southeast Asia”. The inclusion criteria of the study i.e : patients with stroke, was a original papers with observational study, concerned on AF in stroke patients in southeast Asia. Data on incidence and prevalence were obtained from hospital-based studies and community-based studies.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Atrial Fibrillation prevalence data are available in five countries in southeast Asia, a total of the 11 articles identified were from Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Indonesia were also represented. The reported prevalence of AF as a risk factor of stroke patients was 2.6 % until 23.04% based on hospital-based studies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> AF is one of risk factors that associated with the stroke. This study also showed that prevalence AF in South East Asia ranged&nbsp; 2.6 – 23.04 % . However, owing to the limited number of studies in southeast Asian countries, further investigation is needed before drawing a definite true of prevalence of AF in the southeast Asia population.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Atrial Fibrillation, AF-associated Stroke, Epidemiology, Risk Factors.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tirosyne Kinase Inhibithors (TKIs) in the Treatment of Non –Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), Practical Pharmacological Aspects 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Alexandru C. Grigorescu Laura Mihaela Teodorescu <h2>Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors are new drugs developed in the last decade. For Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer this drug brought more hope for patients with this disease. Also TKIs are better tolerated then chemotherapy. The efficacy of TKIs is dependent of the presence of Epidermal Grows Factor Receptor gene mutation. This mutation account for about 9% of patients with lung cancer in Europe. This short review try to give the minimal knowledge to clinicians, especially medical oncologists, about mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics of TKIs used in the treatment NSCLC.</h2> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI); Non -Small Cell Lung Cancer; Pharmacokinetics aspects</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Current Approaches on Gastroretentive Drug Delivery systems 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Aniket Uttam Pund Raosaheb Sopanrao Shendge Ajinkya Kailas Pote <p>Over recent years, there have been many efforts to develop the absorption rate of medications and the therapeutic efficacy of oral dosage types. GRDDS for strengthen the pharmacological effects of drugs with a small uptake site, are unbalanced at pH greater than 7, are dissolved under acidic region, and are effective local region in the stomach. The gastro retentive systems that have the different evaluation parameter that according to the dosage forms. There are many criteria for the choosing of the drug used in the gastro-retardant systems as the drug should be sparingly stable, it should be compatible with the gastric region, and narrow absorption. In this review, we have summarized the information related to the various approaches for enhancing and prolonging of the dosage forms in the stomach for their extended-release of action. Also talking about the many natural and synthetic polymers is used in the formulation with their different grade and their ratio that affects on the release action. The many scientist and inventors have increased their interest in developing the novel dosage forms and they staying in the stomach for showing the prolonged period action. We have also discussed the novel technology are involved in the gastric retention many companies has been developed the polymer grades for using it in the formulation for showing the retention action.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Introduction, Approaches, Novel technologies, Polymer used in floating systems.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advanced technologies in the modern era for augmented patient health care and drug delivery 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Asish Dev Soma Khanra Nilay Shah <p>The objective of the work is to recognize the recent advancements in the modern health care and drug delivery systems. The article describes few recent developments in technology like artificial intelligence, personalized medicines, customized medicines, 3D printing, bioelectronic devices and tele pharmacy, which have the potential to augment health care and drug delivery in coming times. Personalized medication ensures precise health care as per the individual genetic makeup of the patients. The 3D printing technology enables to deliver tailor made solutions to fulfil individual patient requirements. Bioelectronic medicines and devices are new technology where the patient wears a device and its electrical signal cures certain ailments. Tele pharmacy ensures that the technological advances of telecommunications are also passed on to the patient health care sector. Moreover, it can be said that all these modern developments ensure that the quality of life improves and there comes a better control on the health care costs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> artificial intelligence, personalized medicines, customized medicines, 3D printing, bioelectronic devices and tele pharmacy</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Use of Natural Products in the Management of Diabetes: The Current Trends 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 AA Adedapo IO Ogunmiluyi <p>Natural products have played and continue to play a great role in the management of different diseases. Natural products are usually believed to be safer, cheaper, easily available and sometimes more efficacious than purely synthetic drugs. Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem in the world. There is no cure for diabetes. With the increase in a number of newer drugs for diabetes, there is the possibility of a wide range of side effects that vary from one drug to another.&nbsp; It is, therefore, essential to practice effective methods of the treatment and management of diabetes. Hence, the need to explore antidiabetic drugs of natural origin with minimal side effects is highly essential. This review provides a scientific perspective on the usage and research of natural traditional remedies in the management of diabetes. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive and concise overview of the previously reported clinical trials of antioxidative natural products in the management of diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes, Natural products, Hyperglycemia, Diabetic complications,</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Psychotic Disorders, Definition, Sign and Symptoms, Antipsychotic Drugs, Mechanism of Action, Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics with Side Effects & Adverse Drug Reactions: Updated Systematic Review Article 2020-01-15T02:29:30-06:00 Rohit Bangwal Shivam Bisht Saurabh Saklani Shobit Garg Mohan Dhayani <p>Psychosis is a mental disorder characterized by a disconnection from reality. Psychosis is a group of disorder characterized by thought disorder, abnormal behaviour, defective cognition, delusion and hallucination. Adverse drug reaction is defined as any undesired or unintended effects of drugs treatment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO)- “adverse drug reaction (ADRs) has been defined one which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or modification of physiological function”. Adverse drug reactions are the most important causes of the mortality and morbidity. Antipsychotics are the most effective drugs which are used in the psychiatry in the maintenance therapy of mania, psychoses and schizophrenia. The antipsychotics drugs are chemically disparate but have the common property of alleviating the symptoms of organic as well as functional psychosis. But they also have a capacity to cause a wide range of potential adverse drug reactions that can lead to non-compliance that can impair quality of life, may cause the extra pyramidal symptoms which can lead to discontinuation of therapy and in extreme cases it may be fatal. Knowledge of assessment of ADRs due to different antipsychotics is necessary. It helps to choose to safe treatment and reduce the risk of occurrence of ADRs by the clinicians. ADR are often poorly identified and reported in day to day medical practice. As we collect more and more information about ADRs, we need an active surveillance system regarding identification and reporting of ADRs with antipsychotic drugs.&nbsp; On many review articles are read &amp; ward round participation experiences we find that antipsychotic drugs can have shown a various kind of ADRs. Psychiatrist and clinical pharmacist are need to be made aware of these potentially fatal adverse effects associated with antipsychotic drugs via conduction of patients counseling regarding (drugs, disease, doses &amp; side effects), quality-based seminars, published medical literature, conferences, learning programs and health care camps.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antipsychotic Drugs, WHO, Adverse Drug Reactions, Pharmacovigilance, Psychiatrist.</p> 2020-01-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##