Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2020-06-30T12:36:12-05:00 Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <form></form> Pharmacognostic Screening of Elaeis guineensis ( Aracaceae) Jacq. Oil and its Effect as an Antidote on Cyanide Poisoning 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 Felix N. Osuala Uchenna E. Odoh Grace O. Muoneme Sylvester C. Ohadoma <p><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Elaeis guinenesis </em>is a perennial monocot belonging to the family <em>Arecaceae</em>. It is the source of the oil commonly called African palm oil or macaw fat which in traditional medicine has many uses</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study is focused on the pharmacognostic screening of oil of <em>Elaeis guineensis</em>, and its antidotal effect on cyanide poisoning.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The extracted oil was subjected to various screening technique in order to determine its quality, purity and chemical constituents. The oil was macroscopically examined; acute toxicity test of <em>Elaeis guineensis </em>oil was carried out on rats. The oil was subjected to heating to determine the moisture content. Phytochemical analysis was also carried out on the palm oil extract. The physicochemical analysis was carried to determine the acid value, saponification value, ester value, hydroxyl value and iodine value. The Ld<sub>50 </sub>for the pure cyanide was carried out on the rats using “Up and Down” method. The antidotal study of <em>Elaeis guineensis </em>oil was carried out on the rats.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Macroscopic evaluation showed, the oil was in fresh condition, smooth texture, bright red colour, characteristic taste, oily appearance and a characterictic smell. The Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponnins, alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids. The physicochemical analysis showed that the oil has an acid value of 31.2, Saponification value of 194.8, Ester value 163.54, Peroxide value of 18.0, Hydroxyl Percentage of 2.07% and Free Fatty Acid of 3.65. The moisture content was calculated to be 0.2%. For the acute toxicity test on the oil using Lorkes method no death was recorded. The LD<sub>50 </sub>of the cyanide carried out on the rats showed that the lethal dose of cyanide is 5 mg/kg. The antidotal effect of <em>Elaeis guineensis</em> oil showed the absence of death on the group given oil extract alone and the groups that were poisoned and given the oil (antidote) within 4 minutes. Deaths were recorded for the groups that were administered antidotes after 8 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Elaeis guineensis </em>oil has counteracting effect on cyanide poisoning if administered within four minutes of cyanide ingestion.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Quercetin like Structure from Dalbergia sissoo (Fabaceae) 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 Rohit Kumar KUMAR Bijauliya Pushpendra Kannojia Pankaj Mishra Gaurav Kumar Pathak <p>The present study was conducted to isolate and classify <em>Dalbergia sissoo</em> (L.) bioactive compounds. The genus consists of 300 species in India, including 25 species. The generic name Dalbergia honors the 18<sup>th</sup> century Swedish brothers Nils and Carl Dalberg. Various phytoconstituents of alkaloids, glycosides, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, sterols and terpenoids were isolated and classified from different parts of the plant. Thin Layer Chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, and Column Chromatography were used to isolate spots from the fraction of the crude extract to elucidate the chemical structure of <em>Dalbergia sissoo</em> (L.) leaf extract. Potential spots have been exposed to techniques of FTIR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. Column chromatography was exposed to the raw extract, obtaining 125 fractions, conducting TLC. Among them was a single band in TLC, characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy, and the structure was known as Quercetin. The results of this study indicate the effective potential compound of the ethanolic fraction of <em>Dalbergia sissoo</em> (L.).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Dalbergia sissoo</em>; Isolation &amp; Structure Elucidation; FTIR; NMR spectroscopy; Mass spectroscopy.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Biological Activity Profile of Nava (Freshly Collected) and Purana (Old) Dhanyaka (Coriandrum sativum Linn.) through Gas Chromatography and In-Vitro Anti-Microbial Study 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 , Chaithra Suma V Mallya Suchitra Prabhu <p><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Dhanyaka(Coriandrum sativum </em>Linn.) belonging to family <em>Apiaceae</em> is one such common aromatic edible herb, the fruits of which are used as <em>carminative, antimicrobial and cooling</em>. Classical texts of<em> Ayurveda</em> advocate these fruits to be used in old condition. With this background, a study was done to compare biological activity profile of Nava and <em>Purana Dhanyaka</em>(<em>Coriandrum sativum </em>Linn.) through, Gas chromatography and&nbsp;&nbsp; in-vitro anti-microbial activity. <strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Fresh fruits of <em>Dhanyaka(Coriandrum sativum</em> Linn.) were collected from Rona, Gadag district and authenticated. The fresh fruits named as <strong>S1</strong> with which essential oil extracted using clevengers apparatus. Few fruits were kept in an air tight container and stored for one year, and at the end of a year named as sample(<strong>S<sub>2</sub></strong>), essential oil extracted and stored. Both samples were subjected for GC and in-vitro antimicrobial activity. <strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>The Essential oil of <em>Nava Dhanyaka(</em><strong>S<sub>1</sub>)</strong> included 17 identified compounds which was dominated by monoterpenes and sesquiterpene; whereas <strong><em>S<sub>2</sub></em> </strong>showed 6 identified compounds in which 3 constituents <em>isoborneol, citronellyl acetate </em>and <em>geraniol</em> were new findings<em>.&nbsp; </em>In-vitro anti-microbial study of essential oil extract showed that <em>Purana Dhanyaka</em>(S<sub>2</sub>) had better efficacy with respect to the standard against the strain <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Candida albicans; </em>whereas that of&nbsp; <em>Nava Dhanyaka</em>(S<sub>1</sub>) against only one bacterial strain ie., <em>Streptococcus pyogens.</em> <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Preservation of <em>Dhanyaka(Coriandrum sativum</em> Linn.) showed biological changes in terms of&nbsp; antimicrobial activity compared to fresh sample.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong><em>Dhanyaka,</em> <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> Linn., Gas chromatography, In-vitro antimicrobial study)</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Piroxicam Fast Dissolving Tablets Using Direct Compression and Sublimation Method 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 Inder Kumar Dipima Chaudhary Bhumika Thakur Vinay Pandit <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In the present research work, fast dissolving tablets of Piroxicam were formulated by two different techniques i.e. direct compression method and sublimation method using different superdisintegrants.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twelve formulations were prepared (PXM1 to PXM12) in which first six formulation were prepared by direct compression technique and other six formulation were prepared by sublimation method by using camphor as a sublimating agent.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong> All the formulations were subjected for precompression, post compression parameters, and shows all the data within the specific limits. Formulation PXM4 containing 5 % crospovidone showed 99.480 ± 0.291 % drug release in 20 min which was more than the drug release of rest of the formulations. The optimized formulation PXM4 was compared with the marketed formulation and it revealed that drug release of PXM4 was found to be 99.397 ± 0.751 % in 20 min, which was greater than the marketed formulation. Finally, results were statistically analysed by the application of one way ANOVA and t-test. The stability study of the optimized formulation PXM4 showed no significant changes in, drug content, disintegration time and <em>in-vitro </em>drug release.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Piroxicam can be successfully prepared using direct compression technique and it will enhance the drug dissolution, which will further increase absorption and bioavailability of the drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Direct compression, fast dissolving tablets, sublimation, Piroxicam.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation, Characterization and Antihelminthic Activity Testing of Nitazoxanide Superporous Hydrogel Tablets 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 S. Vinaya Srikala Nagam Santhi Priya Rama Rao Nadendla <p>In the pharmaceutical field controlled release products have the ability to maintain desired medicament concentration or a longer period of time. Certain drugs are relatively insoluble in water and have high dose requirements that render unsuitable formulation difficulties in sustained release formulations. Nitazoxanide which is a high dose water insoluble antiprotozoal drug was formulated with the aim. To modulate gastro-retentive dosage form based on the superporous hydrogel composites. Foaming technique was used in the preparation of SPH composites. The superporous hydrogels were extremely sensitive to pH of swelling media and good porosity. Superporous hydrogels tablets of nitazoxanide showed good pre-compressional and post-compressional properties. Formulation X is the best formulation containing chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol, formaldehyde, exhibited good swelling ratio. The compatibility studies were performed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Studies, Differential Scanning Calorimetry Studies (DSC). All formulations were evaluated for stability, drug content, and kinetic drug release &amp; <em>in-vitro</em> drug release profile. It was concluded that the proposed gastro-retention drug delivery provides a different supply of nitazoxanide directly to the stomach.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nitazoxanide, Anti protozoal, foaming technique, Chitosan</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Histological study of the effects of aluminum chloride exposure on the brain of wistar rats female 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 Hadjer Bekhedda Norredine Menadi Abbassia Demmouche Abdelaziz Ghani Hicham Mai <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Aluminum (Al) has the potential to be neurotoxic in human and animals, is present everywhere in the environment, many manufactured foods and medicines and is also added to drinking water for purification purposes and tooth paste cosmetic products They accumulate in living organisms and disrupt balances, and accumulate in the body biological systems, causing toxic effects (They may affect the nervous system, kidney, liver, respiratory or other functions). Nervous system is a vulnerable target for toxicants due to critical voltages which must be maintained in the cells and the all responses when voltages reach threshold levels.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> This study aimed to expose the impact of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on brain architecture.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In our study, twenty healthy female rats were intraperitoneal administered of aluminum chloride (ALCL3) at 10 mg / kg body weight with consecutively for 15 day</p> <p><strong>Result.</strong> The results showed a highly significant reduction in body weight <strong>(p&lt;0.0001). </strong>&nbsp;This is because aluminum has an anorectic effect contrariwise, there is no significant impact of aluminium exposure has been observed with respect to brain weight and relative brain weight respectively <strong>(p&lt;0.912), (p&lt;0.45)</strong>.</p> <p>The histological study describes the alterations in the brain marked tissue necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolations and karyopyknosis of neuronal cells of the brain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion;</strong> Aluminum is a toxic heavy metal and a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. It can alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain, severely affecting the functioning of the nervous system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Toxicity, brain, Aluminium chloride, Rats female, necrosis.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Evaluation of Gastro-retentive Floating Tablet of Rilpivirine Hydrochloride for the Treatment of HIV 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 Dipali Trivedi Arti Majumdar Neelesh Malviya <p>Besides enormous improvements in drug delivery, oral route has been highly and effectively utilized route of administration. Floating drug delivery that is also known to be low density system is advancement in the class of gastro-retentive drug delivery system. In the present research work, floating drug delivery of Rilpivirine hydrochloride was developed by overcoming various limitations and troubles associated with the drug including poor absorption in intestinal pH and degradation when comes in contact with higher pH environment. <sup>[2]</sup> Prepared formulations were evaluated for various parameters like friability, hardness, thickness, drug content analysis, floating properties and in-vitro drug release study. Based on the evaluation, concluded that floating drug delivery system is a non-toxic as well as cost-effective technique for the rationale of enhancing bioavailability and absorption of poorly water soluble drugs. The improvement in gastric residence time is a clear sign. It can be able to use in the future for more acidic soluble drugs to enhance solubility and absorption.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Floating drug delivery, gastric residence time, Rilpivirine, effervescent, NNRTI.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Fungi from Peganum harmala (Laghouat, Algeria) 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 Yasmina Ouzid Siliya Karaoui Noria Smail Saadoun Karim Houali <p>Medicinal plants are an inexhaustible source of molecules. They are colonized by mycoendophytes, fungi living in their tissues without apparent symptoms. These fungi can provide secondary metabolites with biological activities. It is with this in mind that we are interested in a spontaneous plant from the dayas region (Laghouat, Algeria): <em>Peganum harmala </em>or Harmel, a toxic medicinal plant belonging to the family Zygophyllaceae. Our study consists in highlighting the antibacterial activity of four kinds of mycoendophytes: <em>Cladosporium, Alternaria, Aspergillus</em> and <em>Penicillium</em> isolated from the leaves of this plant. The antibacterial activity is evaluated by the technique of the double disk diffusion on agar with respect to some Gram-positive bacterial strains. We have adopted two protocols for this purpose. For the first, the mycelia of all the mushrooms are deposited in the same petri dish. For the second, a single disc of the mycelium of a single species is deposited per box. The results obtained show a difference in the sensitivity of the bacterial strains to the bioactive substances of the mycoendophytes studied. The <em>Alternaria</em> genus showed the most significant activity. ANOVA performed between the mean diameters of the mycoendophyte inhibition zones and the antibiotic test disc: Chloramphenicol showed a highly significant difference between these two measurements. The Newman-Keuls test revealed a difference in the susceptibility of bacterial strains to the secondary metabolites of fungus mycoendophytes of <em>Peganum harmala</em> according to the two protocols used. The antibacterial effect is related to interactions between endophytic fungi and their host plant.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 2020-06-15T02:56:47-05:00 Christeena S Varghese Harshita Krishna Naik R Sangeetha R Srinivasan <p><strong>Back ground:</strong> Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is the most common health related problem. Poor long term adherence is the major clinical issue in the management of CKD. Therefore good medication adherence is important to obtain desired therapeutic outcome which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. The aim of the study is to carry out a study on medication adherence and to improve health related quality of life in patients with CKD.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To evaluate medication adherence and to assess the factors associated with non adherence and to provide patient counselling to improve medication adherence and to improve their quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective study conducted for a period of six months in NU Hospitals Bengaluru. A total of 140 patients (62 were undergoing hemodialysis, 66 were CKD stage 3-5 and 12 were post-transplant patients) were enrolled for the study. Patient’s adherence to medication was assessed with the help of Modified Morisky, Green, Levine Medication Adherence Scale and Quality of life was assessed with the help of Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form 36 questionnaire. One to one follow up was done after 3 months of initial data collection.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> During the study 140 patients were enrolled for the study with 103 males and 37 females. Patient with low and medium adherence during the first visit were 7 (5%) and 21 (45%) respectively and patients with high adherence during baseline visit were 80%, which later improved to 85.7% in the final review after patient counselling. Quality of life is decreased in patients with CKD. The domain with highest average score was emotional well being (8.4) and lowest average score was role limitation due to physical health (4.12). There was a slight improvement in Quality of Life of the patients after patient counselling.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Study suggests that patient counselling by clinical pharmacists can improve the medication adherence by improving awareness about medication which in turn helps them to achieve a better quality of life.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Drug Utilization of Antibiotics in Respiratory Tract Infections among Geriartrics 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Sripuram Charave Reshmi Suresh , Shihab Mohammed Fayiz Apoorva Dev <p><strong>Back ground:</strong> Respiratory Tract Infections (RTIs) often pose a major threat for geriatric patients (&gt;60 years) who are at higher risk of developing complications. The first line treatments for RTIs are antibiotics which help in reducing the infection. As there is increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance it is necessary to conduct drug utilization of antibiotics which helps in better understanding about errors and risks involved in prescriptions.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The objective of the study is to access the prescribing pattern, appropriate use of antibiotics and inappropriateness of antibiotics in viral infections.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The present study is a prospective observational study. The study included 110 patients which included the evaluation of the patients medical records of antibiotics, sputum culture reports and physician records.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 110 geriartric RTI patients, female (59.09%) were more predominantly affected over males (40.90%). Among the RTIs diagnosed pneumonia (40%) was higher followed by LRTI (28.18%). The common signs and symptoms found were breathlessness (34.54%) with major comorbidity of diabetes milletus (47.31%). Piperacillin + tazobactam (40.90%) was the mostly prescribed antibiotic for both gram positive (Streptococci) and gram negative (<em>E. coli</em>) bacteria which was given through I.V. (90%). Total drug interactions and medication errors were 13.03% and 3.32% respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study gives an overview of antibiotics use and complications involved in geriatric population diagnosed with RTIs. Appropriate antibiotic usage according to Hospital Antibiotic Policy was observed in the study site with lower number of medication errors and drug interactions.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Respiratory Tract Infections, drug utilization, antibiotics, geriatrics.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Computational Quantum Chemical Study, Drug-Likeness and In Silico Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Some Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Walid Bououden Yacine Benguerba <p>This paper contains a theoretical study of ten Anti-inflammatory steroids (AIS) on the understanding of the relationship between the structure and activity of the drug, the pharmacokinetic parameters responsible for bioavailability and bioactivity and finally the toxicity evaluation. DFT calculations with B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level have been used to analyze the electronic and geometric characteristics deduced for the stable structure of the compounds. Moreover, using the Frontier Molecular orbital (FMO) energies, MEP surface visualizations and the density-based descriptors such as chemical potential (<strong>µ</strong>), electronegativity (<strong>χ</strong>), hardness (<strong>η</strong>) and softness (<strong>σ</strong>), the chemical stability were determined. Furthermore, in silico, studies showed that Lipinski rules are applied, which means that these (AIS) are expected to have a high probability of good oral bioavailability. On the other side, the bioinformatic Osiris/Molinspiration analyses of the relative cytotoxicity of these derivatives are reported in comparison to Cortisol. In fact, it has been showed that almost of these compounds are non-toxics except for Mometasone that presents a great risk of tumorigenicity during reproduction with a slightly mutagenic structure due to the two chloride atoms. from all results obtained, we can conclude that fluticasone has the best physico-chemical properties which explains its high efficiency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anti-inflammatory steroids, DFT, Lipinski rules, Tumorigenicity.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Prescribing Pattern of Antihypertensive in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Riny Thomas Sini Sam P Neelaphar P Shabeeb B A Vishwanath <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic kidney disease causes progressive loss of function which gradually occur overtime leading to decrease in GFR levels leading to dysfunction of renal system. Hypertension is found to be intermingled cause and overlapping complication in CKD. It is important to intervene the progression by controlling the blood pressure to prevent kidney failure by administration of anti-hypertensive. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To study current trends in anti-hypertensive prescription pattern in CKD patient and to evaluate the concurrent patterns are in adherence according to the guidelines mentioned. <strong>&nbsp;Methods: </strong>Prospective observational study was undertaken in patients who were satisfying the inclusion criteria and was enrolled into the study conducted for a 6months period in a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore. <strong>Results: </strong>150 CKD patients were examined out of which 72% prevalence seen in males compared to females 28%. Dual drug therapy was most preferred combination seen in 48% of the prescriptions. CCB was the most preferred class of drug and least preferred class of drug was ACE. More than 85% deviation from JNC-8 was seen. 20% of mono-therapy was found in adherence to JNC-8. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> A 15% adherence to JNC-8 guidelines was observed in the treatment indicating need for clinical pharmacist who play vital role in management of CKD by adherence to JNC-8 to ensure safety, efficacy and rationality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: C</strong>hronic kidney disease, Hypertension, Prescription pattern, JNC-8 guidelines, Compliance, Anti-Hypertensive.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Self-Medication Practice among Nursing Pharmacy and B. Arch Students in a Private Institution 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 A Arshiya AKHIL K SHAJI Tobin Sunny Ritty Sara Cherian B A Vishwanath <p><strong>Background: </strong>The consumption of drugs without consulting healthcare professional regardless of side effects and duration of therapy is known as self-medication. <strong>Objectives: </strong>This study was conducted to analyse the practice of SM among the students and to survey pharmacists regarding the practice of drug counselling while dispensing<strong>. Methods</strong>:&nbsp; 6 months Study was carried out by collecting the data with the help of questionnaire and thereby collecting their answers. The data was analysed statistically in terms of actual numbers and percentage<strong>. Results</strong>:&nbsp; According to our study the prevalence of SM is higher among&nbsp;&nbsp; juniors than seniors. Previous experience , economy, quick relief were&nbsp; most prevailing&nbsp; reasons for&nbsp; SM. Mostly to Fever and headache , acidity , cough , cold and arthritis .Most frequently used medications were analgesics, antipyretics, and antacids , and all they get information is from media , parents&nbsp; and friends most probably. Our study also revealed that in nearby pharmacies&nbsp; most of them were certified pharmacists(96%),mostly dispensed drugs were without prescription and people&nbsp; do not ask for counselling of the medicine due to lack of time and interest. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our study concluded that the prevalence of SM was seen in higher levels among the students and is the primary reason for irrational use of medicines. Hence proper information has to be given to the students about the negative effects of the drugs and to take proper advice and assistance by a health care professional before taking medication.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Self-medication, irrational use, prevalence, pharmacist, drugs.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extraction, Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract of Roots of Dactylorhiza hatagirea 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Shailja Sharma Prabhat Kumar Jain Geeta Parkhe <p>The present work showed phytochemical screening, anti-inflammatory activities and sub-acute toxicity of hydro-ethanolic extract of roots of <em>Dactylorhiza hatagirea </em>(<em>D. hatagirea</em>) and rhizomes of <em>Curcuma angustifolia</em> (<em>C. angustifolia</em>)<em>.</em> The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Edema method. Acute toxicity of the extract (2000 mg/kg) was examined in Swiss albino mice for 14 days. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Quantitative analysis of phenolic and flavonoids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent method and aluminium chloride method respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids. The total phenolics content of roots of <em>Dactylorhiza hatagirea</em> and rhizomes of <em>Curcuma angustifolia</em> extract was (0.675, 0.456mg/100mg), followed by flavonoids (0.832, 1.091mg/100mg) respectively. Hydro-ethanolic extract up to 2000 mg/kg did not produce any toxic effects. The hydro-ethanolic extract of <em>Dactylorhiza hatagirea</em> and <em>Curcuma angustifolia</em> (100 and 200 mg/kg) inhibited the inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats in a dose dependent manner. After anti-inflammatory activity tablet formulation was prepared of the extract and evaluated as per IP.&nbsp; The hydro-ethanolic extract of <em>Dactylorhiza hatagirea</em> and <em>Curcuma angustifolia</em> possesses a strong anti-inflammatory activity and may be considered an interesting source of effective anti-inflammatory compounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Sub-acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory effect, <em>Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Curcuma angustifolia, </em>Herbal tablet formulation</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study on Prescription Pattern of Multivitamins in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Tertiary Care Hospital 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 A B Anila P. Shaji Ancy B S SREELEKSHMI NM Mahesh B A Vishwanath <p><strong><em>Aim of the study: </em></strong>To study the prescribing pattern of multivitamins in type-2 DM in tertiary care hospitals.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and methods: </em></strong>Human ethical approval was taken from human ethical committee, ABIPER Bangalore. The diabetic patients who satisfied the study criteria were enrolled. The patients data’s were collected in specially designed documentation form. The collected data’s were assessed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>The study was conducted in 158 patients in which most prescriptions [72.17%] contains water soluble vitamins+minerals. Multivitamins with or without minerals were prescribed for 90[79.76%] and 30[20.24%] days respectively. Multivitamins [100%] were given orally once a day. For indication fatigue [29.11%], water soluble vitamins+minerals were prescribed mostly. Many DM-2 patients were prescribed with water soluble vitamins+minerals which contain vitaminC and calcium carbonate as main constituents. Some of multivitamins doses were showing compliance as per FDA dose recommendations. Tablet formulation containing fat soluble vitamins+minerals[25.31%] were prescribed mostly.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions: </em></strong>Mostly water soluble vitamins+minerals were prescribed for DM-2 patients. Multivitamins with or without minerals were prescribed for 90and30 days respectively. All multivitamins were prescribed in oral route. Mostly water soluble vitamins+minerals were prescribed for fatigue illness associated with DM-2 in which vitamin C and calcium carbonate were the main constituents. Some of the prescribed multivitamin doses were within the FDA recommended dose range. Tablet formulations were frequently prescribed with oral anti-diabetic drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords<em>:</em></strong> Multivitamins, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Prescription.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on Antioxidant and Anti-obesity Activity of Salvia hispanica (Chia) Seeds Extracts 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Subbaiyan Rubavathi Ganesan Ayyappadasan Nagarajan Sangeetha Thangavel Harini Dhanuskodi Saranya Prakash Harshapradha <p>Obesity is a condition in which large amount of fat is stored in adipose tissue. Obesity is the greatest risk for many diseases like coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes millions associated with insulin resistance, arthritis disorder, hypertension and cancers. Currently, the available drugs for obesity have been associated with number of side effects when compared with allopathic drugs. <em>Salvia hispanica</em> was one of the member of Lamiaceae family, collected to study the antiobesity activity. Extraction of <em>Salvia hispanica </em>using different solvents was done and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity was monitored to evaluate the zone of inhibition. Further, antioxidant potential activity such as DPPH, FRAP and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> assay was studied. Percentage of inhibition of <em>Salvia hispanica </em>was calculated and was observed as in capturing the free radicals present in the body. The surface and cross-sectional morphology <em>Salvia hispanica </em>extract nanoparticles was examined by using SEM. High ALA content make chia a perfect as it is associated with lower incidence of Cardiovascular diseases. This metabolic syndrome is mediated by inflammatory pathways. Hence, the <em>in vitro </em>activity of anti-inflammatory assay was performed by inhibition of albumin denaturation and anti-obesity activity was performed by lipase inhibition assay. Thus the result indicates that the seed extracts of <em>Salvia hispanica </em>possess antiobesity activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Salvia hispanica</em>, anti-obesity, cholesterol, Antioxidant, lipase inhibition</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Midodrine Hydrochloride 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Aashish Marskole Sailesh Kumar Ghatuary Abhishek Parwari Geeta Parkhe <p>Oral fast dissolving midodrine hydrochloride films prepared by solvent casting method, PEG 400 was the selected plasticizers, incorporating superdisintegrants such as croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) to achieve the goal. Drug content, weight variability, film thickness, disintegration time, endurance, percentage of moisture content, and <em>in vitro</em> dissolution tests were analyzed for the prepared films. In all formulations, the tensile strength value was found from 0.965±0.045 and 1.256±0.032 and the folding capacity was over 100. The assay values ranged from 97.98±0.25 to 99.89±0.36 percent for all formulations. The disintegration time was ranging between 55±9 to 120±6 sec, the minimum time for disintegration was found in formulation F5 (55±9). The prepared F5 formulation shows greater release of the drug (99.25±0.41 percent) within 15 min relative to other formulations. As the drug having low solubility, fast disintegration may leads to more drug availability for dissolution, resulting in faster absorption in systemic circulation increased systemic availability of drug leads to quick onset of action which is prerequisite for hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Midodrine hydrochloride, Fast dissolving films, Solvent casting method, Superdisintegrants.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Influence of Green Tea Infusion (Camellia sinensis) on Renal Histopathological Overview of Male White Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) Sprague Dawley Strain Induced by Ethanol 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Muhartono Muhartono Katya Rizqita Fitriana <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This sudy aims to determine the effect infusion&nbsp; of green tea <em>(Camellia sinensis) </em>to the renal histopathology picture of male white rats <em>(Rattus norvegicus) Sprague dawley </em>strain ethanol-induced.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study used 30 rats divided into 5 groups. The negative control (K-) was given distilled water 2 mL/day, the positive control (K +) was given ethanol 2 mL/day, the treatment group (P1, P2, P3) was given ethanol 2 mL and green tea infusion with respective doses of 0.375, 0.75 and 1.5 grams orally for 14 days. Then the renal retrieval is done to be examined microscopically.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean kidney damage score obtained was K- = 0.36; K + = 3.24; P1 = 2.52; P2 = 2,4; and P3 = 2.2. Data analysis with One Way Anova Test and continued with Pos Hoc and found significant differences in K- to K+, P1, P2, P3; K+ is significant to K-, P1, P2, P3; and P1, P2, P3 are significant to K- &amp; K+.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is an effect of infusion of green tea (<em>Camellia sinensis</em>) on the renal histopathological picture of male white rats (<em>Rattus norvegicus</em>) ethanol-induced Sprague dawley strain.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> alcohol, antioxidant, ethanol, green tea, renal histopathology</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vaccine Preperative Trial for Leptospirosis and their Pathological, Immunological Study by Serum Electrophoresis 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 VISHNU KIRAN MANAM G Sumathi <p>Leptospirosis is a fatal infectious disease caused by different serovars of Leptospira spirochetes affecting humans and animals. In the present study, the trials of the whole-cell killed formalin treated monovalent vaccine using <em>Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae</em> and trivalent vaccine using <em>Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae</em>, <em>Leptospira louisiana</em>, and <em>Leptospira hebdomadis</em> were studied. The serum electrophoresis studies were done after administration of the vaccine into the experimental albino mice along with the booster dose of the vaccinated serum by densitometric readings. Similarly, the pathological observations were made by dissecting the virulent mice, vaccinated mice, and comparing them with the control mice. The MAT titre was also studied after the booster dose administration of the vaccinated serum. The monovalent and trivalent whole-cell killed formalin treated vaccines shows significant raise in the total proteins, albumin, globulin, α 1 globulin, α 2 globulin, β globulin and γ globulins of the serum as well as increase in significant levels in the antibody levels after the administration of the booster dose at an interval of 14 days.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Leptospira, Whole-cell killed formalin treated vaccine, Immunological study, Pathological study, Serum electrophoresis.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Self-Medications in a Rural Community 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Raju Athira G Govind Mary Johns Irene Cyriac Sachin Sara Cheriyan Ritty B A Vishwanath <p><strong>Background: </strong>The consumption of drugs without consulting healthcare professional regardless of side effects and duration of therapy is known as self-medication. This study was conducted to analyze the practice of self-medication and knowledge about the medicines among the common people of rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp; 6 months Study was carried out by collecting the data with the help of questionnaire and thereby collecting their answers. The data was analyzed statistically in terms of actual numbers and percentage.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:<em>&nbsp; </em>As an outcome of our survey, majority of the population were unaware about proper usage of medicines. The survey also shows that NSAIDs are the most consumed medicines. 72.11% stop taking medications without the advice or without informing healthcare provider. 77.56% believe medication without prescription will help them.</p> <p>C<strong>onclusion</strong>: The survey that most of the common population in the rural areas don’t know about the indication for which they are taking medication and the study also emphasizes&nbsp; the unawareness of common population towards proper usage of medication. Elderly people are on polypharmacy due to multiple and inter current diseases, with their improper use due to lack of knowledge of correct dose, side effects, and interactions would bring serious implications. Community pharmacists should get continuous education and repeated training programs because they are easy accessible to the common population. A proper statutory drug control must be implemented, rationally restricting the availability of drugs to the public. Self-medication is an area where governments and health authorities need to ensure that it is done in a responsible manner, ensuring that safe drugs are made available over the counter and the consumer is given adequate information about the use of drugs and when to consult a doctor.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Self-medication, irrational use, prevalence, pharmacist, drugs.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Public’s Knowledge and Beliefs towards Universal Safety Precautions during COVID-19 Pandemic in Nepal: A web-based Cross-Sectional Study 2020-06-15T02:56:48-05:00 Deependra Prasad Sarraf Pramendra Prasad Gupta Shashi Keshwar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a global pandemic. In the absence of vaccines or specific drugs for COVID-19, a better understanding and implementation of universal safety precautions is essential for the prevention of COVID-19 virus infection globally. People’s adherence to the universal precautions safety measures against COVID-19 is essential which is largely affected by their knowledge and belief.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess the public’s knowledge and belief toward the universal safety precautions during COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional web-based online survey was conducted in general public in Nepal during April, 2020. A self-designed questionnaire was prepared using Google forms via for the collection of the data. The study participants were grouped into two categories according to their level of knowledge: excellent (score 80% and above) and average (score less than 80%). Descriptive statistics mean, frequency and percentage were used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 228, majority were male (90.4%) and aged 36-45 years (36%). Mean knowledge score was 4.68±1.41. Most of them (57.9%) had average knowledge. Average of the correct responses in the knowledge and belief domain were found to be 66.9% and 71.2% respectively. Majority of the public (55.3%) believed that home-made alcohol-based hand sanitizer is equally effective to factory-made standard sanitizer against COVID-19 virus.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Knowledge toward universal safety precautions against COVID-19 were average among the majority of the public. There was gap between knowledge and belief domain. There is an unmet need for long term educational interventions among the public regarding the preventive methods against COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Knowledge; Belief; COVID-19; Nepal; Public; Universal safety precautions.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation of Ramipril Tablets Containing Solid Dispersion Employing Selective Polymers to Enhance Dissolution Rate 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Inder Kumar Sandeep Verma Amit Chaudhary <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present work based on formulation of Ramipril tablets containing solid dispersion employing selective polymers. The objective of the preparation is to prepare the solid dispersion of the Ramipril, which has more responsive value in terms of the dissolution rate.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Solid dispersion complex was prepared with two different carriers PEG 6000 and PVP K30. Nine formulations were developed and each formulation were subjected to pre compression and post compression parameters.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong>&nbsp; Pre-compression and post compression parameters were studied which had shown good flow property and compiled the standard data. <em>In-vitro</em> dissolution studies shows more than 90 % drug release in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 in 30 min. Out of all formulation F4 showed 92.55±0.67 % drug release with in 30min which was the best result rest of the formulation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Ramipril tablets were successfully prepared and evaluated. F4 formulation shows the greater dissolution rate in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 as compared to other formulations. When compared with marketed formulation it also shows better results. Therefore, Ramipril solid dispersion tablets enhanced the dissolution rate and can be more efficacious for improving oral bioavailability of Ramipril.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Solid dispersion, Ramipril, Solvent Evaporation Technique.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sexual Violence and its Associated Factors among Female High School Students in Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Koyra Hailu Argo Mekuanint Kara Niguse Tufa Efrata <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Sexual violence is a major concern of society as physical and mental harm endured by women is extremely destructive. However, little is known about sexual violence within the study area. Therefore, current study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of sexual violence among female high school students in Soddo town<a name="_Toc398816166"></a>, Southern Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong><em>Methodology</em></strong>: A cross sectional study was conducted using pretested, structured self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS and the presence of association was assessed using bivariate test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control confounding effects and the strength of association was estimated in odds ratio with 95% confidence interval.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>: </strong>The prevalence of life time rape among female students was found to be 25.8%. The odds of experiencing life time rape was higher among students who had more than one sexual partner (AOR= 9.11; 5.52, 15.04). Substance abuse is significantly associated with life time rape that the chance of experiencing rape among students who were chewing chat was higher (AOR=6.09; 1.57, 23.69) than their counterparts.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><strong>: </strong>High level of rape among female high school students was found in Sodo town. Chewing chat and having more than one sexual partner had statistically significant association with life time rape.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Sexual violence, Wolaita, Ethiopia, Soddo</em></p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Arbutus unedo L. Extracts 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Saliha Laouicha Abderrahmane Senator Abdallah Kherbache Hamama Bouriche <h3><em>Arbutus unedo </em>L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin and North Africa, frequently used in traditional folk medicine to treat diabetes and arterial hypertension. This study aims to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate (EA.E) and <em>n</em>-butanolic (But.E) extracts prepared from leaves of <em>Arbutus unedo</em>. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH<sup>•</sup>, OH<sup>•</sup>, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2,</sub> O<sup>•-</sup><sub>2</sub>, ß-carotene bleaching and AAPH-induced erythrocyte oxidative hemolysis assays. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids in both extracts. The high amount was observed in EA.E which exerted the stronger antioxidant effect, with IC<sub>50 </sub>values of 3.43 μg/mL, 323.45 µg/mL, 38.40 µg/mL and 11.56 µg/mL, in DPPH<sup>•</sup>, OH<sup>•</sup>, O<sup>•-</sup><sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>tests, respectively. Both extracts inhibited β-carotene bleaching, but EA.E is always more potent (92%) than But.E (85%). Furthermore, the EA.E showed the highest protective effect on erythrocyte hemolysis induced by AAPH, with half time hemolysis (HT<sub>50</sub>) of 122.02 min at 40 µg/mL. Taken together, this study showed that <em>Arbutus</em> <em>unedo</em> leaf extracts possess strong antioxidant potential, which may be attributed to the presence of a high amount of polyphenolic constituents. So, this plant might be exploited as a potential source of natural antioxidant agents for pharmaceutical and food applications.</h3> <h3>Keywords: oxidative stress, antioxidant, phenolic compounds, <em>Arbutus</em> <em>unedo.</em></h3> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Fusidic Acid Emulgel 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Ankita Srivastava Sharav Desai Hitesh Jain D.B. Meshram <p>Emulgel have emerged as one of the most interesting topical delivery system as it has dual control release system i.e gel and emulsion. Topical applications of drug offers many advantages for delivering drug directly to the site of action and deliver the drug for extended period of time at effected site. The major objective behind this formulation is to enhance topical delivery of hydrophobic drug (Fusidic acid) by formulating Fusidic acid emulgel by using carbopol 934 as gelling agent. In addition light liquid paraffin as oil, span 20 as emulsifier and propylene glycol as co-surfactant were selected for the preparation of emulgel. Fusidic acid is steroidal bacteriostatic agent produced from Fusidium coccineum fungus belongs to class of steroids but has no corticosteroids effect and which is useful for the treatment of number of infections. Fusidic acid binds to protein and ribosomes and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. The prepared emulgel were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH determination, viscosity, spreadability, in-vitro drug release, antimicrobial activity, skin irritation study and stability. All the prepared emulgel showed acceptable physical properties. The best formulation E9 shows better drug release when compared to all formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Emulgel, Carbopol 934, Topical formulation, Antimicrobial activity, optimization, Fusidic acid</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of UPLC-MS/MS Method for Rapid Simultaneous Determination of Levothyroxine and Liothyronine in Human Serum 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Rohit Dutt, Prof Kailash Chander Malik, Mr Manoj Karwa, Dr Gaurav Kumar JAIN <p>A simple ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated to simultaneously determine levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3) in human serum. Sample preparation was done through protein precipitation with acetonitrile. HyPURITY C18 column was selected to achieve rapid separation for LT4 and LT3 within 4 min. Electrospray ionization (ESI) under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to monitor the ion transitions for LT4 (m/z 777.54→731.52), LT3 (m/z 651.64→ 605.65) and internal standard LT4-D3 (m/z 780.53 →734.19), operating in the positive ion mode. The method was proved to be accurate (82.35% to 113.56%) and precise (0.73% to 8.28%) over concentration range of 50.37 ng/ml – 300.13 ng/ml for LT4 and 0.5 ng/ml – 50.37 ng/ml for LT3. The validated method could be applied for pharmacokinetic study or bioequivalence testing of combination products of LT4 and LT3.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Levothyroxine; Liothyronine; Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic; Mass Spectrometry; Human Serum</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antioxidant and hepatoprotective Potential of Coriandrum sativum L. against hepatic injury by Lambda-cyhalothrin insecticide 2020-06-22T03:24:05-05:00 Ali Boutlelis DJAHRA Mounia BENKADDOUR Salah BENKHERARA Bordjiba OUAHIBA <p>The objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and <em>hepatoprotective</em> activity of aerial part and seeds of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> plant against Lambda cyhalothrin <em>insecticide</em>.&nbsp; Male Wistar Albinos rats were randomly divided into control, LCT, CsA, CsS, CsS+LCT, CsA+LCT groups, after 90 days of treatments Biochemical, some oxidative stress parameters, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Total polyphenol content in aerial part and the seed extract estimated at 9.29 and 14.64 mg EAG / mg of extract and IC<sub>50 </sub>for an antioxidant activity equal to 19.38 and 22.62 mg/ml respectively. The obtained results revealed that rats received Lambda cyhalothrin insecticide showed a significant change in enzymes activity (AST, ALT, ALP and c-GT) and Glutathione (GSH) in liver. Meanwhile content of hepatic Malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathology examination of liver revealed that <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> attenuate the incidence of liver lesions triggered by Lambda cyhalothrin intoxication. Therefore, the results of this study show that <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> can be proposed to protect the liver against Lambda cyhalothrin induced oxidative damage in rats, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>hepatoprotective</em>, antioxidant, <em>Coriandrum sativum </em>L., Lambda cyhalothrin, Oxidative stress.</p> 2020-06-22T03:24:05-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Carica papaya and Cucurbita specie Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus 2020-06-25T07:27:57-05:00 Ogechukwu Calista Dozie-Nwakile Calista Dozie Nwakile Ngozi Felicia Onyemelukwe Seto Aladenika Adaobi Chisom Uchenna Emmanuel Chibuzor Ugwu <p><strong>Objective:</strong> In this work, we studied the antifungal and anti-bacterial properties of seeds of Carica papaya and Curcubita specie using selected bacteria and fungi.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Modified cold extraction method with ethanol and n-hexane was conducted. Antimicrobial properties of the extracts were done using agar block dilution for fungi and agar diffusion method for the bacteria. Measurement of the mean growth rate (MGR) for the fungi isolate and the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) for the bacteria were used as parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Significant antifungal property was observed in ethanolic extract of Carica papaya at a concentration of 6% at four days of its exposure, while n-hexane extract of Carica papaya and ethanolic extract of Curcubita specie show fungistatic action. Ethanolic extract of Carica papaya at 6% concentration showed more antifungal property than the control drug. Antibacterial action for all the test extracts was poor, with the control drug showing more significant action than the extracts. There was a statistical significance difference between the ethanolic extract of Carica papaya and Curcubita specie (p&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This is an indication that ethanolic extract of Carica papaya can be used in the treatment of some of the fungal infection caused by Aspergillus flavus likewise n-hexane extracts.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antifungal, Anti-bacterial, Carica papaya, Curcubita specie, ethanolic extract, n-hexane extract.</p> 2020-06-25T07:27:57-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Total Phenolic Contents, DPPH Radical Scavenging and β-Carotene Bleaching Activities of Aqueous Extract from Ammoides atlantica 2020-06-30T12:36:12-05:00 Karima Loucif Hassiba Benabdallah Fatima Benchikh Soulaf Mehlous Chawki Ben Souici Smain Amira <p>Phytotherapy has known a great evolution all the world and some medicinal plants are important remedies of some diseases. <em>Ammoides atlantica</em> is one of the medicinal plants used in folk medicine. This study aims to estimate the total phenolics and flavonoids contents then to investigate both <em>in vitro </em>antioxidant activity models of aqueous extract (AqE) from <em>Ammoides atlantica.</em> Total polyphenol contents were determined using Folin Ciocalteu's reagent; flavonoids were quantified employing the AlCl<sub>3</sub> Method. The&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;antioxidant property was assessed by DPPH-scavenging radicals and lipid peroxidation assays. The results revealed that <em>Ammoides atlantica </em>aqueous extract presented a high total phenolic and flavonoid contents with values of 85.56±4.71 µg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/mg and 40.55±4.09 µg QE (quercitin equivalent)/mg dry extract, respectively. This extract shows a good DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching activities with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 107.48±5.9 µg/mL and 130.17±5.52 µg/mL, respectively. This study indicates that the aqueous extract from <em>Ammoides atlantica</em> has potent antioxidant effects and may prove to be of latent health benefit as well as supplementary sources for natural antioxidants drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ammoides atlantica</em>, aqueous extract, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds.</p> 2020-06-30T12:36:11-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Case Report on Viral Meningoencephalitis with Radiculoneuropathy 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Salman Mir Ali Abdullah Md Faizan Mohammed Baleeqhuddin <p>Meningoencephalitis is an inflammation of brain and its surrounding membranes. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and by various other etiology. Radiculoneuropathy, also commonly referred to as pinched nerve, refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected. The classic triad of fever, stiff neck and altered sensorium are seen in &lt;50% of all patients with meningitis. Clinical presentation of viral encephalitis includes a prodrome of fever, headache, myalgia, and mild respiratory infection. Altered mentation, focal neurological deficits and seizures usually follow. Patient was brought to emergency department of hospital. He provided with empirical anti-biotic therapy and supportive care. Laboratory investigation like CSF analysis, liver function test, renal function test. Blood test like complete blood picture, dengue Ag. Microbiological test was also carried out. Radiological imaging like MRI of Brain, MRI of spine, Chest X-Ray. Upon clinical diagnosis patient was provided with antibiotic, antiviral and supportive care. Patient was also provided with mechanical ventilator. He was treated for 14 days.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> meningoencephalitis, CSF analysis, classical triad.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Budgetary Impact of Covering “Me-Too” Drugs from Social Security: Buenos Aires State Case Report 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Gustavo H. Marin Lupe Marin Daniel Agüero Mariana Pagnotta Gina Marin Luis Blanco <p>The majority of new drugs that are register at Health Global Market are not considered real innovations and due to their chemical structure similarity of reference’s group drug, they are known as “me-too”. These “me too” drugs has no additional therapeutic benefits but greatly increasing treatment´s. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economic impact in Social Security budget by covering “me too” medicines. METHODS: An epidemiological-descriptive-analytical study was performed in order to analyze the burden of anti-hypertensive prescription from patients under coverage by Buenos Aires State Social Security. Two types of medicines were compared: “pioneer” or “me-too”. Variables considered were: type of drug, class or therapeutical group of medicines, global costs, burden for social security and for patients. RESULTS: From 185865 patients that received medication; in 121748 of the cases the strategy was monotherapy while 64117 received at least two or more medicines. 189714 were reference drugs while 64393 of them were considered “me-too”. In average, “me-too” drugs were 41.23% more expensive than classical treatment. The percentage covered by IOMA varies according to the medicines (between 45 to 51%) and patients must complete the amount of money remaining from their pockets. Paradoxically, the percentage covered by IOMA some “me-too” were greater than the percentage paid for most classic medications of each group. CONCLUSIONS: By only choosing the drug of reference, with proven effectiveness, from each therapeutical group, the State Social Security could cover 100% of the cost of all anti-hypertensive treatment and all patients even saving almost 2 million dollars per year.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Health, Policies, Medicines, Me too, Economical Burden, Coverage, anti-hypertensive</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Strategies and Approaches for siRNA Delivery 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Dhruvkumar M. Soni <p>The present review discusses about RNA interference (RNAi) and its significance in gene therapy. The review mainly focuses on small interference RNA (siRNA) as a mediator of RNAi, its therapeutic benefits and various formulation strategies employed to overcome siRNA delivery hurdles. RNAi is a regulatory process which occurs endogenously within the cell wherein short double-stranded RNA (siRNA) effects sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing. Even though siRNA assists researchers with its powerful therapeutic benefits, there are significant hurdles in developing efficient delivery systems for its systemic administration. These are extracellular and intracellular barriers for siRNA delivery. The present review addresses about pros and cons of gene therapy and superior advantages provided by siRNA over plasmid DNA in gene therapy. It also discloses about the discovery, mechanism of action, significance and applications of siRNA based gene therapies, challenges in its delivery and strategies for overcoming delivery hurdles. Furthermore, emphasis is provided on viral and non – viral vector based siRNA delivery and the significance of lipid based siRNA delivery, the lipoplexes over polymer based siRNA delivery - the polyplexes, followed by recent advances in siRNA based technologies directed against variety of diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Endosomal escape, gene therapy, lipoplexes, polyplexes, siRNA, vectors.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review: Divergent Emerging Strategies to Tackle Challenging Covid-19 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Sudha Unmesh Puri Arti Akash Bhimanwar, Prof. Mrunal Mukesh Vaidya, Prof. <p><strong>Background:</strong> Contemplating the severity of pandemic sequel for public health many researchers are working recklessly for new targeted drugs and vaccines. Despite the challenging opportunities, the setup for the development of new effective remedy against COVID-19 is unforeseeable.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the present review was to explore the work done by some authors to battle against COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Material &amp; Method:</strong> We analysed 24 articles from Elsevier and one from J Med virology journals stating different strategies to cope with this recently arrived monster COVID-19. Further are some targeting therapies viz., Niclosamide, immune response generated by cytotoxic T-cells and Natural Killer cells, Chloroquine and Hydroxy Chloroquine, blockade of Interleukin17, N- Acetylcysteine, mucolytic agents, oxytocin, bioflavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, ACE inhibitors or AII receptor antagonists, Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, serum albumin, Ritonavir, Tocilizumab, Furin, Amantadine, pioglitazone, Dapsone and doxycycline, steroids, plasama therapy, routine childhood immunization, a data-driven hypothesis on the epigenetic dysregulation of host metabolism by SARS corona viral infection, lipid metabolism has been proposed as a treatment target for COVID-19, COVIDiagnosis-Net proposed network for quick and accurate diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>We got to know how the people are struggling to find a cure for this pandemic affair.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Till date, there is no specific treatment that has been confirmed to the effect against COVID-19. Let’s hope for the best.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: COVID-19, Novel Corona Virus Infection-2019, SARS-CoV2, Plasma therapy, Immunomodulators</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Peptic Ulcers and their Complications 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Akhilesh Kumar Dhanesh Kumar Rajendra Kumar Jhakeshwar Prasad Mahendra Kumar Prachita Joshi Pratiksha Fulzele <p>Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is an uncommon disorder of early life. Peptic ulceration of the stomach or duodenum is usually associated with abnormalities of the gastric mucosa such as gastritis and/or gastropathy. Gastritis and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum can be classified into either primary or secondary depending on their aetiologies. The majority of primary or unexplained peptic ulcers are the result of chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. However, an increasing number of children with PUD without evidence of H. Pylori infection are now being seen. Rarely PUD is caused by hypersecretory states. Secondary ulceration occurs in response to acute stress from severe systemic illnesses such as sepsis, head injury, burns, and as sequelae to use of certain drugs. The prognosis for recovery from peptic ulcers is good as most patients will respond to treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Peptic ulcer disease, Complication, Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs, Management.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Silymarin Loaded Novel Drug Delivery for Oral and Topical Administration 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Ankita Arun Gorhe Abhijeet Kulkarni Kandalkar Pallavi Jagtap Snehal <p>Silymarin is polyphenolic flavonoid obtained from the seeds of silybum marianum plant. It has various pharmacological properties such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, hypolipidemic properties. Silymarin has recently reported to be neuroprotective agent against neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer, Parkinson’s and cerebral ischemia. It contains eight active components, among which silibinin is the most active component. However, silymarin is BCS class II drug which having poor bioavailability due to extensive phase II metabolism, poor aqueous solubility, low permeability across intestinal epithelial cells and rapid excretion in bile and urine.&nbsp; Therefore, it is necessary to understand all formulations and analytical aspects including all possible future prospects. In this review a potential approach to enhance solubility, bioavailability and to develop a robust formulation is studied. The number of studies describes novel drug delivery system (NDDS) based formulations have been significantly increased. The raise in novel drug delivery exploitation is essentially due to defeated barriers within technological process of lipid based nanoparticles formulations and increased knowledge of underlying mechanisms of transport of NDDS via different route of administration. This review focuses on pharmacological properties of silymarin, challenges, benefits and application of novel drug delivery system. To reduce the adverse effects and toxicities novel drug delivery will be an attractive approach of current therapies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Silymarin, route of administration, novel drug delivery, bioavailability, solubility</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Novel Coronavirus (nCOV- 2019): A Pandemic Severe Respiratory Tract Infections by SARS COV-2 in Human 2020-06-15T02:56:49-05:00 Vikram Jadhao Roshan Bodhe Hitendra Mahajan Vikram Jadhav Kishor Patil Nupur Baheti Neha Kale <p>Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (nCOV 2019) or Coronavirus is one which is associate communicable disease amongst variety of viruses that causes cold, fever, difficulty in breathing and ultimately death. The viruses cause metabolism infections, together with the mundane cold, that square measure usually delicate, although a lot of occasional forms like respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, the illness is that the reason for the 2019–20 coronavirus irruption. It’s primarily unfolded between individuals by diminutive droplets from infected people once they breathe or cough. Individuals could have few symptoms or develop febrility, cough, and shortness of breath. Whereas Feb 2020, different countries together with European country Asian Countries enclosed within the list. Antiviral drugs being tested embrace antimalarial drug, the ribonucleic acid enzyme substance remdesivir, and triazavirin, Umifenovir (Arbidol) and darunavir were planned. Remdesivir and antimalarial drug effectively inhibit the coronavirus in vitro. Favilavir approved as experimental corona virus drug. The objective of this review article to provide basic knowledge &amp; preliminary opinion and to provide an advice which can be proved as the best mantra for defeating nCOV. Thus this review aims to throw light to the new and exciting areas of Virology,&nbsp; Replication&nbsp; cycle of corona virus ,&nbsp; sign &amp; symptoms and diagnosis, Spreading of corona virus, Structural biology of corona virus, the ways of treatment with&nbsp; alternative medicines&nbsp; other than antiviral drugs,&nbsp; and prevention in its early stage of COVID-19 , and also Current Research on Corona.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Coronavirus, 2019-nCOV2, 2019–20 coronavirus irruption, SARS, WHO, Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), replication of corona virus.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activity of Vitex negundo: An Overview 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Yogendra Singh Pankaj Mishra Pushpendra Kannojia <p>Now days a herbal and traditional medicines mostly used in all over the world according to WHO, about 60 to 65% world population practicing herbal and traditional medicines. <em>Vitex negundo </em>Linn. is an aromatic herb belong to family Verbenaceae. It is also known as Nirgundi, Five leaved chaste tree. Plants have many chemical constituents as flavonoids, volatile oil, triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignan, flavones, glycosides, iridoid glycosides and stilbene derivative. These chemical constituents are present in each part of the plant. <em>Vitex negundo</em> extract have various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, analgesic activity, antibacterial activity, antitumor activity, anti-amnesic activity, anxiolytic activity, Nephroprotective activity, anti-HIV activity, Antitubercular activity, antieosinophilic activity, anti-snake venom activity. This review article provides depth information related to plant morphology, cultivation, chemical constitutes, pharmacological activities and their medicinal uses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Vitex negundo, </em>Nirgundi, Casticin, Anti-Gout Activity</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Immunomodulators for Curtailing COVID-19: a Positive Approach 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Shabir Ahmad Bhat Shameem Ahmad Rather Arsheed Iqbal Haider Ali Qureshi Naquibul Islam <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly infectious, spreading swiftly from man to man which has not been previously recognized in humans. World Health Organization (WHO) on February 11, 2020 named the infection as COVID-19 as an acronym for ‘coronavirus disease-2019’ and on March 11, 2020 declared the outbreak as pandemic. It affects all the people without discrimination, however, older, immune compromised are more susceptible. The virus chiefly spread through droplet infection from infected person to healthy one by coughing, sneezing or with infected hands when touched to eyes, nose or mouth. Symptoms of the infection range from mild to severe ones. In severe cases (approx. 14% of cases) fever typically of high grade (104<sup>o</sup>F), breathlessness, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome may appear. So far no specific treatment or vaccine for novel coronavirus-2019 is there. From the past and recent past experiences we have learnt that herbal medicines have proven beneficial against various dreadful viral infections. Assessment of immune enhancing herbs in this paper may definitely be helpful for the body to fight COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, COVID-19, Pneumonia, Immune, Herbs</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Liquisolid Technology: Preparation, Characterization and Applications 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Ashish Prakash Gorle Shubham Sunil Chopade <p>With the advent of high throughput screening, drugs are emerging to be more lipophilic and less hydrophilic. Liquisolid Technology aims at solubility enhancement of such entities via cosolvency concept in a relatively minimalistic setup where there is no need of sophisticated machinery and is cost effective. It involves constituting a drug into molecular dispersion via a non-volatile solvent and then transforming it into a dry looking, free flowing compressible powder. This article aims at mapping Liquisolid Technology where its preparation techniques and potential applications are reviewed. An overview of the performance of Liquisolid in areas of dissolution enhancement, zero order release, photostability enhancement, liquipellets and its role in natural product formulations is recorded for a number of drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Liquisolid, Dissolution Enhancement, Flowability, Compressibility, Cosolvency</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biological Potential of Caesalpinia bonducella Seeds: A Review 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 M.J. Gadakh R.S. Jadhav D.N. Vikhe <p><em>Caesalpinia bonducella</em> L. is a medicinal plant belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The plant is found in all over India. The plant is a large prickly shrub. It is popular in indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Homoeopathy and Unani. In Indian traditional plant medicine, it has been considered as an important remedy for the treatment of several diseases. The plant has been reported to possess antimalarial, antifungal, antioxidant, anticancer, antipyretic, antifertility antiviral and antimalarial etc. activities of various parts of <em>C bonducella</em> plant. It can be concluded that <em>C. bonducella</em> can become the best source of medicine in future on various ailments with further investigations. Hence attempts have been made to take collect and compile the information about the traditional use of various parts of <em>C.bonducella</em> in various ailments, chemical constituents from various parts and the effective use of various extracts for treatment of different diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong><em>Caesalpinia bonducella </em>, Pharmacology, Nutritional Values.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19: A Global Pandemic of 21st Century 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Prabhakar Budholiya Abdul Wajid Ali Deepshikha Gunwan Sana Sahil C.K. Tyagi Hemant Sharma <p>In last of 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started monitoring the outbreak of a new corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the respiratory illness now known as COVID-19. Authorities first identified the virus in Wuhan, China. More than 82542 case of Corona virus in China at 31 March 2020. Health authorities have identified many other people with COVID-19 around the world. On 31 March 2020, the virus spread more than 750890 People in the World. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a public health emergency relating to COVID-19. Since then, this strain has been diagnosed in several residents of world. The CDC have advised that it is likely to spread to more people. COVID-19 has affected at least 213 countries or territories or areas. The first people with COVID-19 had links to an animal and seafood market. This fact suggested that animals initially transmitted the virus to humans. However, people with a more recent diagnosis had no connections with or exposure to the market, confirming that humans can pass the virus to each other. Corona viruses will infect most people at some time during their lifetime. Corona viruses can mutate effectively, which makes them so contagious. Information on the virus is scarce at present. In the past, respiratory conditions that develop from corona viruses, such as SARS and MERS, have spread through close contacts. On 17 February 2020, the Director-General of the WHO presented at a media briefing the following updates on how often the symptoms of COVID-19.However, while some viruses are highly contagious, it is less clear how rapidly corona viruses will spread. Symptoms vary from person-to-person with COVID-19. It may produce few or no symptoms. However, it can also lead to severe illness and may be fatal. On 11 March 2020, WHO declared&nbsp;<a href="">Novel Corona virus Disease</a>&nbsp;(COVID-19) outbreak as a Pandemic.</p> <p>Keywords: WHO, ICMR, SARS-CoV-2, Bats, Wuhan City, Pneumonia, Respiratory Infection, Pandemic</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review on Hair Problem and its Solution 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Ameya Lanjewar Soni Maurya Devender Sharma Anchal Gaur <p>Hair is simple in structure.&nbsp; Hair is formed of an extreme protein called Keratin. Cleanser may be a hair care item, ordinarily as a gooey fluid, that's utilized for cleaning hair. the problems related with it incorporates male pattern baldness, raucous hair, absence of hair volume, molding, youthful turning gray, dandruff, diminishing of hair, bluntness then on. Male pattern baldness are often caused due to various reasons, for instance , hereditary propensities, ecological triggers and presentation to synthetic compounds, medications, healthful inadequacy, outrageous pressure or long ailment then on. Gentle dandruff can for the foremost part be settled by washing the hair a day with a mellow cleanser hair. Sedated hostile to dandruff cleanser clean both the hair and scalp and leave the hair reasonable, not bother sebaceous organs. It contains an enemy of microbial to forestall development of expanded occurrence of microorganisms. Dynamic material ought not sharpen the scalp and diminish the extent of tingling and scaling. the most objective of article give idea about hairs problem, the way to solve these problems with cost effectiveness and also help to pick the which sort of treatment with selective dosage form preparation as per hairs problem by researcher for society.</p> <p><strong>Keywords </strong>Antidandruff, Surfactants, Shampoo, Scalps</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Majoon-E-Piyaz: A Potent Unani Formulation for Premature Ejaculation 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 SHAH ALAM Nighat Anjum Jamal Akhtar Fouzia Bashir Asim Ali Khan <p><em>Surʻat-e-Inzāl</em> (Premature Ejaculation) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction affecting 25 - 40% global population of men. It is a universal disorder and is independent of age, social or marital status. It has a significant impact on both- patients and their partners, causing distress, anxiety and relationship difficulties affecting the quality of life. Several aetiologies have been proposed by various researchers which are not evidence-based but speculative. Accordingly the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) issued treatment guidelines for Premature Ejaculation (PE) recommending Serotonergic Antidepressants (SSRIs) and Local Anaesthetics (LA) for its management in modern medicine. However, these treatments were not actually developed for PE, and have limitations associated with their off-label use. Furthermore, nearly all the recommended drugs have a wider spectrum of adverse effects and serious drug interactions which sometimes could be fatal. On the other hand, centuries old Unani medicine offers a complete line of treatment for <em>Surʻat-e-Inzāl</em> based on traditional knowledge and experience. Unani physicians devised a large number of poly-herbal recipes which are still in vogue.&nbsp; <em>Majoon-e-Piyaz</em> (MP) is one of the compound Unani formulations which are in use for the treatment of premature ejaculation since centuries. This article is an attempt to summarize scientific investigations in support of the claim made by Unani physicians regarding <em>Majoon-e-Piyaz</em> (MP).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Surʻat-e-Inzāl, Premature Ejaculation, Majoon-e-Piyaz, Unani Medicine</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## E-PHARMACY IMPACTS ON SOCIETY AND PHARMA SECTOR IN ECONOMICAL PANDEMIC SITUATION: A REVIEW 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Himani Singh A Majumdar N Malviya <p>Four month ago, nobody knows about covid-19 but now this virus has spread to almost every country, infecting at least 3,062515 people and death approx 211449 people with badly impact on economies of the most countries and also broken their health-care systems. At this time covid-19 disease is almost spreading all over the world and society. Majorly Pharmacy services act as a pillar at this pandemic situation for the public health. China is the first country where covid-19 outbreak started and some current data of consumer behavior and their habits are showed that society take some safe and preventive measures during lockdown and social distancing time which increase growth of ecommerce demand is inevitable. Now a day’s e-pharmacy is being adapted because medications can be ordered in a one click and conveniently delivered to customer door step with some risk like misuse of drugs and self-medication especially for those drugs which comes under the schedule H and X. This review paper focus on the basic issues and challenges related to online pharmacy and how can it be beneficial to society and pharma sectors in the pandemic situation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Online Pharmacy, Internet, Corona virus, Pandemic situation, Pharmaceutical sector.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biological Markers as a Novel Approach in Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Diseases 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Olukayode Olugbenga OROLE Dooshima Ngulianga NEVKAA Faith Chidinma TERNA Alexander Lanzema OLOKUN Jebes Ngolo LAMINI Oluwafemi Matthew SALAMI <p>The adoption and use of biological marker also known as biomarkers in clinical studies and management of disease conditions spans over 40 years. Biological marker are measurable biochemical or molecular alterations that can be adopted as indicator of normal biological or responses to the action of pathogen or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Molecules, macro and micro molecules, metabolites, and chemical compounds from the body adopted for use in predicting and monitoring health outcomes are constant from individual to another which qualify them as standard biomarker parameters. Use of biological markers spans clinical screening of an underlying cause of disease, prognosis, predisposition to a disease condition and predicting outcomes of treatment. In the environment, biological markers can be applied to determine the effects of xenobiotic chemicals and reaction effect on living cell. A good marker while being specific, should be easy to measure, cheap, provide correct measurement and outcomes. The objective of this review paper is highlight the different types of biological markers and areas where they are applicable.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cell Biology in Rheumatoid Arthritis 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Lukeshwari Sahu S. Prakash Rao Mahendra Verma Akhilesh Kumar Rajendra Sahu Dhanesh Kumar Chandrakant Yadav <p>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, which affects about 0.33 to 2.65% of the population. In RA Synovium contain various type of immune cell. In which only one cell population cannot cause rheumatoid arthritis that requires more than one cell population. In normal condition, they act as a switch (active or inactive the cell signaling). It controls cell growth, proliferation or metastasizes. In an autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the body's cells and tissues. Mostly cells are present in limited numbers in normal human synovium, but in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory joint diseases, this population can expand to constitute 5-20% or more of all synovial cells. Recent investigations in a murine model have demonstrated that cells can have a critical role in the generation of inflammation within the joint.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Cell Biology in rheumatic arthritis; Dendrite cell; T-cell; Mast cell; Fibroblastic cell; Macrophages cell.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Systematic Overview on Some of the Traditionally Used Plants of Assam 2020-06-15T02:56:50-05:00 Manoj Kumar Kakati Ramakanta Sharma Bhriganka Bharadwaj Nalini Kanta Sarma Biswajit Das Ridip Dutta <p>Assam is a state of the North Eastern part of India. There are different types of plants well distributed in various parts of the state. These plants have various medicinal properties and are used traditionally to cure diseases because of its fewer side effects. A large number of surveys have been documented about different kinds of traditionally used plants of Assam. The purpose of this Study is to do a Systematic overview on various aspects like&nbsp;its&nbsp;taxonomical&nbsp;characters, geographical&nbsp;habitat, Cultivation&nbsp;along&nbsp;with&nbsp;its&nbsp;physicochemical&nbsp;constituents, Pharmacological and medicinal&nbsp;properties&nbsp;so&nbsp;that&nbsp;it&nbsp;can&nbsp;be&nbsp;useful&nbsp;to&nbsp;treat&nbsp;the&nbsp;various&nbsp;diseases&nbsp;efficiently. Various&nbsp;traditional&nbsp;plants&nbsp;such&nbsp;as&nbsp;<em>Carica&nbsp;papaya, Cocos nucifera, Murraya koenigii, </em><em>Ocimum sanctum, Musa paradisiaca, Averrhoa carambola, Aegle&nbsp;marmelos, Azadirachta&nbsp;indica</em>,&nbsp;<em>Citrus&nbsp;limonum, Psidium guajav, </em><em>Hibiscus&nbsp;rosa&nbsp;sinensis</em>,&nbsp;<em>Catharanthus&nbsp;roseus,&nbsp;Trichosanthes&nbsp;dioica</em><em>,&nbsp;Cynodon&nbsp;dactylon,&nbsp;Brassica&nbsp;rapa&nbsp;</em>were&nbsp;reviewd.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Assam, plants, Physicochemical&nbsp;constituents, Pharmacological&nbsp;and Medicinal uses.</p> 2020-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Liposomal drug delivery system as an effective treatment approach for lung cancer 2020-06-22T03:52:41-05:00 Kinjal Patel Devanshi Patel <p>Worldwide, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality and cancer rates are set to increase at alarming rate globally. There are various types of cancer in which the leading type is the lung cancer.&nbsp; &nbsp;In recent years lipid-based carriers, such as liposomes, have successfully encapsulated chemotherapeutic agents ameliorating some toxicity issues, while enhancing the overall therapeutic activity in cancer patients. In addition to this, nanomaterials can help to improved half-life in the body, morphology, for increased drug loading and many other ways. The survey discussed in this review will lead the anticancer therapy and cancer management which will provide the platform to the next generation.&nbsp; Therefore, this critical review includes the therapeutic interventions, liposomes target delivery, active and passive drug loading. Finally, we attempt to&nbsp;summarize the current challenges in nanotherapeutics and provide an outlook on the future of this important field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Drug Delivery, Liposomes target Delivery, Nanostructures, Drug loading</p> 2020-06-22T03:52:41-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##