Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2021-09-15T08:29:58-05:00 Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <form></form> Management of Non-Healing Ulcer by the Use of Crushed Raw Papaya along with Leeching: A Case Study 2021-09-15T03:50:11-05:00 Minhaj Ahmad Abdul Nasir <p>The incidence of non-healing ulcer is 1-2 percent in developed countries. In Indian community its prevalence reported in year 2004 was 4.8 per 1000 populations. It may increase many folds in future because of increase in number of old persons, diabetes mellitus and vascular diseases</p> <p>A male patient aged 63yrs. came to surgery OPD Majeedia Unani Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, in October 2019, with the complain of ulcer on antero-medial aspect of right foot. The ulcer was painful and movement was limited on affected side.</p> <p>&nbsp;After required investigations and local examination of wound, treatment was started by local application of meshed papaya and combination of oral Unani drugs formulations along with leech therapy as described in texts of Unani System of Medicine. It was observed that Unani treatment of non-healing ulcer with papaya and leech therapy is an option to avoid amputation and its complications. The ulcer completely healed without any locomotor disturbances. Recovery was very fast and the condition of leg totally resolved without any complications and side effects.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Non-healing ulcer, Unani medicine, leech therapy, Qurooh-e-Aseeratul Indemal.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prophylactic Role of Mandukasan and OM Chanting Patients Who Survives with Diabetes 2021-09-15T03:50:12-05:00 Ramkanya Menariya Harshwardhan Singh Parmesh Tank Jeevan Menaria <p>Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most chronic non-communicable diseases in the enire world. Yoga is an part of Indian culture which doing ancient times by our rishi munis. Nowadays science has been considered yoga for management of various diseases i.e. hypertension, diabetes, asthma. In this case study had been conducted to understand effect of yoga in type 2 diabetics.&nbsp; Yoga group were put through mandukasanasana and mandukasan with OM chanting for 40 days. Biochemical parameters was performed i.e. FBG, PPBG and HbA1C. It can be concluded that mandukasan with OM chanting has been helpful as an adjunct to medical therapy to minimize the biochemical parameters. Yoga therapy helpful for the status of diabetics in terms of reduction of drug doses, physical and mental alertness and prevention of various complications related to diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Mandukasan, OM Chanting, Diabetes</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Zidovudine Induced Pancytopenia: A Case Study 2021-09-15T03:50:12-05:00 Santreena Simon K Serene Maria Cyril Tom <p>Zidovudine is the oldest anti-retroviral agent that is in clinical use. It’s common adverse effects are headaches (42-62.5%), nausea (46-61%), anorexia (11-20%), vomiting (6-25%), anemia (1.1-29%), granulocytopenia (1.8-37%) and neutropenia (3%).</p> <p>This study is to increase awareness of Zidovudine induced pancytopenia. This is an observational type of case report of a 40 year old man with known complaints of HIV on anti-retroviral therapy since 8 years who came with complaints of easy fatigability since 1 year which was aggravated since 1 week, epigastric discomfort, constipation since 2 weeks, chest pain retrosternal in position which was radiating to both upper limbs, sweating, palpitations, decreased appetite since 1 week and cough with expectoration.</p> <p>He was given tablet ZLN (Zidovudine 300 mg + Lamivudine 150 mg + Nevirapine 200 mg) twice daily regularly for the past 8 years. His last CD4 count was 300 cell/mm<sup>3</sup>. He had pallor. His laboratory results were: hemoglobin (6.6 g/dL), TLC (2400/μL), platelets (18,000/μL), neutrophil (36%) and MCV (107.4fL). He was diagnosed with pancytopenia (dimorphic anemia + leucopenia + thrombocytopenia) and neuropathic pain.</p> <p>It was confirmed to be Zidovudine induced pancytopenia by objective analysis and Naranjo score suggesting “probable” interpretation. Pancytopenia improved after withholding Zidovudine along with Oxcarbazepine. Suggestion was made to change his anti-retroviral regimen once his counts improve. &nbsp;Tenofovir + Lamivudine (or Emtricitabine) + Efavirenz is the preferred first line combination therapy according to latest WHO guidelines (2013 and 2015). In case Zidovudine is used in first line combination therapy (2009 WHO guidelines), physicians should monitor for its toxicity.</p> <p>A clinical pharmacist can help in such situations by creating awareness among prescribers regarding latest WHO and other recommended guidelines, checking whether the prescriptions follow these guidelines and also by monitoring patients for toxicities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Zidovudine, Drug induced pancytopenia, Adverse drug reaction</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antimicrobial Susceptibility Sensitivity Pattern in Positive Urine Culture for Urinary Tract Pathogens from Tertiary Care Hospital 2021-09-15T03:50:12-05:00 Sahana John Agasa Ramu Mahesh <p>Hospital specific monitoring studies aims to determine the prevalence of the type of microorganisms that causes urinary infections and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. A hospital based short term prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Sagar Hospital, Bengaluru from August to October 2020. Antimicrobial susceptibility in MIC test was performed for the isolated pathogens by using automated VITEK compact method and stratification was done according to ICU and NON-ICU patients with over 260 urine culture tests of the suspected in-patient for urinary tract infection. All antimicrobial susceptibility data was analyzed using WHONET software 5.6. Sixty-six urine culture tests showed culture positive, 41 from non-ICU and 23 from ICU. Gram-negative bacilli E.Coli (61% in ICU, 52% IN non-ICU) was the most prevalent bacterium, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae (9% in ICU, 20% IN non-ICU), and Candida albicans 9% prevalence was seen only in ICU isolates. The study shows that the rate of resistance towards ampicillin (100%) was high among gram negative isolates and penicillin (100%) among gram positive isolates. The susceptibility was favorable towards polymixinB, colistin in gram negative organisms and nitrofurantoin, vancomycin in gram positive organisms. The present study revealed that E.Coli is the predominant bacterial pathogen. It also demonstrates there is an increasing resistance to ampicillin (88.2%) and ESBL (90%) among UTI pathogens. While, polymixin B (100%) and colistin was found most effective among gram negative and nitrofurantoin was most effective among gram positive organisms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antibiotic, antimicrobial resistance, urinary tract infection</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hormonal sex reversal technique of Oreochromis niloticus larvae in a tank in the Urban Commune of Kankan, Republic of Guinea 2021-09-15T03:50:12-05:00 Lanan Wassy SOROMOU Berthin THEA Yamoussa BANGOURA Aboubacar Mabinty CAMARA Samba MAGASSOUBA Odia Mamady KABA Youssouf SIDIME <p>Hormonal sex - reversal is widely recognized as having significant advantage over both manual sexing and hybridization. The present study carried out in the aquaculture center of Kankan aimed at producing monosex male fry of <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> in order to increase the yield of this species.</p> <p>During this study, 95 <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> broodstock including 21 males and 74 females were paired (spawned) in a spawning tank of 135 m<sup>2</sup> surface for 15 days. The respective mean weights of the spawners were 448.6 ±157.7 g for males and 406.7±115.9 g for females. Hormonal treatment was performed on 900 larvae with an average initial weight of 0.028 g from the 10<sup>th</sup> post fertilization to the 38<sup>th </sup>day in a tank of one (1) m<sup>3</sup>. The larvae were fed with 1 kg of imported "Raanan Premium Fish" powdered feed titrated with 40% protein, mixed in a hormonal solution containing 17-α-methyltestosterone and 90% ethanol with respective doses of 100 mg and 500 ml.</p> <p>At the end of hormonal treatment, 578 fry with a final average weight of 4.5 g were conducted in a pre-pregnancy tank with a surface area of 50 m<sup>2</sup> for 30 days and yielded at the end of pre-pregnancy 501 fry with a final average weight of 13 g, a daily growth rate of 0.22 g, a specific growth rate of 1.7%, a survival rate of 64% and a mortality rate of 36%. After sex identification (sexing), the rates of hormonal treatment were 83.33% and 16.66% for males and females, respectively. In conclusion, the popularization of the results of this study could be considered as an alternative for a production of monosex male population in <em>Oreochromis niloticus </em>that will feed the networks of local producers to improve the production of the species throughout the country.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>, hormone, sex, larvae and tank.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of Drug Prescribing Pattern in Pediatric Outpatient Department at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital 2021-09-15T03:50:12-05:00 Sabbu Rahul Devathi Venkata lakshmi Sravya Hiremath Doddayya <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Infants and children suffer from frequent but usually non serious illnesses and are more vulnerable to various adverse events related to drugs and poor understanding of instructions on prescription by the patient or caretakers were likely to cause medication error. The correct identification of an illness and its management with medications is a vital aspect of patient care, especially for paediatric population. So, prescribing pattern studies are very helpful in promoting the appropriate use of drugs in population.<strong><em> Objectives:</em></strong> It aims to obtain data on the current prescribing pattern in pediatric OPD at a tertiary care teaching hospital with ultimate goal to promote appropriate use of drugs.<strong><em> Methods:</em></strong> This study was conducted in 62 pediatric patients of either sex visiting Pediatric out-patient department over a period of three months at NMCH and RC, Raichur, Karnataka.<strong><em> Results:</em></strong> Prescription analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 3.32. Drugs were mostly prescribed by brand name (98.06%), Injections (4.83%) were least prescribed, drugs prescribed from Essential Drug List was 48.54%. Antibiotics were most prescribed class of drugs (33.9%). <strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> The study concludes that polypharmacy was slightly seen in prescriptions. Diagnosis of the patient was recorded for most of the prescriptions. There is need to conduct many such studies at regular interval as it is useful for auditing large number of prescriptions to find out early signals of the irrational drug use. Our study evaluated drug use pattern only from the outpatients hence prescription pattern may vary among inpatients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Prescribing pattern, Infants, WHO core prescribing indicators, Polypharmacy, Generic name</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Drug Release from Carboxymethyl Starch-Xanthan Gum-HPMC Matrix 2021-09-15T03:50:13-05:00 Amit Kumar Verma Arun Kumar Subbiah Ramasamy Ajit Kumar Yadav Rohit Kumar Bijauliya <p>The use of hydrophilic polymers from natural origin. Especially the polysaccharides have been the focus of current research activity in the design of matrix device due to their non toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable nature and broad regulatory acceptance. A large number of polysaccharides such as Carboxymethyl starch, Xanthan gum, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Sodium Alginate etc, have been used as hydrophilic matrices to investigate release behavior of drug. In order to enrich the resources, there is a quest for new polysaccharide owing to their diverse chemical composition and functional groups are amenable to chemical modification and thus tailor made polymeric matrices are obtained which which can be used to modulate oral drug release. The objective of the study is to characterize Verapamil hydrochloride loaded matrix dosage form using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum, corn starch as rate retarding polymer. Dosage forms were prepared using different polymers along with drug Verapamil hydrochloride. Carboxymethylation was performed. Drug release was evaluated in simulated gastric media. Addition of xanthan gum significantly retarded the burse release of drug. The retardation of drug release was found to be dependent upon the concentration. The formulation composed of HPMC K4M and CS (ARI-ARI3) followed super case transport is swelling controlled, purely relaxation controlled drug delivery.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Verapamil HCl, Natural gums, xanthan gum, HPMC, sustained release</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physicochemical, Druggable, ADMET Pharmacoinformatics and Therapeutic Potentials of Azadirachtin - a Prenol Lipid (Triterpenoid) from Seed Oil Extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. 2021-09-15T03:50:13-05:00 T. Loganathan A. Barathinivas C. Soorya S. Balamurugan T. G. Nagajothi S. Ramya R. Jayakumararaj <p>Azadirachtin (AZA) is the most abundant bioactive secondary metabolite (BASM) in neem seed oil extract (NSOE) of <em>Azadirachta indica </em>A. Juss. AZA is localised in different parts of the plant (seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, stem, bark and root) however, with varying degree of concentration. It has been documented that maximum concentration of AZA is present to the tune of 48000 μg g<sup>-1</sup> in the seeds. It has been established that the environmental conditions determines the overall content and composition of BASM in different parts of the plant. Neem plant parts are most commonly used as therapeutic agents in remote villages in India for its ethnomedicinal therapeutic potentials; however, its physicochemical, druggable and pharmacological properties inadequately described. In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the physicochemical, druggable and pharmacological properties of Azadirachtin in NSOE of <em>A. indica </em>from ADMET perspectives.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>NEEM; <em>Azadirachta indica</em>; Azadirachtin; Pharmacoinformatics; ADMET; Drug-Likeness; Toxicology</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Date Powder as Alternative Carbone Source in Optimizing the Cultivation of (Bacillus megaterium) in Submerged State Fermentation 2021-09-15T03:50:13-05:00 Hayyan I Al-Taweil Yahya Aldawood Heba Alhamal <p><strong>Problems statement:</strong> A study had shown a strain of <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> was isolated from the soil. Questions were whether date powder could be used as alternatives of carbon sources for Bacillus<em> megaterium</em> submerged state cultivation?</p> <p><strong>Approach:</strong> To evaluate&nbsp; the effects of the using date powder; The fermentation was carried out in shake flasks using a complex medium consisting of (g/L) ammonium tartrate, 2.0; magnesium sulphateheptahydrate, 4.0; dipotassium phosphate, 14.0; calcium chloride, 0.2, NaHPO4, 4.0, yeast extract, 3.0, trace elements, 2.0ml and glucose 6.0(4.0, yeast extract, 3.0, trace elements, 2.0ml and glucose 6.0) were replaced by dates powder at three rates; 5,10 and15 g/L</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> show that the rate of production of biomass during submerged fermentation by <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> at 30±1°C for 24 hours of incubation using date powder was maximizes between 18 and 24 hr of fermentation. The experimental runs and results for the Box– Behnken design. The 15 runs in a single block were used to study the effects using date powder in different rates on one response. Biomass concentration ranged from 6.5cfu /l to 12.9cfu /.comparing with 14.8 cfu/ g for the commercial growth media. The ANOVA tables give the statistical significance of the effects for biomass. These effects were dates powder rates, the optimized growth medium with pH 7, inoculums’ size 10<sup>6</sup>, temp 24<sup>o</sup>C and moisture dates powder 15 g/L. The biomass concentrations obtained under the optimal conditions 12.9cfu/l.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Date Powders, Fermentation, <em>Bacillus megaterium</em>, biomass, Submerged State</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bioavailability Enhancement of Ritonavir by Solid Dispersion Technique 2021-09-15T03:50:13-05:00 Teja Velupula Gayathri Devi Amboru Sneha Chowdary Gundapaneni Bhavya Kadiyala Phani Sreenidhi Kanakagiri Supraja Kari Vyshnavi Kota Venkata Ramana Maddula Rama Rao Nadendla <p>Ritonavir is an antiretroviral agent used in the treatment of HIV-infection. It is a BCS class IV drug having poor aqueous solubility leading to poor bioavailability. Bioavailability is the amount of drug that enters the systemic circulation. The bioavailability is affected by various factors like solubility, dissolution and stability. In order to improve bioavailability, many techniques like solid dispersions, nanoparticles, liposomes, encapsulation methods were present. The main aim of this study is to improve the bioavailability of ritonavir with the help of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) K-30 by using solid dispersion technique. Different formulations were made with varied concentrations of polymer. Characterization of solid dispersion was done by phase solubility, drug content, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and <em>in-vitro </em>dissolution studies. &nbsp;From phase solubility studies that apparent solubility constant was found to be 42.227M<sup>-1</sup>. The drug content of the binary system of ritonavir and PVP was found to be ranging from 99.17% to 103.06%. %. FT-IR studies revealed that there was no drastic change in the wave number indicating polymer compatibility with drug. <em>In-vitro</em> dissolution studies proved that there was an increase in drug release of ritonavir with incremental ratios of polymer and F5 formulation has shown almost 95% of drug release.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Bioavailability, Solid dispersion, Polyvinyl pyrrolidine, Solvent evaporation, Dissolution. </p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Disease Knowledge, Medication Adherence, HRQOL in COPD Patients at a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital 2021-09-15T03:50:13-05:00 S. Padmakar R.B. Purandhar Chakravarthy Prodduturu Sai Karthik B.U. Charitha T. Harini P. Vijaya Narsimha Reddy <p><strong>Introduction:&nbsp;</strong>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-threatening disease of the lungs, gradually causes breathlessness and predisposes to exacerbations and serious illness. The main objectives of the study are to evaluate disease knowledge, medication adherence, and health-related quality of life among COPD patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>:&nbsp;A Hospital-based, single-entered prospective observational study was conducted at a government general hospital, Andhra Pradesh. India after ethical committee approval. This study was conducted for 6 months with a sample size of 80 patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>According to our study, the majority of the patients 36 (45%) don’t have disease knowledge, where a few numbers of patients 7 (8.75%) is having disease knowledge as per BCKQ score values. 11.25% of patients have the lowest MMAS scores whereas 58.75% were found to have higher MMAS scores and 37.5% of total patients have higher CAT scores, and 12.5% of patients have lower CAT scores.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;We found that majority of the patients have poor disease knowledge, lower adherence to medication regimens, and substandard HRQOL.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COPD knowledge, medication adherence, and HRQOL.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Frequency and Distribution of Fok1rs 2228570 of Vitamin D Receptor Gene among Healthy Sudanese Population 2021-09-15T03:50:14-05:00 Amira S. Khalafalla Yousif A. Mohammed Adam D. Abakar A Mergani Amer M. Dafaalla Mohammed Abdelwahed Omer Balla Mutaz I. Hassan <p><strong>Background: </strong>Vitamin D plays a role in critical cellular processes such as apoptosis, cell development, and division. The Fok1 polymorphism in the VRD gene is T/C resulting in larger vitamin D receptor protein with lesser expression activity. Fok1 polymorphism is thought to be linked to many diseases including diabetes mellitus, cancers, and rheumatoid arthritis. The snipe also provides effective and sensitive diagnostic and predictive tools and affected by differences in ethnicity and individuals' life style. This study reports on the frequency and distribution of Fok1 SNP among healthy Sudanese transplantation donors.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This cross sectional study was conduct in National Cancer Institute University of Gezira, Sudan. One hundred and forty six healthy Sudanese transplantation donors were enrolled in this study. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each participant and stored at -20 till DNA extraction. Qaigen kit was used for DNA extraction. VDR Fok1 was genotyped by CTPP-PCR with proper primers designing and PCR condition. Data was collected by structured questionnaire and analyzed by SNP Stats online tool and medical calculator.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>According to study results theFok1 polymorphism distributed among Sudanese with percentage of 49.9% (TT + CT), frequency of SNP variants was 69.8% regarding C allele and 30.2% for T allele, while the three genotypes was 10.2% for TT, 39.7% for TC and 50.1% for CC genotype.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The frequency of Fok1 VDR SNP was high among healthy Sudanese transplantation donors, this necessitate the conduction of wide area survey among other healthy Sudanese population. This intern will help in investigating the nature of the relation of this SNP with other different diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Vitamin D, Fok1rs. 2225870, VDR SNP, Sudanese </p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Research between Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Profile of Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity on Rodents 2021-09-15T03:50:14-05:00 Darsi Eswar Tony M. Uday Kiran Md. Abu Saleha R. Suresh Naik U. Bhargav Sai V. Niranjan T. Kowshik Rama Rao Nadendla <p>The condition of hyperlipidemia is found to be a great establisher for all the negative health consequences which may lead to cardiac complications. Continuous usage of medication alone is not permanent remedy but also need physical exercise. The same situation was established in animals to assess the performance of pharmacological and non-pharmacological profile by standardized screening using <em>In-vivo</em> methods. The high-cholesterol diet caused a significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the atherogenic index, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly decreased for the treatment groups intended for physical exercise. This article enables the importance of health benefited by physical performance by depicting the biochemical parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hyperlipidemia, Triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, activity wheel, Physical exercise, Cardiac performance.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Aceclofenac Liposomes 2021-09-15T03:50:14-05:00 Gurleen Kaur Zaquiyya Naaz Kapil Kumar Deepak Teotia <p>Patients who suffered from rheumatic disease and osteoarthritis are generally prescribed the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). Osteoarthritis is a common musculoskeletal disorder, which impairs body function and acts as an economic burden. Due to the repetitive use of ACE by oral route, it may cause gastrointestinal complications such as ulceration, bleeding, pain, perforation. To decrease the side effects of ACE, it is given by topical route in the form of ointment. This review highlights reducing gastrointestinal problems and promotes the safety and efficacy of the ACE. The Aceclofenac liposomes were prepared by the thin film hydration technique and evaluated by various methods such as in- vitro release study, % yield, drug entrapment efficiency, pH of the prepared formulation. The prepared system was also characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectrophotometer to identify the drug- excipients interaction. The maximum entrapment efficiency of liposomes was found to be 90%. The main aim of this study was to develop and characterized a vesicular drug carrier system for topical delivery of Aceclofenac to overcome the problem related with oral route.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Liposomes, Aceclofenac, topical delivery, transdermal delivery, rheumatic disease and osteoarthritis </p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the fungus endophytic extracts isolated from Azadirachta indica using gas chromatography- flame ionization detector 2021-09-15T03:50:14-05:00 Ogechukwu L. Nwankwo Onwuzuluigbo C. Chukwuebuka Okeke O. Collins Bunu J. Samuel Josephat C. Obasi Ezinne S. Iloh Emmanuel Okechukwu Nwankwo <p><strong>Background information: </strong>The phytochemicals of endophytes have generated substantial interest in drug discovery programs because they offer the possibility of discovering new biologically active molecules.<strong> Objective: </strong>The objective of this study was to quantify and analyze the phytochemical profile of the fungus endophytic extracts isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves, which have been used ethnobotanically for treating malaria and bacterial infections. <strong>Methods: </strong>Endophytic fungi were isolated, solid-state fermentation of rice medium was performed, and secondary metabolites were extracted according to standard techniques. An analytical system that uses gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was used to determine the phytochemical constituents contained in the endophytes. <strong>Results: </strong>The results of GC-FID analysis showed the presence of Ribalinidine, Naringenin, Sparteine, Phenol, Steroids, Kaempferol, Flavone, Oxalate, Catechin, Tannin, and Rutin at different concentrations. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study reveals the promising ability of the endophytic fungi of <em>A. indica</em> as a foundation of naturally occurring bioactive. The quantitative phytochemical assessment of the endophyte extracts from the leaves of <em>A.indica</em> showed that endophyte extracts from the plant are rich in both alkaloids and flavonoids (Phenolics).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>GC-FID, Phytochemical, Endophytes, Secondary metabolites, Fermentation.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Evaluation of Micro Emulsion Formulations of Nebivolol for Solubility Enhancement 2021-09-15T03:50:15-05:00 Gurleen Kaur Alfisha Saifi Kapil Kumar Deepak Teotia <p>Nebivolol HCl is a newer drug of β1-adrenergic blocker category, basically used as anti-hypertensive. It is a 3<sup>rd</sup> generation, antagonist, having NO (nitric oxide) enhancing vasodilator properties. It has 12% oral bioavailability, because of its pre systemic metabolism by the means of cytochrome P450 2D6 enzymes. Its log P value is 4.03 and 5mg is its daily dose. It is highly lipophilic drug and belongs to class BCS II, with slow dissolution. Bioavailability of any drug can be improved by avoiding its first pass metabolism and promoting solubility.&nbsp; Several researchers have worked on the development of ME formulations on different poor water-soluble drugs, to increase their solubility. The purpose of this study is an attempt to enhance the solubility to improve the bioavailability of nebivolol drug by developing a novel delivery system that is microemulsion (ME) .ME formulations were developed using different oil, surfactant and co-surfactants in different ratio and studied on various parameters. Different preformulation tests done on received sample of Nebivolol. FTIR study was performed in order to find out any interactions between the ingredients. Based on the solubility Capmul Pg-12 was finalized oil, Tween 80 as surfactant, propylene glycol as the cosurfactant based on solubility and emulsification efficiency. Five Nebivolol ME formulations were successfully developed by use of oil, water, SA and Co-SA different ratio. Prepared formulations were studied for different properties- transmittance (%), pH, refractive index, viscosity, drug content, and solubility. It was seen that after 4 hours of diffusion, the drug released from the formulation ME5 is faster and more than that of the other i.e., 90.2±0.06%. It was found that ME5 was more stable and Soluble than other prepared formulations. With the better solubilty the bioavailability of Nebivolol will increased and helps in faster absorption and High diffusion in systemic circulation with lower or no risk of degradation. It somehow also reduced frequent intake of drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nebivolol, micro emulsion, Ternary phase diagram, surfactant, co-surfactant.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Capsule Formulation Essay of Herbal Extracts of Trunk Bark of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill. Et Perr. (Combretaceae) for the Treatment of Hypertension 2021-09-15T03:50:15-05:00 Salfo OUEDRAOGO C. Bavouma Sombie Zime Hermine Diawara B.G. Josias Yameogo Tata Kadiatou TRAORE Mathieu Nitiema Lazare Belemnaba Sylvin Ouedraogo Rasmané Semde <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The trunks barks of <em>Anogeissus leiocarpus</em> contains multiple antihypertensive components and are, therefore, widely used for the treatment of hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to formulate capsules containing a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the trunk’s barks.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Three (03) capsule formulations were prepared using wet granulation from lyophilised aqueous extract of <em>Anogeissus leiocarpus</em> trunk bark, with different proportions of excipients including Corn starch used as the diluent, Polyvinylpyrrolidone K25 (PVP) used as binding agent and Magnesium stearate used as gliding agents. The filling of capsules was done using a semi-automatic capsule filler with empty capsules of size 3. The flow properties of the granules and the quality control were performed according to the European Pharmacopoeia 10th ed.</p> <p><strong>Results/Discussion</strong>: All granules had good flow properties, and the F1 and F3 formulations had the best pharmaceutics characteristics according to the recommendations of the European Pharmacopoeia 10th ed. The mean levels of phenolic tracers were 0.039±0.0097 mg gallic acid equivalent per capsule (GAE/capsule) for the F1 formulation and 0.059±0.0063 mg GAE/capsule for the F3 formulation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study allowed the galenic formulation of capsules based on extracts of good characteristic quality for the treatment of hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Anogeissus leiocarpus, </em>extract, excipients, formulations, capsule</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation on In Vitro Blood Clot Dissolving Potential of Aqueous Extract of Sida acuta Burm. F. Leaves 2021-09-15T03:50:15-05:00 Anita Mishra Shadma Siddiqui Shreya Tiwari <p>Clotting of blood is the vital processes and a perplexing interaction of various mechanisms of circulatory system due of failure of which is sometimes considered as a concern within the circulatory system causing acute myocardial or cerebral infarction which might cause demise. <em>Sida acuta burm</em>. f (Malvaceae) is abundantly growing small perennial shrub utilized by natives for diuretic, anthelmintic, calmative and wound healing properties, and are utilized in treating disorders like blood, bile, liver, nervous, urinary diseases and rheumatism. The present study was intended to evaluate the blood clot dissolving potential of <em>Sida acuta</em> leaf aqueous extract <em>in vitro</em>. The plant material as leaves were locally collected and subjected to phytochemical extraction with distilled water. The preliminary phytochemical tests total phenolic content was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. <em>In vitro</em> thrombolytic activity of 3 different concentrations of aqueous extract was estimated on goat blood clot compared to the activity of streptokinase. The aqueous extract of <em>S. acuta</em> leaves&nbsp; are reported to be rich in alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and glycosides while the total phenolic content was estimated to be 17.48 % in extract which are mostly responsible for any pharmacological activity. Compared to the thrombolytic activity of standard streptokinase which was 73 %, the aqueous leaf extract of <em>S. acuta</em> displayed considerable blood clot dissolving activity at concentration 10 mg/100µl, 5.0 mg/100µl, and 2.5 mg/100µl as 41 %, 34 % and 12 % respectively. This property of plant extract is promising which could be could be exploited in development of new biopharmaceutical and therapeutic agents after stringent further physiological compatibility and <em>in vivo</em> pharmacological studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Sida acuta</em>, phytochemical extract, thrombolytic activity, streptokinase</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Practical management of hypertension in adults 2021-09-15T03:50:15-05:00 Kamel El-Reshaid <p>Hypertension is the most powerful, independent, preventable risk factor for death and disability from cardiovascular diseases.&nbsp; Initial clinical assessment and diagnostic testing are essential to disclose; (a) secondary causes to avoid resistant cases that needs specific therapy, (b) co-morbid conditions that limits choice of drug-therapy, and (c) target organ damage that dictates specialized approach.&nbsp; In this review article; an algorithm for its management is outlined that includes also specific practical approach to those with emergencies, urgencies and co-morbid conditions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: adults, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, renal failure, stroke.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Laurus nobilis L., (Habb-ul-Ghar), A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Ethnomedicinal Uses 2021-09-15T03:50:15-05:00 QAMRUL ISMAM USMANI ALTAF AHMAD FATHIMA NAIROZA JAMALDEEN <p>Habb-ul-Ghar (<em>Laurus nobilis</em> L., fruit) is used in the Unani and other traditional systems of medicine since ancient times. It has been also used in culinary and pharmaceutical industries. Various phytoconstituents were isolated from laurel fruit, like monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic acid, and some minerals. Many pharmacological studies have been carried out to explore its anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review will provide a comprehensive overview only about fruit of <em>Laurus nobilis</em> with special reference to Unani medicine.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify;"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Habb ul Ghar; <em>Laurus nobilis</em>; Laurel fruit; Unani medicine</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dry-Coating of Powder Particles is Current Trend in Pharmaceutical Field 2021-09-15T03:50:16-05:00 Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli <p>Modification of surface attributes of particles, usually accomplished by coating, is desirous to enhance and maintain their usability. Coating is a multi-step process involves application of the coating material (CoM) onto the substrate, herein powder particles, where the process along with device/ equipment monitors surface attributes of the applied coating. Nowadays competitive market calls for cost cutting to survive product(s). Thus saving of energy and time, minimising number and quantity of additives, reducing and shortening process steps; consequently minimising the coating process cost are main goals while developing coating process for powder particle. Innovation of processes for dry-powder coating (DPC) along with their further development and refinement finds solution to said issues. Further, DPC process does not calls for liquid solvent or solution thus are viewed as cost-effective and environmentally safe, DPC process uses thermo-mechanical methods like mechanofusion, magnetic assisted impaction coating (MAIC), hybridization, rotating fluid-bed process, theta-composer, hot-melt coating (HMC), and many others. Besides these available are non-thermo-mechanical methods namely electrostatic coating; supercritical fluids (SCF) based methods like rapid expansion of supercritical fluid (RESF), gas anti-solvent (GAS), SCF anti-solvent, gas-saturated solution (GSS); vapour coating; and others. Basing on said thermo-mechanical and non-thermo-mechanical principle several DPC methods/ process had been reported in scientific literatures and patents. Said DPC method founds multidisciplinary applications like drug delivery and drug development. Diverse devices are there for the DPC process; their method of working, principle, limitations and benefits along with their applicability in pharmaceutical field are discussed and presented in this article.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dry, particle, coating, pharmaceutical, process</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Unani perspective on COVID-19 and the possible role of Tiryaq Wabai in its management: A Review 2021-09-15T03:50:16-05:00 Mohd Aleem Md Imran Khan Mohd Danish Qamrul Islam Usmani Altaf Ahmad <p>Science has uncovered much about SARS-CoV-2 and made extraordinary and unprecedented progress on the development of COVID-19 vaccines, but there is still great uncertainty as the pandemic continues to evolve. We are simply moving to a new phase of the pandemic. <em>Tiryaq Wabai,</em> is on the polyherbal medicine used for centuries by Unani doctors as preventative medicine in epidemics. It consists of three ingredients: <em>Sibr</em> (<em>Aloe barbadensis</em>), <em>Zafran</em> (<em>Crocus sativus</em>), and <em>Mur-Makki</em> (<em>Commiphora myrrh</em>). All the three ingredients of <em>Tiryaq Wabai</em> have various pharmacological activities like immunomodulatory, antitussive, expectorant, and antiviral activity which provide a strong basis for its prophylactic use for covid-19 infection. Further, research on this important prophylactic Unani formulation <em>Tiryaq Wabai</em> in Covid-19 is the need of the hour.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tiryaq; Epidemic; Covid-19; Unani medicine</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concept and Management of Meniere’s Disease in Unani Medicine-A Review 2021-09-15T03:50:16-05:00 Abdul Nasir Minhaj Ahmad Zehra Zaidi SM Arif Zaidi <p>Meniere’s disease, also called endolymphatic hydrops, is a disorder of the inner ear where the endolymphatic system is distended due to endolymph. It is characterized by vertigo, Tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss and aural fullness. The main pathology in Meniere’s disease is distention of endolymphatic system due to increased volume of endolymph. This can result either from increased production of endolymph or its faulty absorption or both. The description of hypothyroidism as a disease is not directly found in Unani texts. However, the signs and symptoms of meniere’s disease such as <em>Dawar</em> (vertigo), <em>Taneen</em> (tinnitus), <em>Hissi</em> <em>Asabi</em> <em>Bahrapan</em> (sensorineural hearing loss), <em>Seqal-e-Uzn</em> (aural fullness) mentioned in unani medicine associated with clinical manifestation in the context of <em>Su-e-Mizaj Barid Maddi</em> (derangement in cold temperament) as a result of an excess production endolymph (<em>Kasrate Ifraz-e-Androon lymph</em>) or defective absorption of endolymph (<em>Nuqse Jazb-e- Androon lymph</em>) in abnormal phlegm in the internal ear. On the basis of this fact, an attempt has been herewith made to understand the disease and its management through Unani Medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Meniere’s disease, Vertigo, Tinnitus, <em>Taneen</em>, Deafness</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thyroid Hormones in the Human Body: A review 2021-09-15T03:50:16-05:00 A. N. Rajalakshmi Farghana Begam <h1>Thyroid gland is an essential endocrine gland that is present in the human body.&nbsp; This review highlights the production, regulation and disease conditions of the thyroid hormones.&nbsp; The thyroid gland is controlled with the help of hypothalamus and the pituitary gland that is present in the brain.&nbsp; The production of thyroid hormones involves five main steps such synthesis of thyroglobulin (TG), iodide uptake, iodination of thyroglobulin, storage and release.&nbsp; The two important hormones produced by the thyroid gland are Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine(T3). These two hormones are iodine containing derivatives. Deficiency of iodine in the body results in the reduction of T3 and T4 production. Excess and deficiency of these two hormones result in the major diseases like Hyper and Hypothyroidism.&nbsp; The synthetic forms of Thyroxine(T4) and Triiodothyronine(T3) used in the Pharmaceutical field are Levothyroxine and Liothyronine.&nbsp; Women are most commonly prone to these thyroid diseases comparatively to men.&nbsp; Undiagnosed disease conditions may become fatal. Levothyroxine therapy is commonly used for thyroidism which is a similar synthetic thyroid hormone.&nbsp; Also natural thyroid hormones that are obtained from the dried thyroid glands of animals are available.&nbsp; Thyroid function test and the measurement of T3, T4 plasma level becomes essential for the identification and regular maintenance of thyroid hormones in the body and human well-being.</h1> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analytical Methods in Standardization of Bhasmas: A Review 2021-09-15T03:50:16-05:00 Dileep Kumar P G Nataraja Yadav P. Gananadhamu S. Nataraj K.S. <p>Ayurveda the ancient science well known for its potential therapeutic effects with unique metallic, herbal juices/fruits in the treatment of chronic ailments. A well- known ayurvedic potent preparation, Bhasma is also known as ash which is a metallic base prepared by sophisticated pharmaceutical processes also plays a major role in acute, sub-acute, and chronic diseases. In order to determine its quality and purity to make sure the acceptability, the safety of the formulation standardization is very necessary. In this short review, an attempt has been made to present ancient methods to standardize&nbsp; physical characterstics like Verna, Nisvadutam, Nishchandratvam, Varitara, Unama, Rekhapurmatvam, Slakshmatvam..etc.,and chemical characterstics of bhasmas like Apurnabhavta, Niruttha, Amla Pariksha with advanced methods like SEM, TEM, and NPST, along with other natural and ancient analytical techniques.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bhasmas, Standardization, Analytical methods, SEM, TEM.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CRISPR Therapeutics: New Emerging Developments and Clinical Applications 2021-09-15T03:50:16-05:00 Kaiser Jay Aziz-Andersen <p>CRISPR gene editing is a genetic engineering technique applied in clinical applications in which the genomes of living organisms may be modified. It is based on the principles of the CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defense system. It is based on delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA into a living organism cell and that organisms’s genome can be “cut” and –“paste” at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be modified for desired outcome (i.e., CRISPR for Precision Medicine). CRISPR gene editing harnesses the natural defense mechanisms of some bacteria to cut human DNA strands. Then the DNA strand either heals itself or injects a new piece of DNA to mend the gap. Studies have been reported in Lung Cancer diagnosis and treatments. CRISPR-based engineering techniques have been developed for T Cells and Stem cells applications (i.e. Gene Corrections in Hematopoietic Stem Cells for the Treatment of Blood and Immune System Diseases). Even though earlier CRISPR methodologies were used for performing simple DNA edits, recent applications include the ability to delete genes or insert genes, and edit regulatory regions in a wide range of cell types. The role of CRISPR in human therapeutics is currently focused on utilizing CRISPR techniques to perform either in vivo editing of human cells–everything from the head, eye all the way to neurons and liver cells--or performing ex vivo therapies. The FDA’s new genomic CRISPR technology based products approval process begins with review and evaluation of preclinical studies in order to establish and characterize the proposed product’s safety profile. New genomic products must be shown to be safe and effective for the FDA approval process. The sponsor of the new genomic product must show that the product is safe and effective in human subjects.<sup>1</sup></p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review on Classical Preparatory Methods of Rasa Dravyaas 2021-09-15T03:50:17-05:00 Vandana N. Hirudkar Sarita G. Gharde <p>The Ayurveda term <em>Rasashaastra</em> merely involves science of mercury (<em>Parada</em>). This specialized modality works around mineral, metal and precious elements. The drugs or raw materials utilized under category of <em>Rasashaastra</em> are known as ‘<em>Rasa dravyaas</em>’. These drugs offer several therapeutic responses and imparts excellent pattern of drug absorption, assimilation and quick action. <em>Rasa dravyaas</em> are utilized for treating diseases of skin, digestive system, respiratory system, reproductive system and excretory system, etc. The metal and mineral based products are prepared using specific procedures of purification, mixing, heating, incineration and size reduction, etc. The procedures involves in the preparation of these drugs provides particular characteristics in formulation therefore it is very essential to prepare <em>Rasa dravyaas</em> as per the specified protocol with great precaution, the error in preparation of <em>Rasa dravyaas</em> can hamper quality of drugs and also responsible for adverse reaction. Thus ancient Ayurveda philospher advocated that a learned person should involve in the preparation of <em>Rasa dravyaas</em> with quality check in each step. Present article explores classical preparatory methods of <em>Rasa Dravyaas</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong><em>Ayurveda</em><strong><em>, </em></strong><em>Rasashaastra, Rasa dravyaas,</em><em> Parada</em> </p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Some Medicinal Plants of North- East India Region Used in the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders 2021-09-15T03:50:17-05:00 VENESSA NATH PARISHMITA BURAGOHAIN HEMANTA KUMAR SHARMA <p><strong>Background:</strong> Central nervous system (CNS) disorders are a group of neurological disorders concerned with behaviour, coordination and functioning of the brain and the spinal cord. The CNS is the site of processing various informations. It interprets and evaluates the information and as result, the CNS responds accordingly and controls the body. Any defects or disorders of the Central nervous system may cause degeneration of the organs and tissues associated with it, loss of coordination, paralysis, etc. These disorders may be hereditary or due to injuries to the brain and spinal cord. Although, these disorders are being cured with medicaments, many plant species are also seen to be effective in its treatment. <strong>Objective:</strong> the main objective of this article is to underline the potentials and the needs for the documentation of the ecological knowledge of herbal medicines of the north east India region, necessary for the greater well-being of mankind in the prevention and cure of CNS disorders. <strong>Methods</strong>: an extensive literature survey was carried out through various databases like Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sciencedirect etc to support this review. All the collected information was analyzed accordingly and the plants were enlisted based on the classes of CNS disorders for which they are used. <strong>Result and discussion:</strong> from the survey of the database being collected, it was found that many traditional and local plants of the northeast India region are therapeutically effective in the treatment and cure of many Central nervous system disorders<strong>. Conclusion:-</strong>It is now an accepted fact that many traditional plants found in the Northeast India have been acceptable within the human body and hence these can be used to replace many expensive medications available in the market.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Medicinal plants; Central Nervous System; CNS disorders; Northeast India; Plant extract</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Niosomes: Potential Vesicular Drug Delivery System 2021-09-15T07:20:47-05:00 Sonali Kumavat Pravin Kumar Sharma Sweta S Koka Ravi Sharma Ashish Gupta G. N. Darwhekar <p>Over the years researchers have been making an attempt to improve the potency of utilization of medicament for treatment of numerous diseases. During this endeavour, drug delivery systems have helped greatly by achieving reduced dose, reduced dosage frequency, improved patient compliance, improved bioavailability and maximum concentration of the drug at the target site. Recent years have seen an unprecedented growth in the use of nanotechnology in designing drug delivery systems. Niosomes are vesicles composed of non-ionic surfactants, which are biodegradable, comparatively non-toxic, stable, economical and effective alternate to liposomes. This review is deepening and widening the interest of Niosomes in several scientific disciplines and notably its application in drug delivery. This review additionally presents a summary of the types, methods of preparation, characterization and applications of Niosomes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Niosomes, types, method of preparation, factors affecting and applications</p> 2021-09-15T07:20:47-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Food Allergies and Homoeopathy- A Narrative Review 2021-09-15T07:25:45-05:00 Vaishali H. Shinde Ramesh Bawaskar K.C. Muraleedharan <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Allergy, formally called type I (or immediate) hypersensitivity&nbsp; is one of four or more forms of hypersensitivity manifesting in various forms like, Atopic eczema, Allergic urticaria, Allergic rhinitis, Allergic asthma, , Food allergy,&nbsp; etc.&nbsp; The growing incidence of Food allergy needs attention since its burden is mainly on children and adolescents. Various factors has been attributed to the growing incidence of food allergy such as food habits, cooking habits, cultural differences, various developmental parameters and exchange of food products. The World Allergy Organization has estimated 220 to 550 million people suffering from food allergy with a large chunk of population from the developed countries. No concrete data is available on status of food allergy in India though some sporadic research has been published. In spite of diligent research worldwide, an effective mechanism to cure this condition has not been evolved till today. Since effectiveness of homeopathy has been proved in various allergy conditions, the modality of using the same has been explored in this article.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Food allergy, Homoeopathy, Type I hypersensitivity&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-15T07:25:45-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Protein Misfolding Diseases and therapeutics for preventing Diseases 2021-09-15T08:29:58-05:00 Yogesh Kumar Singh <p><strong>Background:</strong> Protein misfolding sicknesses are the gathering of irresistible lethal neuro and non-neurodegenerative infections and in ebb and flow researchers and specialists accepted that unusual folding of protein is the essential or main key of such illnesses are Alzheimer's infections, Parkinson's diseases, Huntington's sickness, Creutzfeldt-Jakob infection, cystic fibrosis, Gaucher's infection and numerous other degenerative and neurodegenerative problems. &nbsp;The motive of this review article is to gave a detailed of the existing structural information for prion and prion protein and also we will trying to find out their preventing root causes with respect to structural information of prions within the context of what is known about the protein misfolding diseases.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This article presents a brief overview of research on the use of these therapeutics for the treatment or improvement in prion diseases or protein misfolding.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This article begins with the brief introduction about protein misfolding diseases or infections and the therapeutic materials which are used in researches or explain this article (pentosan polysulfate, Quinacrine, Doxycycline, Chaperone based therapy, Resveratrol and curcumin) etc.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusions:</strong> In this present context of protein misfolding/prion diseases diagonsis.Therapeutic approaches predicts that person infected with prion diseases prolongs the survival time of the patient and improvement in the conditions of the prion diseased infected patient which provides good result for future medicine development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Amyloid, Beta-sheet, neurodegenerative, prion, protein misfolding, therapeutics etc</p> 2021-09-15T08:29:58-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##