http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/issue/feed Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2022-06-24T21:26:38-05:00 Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief editor.jddt@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <form></form> http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5487 Effect of Salvia purpurea cav. on the Proliferation of Hematopoietic Cells In Vitro 2022-06-15T02:39:57-05:00 Rodolfo Velasco-Lezama rodolfo_velasco2003@yahoo.com.mx Maritza Quintero-Reyes rodolfo_velasco2003@yahoo.com.mx Rafaela Tapia-Aguilar rodolfo_velasco2003@yahoo.com.mx Reyna Cerón-Ramírez rodolfo_velasco2003@yahoo.com.mx Jorge Santana-Carrillo rodolfo_velasco2003@yahoo.com.mx <p>In Mexico, some plants of the <em>Salvia</em> genus are employed against digestive problems, circulatory problems, infections, and some hematological alterations. We evaluated the effect of <em>Salvia purpurea </em>Cav. (Labiateae) on the proliferation of mouse hematopoietic cells. The extracts were prepared by consecutive maceration with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, and water from three mixtures of the aerial structures of the plant: flower; flower–leaf, and flower–leaf–stem. Their hematopoietic capacity was determined in cultures of mouse bone marrow and spleen utilizing concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 µg/mL of each extract. The 100-µg/mL concentration of the flower extracts obtained with hexane, dichloromethane, and water established the proliferation of bone-marrow cells. The 10-µg/mL concentration of the hexanic and dichloromethanic extracts reduced cellularity by 34 ad 33%, respectively (<em>p</em> &lt;0.005). Likewise, the 10-µg/mL concentration of the hexanic extract reduced the cell count by 30% (<em>p</em> &lt;0.025). The 100-µg/mL concentration of the four flower–leaf extracts increased the concentration from 135–174%. Of the 36 extracts tested in bone marrow, 14 were stimulants, 19 were cytostatic, and three, cytotoxic. The remaining extracts increased the cellular concentration from 127 to 199.6%. In spleen cultures, the 100-µg/mL concentration of the flower–leaf–stem, and the hexanic and methanolic extracts increased the cellular concentration. The 100-µg/mL concentration of the flower–leaf extracts obtained with&nbsp; dichloromethane and water gave rise to 4.0 and 3.4 increments in the cell count, respectively. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of phenolic and saponin compounds. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Hematopoietic activity, Genus <em>Salvia</em>, <em>Salvia purpurea</em> Cav, Bone marrow, Spleen.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5479 Spray-dried nanoemulsion for improved oral delivery of silymarin against hepatic cancer cells 2022-06-15T02:39:57-05:00 Mohammad Akhlaquer Rahman rahmanpharma@gmail.com <p>Silymarin recognized for numerous activities, but the use is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, inefficient intestinal permeability, and low-erratic bioavailability. The aim of the current research was formulation of spray-dried nanoemulsion to enhance the solubility of silymarin. The nanoemulsion was prepared by aqueous titration method, spray died and characterized for thermal analysis by diffraction scanning calorimetry, crystallography analysis by x-ray diffraction, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The reconstitution properties were determining for droplet size, polydispersity index and microscopic structure. Optimized nanoemulsion composed of 15% v/v of oil, 33% v/v of Smix and 52% v/v of distilled water demonstrated lowest droplet size (52.4 ± 1.63 nm) and polydispersity index (0.112), optimum viscosity (23.37 ± 2.36 cps), maximum % transmittance (94.55), optimum cloud point (88°C) and cumulative % drug release (98.43%). The microscopic structure of spray-dried nanoemulsion after reconstitution in distilled water revealed spherical shape free from any aggregation. Spray-dried nanoemulsion demonstrated amorphous sate of silymarin after fabrication into solid state. The cumulative % release of silymarin was significantly higher than marketed conventional suspension (Limarin). The developed spray-dried nanoemulsion was robust and stable for a period of 3 months that could be recommended for oral administration of silymarin after further study. Solids are preferred over liquid dosage form; the formulation may offer better patient compliance over liquid nanoemulsion. In addition, the in-vitro cytotoxicity study revealed more cytotoxicity of SD-NE than plain silymarin against HepG2 cell line after 48 h of incubation. Moreover, the HepG2 cellular uptake silymarin was found to be substantially higher from NE when compared to the plain silymarin. Further, silymarin loaded SD-NE could be potential approach against hepatic cancer.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Silymarin, spray-dried nanoemulsion, dextran, phase diagram, solubility, stability</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5351 Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Seed Kernel of Sapindus emarginatus in Rats 2022-06-15T02:39:58-05:00 B Archana biradararchana07@gmail.com P Kotesh archanabiradar07.abab@gmail.com Ramya Sree archanabiradar07.abab@gmail.com Pole Nikhitha archanabiradar07.abab@gmail.com Kursenga Santosh kumar archanabiradar07.abab@gmail.com Shaik Afroz archanabiradar07.abab@gmail.com SK Jiyarul archanabiradar07.abab@gmail.com <p>Hyperglycemia is indeed a dyslipidemia across a Globe. An International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has Predicted a certain 366 million more people have diabetes in 2011 and it has been raised up to 552 million by 2050. It approximated a certain 40 million people of hyperglycemia through India in 2007 and yet this may predicted to grow almost to 70 million affected&nbsp;&nbsp; by 2025.&nbsp; LD<sub>50&nbsp;&nbsp; </sub>study of the ethanolic extract of <em>S. emarginatus </em>seed kernel (EESESK) has been done throughout Albino rats up to a daily dosage constrain of 2000 mg/kg orally (according to OECD guidelines No.425 of CPCSEA) 1/5<sup>th</sup>, 1/10<sup>th</sup> dosage as from maximum dose examined for LD<sub>50 </sub>study results were again for experimental test research to examine a impact of&nbsp; <em>S. emarginatus </em>for a anti diabetes action.&nbsp; Insulin inefficiency was found in two selected model for my study. Alloxan hydrate at such a mg dosage of 150 mg/kg i.p after 48 hrs, the EESESK&nbsp;&nbsp; seed kernel it at a dosage of 200 mg/kg but also 400 mg/kg p.o have been administered. Dexamethasone 10 mg/kg, i.p, once daily. And at the inter of&nbsp; 30 mins EESESK 200 mg/kg&nbsp; and 400 mg/kg&nbsp; p.o had been conducted in rats for a period of 11 and 21 days respectively. At the end of the experimental, serum biomarkers such as glycogen, high cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and VLDL were analyzed by&nbsp;&nbsp; using semi-auto analyzer. In both models EESESK at a dose of 400 mg/kg exhibited substantial impact.&nbsp; Alloxan hydrate increased serum biochemical markers like glucose, high cholesterol, triglyceides, LDL, VLDL levels but decreased HDL levels. Dexamethasone caused an increase in serum glucose, High cholesterol and reduces High density lipopretein-cholesterol levels. The present study indicates that <em>S.emarginatus </em>seed kernel useful for the management of diabetes mellitus. <em>S.emarginatus</em> pollen seed found important reducing of glycogen TC, TG, LDL, VLDL levels and increased level of High Density Lipoprotein through diabetic concept mice. A enhanced high density lipoprotein is also Cardioprotective activity. Therefore <em>S.emarginatus </em>seed kernel must have future role to forestall forming of atherosclerosis but also cardiovascular disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antidiabetic activity, Ethanolic extract, Seed kernel and Rats</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5356 In-vitro antibacterial activity of Fosfomycin and Nitrofurantoin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii against clinical isolates collected from Indian tertiary care hospitals 2022-06-15T02:39:58-05:00 Rajesh Chavan rajeshchavan2@gmail.com Bhushan Naphade bsnaphade@gmail.com Bhalchandra Waykar bbwaykar@gmail.com <p>The remarkable increase in resistance to currently available antibiotics to Gram-negative pathogens particularly multidrug resistant (MDR) <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and<em> Acinetobacter baumannii,</em> This has resulted in increasing use of older under evaluated antibiotics such as fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin,&nbsp; and Trimethoprime-Sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of infections caused by MDR pathogens. However, limited <em>in-vitro</em> pharmacodynamic data for fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin against <em>Pseudomonas</em> Spp., and <em>Acinetobacter</em> Spp., is available in literature. The current study demonstrates <em>in-vitro</em> activities of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin against <em>Pseudomonas</em> and <em>Acinetobacter</em> pathogens (425 <em>Pseudomonas</em> Spp., and 352 <em>Acinetobacter</em> Spp., Total: 777 Strains), isolated from Indian tertiary care hospitals.&nbsp; The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC<sub>50/90</sub>) of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin along with comparator antibiotics were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended agar dilution method. Fosfomycin demonstrated excellent <em>in-vitro</em> activity against <em>Pseudomonas</em> while in nitrofurantoin demonstrated poor activity against <em>Pseudomonas</em> Spp.,. Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin did not show promising activities against <em>Acinetobacter</em> Spp.,. By applying <em>E. coli</em> breakpoints, the susceptibility rates of fosfomycin for <em>Pseudomonas</em> Spp., and <em>Acinetobacter</em> Spp., were 72.4%, and 14.8%, respectively. By applying respective breakpoints, the susceptibility rates of comparator drugs, including imipenem and meropenem, were lower than fosfomycin. Susceptibility rate of nitrofurantoin for <em>Pseudomonas</em> Spp., and <em>Acinetobacter</em> Spp., was &lt;1.2% suggesting its poor activity. The susceptibility rate of fosfomycin was &gt; 70% for <em>Pseudomonas</em> isolates, including strains expressing carbapenemases is encouraging finding and supports its potential use. Nitrofurantoin did not show activity against both the Spp., with susceptibility rates &lt;1.2%.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Fosfomycin, Nitrofurantoin Gram-negative, Multi Drug Resistant, <em>A. baumannii </em>and <em>P. aeruginosa.</em></p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5480 Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and its Related Determinants among Adult Population in India 2022-06-15T02:39:59-05:00 Chrins Thomas Jojo chrinsthomasjojo@gmail.com Sulaikha Abdul Kareem sulaikhaabdulkareem@gmail.com Iren Jaison K irenejaisonk@gmail.com Radhakrishnan Rahul drrahulpharmd@gmail.com N. Anand Menon anand.menon90@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>SARS-Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome&nbsp;coronavirus&nbsp;2) infection emerged as an epidemic and it was declared as a pandemic by the world health organization (WHO). Vaccines are developed to induce viral immunity, and vaccinating the entire population is urgent to limit the spread of the pandemic. Attaining herd immunity can be difficult with less vaccine acceptance.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted by using the snowball sampling technique. The survey was done between April 29, 2020 and May 19, 2020. The total number of responses obtained was 526. The questionnaire used in this study was based on previously conducted studies to estimate the rate of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.</p> <p><strong>Result: &nbsp;</strong>97.7% of the people that participated in the study were aware about the vaccine and said that they would be able to explain what a vaccine was. 82.9% of the respondents think that they are risking their own health and the health of their family by not getting vaccinated.</p> <p>This study reports that the majority of population shows acceptance of the COVID-19, however it is evident from the other study results that this rate of acceptance is not sufficient. It is essential to identify the causes for hesitancy and ways to enhance the acceptance rates. By identification of these factors, healthcare professionals can develop techniques to strategies to work on areas that cause hesitancy among people and address their concerns.&nbsp; The demographical variations play a major role in determining the acceptance</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In this COVID-19 pandemic, the most promising weapon for preventing the infection is the vaccine. More awareness and education about the need for vaccination and the hazards of avoiding the vaccine should be provided to people from authenticated sources.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COVID-19, COVID-19 vaccine, cross- sectional study, vaccine acceptance, vaccine hesitancy.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5368 Momordica foetida (Cucurbitaceae) prevents behavioral impairment, motor incoordination and brain oxidative stress induced by subchronic exposure to Parastar pesticide formulation 2022-06-15T02:39:59-05:00 Antoine Sanda Kada antoinekada@gmail.com Edouard Akono Nantia antoinekada@gmail.com Fondzeyuf Joseph Chin antoinekada@gmail.com Faustin Pascal Tsague Manfo antoinekada@gmail.com Natesan Vijayakumar antoinekada@gmail.com Jones Tatah Nchinda antoinekada@gmail.com Albert Donatien Atsamo antoinekada@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Parastar is an agricultural insecticide formulation composed of two active ingredients; a pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin and a neonicotinoid imidachloprid used in Cameroon for vegetable protection. Previous studies showed reprotoxicity and neurotoxicity of this pesticide formulation. <em>Momordica foetida</em> Schumach. Et Thonn is a medicinal plant with potent antioxidant properties used traditionally in Cameroon for the treatment of several aliments. As farmers are currently exposed to Parastar pesticide formulation, this study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of <em>M. foetida</em> on behavioral impairment, motor incoordination and brain oxidative stress induced by subchronic administration of Parastar. <strong>Methods</strong>: The study was carried out using 40 Wistar male rats, divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each. The groups received a vehicle (distilled water; 10 mL/kg), Parastar alone (6.23 mg/kg), or concomitantly with <em>M. foetida</em> methanol extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 60 days. The animals were submitted to behavioural tests including, beam walking test, open field test and forced swimming test. At end of the treatment, oxidative stress parameters and acetylcholinesterase activity were assessed in brain of each animal. <strong>Results</strong>: Parastar induced motor dysfunctions, anxiogenic like and depressive-like behaviours in the animals. The Parastar -induced alterations in behavior were all prevented by <em>M. foetida</em> extract. The plant extract alleviated Parstar-induced oxidative stress and alteration of cholinesterase activity, especially at the dose 100mk/kg. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Results from this study suggest that, <em>M. feotida</em> methanol extract may prevent anxiety-like behavior, depressive-like behavior, motor incoordination induced by Parastar, possibly through it antioxidant properties and the preservation of acetylcholinesterase activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: acetylcholinesterase, &nbsp;<em>Momordica foetida</em>, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, Parastar, rats</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5503 New Smartphone Based Colorimetric Method Development and Validation of Drugs Containing Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur 2022-06-15T02:39:59-05:00 Tejasbharthi Pravinbharthi Goswami goswamijig110@gmail.com Apeksha Kadam kadamapeksha93.ak@gmail.com Rajashree Mashru rajshreemashru@yahoo.com <p>Colorimetry is a method for determining the concentration of coloured substances in a solution. The intensity of colour is directly proportional to the concentration of compound being measured. Smartphone based colorimetry has grown in popularity as analytical instruments due to their low cost and ability to collect, store and process data all in one device. In smartphone colorimetry, the camera on the phone serves as a detector. The colorimetric method based on a smartphone and the UV method both are based on the detection of colour intensity. The ammonium metavanadate is having different oxidation states and it produce different colours in its oxidation state. The +5-oxidation state shows yellow colour, +4 oxidation state shows blue colour, +3 oxidation state shows green colour and +2 oxidation state shows purple colour. The ammonium metavanadate reagent is orange red in colour; however, it transforms into green colour complex when it reacts with drugs containing nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur in its structure. In this article the developed method for all the drugs exhibits good linearity having Correlation coefficient about 0.998(Amoxicillin trihydrate), 0.998 (Silodosin) and for 0.999(Sofosbuvir). With increasing the concentrations of API, the colour intensity increases. All photographs were taken with smartphone and analysed using the photometrix PRO software. This application converts an image to an RGB histogram and regression models are included into the photometrix PRO application. By using Photometrix PRO and UV technique, the percent RSD of for all the three drugs was &nbsp;Using statistical tool i.e two paired test on both procedures for all the three different drugs, the results show that both are equally significant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>UV spectrophotometry, Smartphone based colorimetry, Photometrix PRO, RGB Histogram</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5481 Development of a UV visible spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Ranolazine and Metoprolol 2022-06-15T02:40:00-05:00 Krupa Hareshbhai Vyas kittuvyas.kv@gmail.com Moinuddin Soniwala moinhani@gmail.com Amit Vyas amitvyas77@gmail.com Nirav Shah Nirav.8194@gmail.com <p>Ranolazine being Na+ channel blocker agent, decreases the chances of angina attacks. Metoprolol exerts specific β1 blocking effect which results into decreased cardiac contractility and heart Rate <sup>(1)</sup>. Ultimately reduces oxygen demand of heart. Metoprolol enhances the pharmacological activity of Ranolazine so the combination gives better therapeutic activity <sup>(2).</sup></p> <p>There is no UV visible method present for the simultaneous estimation of Ranolazine and Metoprolol. To formulate and evaluate such a formulation involving mentioned drugs this simultaneous equation method was developed using 0.1 N HCl as a solvent. Chosen wavelengths were 272 nm and 242 nm for Ranolazine and Metoprolol Succinate respectively. Linearity range was seen to be 7.5 to 40 ppm for Ranolazine and 1 to 5 ppm for Metoprolol. Recovery studies and Validation were successfully performed according to ICH guidelines. This method can be applied for any formulation consisting mentioned drugs without interference of other excipients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> UV visible spectrophotometry, Simultaneous estimation, Ranolazine, Metoprolol succinate, Analytical Method development, Angina Pectoris</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5370 Evaluation of the antifungal powers of five plant species of the genus Terminalia on strains responsible for candidiasis 2022-06-15T02:40:00-05:00 Gbouhoury Eric-Kévin BOLOU bgeric3@yahoo.fr Konan YAO yao83konan@gmail.com Don Josette AGRE agrejosette@yahoo.fr Désirée Ruth Constance NGUESSAN ndesireeruth@gmail.com Guédé Noel ZIRIHI noel_zirihi@yahoo.fr Allico Joseph DJAMAN djamanj@yahoo.fr <p>Background: Candidiasis is a fungal disease caused by <em>Candida albicans</em>, a yeast that preferentially affects mucous membranes. These diseases are more and more recurrent because of the generalized decline in immunity and the appearance of resistance to classical antifungal drugs. Therefore, fighting against therapeutic failures becomes necessary. The objective of this study is to contribute to the fight against candidiasis through the research of new antifungal molecules. To do so, the hydroalcoholic extracts of <em>Terminalia catappa, Terminalia glaucescens, Terminalia ivorensis, Terminalia mantaly and Terminalia superba</em>, five plant species used in traditional medicine against dermatoses, were tested on the in vitro growth of resistant strains of <em>Candida albicans</em>. In addition, the polyphenol composition of these plants was carried out in order to evaluate their protective powers.</p> <p>Methods: The antifungal tests were performed by the solid-state dilution method. While the determination of polyphenols was performed by the photometric method.</p> <p>Results: The results showed an inhibition of the growth of germs by four plants except <em>Terminalia catappa. </em>The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) obtained are as follows: MIC (<em>T. ivorensis</em>) =0.25 mg/mL; MIC (<em>T. glaucescens</em>) =0.50 mg/mL; MIC (<em>T. superba)</em> = 4 mg/ML; MIC <em>(T. mantaly</em>) = 2 mg/mL.</p> <p>Conclusion: This study indicates that <em>T. ivorensis</em> is the most active and has the highest content of phenolic compounds. This plant could be a source of effective molecules in the treatment of candidiasis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Candida albicans</em>, candidiasis, <em>Terminalia</em>, antifungal, polyphenol,</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5371 Evaluation of Awareness and Knowledge of Pharmacovigilance amongst Final Year Students of Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology, Nigeria 2022-06-24T21:26:38-05:00 B. M. Bagbi baribefe.bagbi@uniport.edu.ng D. M. George dayegeorge4real@gmail.com M. B. Alagala michael.alagala@uniport.edu.ng <p>Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) till date are still considered as one of the main problems of drug therapy. Pharmacovigilanc<strong>e </strong>is the monitoring of drug safety by means of spontaneous adverse-effect reporting systems, case control and cohort studies.</p> <p>This study evaluated the levels of awareness and knowledge of pharmacovigilance (i.e., ADR reporting) amongst final year students of Rivers State College of Health Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It was a cross sectional awareness and knowledge survey amongst 200 students from the eight Schools of the institution. Specially adapted and structured questionnaires were administered to the students to obtain information on their levels of awareness and knowledge on reporting of ADRs. Simple descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data that were obtained. The result showed that over 72% of the students from each of the Schools had good knowledge of ADR, about 62% were aware of ADR reporting system, while less than 50% had knowledge of the process of reporting ADRs.</p> <p>Final year students of College of Health Science and Technology, Port Harcourt have good knowledge of ADR. However, their awareness of the reporting system and particularly the process of reporting (pharmacovigilance) is poor and needs improvement.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Awareness, adverse drug reaction, pharmacovigilance</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5509 Preparation of Moisturizing Lotion from Combination Extract of Clitoria ternatea Flower and Dragon Fruit Peels 2022-06-15T02:40:00-05:00 Evi Ekayanti Ginting leny@helvetia.ac.id Lulu Fathin leny@helvetia.ac.id Pricella Ginting leny@helvetia.ac.id Dini Permata Sari leny@helvetia.ac.id Parhan Parhan1 leny@helvetia.ac.id Leny Leny leny@helvetia.ac.id <p><strong>Background:</strong> The skin is the organ that covers the entire human body and serves to protect the body from outside influences, so that the skin needs to be protected. The process of destruction of the skin characterized by the appearance of wrinkles, dried and cracked. Skin damage can occur due to the sun's rays. Antioxidants are needed to prevent, inhibit structural damage of the skin. This study aims to determine the best concentration from a combination of <em>Clitoria ternatea</em> L. flower extract and dragon fruit (<em>Hylocereus Polyrhizus</em> (F.A.C. Weber) Britton &amp; Rose) peel extract in lotion formulation. The research was conducted by making extract preparation and formulate in lotion by differentiating its concentration F1 (5%:5%), F2 (3%:6%), F3 (7%:3.5%). <strong>The results:</strong>&nbsp; Lotion of combination <em>Clitoria ternatea</em> L flower and dragon fruit peel extract with concentration F3 (7%:3.5%), showed the best effect, because it gives higher moisture increase compared to initial conditions, from to 32.6% become 65.2% after 4 weeks of usage. <strong>The conclusion</strong>: Combination <em>Clitoria ternatea</em> L. flower and dragon fruit peel extract can be formulated as a moisturizing lotion and with best combination in 7%: 3.5%.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>Lotion, Combination, Extract, Flower Clitoria ternatea , Dragon Fruit Peels</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5510 New Smartphone based Colorimetric Method Development and validation for the Drugs containing Nitrogen, Sulphur and Phosphorus in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form 2022-06-15T02:40:00-05:00 Naresh Rajendra Choudhary nareshchaudhary997@yahoo.com Parin Choksi parin_chokshi@yahoo.com Rajashree Mashru rajshreemashru@yahoo.com <p>A method for determining the concentration of coloured compounds in a solution is colorimetry. The intensity of the colour is related to the chemical concentration being measured. Because of their low cost and ability to collect, store, and interpret data all in one device, smartphone-based colorimetry has increased in popularity as an analytical tool. The camera on the phone is used as a detector in smartphone colorimetry. Both the smartphone colorimetric method and the UV method relied on the detection of colour intensity as concentration rose. Distinct oxidation states of ammonium metavanadate generate different colours depending on the oxidation state. The +5-oxidation state appears yellow, the +4-oxidation state appears blue, the +3-oxidation state appears green, and the +2-oxidation state appears purple. The ammonium metavanadate reagent is orange red in colour, but when it combines with pharmaceuticals that contain nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulphur in their structure, it turns green. The developed approach for all of the drugs in this article is linear. The colour intensity increases as the concentration of API increases. All of the photos were captured on a smartphone and analysed with photometrix PRO software. The photometrix PRO application turns an image to an RGB histogram, and it also includes regression models. The percent RSD for all three drugs was less than 2 employing Photometrix PRO and UV method. Using a statistical method called a two-paired test, the results reveal that both procedures are equally significant for all three drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Uv spectrophotometry, Photometrix PRO, RGB Histogram, Sumatriptan Succinate, Gemifloxacin, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5387 Incidence and antibiotic profile of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from aprons and tables used in abattoir located in Abraka and Obiaruku, Delta State, Nigeria 2022-06-15T02:40:01-05:00 Clement Oliseloke Anie coanie@delsu.edu.ng Sinodukoo Eziuzo Okafo sinokaf@yahoo.com Amelia-Jane Oluchi Anthony anthonyameliajane@gmail.com Kayode Temitope Egbon Olukayode705@gmail.com <p>This study was designed to investigate the presence of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in aprons and tables used in abattoirs in Abraka and Obiaruku.&nbsp;</p> <p>A total of one hundred samples were obtained. Fifty samples were obtained from the aprons of butchers and meat vendors working in an abattoir located in Abraka and fifty samples from the sectioning tables in an abattoir located in Obiaruku using sterile swab sticks. Biochemical tests were carried out to characterize the bacterial isolates and susceptibility carried out using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.</p> <p>Out of the 50 aprons sampled, 47 were gram negative bacteria and 3 were gram positive bacteria. The bacteria were: <em>Proteus spp.</em> (16), <em>Citrobacter spp</em>. (15), <em>Salmonella spp</em>. (10), <em>Shigella spp</em>.&nbsp; (3), <em>Aeromonas spp</em>. (2), <em>Providentia spp</em>. (1), <em>Mycobacterium spp</em>. (1), <em>Enterococcus spp</em>. (1) and <em>Streptococcus spp</em>. (1). From the table samples, all 50 were gram negative bacteria. The gram-positive bacteria showed high susceptibility (100%) with high zones of inhibition to most antibiotics used. Gram-negative bacteria showed highest susceptibility to erythromycin (95.7%)</p> <p>This study reveals that aprons and tables of butchers and meat vendors at the abattoirs are reservoir of various bacteria, some of which are food borne pathogens and are multidrug resistant. The high prevalence of some of these organisms in this study coupled with their high antibiotic resistance profile is reflective of the poor hygiene practices carried out at the abattoirs in Abraka and Obiaruku and thus, pose a serious public health concern to the consumers of meat from such abattoirs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bacteria, isolates, abattoir, butchers, meat vendors </p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5388 Development and Evaluation of Losartan Potassium Floating Matrix Tablet 2022-06-15T02:40:01-05:00 Prateek Kumar Chaturvedi chaturvedi26prateek@gmail.com Rajesh Gour chaturvedi26prateek@gmail.com Janki Prasad Rai chaturvedi26prateek@gmail.com Akhlesh Kumar Singhai chaturvedi26prateek@gmail.com <p>The present study was aimed towards the development of controlled release formulations of Losartan Potassium based on designed to enhance the bioavailability by prolonging its duration in the stomach via the floating dosage forms with controlled release. This study was intended to evaluate the influence of formulation variables like levels of polymer, amount of mannitol concentrations, and coating solution ratios of semi permeable membrane on the drug release from the developed formulations. Thus, there is a strong clinical need and market potential for a dosage form that will deliver Losartan Potassium in a controlled manner to a patient needing this therapy, thereby resulting in a better patient compliance. This study was designed to enhance the bioavailability of drug by prolonging its duration in the stomach via the floating dosage forms with controlled release. Floating matrix tablets of Losartan Potassium were prepared by the direct compression method, using locust bean gum and HPMC K 15M as polymers and Sodium bicarbonate as floating agent. The effect of the nature of polymers was studied by preparing various formulations of tablets. In all these formulations, a constant amount of drug (100 mg) was maintained. The blend was initially characterized for pre-compression and post- compression parameters. Pre-compression characterization was done for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, and Hausner’s ratio. The results of pre-compression characterization were indicated good to excellent flow characteristics. Post-compression characterization includes thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, buoyancy lag time, floating time and in-vitro drug release. All the results were satisfactory as per the guideline of pharmacopoeia. The in vitro drug release studies found that formulations LPFT4 showed best sustained release profile in 24 hrs. Among the nine formulations (LPFT1 to LPFT9) prepared formulations LPFT4 was found to be the best formulations in terms of sustained drug release. Drug release kinetics was performed by using various kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Korsmeyer- Peppas and Higuchi’s equation and followed supercase II transport diffusion kinetic models.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Oral drug delivery system, Gastroretentive technology, losartan potassium, floating tablet, matrix tablet</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5390 Development of Mucoadhesive Microsphere of Quinapril Hydrochloride for Treatment of Hypertension 2022-06-15T02:40:01-05:00 Manisha Singh manishasingh6262@gmail.com Janki Prasad Rai chaturvedi26prateek@gmail.com Sushma Somkuvar manishasingh6262@gmail.com Akhlesh Kumar Singhai manishasingh6262@gmail.com <p>Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are very widely functional approach for delivery of system within the lumen of GIT to enhance drug absorption through the part of stomach with specific manner. Quinapril hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt of quinapril, the ethyl ester of a non-sulfhydryl, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, quinaprilat. The quinapril hydrochloride microspheres was prepared with a coat consisting of alginate polymer i.e. sodium alginate in combination of mucoadhesive polymer chitosan/ guargum by an ionic gelation process. The microspheres were evaluated for morphological character, particle size, micromeritic properties, percentage entrapment efficiency, in-vitro wash-off test and in-vitro release studies. The drug quinapril hydrochloride was study for the release over 24 h duration.&nbsp; The retarding nature of system maximizing the medication discharge rate at the appropriate site within specified time period for enhancing the bioavailability of drug at desired site of action to give successful treatment to the patients experiencing hypertension The drug release of the microspheres (QLMM1 – QLMM10) was slow, extended and dependent on the composition of galactomannan concentration of polymer and stirring speed during formulation used. The mucoadhesive microspheres were adhered at intestinal pH due to highly swelling nature of composition of polymers at this pH. So, increase the adhesive strength and retarded the drug release of best composition of CH:GG in the ratio of 1:3 (QLMM6). Guargum is a highly viscous material having a property of more swelling nature due to presence of galactommannan constituent. Thus, drug release from QLMM6 was slow and extended over a period of 24 h and these microcapsules were found suitable for oral controlled release formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Gastro-retentive drug delivery, Mucoadhesive microsphere, Quinapril hydrochloride, Pulsatile drug delivery system, Treatment of hypertension, Natural polymers</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5158 A comparative prospective study in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection using Lactobacillus reuteri Vs conventional therapy 2022-06-15T02:40:01-05:00 Syed Ibrahim Hassan doctorhassanibrahim@yahoo.co.in Mohammed Baleeqh Uddin baleeqhuddinphd1617@gmail.com Mohd Ehtesham Kaunaine ekaunaine@gmail.com Sumayya Sultana sumayyasultana29@gmail.com Syeda Aleena Samreen aleena.samaira@gmail.com Mohd Mohiuddin mdmohiuddin77@gmail.com <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>H</em>elicobacter <em>pylori</em> (<em>H</em>.&nbsp;<em>pylori)</em>&nbsp;infection has become a remarkable worldwide health problem. The eradication of H. pylori has become a challenge. Probiotics have proven beneficial in reducing the side effects and increases patient compliance. <em>Lactobacillus reuteri</em>&nbsp;(<em>L. reuteri</em>)&nbsp;is frequently used probiotic and considered safe for human consumption. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a probiotic and conventional antibiotic triple therapy in the management of <em>H</em>.&nbsp;<em>pylori</em> infection.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a prospective observational study carried out for a period of six months. Patient data were extracted from their medical records. Treatment outcome was evaluated based on the report of Rapid Urease Test (RUT). Symptoms were assessed using Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics. T-test, chi square test and one way ANOVA were used wherever appropriate.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 105 patients with confirmed <em>H. pylori</em> infection were included, of which 42% were males and 58% were females. The mean age of three group patients were 38.03±10.68, 34.00±13.36 and 36.11±13.37 years. Eradication rate noted in <em>Lactobacillus reuteri </em>only treatment was 86%, eradication rate noted in <em>Lactobacillus reuteri</em>+ ppi was 86% and in antibiotic group was 92%. Patients with three different treatments have shown significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms (<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The overall data suggest that <em>L. reuteri</em> is recommended for a better eradication rate and reduced gastrointestinal symptoms. Though conventional triple therapy of <em>H. pylori</em> has shown an increased eradication rate and significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, there was no great difference when compared with <em>L. reuteri</em> treated patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>H</em>.&nbsp;<em>pylori</em>, Triple therapy, <em>L. reuteri, </em>Eradication, Gastrointestinal symptoms</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5391 The Relationship between Nutritional Status and Degree of Pneumonia in Toddlers at Universitas Kristen Indonesia General Hospital 2022-06-15T02:40:02-05:00 Ance Adriani ance.adriani@uki.ac.id Vidi Posdo Simarmata ance.adriani@uki.ac.id <p>Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection that majorly causes the death of children in the world, especially in developing countries. Malnourished is a risk factor for pneumonia in children under five years. This study aims to determine the association between nutritional status and pneumonia severity in children under five years in the Universitas Kristen Indonesia General Hospital. The design of this study was an analytical cross-sectional. The data was collected from December 2016 – to January 2017 in central to the medical record of UKI General Hospital. The subject was all infants hospitalized with pneumonia from 2013 to 2015. The indicator used for nutritional status was based on weight for height according to WHO 2007 chart. Pneumonia was found most in 13 – 24 months (36,6%). Thirteen of 82 children with normal nutritional status and 24/82 children with undernutrition had severe pneumonia (p = 0,025). Undernutrition status was significantly associated with the severity of pneumonia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>nutritional status, the severity of pneumonia, children under five years</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5396 Factors Affecting Covid-19 Infection in Clinical Students at the Indonesian Christian University in 2022 2022-06-15T02:40:02-05:00 Andriyani Risma Sanggul andriyanisimamora@gmail.com Vidi Posdo Simarmata Vidi Posdo Simarmata andriyanisimamora@gmail.com <p>COVID-19 or Coronavirus Disease is an acute respiratory disease caused by a new RNA virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus is rapidly spreading around the world. There are several risk factors for COVID-19 infection. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the incidence of COVID-19 in UKI Medical Faculty clinical students in 2022. The research design was a cross-sectional analytic using primary data by google form questionnaire involving 164 samples of clinical students FK UKI analyzed by univariate and bivariate. The results of this research were five people (3.1%) infected with COVID-29 2 times, 95 people (57.9%) clinical students FK UKI who had been exposed to COVID-19. There was a relationship between the use of masks (p=0.008), washing hands (p=0.000), keeping a distance (p=0.014), avoiding crowds (p=0.005), mobility limitations (p=0.002), and contact with COVID-19 patients (p=0.010). However, there was no relationship between gender (p=0.393), smoking (p=0.581), complete vaccination (p=0.136), and comorbid disease (p=0.641) on the incidence of COVID-19 in clinical students FK UKI in 2022. The conclusion is that the implementation of the 5M protocol (Using masks, washing hands, Keeping a distance, Avoiding crowds, and Mobility limitations) and contact with COVID-19 patients proved to affect the incidence of COVID-19 in FK UKI clinic students in 2022.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Gender, wearing a mask, washing hands, keeping a distance, avoiding restrictions, limiting mobility, contact with patients, vaccination, smoking, comorbidities, COVID-19.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5398 Description of Mother's Knowledge Level about BCG Immunization in Infants Age 0-2 Months at Posyandu, Kebun Pala Village, Makassar, East Jakarta 2022-06-15T02:40:02-05:00 Ida Bagus Eka Utama Wija eka.wija@uki.ac.id , Ronny eka.wija@uki.ac.id Nur Nunu Prihantini eka.wija@uki.ac.id <p>TB is considered the fourth leading cause of death. Pediatric TB is an essential factor in developing countries because the population of children aged younger than 15 years old is 40%-50% of the total population. At least 500,000 children are infected by TB annually. Globally, TB kills 200 children every single day and contributes to the death of 70,000 children annually. Immunization is one of the measures in the prevention of TB transmission. BCG vaccination has been playing the role of one of the WHO strategies since 1921 to eradicate TB problems, especially in developing countries, including Indonesia, and more than 3 billion doses of BCG vaccine have been distributed worldwide. This research aims to describe the level of mothers' knowledge regarding the BCG immunization among 0-2 months old infants in <em>Posyandu</em> (pre- and postnatal health care and information for women and children under five years) Kelurahan Kebun Pala Makassar, East Jakarta. The researcher used univariate analysis with the cross-sectional approach in this descriptive epidemiological research. The questionnaire that consisted of 21 questions was the primary data source for this research. The questionnaire was distributed on February 23, 2018. The researcher involved 50 respondents as the sample of the research population. Based on the analysis, the researcher concludes that 24,0% of respondents have a good level of knowledge, while the remaining respondents (76,0%) have an adequate level of expertise.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>TB, BCG Immunization, Knowledge</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5517 Antiradical and inhibitory activities of hydroethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Striga hermonthica on α-amylase 2022-06-15T02:40:02-05:00 Abdoul Aziz ZANTE zizo.zant@gmail.com Martin Bienvenu SOMDA somdabienvenu@yahoo.fr Lassina OUATTARA lasouatt@yahoo.fr Daouda ZOUNGO dazozdg@gmail.com F. Daniel PODA danielfpoda@gmail.com R. Justin OUEDRAOGO rjustino14@yahoo.com Yacouba SANOU ngosanou@gmail.com B. Pawendé KABRE kabrepawendebruno@gmail.com K. Abdourasmane KONATE Kadougoudiou@gmail.com Georges Anicet OUEDRAOGO ogeorgesanicet@yahoo.fr <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiradical and inhibitory activity of whole plant extracts of <em>Phyllanthus amarus </em>and <em>Striga hermonthica </em>on α-amylase.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The crude 70% (v/v) hydroethanolic extracts&nbsp; obtained were used for the assay of polyphenols, the antiradical test with DPPH, the test for the inhibition of α-amylase with DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic). The enzyme extracts were obtained from sorghum malt (<em>Sorghum bicolor</em>).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It appears from this study that the extract of <em>P. amarus </em>was richer in polyphenols than the extract of <em>S. hermonthica</em>. Regarding the antiradical activity, the extract of <em>S. hermonthica </em>showed an IC<sub>50</sub> of 339.06 ± 1.43 µg/mL against 77.74 ±2.73 µg/mL for the extract of&nbsp; <em>&nbsp;P. amarus</em>. Regarding the anti α-amylase activity, the extract of <em>P. amarus </em>inhibited IMS127 and KMTC 274 respectively 43.64 ±0.59% and 66.28 ±1.97%. On the other hand, the extract of <em>S. hermonthica </em>presented an inhibition of 3.93 ±0.91% on IMS127 and 14.85 ±1.62% on KMTC 274. The extract of <em>P. amarus </em>presents a good antiradical activity and anti α-amylase compared to <em>S. hermonthica extract</em>. In conclusion, these results partly explain the use of these plants in traditional medicine to treat or relieve people suffering from diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords </strong>: α-amylase, inhibition, polyphenols, antiradical, diabetes</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5401 Evaluation of the quality of the main antimicrobial drugs sold in pharmacies in Bamako (Mali) according to a risk-based sampling 2022-06-15T02:40:02-05:00 Ousmane DEMBELE oxmodamocles@yahoo.fr Bakary Moussa Cissé oxmodamocles@yahoo.fr Mody Cissé oxmodamocles@yahoo.fr Seydou Moussa Coulibaly oxmodamocles@yahoo.fr Jacques Dakouo oxmodamocles@yahoo.fr Nana Houmama Cissé oxmodamocles@yahoo.fr Benoît Yaranga Koumaré oxmodamocles@yahoo.fr <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> In a world marked by the increase in chemoresistance leading to the adoption of therapeutic combinations, the advent of generic multi-source drugs, the spread of counterfeiting and substandard drugs, often without active ingredients or falsified active ingredients, a greater vigilance by pharmaceutical regulatory authorities is needed. Drug quality control therefore plays an important role in detecting poor quality products on the market. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing threat to public health. It occurs when vital antimicrobials can no longer effectively treat bacteria and other microbes. Worldwide, around 700,000 people die each year due to antimicrobial resistance and without global action it could lead to 10 million deaths a year by 2050. This study aimed to assess the quality of major antimicrobials sold in Bamako to determine the prevalence of falsified and substandard antimicrobials.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Samples were taken in some pharmacies in Bamako and analyzed according to the standards of the United State Pharmacopoeia (USP), British Pharmacopoeia (BP) and International Pharmacopoeia (IP) by identification and assay methods. Products that do not meet the required specifications described by these pharmacopoeias are declared non-compliant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 151 samples were taken according to a protocol based on the risks, of which 145 were compliant and 6 non-compliant due to an under-dosage of active ingredient. We found 58% of unregistered drugs that came from India and China.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study allowed us to detect 6 non-compliant products that were withdrawn from the market and regulatory measures were taken.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antimicrobial, quality control, non-compliance, AMR.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5505 Pharmacist Care to Improve Medication Adherence and Quality Of Life of COPD Patients 2022-06-15T02:40:03-05:00 T. Tamilselvan tamilrx@gmail.com Alocious Arya tamilrx@gmail.com N. M. Divya tamilrx@gmail.com Nandakumar Ananthu tamilrx@gmail.com K A Anjali tamilrx@gmail.com S Sailakshmi tamilrx@gmail.com <p>The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmaceutical care by pharmacists could improve medication adherence and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or not. A prospective interventional study was conducted among 156 patients to assess medication adherence and find the reason for non-adherence, analyze the quality of life, and provide counseling to improve the quality of life in patients, to determine whether pharmaceutical care by pharmacists could improve medication adherence as well as the quality of life and to prepare patient information leaflet to educate the patients regarding the disease. Prescriptions were collected and Medication Adherence Questionnaire and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire were used to assess medication adherence and quality of life respectively. Among 156 patients, 76 were taken as a control group and the other 80 were taken as an intervention group. At the baseline, the patients in both intervention and control groups were found to have no significant difference. After the second follow-up, the total quality of life score was improved significantly in the intervention group when compared with the control group (53.55 ± 6.79 vs.68.89 ± 9.13, p=0.001).&nbsp; Medication adherence was significantly improved after pharmacist intervention (6.38 ± 1.53, 7.42 ± 0.74, p=0.001)&nbsp; as compared with control group(4.73 ± 2.16, 4.89 ± 2.18, p=0.01). As per the study results, the implementation of pharmacist intervention played an important role in improving medication adherence as well as the quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. It may improve patient outcomes and reduce their social and economic burdens.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Pharmacist intervention, Medication adherence, COPD, MAQ, SGRQ.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5404 A Two-Sequence, Four-Period, Crossover, Full-Replicate Study to Demonstrate Bioequivalence of Carbamazepine Extended-Release Tablets in Healthy Subjects under Fasting and Fed Conditions 2022-06-15T02:40:03-05:00 Shashank Salunke Shashank.Salunke@jbpharma.com Ashish Birla Shashank.Salunke@jbpharma.com Sandip Chaudhari Sandip.Chaudhari@jbpharma.com Manasvi Makwana Manasvi.Makwana@jbpharma.com Kailash Waghmare Kailash.Waghmare@jbpharma.com Paresh Shah Kailash.Waghmare@jbpharma.com Sanjay Shelke Sanjay.Shelke@jbpharma.com <p>Carbamazepine is a first-line antiepileptic drug (AED) used for the treatment of partial and tonic-clonic seizures. We conducted an open label, balanced, randomized, two-treatment, two-sequence, four-period, single oral dose, full-replicate crossover study to assess and compare the&nbsp; bioequivalence of&nbsp; test&nbsp; product&nbsp; Carbamazepine extended release tablets USP 400 mg with reference&nbsp; product Tegretol<sup>®</sup>-XR 400 mg (Carbamazepine extended release tablets), respectively in&nbsp; healthy subjects under fasting and fed conditions. Blood samples were collected pre-dose and at regular intervals post-dose up to 240.00 hours. The plasma concentration was analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method and the reference-scaled and the unscaled procedure was used to determine bioequivalence for the pharmacokinetics parameters, C<sub>max</sub>, AUC<sub>0–t</sub>, AUC<sub>0-inf</sub>, T<sub>max</sub>, T<sub>½</sub>, Ke<sub>l</sub> and AUC extrapolated was calculated. The results showed that the geometric mean ratios of C<sub>max</sub>, AUC<sub>0–t</sub> and AUC<sub>0-inf</sub> were 113.04%, 108.33% and 108.15% respectively, in the fasting conditions and 113.99%, 110.13% and 111.41%, respectively, in the fed conditions and the 90% confidence intervals were all within the range of 80.00% to 125.00%. It can be concluded from the result that the test product Carbamazepine extended release tablets based on osmotic release system (OROS) are bioequivalent to the reference product Tegretol<sup>®</sup>-XR tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Bioequivalence<strong>,</strong> Carbamazepine, Sodium Channel Modulators and Epilepsy</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5528 Organogenesis from Leaf-derived Calli of S. potatorum L. f.: A Vulnerable Medicinal Tree Species 2022-06-15T02:40:03-05:00 VEERAN VIJAYA KUMAR vsvijay287@gmail.com RAJAKUMARAN PATHMAVATHI SARALLA srlgayathiri@yahoo.com PALANISAMY - KANNAN pkannan2005@gmail.com <p>An efficient protocol for <em>in vitro</em> regeneration of <em>Strychnos</em> <em>potatorum</em> L. f. through indirect organogenesis was developed using mature leaf disc explants. The explants were selected from twenty years old tree. Cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) was used for the induction of organogenic calli. A pale yellow coloured friable callus developed at 2 mg/L<sup>-1</sup> 2,4-D where showed higher morphogenic potential. Further <em>de-novo</em> shoots formation and multiplication in optimal concentrations of cytokinins with different combinations of auxins.&nbsp; An average mean shoots number (14.2±0.42) and shoots height (3.5±0.27cm) was obtained from piece of calli in 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) 1 mg/L<sup>-1 </sup>with 0.5 mg/L<sup>-1 </sup>α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). BAP in combinations with NAA was found to be superior to shoot development than other combination used. The well developed shoots were transferred to root induction medium for effective rooting. The rooting medium consisted of in half-strength MS medium augmented with 0.5 mg/L<sup>-1</sup> NAA was used. The maximal mean number of roots per shoots 6.5±0.53 was recorded in 4 weeks. The rooted plantlets were removed from the culture tubes, gently washed with sterile double distilled water to remove agar adhering on the plant surface. The regenerated plants were transferred to plastic cups filled with a potting mixture containing sterile sand and soilrite (1:1 ratio) and allowed to grow in the greenhouse. The slowly acclimatized plants were further transferred to substrate containing red soil and farmyard manure (1:1) for effective hardening. 75% survival rate was recorded. This protocol can be useful for the <em>ex-situ </em>conservation and rehabilitation of this vulnerable medicinal tree <em>S. potatorum</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Indirect organogenesis, friable callus, shoot development, 6-benzylaminopurine, α-naphthalene acetic acid</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5537 Training: Priority Analysis of Health Problems and Activity Intervention Priorities for Village Apparatus in the Work Area of the Benteng Health Center 2022-06-15T02:40:03-05:00 Akhiat Akhiat ahkiatpoltekkes@gmail.com <p>Establishing Priorities in population health issues and determining priorities in the intervention programs implemented are important given the limitations of HR and financial resources. Health problems must be addressed inclusively, that is, together with relevant agencies. This study aims to look at the effect of health education on prioritizing health issues and their interventions on the knowledge of village officials. This research was conducted in Pangkalan Baru District. The research sample used was 30 people. The method used is pre-experimental design with one group pre-test post-test design. Data collection using a questionnaire. The data analysis technique uses the Wilcoxon technique. The results showed that the knowledge of the Village Apparatus before being given health education with an average value of 74.21 and after being given health education became 91.3%. Hypothesis test results with an error rate of 0.05 obtained p value &lt;0.05 means that there are significant differences from the knowledge of the Village Apparatus after and before the training</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Health, Problem, Intervention</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5527 Development and Validation of Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Estimation of Telmisartan by Using Smartphone Application 2022-06-17T12:15:26-05:00 Samar Ashfaq Saiyed saiyedsamar27@gmail.com Preeti Jadeja samarsaiyed98@gmail.com Rajashree Mashru rajshreemashru@yahoo.com <p>Two simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and reproducible extractive colorimetric methods were developed for estimation of Telmisartan in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. These methods are based on the formation of colored ion-pair complex of Telmisartan with Bromocresol green (BCG) and Bromocresol purple (BCP) dyes in acidic medium. The complex was extracted in chloroform and estimated quantitatively at 421 nm and 411 nm for BCG and BCP dyes respectively. For estimation of TMS present in the sample, estimation was also done by using Smartphone Application known as PhotoMetrix Pro. Beer Lambert’s law was obeyed over a range of 4-12 μg/ml for TMS with BCG dye by UV (r²= 0.9997) and PhotoMetrix (r²= 0.997) and for BCP dye it was obeyed over a range of 2-10 μg/ml by UV (r²= 0.999) and PhotoMetrix (r²= 0.998). The developed method was successfully applied for estimation of TMS in three commercial product tablet formulation without interference from common additives. The developed method was validated according to ICH Q2 guideline for linearity, range, accuracy, and precision. Comparison for both method UV and PhotoMetrix was done by performing t-test, and results show that there is no significant difference between both methods and hence Photometrix can be used as an alternative to UV for routine analysis of TMS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Telmisartan, Bromocresol green, Bromocresol purple, Acidic dyes, Colorimetry, UV spectrophotometry, PhotoMetrix.</p> 2022-06-17T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5360 A Prospective Cohort Study on Diabetic Foot Infections with Emphasis on Identifiable Risk Factors in Patients Attending Tertiary Care Centre 2022-06-17T12:26:33-05:00 Naresh Kunta kuntanaresh785@gmail.com Tulja Rani G princicmcp@gmail.com Shravan Kumar Poludasari poldasarisravan@gmail.com Vidya Rachakonda vidyarachakonda22@gmail.com Lohitha Reddy Pingili lohithareddypingili@gmail.com <p><strong>Background:</strong> Foot infections are one of the most commonly observed complications in diabetic patients and are associated with high morbidity and risk of lower extremity amputation. Foot infections account for about 20% of all hospitalizations in people with diabetes and at least 50% of all non-traumatic lower-limb amputations performed annually.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the risk factors in patients with diabetic foot infections attending tertiary care centre.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> It is a longitudinal prospective study in which patients attending the tertiary care centre with diabetic foot infections meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled after obtaining the informed consent form.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion:</strong> The results of this study revealed that the overall prevalence of DFI was seen more in males (61.42%) when compared to females (38.57%). The results also showed that the risk of DFI was more with trauma(44.28%) followed by the long duration of DM (28.57%) &gt; wound (15.71%) &gt; uncontrolled DM &amp; prior foot ulcer (5.7%) which indicates a lack of awareness, longer duration of&nbsp; DM, poor glycemic control were the main risk factors causing diabetic foot problems. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results suggest that lack of awareness, poor glycemic control, and long duration of diabetes were the main risk factors causing DFI. Therefore, efforts to prevent infections should be targeted at people with traumatic foot wounds especially those that are chronic and recurrent. Foot care education would be the foremost important way of dealing with this serious problem.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Morbidity, lower-extremity amputation, trauma, glycemic control.</p> 2022-06-17T12:26:32-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5406 Formulation and Evaluation of Floating In-Situ Gel of Nicardipine Hydrochloride 2022-06-18T09:44:44-05:00 Tarun Patel sharavdesai@gmail.com Sharav Desai sharavdesai@gmail.com Hitesh Jain sharavdesai@gmail.com Dhananjay Meshram sharavdesai@gmail.com Komal Rahevar sharavdesai@gmail.com <p>The present research work aimed to formulate and evaluate a gastro retentive in situ gelling system of Nicardipine Hydrochloride using Sodium Alginate as gelling polymer, HPMC K100M as release retard polymer, calcium carbonate as a cross-linking agent, and tri-sodium citrate as fluidity enhancer agent to treat hypertension. The mechanism for the floatation was based on ionic cross-linking. Several evaluation tests were carried out for pre and final formulation evaluation. Based on the outcomes white-colored, viscous solution of uniform consistency was obtained. Batch B1 was very well prepared for the ability to control long-term drug release. The drug content was found to be &gt; 97 %, the viscosities were in the acceptable range suitable for swallowing, and pH was found to be in the range of 7.33 – 7.68 which was compatible with oral digestion. Design expert 13 Software was used to derive results of interaction and responses based on the concentration of polymer and statistical analysis. The optimized formulation i.e., Batch B1 (0.6 % w/v and 0.5 % w/v HPMC K100M) showed a slow drug release of 96.44 % up to 12 hours. The best fit model for the drug release followed the Higuchi model which explained that the drug release occurred by the Fiskian mechanism i.e., a combination of both diffusion and erosion. The in-situ gel prepared can ultimately provide prolonged release, enhance the bioavailability of the drug and increase patient compliance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: -</strong> In situ gel, Ionic cross linking, Sodium alginate, HPMC K100M, Nicardipine Hydrochloride.</p> 2022-06-18T09:44:42-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5361 Vaccines and Therapeutics: Quality System Approach to Clinical Applications 2022-06-15T02:39:57-05:00 Kaiser Jay Aziz-Andersen kashj33@yahoo.com <p>Molecular bio-science developments involve applications of mRNA vaccines focused on diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic aspects of COVID-19 related infectious diseases. These applications offer potential solutions for many of the current challenges in treating virus related infectious diseases.&nbsp; The goal of vaccine design and development is to manufacture and consistently produce a vaccine that is safe and effective. The vaccine discovery starts with design input in terms of identification of etiologic agent, immunogenicity, adjuvant, basic scientific concepts, non-clinical and clinical studies, and finally vaccine licensure (FDA approvals). The Lipid Nanoparticle Technology (LNT) for messenger RNA is being used for COVID-19 vaccines. This technology comprises of identifying and mapping signature features of the virus which encompasses the readability of the virus’s blueprint, its neutralization and activation processes in order to deliver antibody proteins to protect the vaccine recipients’ bodies from encounters with the virus. The administering regimens are studied in clinical research laboratory and study materials are tested in suitable bench testing and biological models projecting vaccine candidate’s prophylactic immune response that is safe and effective. The vaccine manufacturing process requires critical quality control points (CQCPs) monitoring in order to maintain the steriochemical and immunological characteristics of the vaccine molecules and enable production of the vaccine in increasingly dosage quantities for ultimate human use. These aspects of vaccine development are well integrated into the total vaccinology life cycle (TVLC) regulatory requirements. The ultimate regulatory safety and efficacy requirements of the vaccine are proven through phases of clinical trials (class I, II, and III studies). The final process for human use to produce safe vaccine is part of pivotal clinical trials and data under the US FDA’s premarket approval process for full-scale production and availability of safe vaccines for clinical use.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> mRNA Vaccines, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis, Therapy, COVID-19</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5508 Role of Primary Care in Management of Heart Failure Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF): A Literature Review 2022-06-15T02:39:58-05:00 Sidhi Laksono sidhilaksono@uhamka.ac.id Pepi Nurapipah pepinurapipah@gmail.com Zahra Nurusshofa zahranurusshofa@gmail.com Rininta Rininta rininta@gmail.com <p>Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a non-communicable disease with the prevalence increasing globally. HFpEF has signs and symptoms of typical heart failure, with EF &gt;50%, and structural heart disease or raised BNP. Primary care has an important role to prevent the progression of HFpEF. In this study, we review the importance of primary care in HFpEF management and the gaps with the newest ESC guideline in real practice. The challenges in the diagnosis of HFpEF result in treatment delayed or disease progression. Since there is a new drug has been added to the newest guideline, prior guideline adherence in primary care is suboptimal. Communication is the key to bridging the physician and expert. More epidemiological study of HFpEF in the specific region would be a starting point in an effort for adapting standardized guidelines and this requires a health system with appropriate resources and incentives.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> HFpEF, primary care, disease prevention, guideline, communication.</p> 2022-06-14T07:42:38-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5496 A review on potential medicinal herbs as health promoters 2022-06-15T02:39:58-05:00 Anil B Badnale anilbadnale@gmail.com Vikram S. Sarukh sarukhvikram@gmail.com Yogesh P. Nikam nikamyp22@gmail.com Amol V. Supekar supekaramol123@gmail.com Sandip. S Khandagale sandipkhandagale3300@gmail.com <p>Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and a moving number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources they have plays an important role in the treatment and management of different diseases. The practice of herbal medicine has existed since prehistoric times as the primary source of medicine. In recent technology has very much advanced, herbal medicines still show and are finding exceptional acceptance in both the developing and the developed countries due to their natural origin and lesser side effects.&nbsp; Traditional herbal remedies as alternative medicine play a significant role. Ginger has an Antiviral effect, Antioxidant effect &amp; Anti-inflammatory effect given. Garlic is an ayurvedic medicinal herb that has been widely used as a medication and as a taste enhancer of the food. In traditional remedies, coriander was used for the relief of gastrointestinal conditions. Turmeric shows different biological activities such as Anti-inflammatory, Anti-viral, Anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, Anti-bacterial, Antiarthritis, Anti-diabetic, Fennel shows carminative and stimulant activities as well as spasmolytic activity due to its volatile and non-volatile compounds. Cardamom is used as a home remedy it helps cure various ailments like indigestion, nausea, headache, etc. Clove is a flavouring agent, antibacterial, stimulant, carminative, fragrant, and antiseptic. It's also used as an antiemetic and an anodyne. Dentists use clove oil to sterilize root canals and as an oral anesthetic. Cinnamon is used in coughs and colds, In brief, the information on medicinal herbs will be helpful to create more interest in this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and it may be helpful in developing new drug formulations in the future.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Medicinal herbs, health, Ginger, Garlic, Coriander, Turmeric, Clove, Cinnamon, Fennel, Cardamom</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5372 Resistant hypertension 2022-06-15T02:39:58-05:00 EG Moke hiligoodies@gmail.com B Ekuerhare hiligoodies@gmail.com MT Enaohwo hiligoodies@gmail.com JN Asiwe hiligoodies@gmail.com OO Ofulue hiligoodies@gmail.com EK Umukoro hiligoodies@gmail.com NP Isibor hiligoodies@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Resistant hypertension is a common medical challenge facing clinicians and specialists. Although, the prevalence is currently unknown but various clinical trials have suggested that this problem is not rare. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure that remains above goal despite the use of at least three antihypertensive agents including a diuretic. It is a subtype of hypertension that increases the risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and kidney disease. However, it is important to distinguish between pseudo-resistant hypertension and apparent hypertension from true resistant hypertension as they are often misdiagnosed.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This review focuses on resistant hypertension, its pathophysiology and established therapy.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Relevant articles used for this review covered a period of 2008-2022 using search engines and databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar.</p> <p><strong>Main observation</strong>: Evaluation of patients with true resistant hypertension includes appropriate blood pressure measurement, screening for causes of secondary hypertension and screening for interfering medications. Management of resistant hypertension that has proved successful includes non-pharmacological approach like lifestyle modification and optimization of pharmacological agents, often including the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Considering the future management of resistant hypertension, a bunch of new device-based therapies are under effective development. Of these, renal denervation and carotid baroreflex activation are two potential devices for the significant reduction of blood pressure. However, further study is necessary before these devices can be approved for the routine treatment of resistant hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Aldosterone; Cardiovascular disease; Resistant Hypertension; Therapy.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5373 Quantum Dots: A New Hope for the Pharmaceutical Field 2022-06-15T02:39:59-05:00 Om Bhurbhure ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com Vaishnavi Ghormade ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com Vinayak Katekar ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com Dipali Sangule ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com Shivprasad Dhage ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com Vrushabh Boralkar ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com Tejaswini Padole ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com <p>Quantum dots (QDs) are nanoparticles that have been developed for a number of biological and biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and simultaneous imaging of several cells. As a result of their unique physicochemical features, QDs have shown remarkable potential in receptor-based targeting. Functionalized QDs (f-QDs) are nano-sized smart systems that can deliver a wide spectrum of bioactive. Surface modified fluorescent carbon QDs has received interest as a targeting ligand for achieving cellular targeting with increased specificity. Several surface-designed and conjugated fluorescent carbon QDs are currently being investigated for cancer treatment, and the results are awaited with bated breath. This review emphasizes different synthesis methods, their characterizations, and different applications of QDs in cancer therapies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Quantum dots, Synthesis, Medical applications.</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5502 Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Potential of Azadirachta indica: A Review 2022-06-15T02:39:59-05:00 Sri Niza Oktavia srinizaokt@gmail.com Ifora Ifora iforafo03@gmail.com fitra fauziah fitrafauziah@stifarm-padang.ac.id <p>Inflammation is a protective response to injury or tissue damage and acts by eliminating harmful stimuli such as pathogens cell damage and initiates the healing process. <em>Azadirachta indica</em> was known as medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities. This review aims to summarize the scientific activity of <em>A.indica</em> as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic with experimental models either <em>in vivo</em> or <em>in vitro</em> taken from several databases such as Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and PubMed over the last ten years (2011- 2021). From the data, <em>A.indica</em> was proven to be anti-inflammatory by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, NFkB, COX2, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN- γ, and reducing the volume of edema. Potential analgesic indicated by decreasing stomach writhing and reducing pain sensation in rats. The antipyretic activity was characterized by a decrease in rats' body temperature. This review proves that natural products from <em>A.indica</em> have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic potential.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Analgesic, Azadirachta, Fever, Inflammation, Neem</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5386 A Review on Quality by Design Approach in Analytical Methods 2022-06-15T02:40:00-05:00 Vinayak Katekar vinayakkatekar3@gmail.com Dipali Sangule vinayakkatekar3@gmail.com Om Bhurbhure ombhurbhure.sai@gmail.com Priyanka Ingle vinayakkatekar3@gmail.com Shivprasad Dhage vinayakkatekar3@gmail.com Krushna Jadhav vinayakkatekar3@gmail.com <h3>Quality by Design (QbD) is a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives for a product, process understanding, and process control based on knowledge and quality risk management. All conventional methods may fail to the intended purpose during method development and validation. In a QbD approach, the impact and interactions between critical method variables are understood using a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach, which gives multivariate analysis and modeling leading to the consistent quality of drug products. QbD tools like risk assessment and design of experiments, enable better quality to be incorporated into the analytical method and facilitate prior understanding and identification of variables affecting method performance. The main objective of the present review article is to describe different steps involved in method development by the QbD approach for analytical method development. The QbD Approach for method development comprises various steps that include defining method intent, performing experimental design, evaluating experimental results, selecting proper method conditions, and performing risk assessment with changing analytical parameters and conditions for evaluation. The purpose of analytical QbD is to attain quality in measurement.</h3> <p>Keywords: Quality by Design (QbD), Design of Experiments (DOE), Critical attributes</p> 2022-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/5442 Advances in taste masking of drug: a review study 2022-06-18T09:49:36-05:00 Hemant Kusumakar Fating hemantfating30@gmail.com Janhavi Vilas Ambadkar janhaviambadkar112@gmail.com Archana Dinkarrao Kajale archana.kajale@gmail.com <p>Taste is the ability to determine the flavor of substances like food, drug, etc. The aspect of taste only occurs when the drug get soluble in saliva. Firstly the drug gets dispersible in saliva then they show interaction with taste bud and then perception of taste is occurred. The above test receptor get binds to the molecules of saliva and generates the electrical impulses from the area of brain that area is cranial nerves 7<sup>th</sup> ,9<sup>th</sup> 10<sup>th</sup> and then perception of taste occurs. Currently varieties of drugs are available like cardiac, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, opioid analgesic, anti-epileptic, anticoagulant, oral vaccine and sex hormone. Due to bitter formulation it tends to patient complain the problem of bitter and unpleasant taste of drug in the pediatrics and geriatric formulation is provocation to the pharmacist in the current scenario .Bitter taste masking become important to solve patient complain. This is become most important issue regards with pharmaceutical therapies. Taste masking get broadly classify into physical, chemical, biochemical and organoleptic methods. There are different types of method are available to mask the unpleasant taste of drug. The physical method involves the use of sweeteners and flavor enhancers. The chemical method involves Ion exchange resin, solid dispersions, spray drying, Inclusion complex, Microencapsulation, coating. The biochemical method involves Prodrug, Hot melt extrusion. The most abundantly used method involves are spray drying, Inclusion complex, Microencapsulation, coating, hot-melt extrusion, and organoleptic methods.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Obnoxious, Hot melt Extrusion, Ion exchange resin, coating, palatability.&nbsp;&nbsp; </p> 2022-06-18T09:49:35-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##