Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2020-11-30T05:20:00-06:00 Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <form></form> The Kidney and COVID-19: Pandemic Effects on the Patients 2020-11-18T07:23:21-06:00 A.S.M. Sarwar Divya Jain Anika Bushra Khandaker Sabit Bin Razzak Mohammad Nabil Hossain Sabrina Rahman <p><em>COVID-19 pathogens were identified as new coronaviruses by the sequencing of sample lower respiratory tracts from patients affected, which share a sequence of 79.6 percent identified as </em><em>severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.&nbsp;</em><em>The virus has spread rapidly worldwide and was reported as a pandemic on 11 March 2020 since its detection in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The principal characteristics of COVID-19 were diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure, involving other organs.&nbsp;</em><em>Although co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease have reported </em><em>as risk factors of </em><em>COVID-19, there is still no proof of an increased vulnerability to chronic renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKDs), although there are several studies</em><em> continuing</em><em> worldwide. CKD is differentiated by kidney structure abnormalities or functions which last &gt; 3 months and have an impact on patient health. T</em><em>he deaths were not specifically caused by COVID-19, but were considered systemic causes. In HD patients with COVID-19 there were decreased lymphopenia, reduced serum levels of inflammatory receptors and more severe clinical disease than patients with HD CKD. Therefore, additional precautions should be taken in CKD patients to minimize risk of the infection. Doctors can also be carefully watched to identify signs of worsening of the disease in CKD patients with confirmed COVID-19. </em></p> 2020-11-18T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Immunomodulatory Effect of Sodium Saccharin and Potassium Acesulfame in BALB/C Mice in Short-Term Trials 2020-11-15T00:19:55-06:00 Asma Remil Mohammed Benali <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Sweeteners are molecules that give a sweet taste to a foodstuff. The question of the correct use of sweeteners is still being studied because the results of investigations are often contradictory.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> the current study aims at evaluating the risk of short-term immunotoxicity induced by sodium saccharin and potassium acesulfame in BALB/c mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Animals are given low concentrations of sweeteners (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%) in drinking water for 90 days. During this period, a subcutaneous immunization is conducted. Blood is taken from the retro-orbital sinus and the animals are sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Weight measurements and histological studies have involved spleen, thymus, bladder and lungs. Levels of immunoglobulins are measured by reversed single radial immunodiffusion.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A significant rise in the consumption of sweeteners is found in the groups receiving doses of 1% and 2% (p&lt;0.05). Organ weight is not affected in both sexes (p&gt;0.05). Histology shows no tissue abnormality of thymus and lungs in groups consuming sweeteners. However, histological disturbances of the spleen are observed in mice that have received the dose of 2%. Histological study of bladder has revealed hyperplasia in the groups receiving 1% and 2% of sweeteners. Immunodiffusion assay shows no change in immunoglobulin levels in the groups consuming sweeteners (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Sweeteners have adverse effects on the immune system in BALB/c mice and induce histological abnormalities in the spleen and bladder.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sweeteners, Saccharin, Potassium Acesulfame, Immunotoxicity, Immunoglobulins, Reversed single Radial Immunodiffusion.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ameliorative efficacy of novel multi herbal formulation (AKSS16-LIV01) upon Haematological modulations induced by fixed dose combination of tramadol hydrochloride/paracetamol (THP) 2020-11-15T00:19:56-06:00 Soumendra Darbar Srimoyee Saha Kausikisankar Pramanik Atiskumar Chattopadhyay <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tramadol hydrochloride/paracetamol (THP) a fixed dose combination (FDC) is widely spread analgesic used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. Over dose or chronic use of this fixed dose combination produce serious adverse effects.&nbsp; An acute Tramadol hydrochloride/paracetamol (THP) overdose can lead to a fatal liver damage.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> There is a worldwide need to develop a safe and symptomatic medication which controls the different medical complications.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Healthy adult swiss albino mice were assigned to four groups of six mice each according to their weights. Group-I serve as control, Group-II received Multi herbal formulation (AKSS16 LIV01) 400 mg/kg/day, Group-III received Tramadol hydrochloride/paracetamol (THP) 1.68 g / 300ml water and Group-IV received THP along with AKSS16-LIV01 (400 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected from the retro orbital plexus of each animal to determine various blood parameters and liver transaminase. <strong>Results:</strong> Administration of THP showed decline body weight, food consumption and water intake in mice whereas treatment with Multi herbal formulation (AKSS16-LIV01) normalized the same as compared with untreated animals. Treatment with THP (Group-III) decline the packed cell volume (PCV), haempglobin (Hb), means cell volume (MCV), means cell hemoglobin (MCH) and greater the white blood cell (WBC) compared with control. Pre-treatment with AKSS16-LIV01 significantly (p&lt;0.001) increased the PCV, Hb, MCH, MCH and decreased WBC count in experimental animals. On the other hand elevated liver transaminase enzymes i.e. AST and ALP by THP was restored with administration of Multi herbal formulation (AKSS16-LIV01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Chronic administration of THP indicated adverse effects on haematologic parameters upon experimental animals. Simultaneous administration with newly developed multi herbal formulation (AKSS16-LIV01) was ameliorate these adverse effects and may be potent drug In the future which controls the blood related medical complications against the toxicants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tramadol hydrochloride/paracetamol; Fixed dose combination; Multi herbal formulation; Hematologic parameters; Liver transaminase; Swiss albino mice</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Emerging Trends in the Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Southeast Region of Nigeria 2020-11-15T00:19:56-06:00 Marcellinus Nkpozi Benjamin Adukwu Chidiebele Ezeude Stephen Onwere <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong> Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading causes of non-communicable diseases and are increasingly becoming the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Published literature on the changing patterns and outcome of CVD admissions in the southeast region of Nigeria is scanty. This study, therefore, set out to bridge this gap in knowledge.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Methods:</strong> This was a 10-year retrospective descriptive study in which data about patients admitted on account of the CVDs to the medical wards of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH), Aba from May 1, 2007 to April 30, 2017 were extracted from the Admission/Discharge registers in the medical wards. Relevant data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 2044 patients were admitted because of CVDs, made up of 927 (45.4%) males and 1117 (54.6%) females. Cerebrovascular disease (stroke), heart failure (HF) and uncontrolled systemic hypertension (SHTN) were the major cardiovascular indications for hospitalization at 44.08%, 38.85% and 15.31% respectively. With an overall CVD mortality of 24.9% of the medical admissions, the commonest cause of CVD deaths was stroke. Majority of the CVD deaths (70.9%) occurred within the first 7 days of hospitalization</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Contribution of cardiovascular diseases to medical admissions is considerable in Aba, Southeast Nigeria. In-patient mortality of the CVDs is high especially from stroke. It is recommended that every effort should be made to control the modifiable risk factors of CVDs while early detection and treatment of CVDs be effected.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aba, cardiovascular diseases, medical wards, non-communicable diseases, Southeast, Nigeria</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress in a Population of Women with Breast Cancer in the North-Western Regions of Algeria (Saida and El-Bayadh) 2020-11-15T00:19:56-06:00 Noureddine Halla Kebir Boucherit Kadda Hachem Amouria Asmouni Hanane Derrab Zahia Boucherit-Otmani <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this work is the study of risk factors for breast cancer in a population of women in the north-western regions of Algeria (Saida and El-Bayadh)</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A case-control study was carried out on 40 women including 20 cancerous women and 20 control women, in order to determine the dietary patterns and general characteristics of the population studied and to compare the hematological and biochemical parameters, and markers of oxidative/antioxidant status between control women and breast cancer women.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results obtained show that there is no significant difference in the average age however the body mass index was significantly increased in cancer women, revealing overweight (p &lt;0.05), compared to control women. The marital status of the target population is predominantly a married woman status and the level of education shows a relatively low level in breast cancer cases compared to women controls. The illiteracy rate is exceptionally high in cancer women compared to controls (35% versus 20%). In addition, the levels of glucose, creatinine, HDL and ALAT are similar between the two groups of women. The contents of urea, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, ASAT, malondialdehyde and uric acid are significantly increased in women with breast cancer compared to women controls. But the vitamin C content is significantly reduced in cancer women compared to control women.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We conclude from this study that there is an association between breast cancer and lipid alteration, oxidative stress, age, increase in BMI, socio-demographic data, professional situation, age, means of menstruation and menopause, and ultimately the lifestyle. All these factors are risk factors for breast cancer in the region of Saida and El-Bayadh.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Breast Cancer, Risk Factors, Dietary Patterns, Oxidative Stress.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for Estimation of Amlodipine Besylate and Celecoxib in Pharmaceutical Formulation 2020-11-15T00:19:57-06:00 P Nagamani SY Manjunath T Hemant Kumar <p>A simple, precise, accurate, and rapid reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV-Visible detector has been developed and subsequently validated for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate(AML) and celecoxib(CEL) in their combined tablet dosage form. The separation was based on the use of a Flowrosil C<sub>18 </sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 µm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 80 volumes of acetonitrile and 20 volumes of water. The chromatography was performed by isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Analytes were detected at 250 nm, with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges of 2-12 µg/ml and 50-300 µg/ml for AML and CEL respectively. The retention time of AML and CEL were 1.98 and 3.15 min respectively. The recoveries obtained were 99.46‒101.36% for AML, 99.57‒101.42% and 99.96–100.87 % for CEL. The method was validated according to International conference of harmonisation guidelines in terms of accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, limits of detection and quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation. The developed method was applied successfully for HPLC analysis of commercial pharmaceutical products including AML and CEL.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Amlodipine besylate; Celecoxib; RP-HPLC.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Aqueous Extract of Thonningia sanguinea on Blood Electrolytes of Broilers Chickens 2020-11-15T00:19:57-06:00 Kouakou Severin KONAN Aboya Jean-Luc MOROH Wawa Justine TIEKPA Jean-David N’GUESSAN <p>The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of <em>Thonningia sanguinea</em> on blood electrolytes of broiler chickens. To do this, two hundred (200) 15-day-old Hubbard broiler chickens were divided into 2 batches of 100 chickens each. The chickens in the control group (Batch C) received unsupplemented water while those in the test group (Batch E) received water supplemented with 10 g / L of aqueous extract of <em>T. sanguinea</em> for one week. Then, the zootechnical parameters such as weight growth, weight gain, consumption index and the level of serum electrolytes were determined. The results of the study showed that the aqueous extract of <em>Thonningia sanguinea</em> improved weight growth, weight gain and consumption index. At the same time, the results also showed that <em>T. sanguinea</em> did not significantly (p &lt;0.05) affect the level of blood electrolytes of broilers chickens. From the results obtained in the present study, the aqueous extract of <em>Thonningia sanguinea</em> could be used to improve poultry productivity without damage on blood electrolytes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Thonningia sanguinea</em>; chicken broilers; Blood electrolytes; Zootechnical parameters</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Potentially Inappropriate Medications and Prescription Appropriateness in Geriatics at Teritiary Care Hospital 2020-11-15T00:19:58-06:00 Wahiba Mohammed Wazir Saba Afreen FARIA IFFATH Amtul Muqeet Rafia Mohammed Ateeq Ur Rahman, ateequrrahman <p><strong>Background:</strong> Elder people are a diversified group commonly presenting with multiple comorbid illnesses resulting into multiple prescriptions which in turn increases adverse effects and polypharmacy. Potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) further contribute to this risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prescription appropriateness and (PIM) in geriatrics as per WHO core prescribing indicators and Beer’s Criteria, 2015 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective observational study was conducted in Osmania General Hospital, a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital from December 2018 to May 2019. A total of 100 case records of inpatients greater than or equal to 60 years of age, in general medicine wards were reviewed. Relevant information was recorded in a structured proforma and data was evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 100 patients, 70 patients were male and 30 patients were female. Majority of them were from the age group of 65-70 years. There were 34% patients prescribed at least one PIM. Polypharmacy was observed in all patients. Average no. of drugs per prescription was 10.5%.Percentage of drugs prescribed from EDL (Essential drug list) were 84%.The p value of WHO core prescribing indicators was assessed using chi square test and was found to be significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our study found WHO core prescribing indicators to be deviated from the optimum values set by WHO and high prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medications as per Beers criteria 2015. This highlights the need of future research work, strategies and regulatory measures focusing on geriatric patients and also encouraging prescribers to use the WHO core prescribing indicators and Beers criteria while prescribing elderly for providing optimum healthcare.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Beer’s criteria, Geriatrics, WHO prescribing indicators, Polypharmacy. Ageing, Potentially Inappropriate Medications.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of a Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Aspirin and Domperidone Bulk or Formulation Using UV and HPLC 2020-11-15T00:19:58-06:00 Sneha Jagnade Pushpendra Soni Lavakesh Kumar Omray <p>The aim of present study was to investigate the development and validation of a green analytical method for the determination of aspirin and domperidone. Method Development and Validation for Estimation of Domperidone and Aspirin in bulk or formulation by using RP-HPLC. The RP-HPLC method was developed for estimation of Aspirin and Domperidone in synthetic mixture by isocratically using 10 mM KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>: Acetonitrile (20:80) as mobile phase, Prontosil C-18 column (4.6 x 250 mm, 5μparticle size) column as stationary phase and chromatogram was recorded at 231 nm. Then developed method was validated by using various parameters such as, linearity, Range accuracy, precision repeatability, intermediate precision, robustness, limit of detection, limit of quantification. The proposed methods were found to be linear with correlation coefficient close to one. Precision was determined by repeatability, Intermediate precision and reproducibility of the drugs. The robustness of developed method was checked by changing in the deliberate variation in solvent. The result obtained shows the developed methods to be Cost effective, Rapid (Short retention time), Simple, Accurate (the value of SD and % RSD less than 2), Precise and can be successfully employed in the routine analysis of these drugs in bulk drug as well as in tablet dosage form. The Simplicity, Rapidly and Reproducibility of the proposed method completely fulfill the objective of this research work.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Asprin; Domperidone; HPLC; Ultra Violet; Validation</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Some Plants Used in the Management of Erectile Dysfunction by the BWA Community in Mali 2020-11-15T00:19:58-06:00 Issiaka Togola Jean Dembélé Cheickna Daou Nouhoum Diarra Mamadou A. Konaré Rokia Sanogo <p>The erection has always symbolized strength and virile health. Erectile dysfunction is undoubtedly a concern as old as humanity. <em>Tamarindus indica</em> L., <em>Guiera senegalensis</em> J.F.Gmel and <em>Ximenia americana</em> L. are commonly used in the traditional treatment of erectile dysfunction by the Bwa community in Mali. The aim of this study was to measure the total polyphenols and flavonoids and then to evaluate the antiradical activity of the extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic macerated and decocted) of the organs of these species. The study found that for all species, the hydro-alcoholic macerated extract showed the best results. The polyphenol contents have been 36.85±0.21 mgGAE/g; 32.60±0.25 mgGAE/g and 29.79±0.51 mgGAE/g for <em>Ximenia americana</em>, <em>Tamarindus indica</em> and <em>Guiera senegalensis </em>respectively. The flavonoid contents have been 22.03±0.15 mgQE/g; 17.53±0.02 mgQE/g and 8.03±0.03 mgQE/g for <em>Ximenia americana, Tamarindus indica</em> and <em>Guiera senegalensis</em> respectively. The antiradical activity expressed in IC<sub>50</sub> is 37.54±0.75 µg/mL; 52.75±0.71 µg/mL and 54.66±1.14 µg/mL for <em>Ximenia americana, Tamarindus indica</em> and <em>Guiera senegalensis</em> respectively. This study revealed that those plants are rich in total polyphenols and show a good antiradical activity. This wealth would justify their traditional use. The biological tests would be necessary to confirm their use in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Erectile dysfunction, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, Bwatun-Mali.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Knowledge of Basic Life Support among Dental Surgeons: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study 2020-11-15T00:19:58-06:00 Shashi Keshwar Daya Shankar Deependra Prasad Sarraf Sonal Grover Pramendra Prasad Gupta <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Basic life support (BLS) refers to preserving an airway and promoting breathing and circulation without the use of any tools. It saves lives if given timely. The lack of training and knowledge of BLS might lead to tragic consequences.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the knowledge regarding BLS among dental surgeons.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists in Haryana, during April-May 2020 using a semi-structured proforma. It consisted of sociodemographic data and 11 close-ended items on BLS. Score 1 was given for each correct answer. A google form was prepared via and the link was sent to the participants via social media platforms like WhatsApp and Viber. The filled questionnaires were extracted from the Google Forms and exported to Microsoft Excel 2016. Descriptive statistics like mean, frequency and percentage were calculated to present the study findings using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 21).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 73 participants, 59 (80.8%) were male and 60 (82.2%) belonged to age group of 31-45 years. Forty one (56.2%) participants had completed a bachelor of dental surgery. Mean (±SD) knowledge score was 8.75±2.46. Thirty eight (52.1%) participants scored less than 50% of the maximum score. The knowledge score was high in male and aged 31-45 years and it was statistically significant (P-value&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study shows sub-optimal knowledge among dental practitioners regarding BLS and showed the urgent need for continuous refreshing courses for this critical topic.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Basic life support; Dentist; Knowledge.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Structural and Electronic Factors Governing the Action of Anticonvulsants 2020-11-15T00:19:59-06:00 John N Lisgarten Rex A Palmer <p>A selection of eighteen anticonvulsant drug molecules has been subjected to both geometrical analysis and atomic charge calculation to search for a link between structure and activity. A significant consequence of this study is the discovery of a fused 5,6,7 chemical ring system which suggests that these drugs may interact with a receptor site which is its topological complement. Molecular orbital calculations support the observation that anticonvulsant activity appears to be related to the net atomic charge on a specific carbon atom which is central to the fused ring system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Anticonvulsant, lamotrigine, epilepsy, charge calculation.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Microsponges Gel of Havan Ash for the Treatment of Acne 2020-11-15T00:19:59-06:00 Sonali Syal Vinay Pandit Amar Deep Ankalgi C.P.S Verma M.S. Ashawat <p>The aim of this study was to develop the Microsponges containing Havan ash composed gel formulation for the treatment of Acne. Therefore, the topical formulation containing microsponges of Havan Ash will be formulated and evaluated. The preliminary investigation was carried out for the formulation of Havan ash loaded Microsponges by using quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method (MSF1-MSF6). In the preformulation studies of Havan ash the physical description and organoleptic properties, pH, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, IR spectroscopy, identification test, rheological study, atomic absorption spectroscopy is also carried out. On the basis of particle size analysis of Microsponges, percentage yield formulation MSF5 containing Microsponges formula was selected for composition of topical gel formulation. Thus the different gel base formulation (G1-G3) using Carbopol-934 (1,1.5,2.0%) was prepared by emulsification method. By considering all the relevant, physicochemical parameters, G2 gel base was selected for further loading of Havan ash containing Microsponges. The MSF5 formulation was loaded into the selected gel base G2 (1.5%). Then the formulation and evaluation of Havan ash microsponges loaded gel was done. The formulation F3 has better results than other 4 formulations. F3 have its appearance silver colour, consistency very good, Grittiness –ve, homogeneity good, wash ability very good, pH 6.3, Spreadabilty ( 14.4 ± 0.77 7and viscosity (cps) 18251 ± 50.12, have good result of psychometric analysis. With the revealed results by different evaluation parameters, it is concluded that microsponges drug delivery system has become highly competitive and rapidly evolving technology and more research are carrying out to optimize cost-effectiveness and efficacy of the therapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Havan ash, Antimicrobial, Microsponges, Acne vulgaris, Topical gel.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethnobotanical survey on dandelion use in the western region of Algeria 2020-11-15T00:19:59-06:00 Imene Bekhaled Abdelkrim Benalia Hayet Mehida Samira Meziani Luiza Tarfaoui Ahmed Abdelhamid Djebbar Abassia Demmouche <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is an edible and medicinal plant. We use the leaves, flowers and roots. The objective of this study is to show interest in the use of dandelion as a natural remedy in the primary treatment of serval pathologies.</p> <p><strong>Methods&nbsp;: </strong>An ethnobotanical survey of 1000 people in the western region of Algeria was conducted using a questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>the obtained results from this study show that 60% of the population questioned prefer traditional medicine the majority of them use the plant in the medical field whose leaves and roots are most used. Infusion and maceration are the most usable methods for the preparation of the plant and administration is exclusively oral. Most users testify that the plant has significant efficacy with a percentage of 61%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion&nbsp;:</strong>All this information constitutes a database to perform other research in vivo or in vitro to value this planton the therapeutic level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords&nbsp;:</strong> Taraxacum Officinale, traditional medicine, leaves, ethnobotanical study.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Research of the Causes and Risk Factors of Autism in the Western Region of Algeria 2020-11-15T00:19:59-06:00 Hayet Mehida Samira Meziani Wahiba Mehida Khalida Zemri Imene Bekhaled Malika Bendahmane <p><strong>Introduction </strong>Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests before 3 years old and affects many areas, communication, social interactions and behaviors. In Algeria, there has not yet been a regional or national epidemiological investigation concerning autism spectrum disorders.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong>: Our study was carried about 100 patients ( autistic children) in the western region of Algeria, in order to determine the differents risk factors involved in the onset of autism syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Results and discussion</strong>: The obtained results indicate a male predominance with a sex ratio of 4: 1 and the degree of reached is average in 44% of patients. 42% of the patients are youngsters. Parents' worry about their children begins&nbsp; between 24 and 36 months. The parents' advanced age at conception, stress, presence of certain pathologies and drug intake by mothers, as well as fetal distress at birth and children's exposure to screens were the main risk factors. Repetitive movements, lack of social communication, language delay, and lack of visual fixation were the main clinical symptomatology.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study allowed us to detect the main factors associated with the onset of autism. However, the results obtained cannot be generalized to the entire population.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Autism, autism spectrum disorder, risk factors, clinical symptoms, western region of Algeria.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Computational studies of drugs for possible action against Covid-19 infections 2020-11-17T00:29:26-06:00 Ganesh Prasad Mishra Debadash Panigrahi <p>SARS-Cov-2 has emerged highly contagious viral infections so far and posed a global threat with significant human casualties and severe economic losses. There is urgent demand to develop rational therapies to control the drastic spread of the virus. Although there is no specific regimens are available to combat this pandemic situation so far. An attempt was made to perform Insilco studies of drugs applicable to respiratory tract infections with crucial SARS-COV-2 main protease (M-pro) enzyme. Insilco docking study was performed with Molegro Virtual Docker 5.5&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; on number of available medications of different categories specified for respiratory tract infections.Result indicates that Azithromycin, Dexamethasone and Remdesivir are highly effective and mainly interacted with key amino acid residues with hydrogen bonds and displayed excellent docking score -133, -141 and -153 kcal/mole respectively.</p> <p>This study advocates the possible use Azithromycin, Dexamethasone and Remdesivir drugs in combination to battle this pandemic condition. Further, this study will provide rationalized drugs and target for further in vitro and in vivo studies of SARS-CoV-2, new insights for those drugs currently ongoing clinical studies, and also possible new strategies for drug repositioning to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Viruses, SARS-COV-2, Covid-19, Drugs, Computational docking Studies, Drug Design</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phenolic compounds of Pyrus communis fruit methanol extract and evaluation of antioxidant activity 2020-11-17T00:34:37-06:00 soulef saoudi Seddik Khennouf Nozha Mayouf <p>Pear (<em>Pyrus communis</em>.) fruit is popular among consumers due to its high nutritive value, good taste and low caloric level. This study examined polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of methanol extract of <em>Pyrus communis </em>fruit. Extract were screened for possible antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging activity of DPPH, hydroxyl scavenging activity and reducing power assays. This extract contain high polyphenolic and flavonoids contents (172.5 ± 0.005 mg GAE/g dry extract and 5.34 ± 0.003mg QE/g dry extract) respectively. Similarly, this extract showed high antioxidant activity using DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 0.682 ± 0.022 mg/ml, 0.47 ± 0.06 mg/ml and 1.17 ± 0.029 mg/ml respectively. The phenolic profile in the methanolic extracts was investigated using Ultra high liquid chromatography (UPLC). Four different phenolic acids gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid have been identified. Some flavonoids have also been identified such as rutin and kaempherol derivative. In conclusion, the present study showed that <em>Pyrus communis</em> exhibited good antioxidant activity which is probably related to phenolics and flavonoids present in the extract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Pyrus communis,</em> phenolic compounds, flavonoids, antioxidant activity.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Momordica charantia (Bittergourd) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Supplements in Type-2 Diabetics Taking Allopathic Drugs 2020-11-17T01:03:00-06:00 Ragni Sinha G.P. Rauniar Dipesh Raj Panday Robin Maskey <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bittergourd fruit and Fenugreek seeds are the herbal supplements well known with glucose and lipid-lowering properties.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the effects of Bittergourd and Fenugreek supplements in Type-2 diabetics taking allopathic drugs on blood sugar and lipid profile.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Open-label, 4-parallel-group, prospective interventional clinical trial was conducted on 48 Type-2 diabetics.They were divided in to four groupsof 12 each. Group Ireceived allopathic drugs alone, Group II, III and IV received supplementation of Bittergourd juice, Fenugreek seeds and Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek seeds together respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) and fasting lipid profile were measured on day 0,7, 15, 30 and 90. P-value was set at 0.05 level of significance. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc multiple comparison by Tukey was applied using SPSS version 21.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Forty two participants completed the study with no adverse events. Supplementation with Bittergourd juice + Fenugreek on day 90 significantly (p-value=0.021) lowered FBS by 19% (p-value=0.021) and PPBS by 35% (p-value=0.001). Supplementation with Fenugreek and Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek both&nbsp; on day 90 significantly (p-value=0.000) lowered serum cholesterol by 16% and 14%, Serum triglyceride by 16% and 21% and LDL-cholesterol by 18% and 17%; however, only Fenugreek supplementation was significantly (p-value=0.015) able to increase HDL-cholesterol by 10%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Effects of different herbal supplements in Type-2 diabetics for 90 days was observed. Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek seeds combination can lower FBS and PPBS. Both Fenugreek seeds and Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek seeds combination could lower serum cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol. However, only Fenugreek seeds were capable of increasing serum HDL-cholesterol.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bittergourd; Fenugreek; Herbal-supplement; Type 2 diabetes mellitus</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Method Development, Validation and Stability Indicating Studies for Simultaneous Estimation of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs from Pharmaceutical Formulation by RP-HPLC 2020-11-30T05:11:12-06:00 V. M. Bhalme P. P. Jumade Ram D Bawankar D. S. Wanjari D. R. Mundhada <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Method development, validation &amp; stability indicating studies for simultaneous estimation of Anti-Hypertensive drugs, Benidepine (BEN) and Metoprolol (MET) from pharmaceutical formulation by RP-HPLC.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> For present work, reverse phase chromatography was selected as its suggested use for ionic and moderate to non-polar compounds. Reverse phase chromatography is simple, suitable, better regarding efficiency, stability, and reproducibility. C18 packed column, a 100 X 2.1mm. ID column of 5.0 μm particle packing, was selected for separation of BEN and MET. Different solvent systems were tried and optimized in combinations as mobile phase. BEN (4 μg/ml) and MET (50 μg/ml) in 15mM ammonium formate-Methanol (15:85 v/v) was developed as it was showing good peak shapes and a significant amount of resolution. The mobile phase was flowed at 1.2 ml/min with detection of BEN analytes at 236 nm and MET analytes at 225 nm respectively.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Method development was done. Specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation were used to accomplish validation. The method was found linear from 32.5 – 500 µ;for both BEN and MET individually. The percentage recovery of BEN when placed for period of 12 hours was found to 100% in 0.1N/M NaOH at 60˚C and Thermal (60˚C); 12 % degradation in 0.1N/M HCl at 60˚C; Oxidation (3-6% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) at room temperature whereas for MET was 100 % in 0.1N/M NaOH, 0.1N/M HCl at 60˚C, at thermal (60˚C) as well as oxidation by 3-6% H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> at room temperature.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Developed analytical method for the simultaneous estimation of Benidipine (BED) and Metoprolol (MET) in both bulk and tablet formulation has obliged the ICH guidelines including, tailing factor (<em>T</em>), separation factors (α), theoretical plates (<em>N</em>), capacity factor (<em>k’</em>), resolution (<em>R</em>) and RSD (%). The validated stress degradation studies under thermal, oxidative, alkali and acid ascertained few degradation products for Benidipine whereas the Metoprolol was unaffected with forced degradation studies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Benidipine, Metoprolol, Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Stability indicating method.</p> 2020-11-30T05:11:11-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Method Development and Validation for Multicomponent Analysis of Emtricitabine and Ritonavir in Bulk Drug by RP-HPLC 2020-11-30T05:20:00-06:00 Aman Kapoor Amar Deep Ankalgi Upasana Thakur Vinay Pandit Mahendra Singh Ashawat <p>A simple, sensitive, economic and specific reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Emtricitabine and Ritonavir in bulk drug. Chromatographic conditions consisted of&nbsp;&nbsp; C-18 Column (Shim-pack) 250 x 4.6 mm, particle size 5 µm , mobile phase combination of methanol and water (80:20), flow rate 1ml per minutes, run time 15 minutes and UV detection at 251nm. . The retention time for Emtricitabine and Ritonavir were found to be&nbsp;&nbsp; 3.25 and 7.8 min and average percentage recoveries 99.42% and 99.63% respectively. The validation parameters were found to comply with ICH guidelines. These methods can be further employed in future for the routine determination of Emtricitabine and Ritonavir in bulk drug and formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keyword: </strong>Emtricitabine, Ritonavir, RP-HPLC, accuracy and linearity.</p> 2020-11-30T05:20:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biosimilar Biologic Drugs: A Systematic Approach to Development, Manufacturing and Clinical Applications 2020-11-15T00:19:56-06:00 Kaiser Jay Aziz-Andersen <p>This publication addresses biosimilar biologic drugs development and future innovations. Emphasis is placed on quality system approaches to the development and availability of new biosimilar drug products presented in premarket applications. For approvals of new biosimilars, the sponsors of premarket applications must present analytical and biological characterization to demonstrate that a proposed biosimilar drug is highly similar to the licensed reference product. The premarket application protocol requires a sponsor to describe the biosimilar product’s PK/PD clinical data comparing its safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity to that of the licensed reference product. Emphasis is placed on Quality by Design (QbD), Validation, Verification, and c-GMP risk-based monitoring criteria. A brief discussion is presented on risk-benefit assessment that guides the clinical use of the new biosimilar drug product by providing patients organized data and appropriate labeling information in conformance with the new biosimilar drug’s intended clinical use.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> biosimilar biologic drugs, safety, efficacy and immunogenicity, Quality by Design (QbD)</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review A Review on Pharmacognostic and Therapeutic Uses of Rubia cordifolia 2020-11-15T00:19:56-06:00 Ayesha Ali Mohd Aslam Shahid S Chaudhary <p>In today’s time research on plants has increased globally. There are thousands of plant species having good potential offering direct therapeutic effect individually or in combinations. <strong>Manjith </strong>a herbal drug also known as Indian madder with its botanical name <em>Rubia cordifolia</em> is an age old ethno-medicinal plant in India used as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-androgenic, immune-modulator, hepato-protective, astringent, tonic, antiseptic, de-obstruent, anti-dysenteric and efficient blood purifier, hence is extensively used against blood, skin and urinary diseases. This study is aimed at assessing the scientific evaluation of desi <em>Rubia cordifolia</em> in the course of pharmacognostical analysis to identify its various parts and to differentiate it from various adulterants, which mainly covers the macroscopic and microscopic features and its medicinal properties which are due to its richness in phytoconstituents such as quinines (anthraquinones), glycosides, saponins, tanins, alkaloids, hexapeptides, triterpenoids, steroids, phenols, and saccharids.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Rubia cordifolia</em>, Manjith, Fooh, ethno medicinal plant, Unani, pharmacological study</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SGLT2 Inhibitors: A Noval Therapuetic Agent in the Treatment of Diabetic Kidney Disease 2020-11-15T00:19:56-06:00 K.V. Musaina Thasneem K. Sreejith B. Athulnadh Namitha Maniyan Cherakkulath C Neena P.P. Muhamed Faris <p>Sodium Glucose Co-transporter2 inhibitors are one of the latest anti diabetic drugs that are approved by USFDA. It include Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin , Ipragliflozin,Empagliflozin, Tofogliflozin,and Luscogliflozin. They act by inhibiting tubular reabsorption of glucose in kidney and increasing urinary excretion of glucose. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the workload of the proximal tubules and improve tubulointerstitial hypoxia, and allow fibroblasts to start normal erythropoietin production, and thereby exhibit renoprotection .These drugs have beneficial role in the reduction of HbA1c, cardiovascular risk factors and proteinuria. Use of SGLT2 inhibitor is contraindicated in patients with estimated GFR less than 30 mL/min or End stage renal failure Genitourinary infections are most common adverse effects associated with these drugs, predominantly in female.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Nephropathy, Hyperfiltration, Natriuresis, Macroalbuminuria, Endothelial dysfunction, Intraglomerular filtration, ketoacidosis, amputations, apoptosis</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Comparison of Effectiveness and Safety of Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatoid Drugs Used in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis 2020-11-15T00:19:57-06:00 P.P. Muhamed Faris K. Sreejith B. Athulnadh K.V. Musaina Thasneem Cherakkulath C Neena Namitha Maniyan <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the safety and effectiveness of monotherapy as well as combination therapy with disease modifying anti rheumatoid drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis patients.</p> <p><strong>Data sources:</strong> Study works limited to the English language and more concentrated to adults by using Google Scholar, PubMed and The Cochrane library.</p> <p><strong>Summary:</strong> Some head to head trial works, retrospective studies and prospective cohort studies were used to compare the safety and effectiveness of the therapy. Here we go through the comparison in between each disease modifying anti rheumatoid drug (DMARD) monotherapy, combination with monotherapy and also combination with combination therapy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Among the synthetic DMARDs monotherapy, methotrexate would be the preferred DMARD. Biological DMARDs have more efficacy than synthetic agents and have comparable safety profile. Rituximab would be the preferred agent among the bDMARDs. Since synthetic agents are more economical as compared to biologicals, hence these are preferred over biological agents. Combinations of biological DMARDs with methotrexate have improved efficacy and safety than methotrexate monotherapy. Combination of biological DMARDs have no advantage over biological monotherapy, there was an increased safety risk and no therapeutic benefit. Combination of biological DMARDs with methotrexate have better efficacy than monotherapy with either bDMARDs or methotrexate alone. A triple combination therapy of synthetic DMARDs (methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine) had better safety, effectiveness and high tolerability than double combination therapy or monotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rheumatoid arthritis, disease modifying antirheumatoid drugs</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Immunomodulators in the Treatment of Psoriasis 2020-11-15T00:19:57-06:00 Namitha Maniyan K. Sreejith Cherakkulath C Neena B. Athulnadh P.P. Muhamed Faris K.V. Musaina Thasneem K Gayathri <p>Psoriasis is a chronic T lymphocyte mediated systemic inflammatory disease characterised by recurrent exacerbations and remission of thickened, erythematous and scaling plaque and multiple comorbidities. Based on morphology and extend of involvement dermatosis may range from innocuous lesion to wide spread life threatening pustular and erythrodermic forms. Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease and it involves a complex pathogenesis. It can be explained by a immunological disregulation of cell function along with differentiation or proliferation of keratinocyte. Psoriasis treatment aims to reduce skin inflammation and to clear skin. Conventional therapy usually includes topical, light and systemic medications. All the three therapies are found to be good for the treatment but are associated with a number of side effects like increased skin sensitivity, burning, skin staining, xerosis and alopecia etc.&nbsp; Nowadays various recent therapeutic advances are attempting to control the T cell expression by the suppression of same and are correlates with the clinical remission. Immunomodulators and biological therapy contribute a new way for psoriasis therapy. These drugs are more safer, effective and selective immunosuppressive agents as compared to conventional agents. This review summarisesthe variousimmunomodulators used in the treatment of psoriasis</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Psoriasis, conventional therapy, immunomodulators</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Pediatric Adverse Effects of First Line Anti-Tubercular Drugs 2020-11-15T00:19:57-06:00 ATHULNADH B K. Sreejith K.V. Musaina Thasneem Namitha Maniyan P.P. Muhamed Faris Cherakkulath C Neena <p>Tuberculosis is a potentially serious communicable disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. That mainly affects lungs. Tricky mitigation and diagnosis cause the childhood tuberculosis a growing burden for society. Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) strategy is one of the largest public health programmes found to be beneficial against tuberculosis. Anti-tubercular treatment shows greater level of efficacy high degree of toxicity; however combination treatment, especially during the intensive phase of therapy may produce severe adverse events. First line therapy of Tuberculosis leads to serious adverse effects. Serious adverse effects are less in children receiving drug therapy. Major adverse event associated with anti TB drugs is hepatotoxicity.</p> <p>Keywords: Tuberculosis, DOTS, isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potential Drug-Drug and Drug-Disease interactions of selected experimental therapies used in treating COVID-19 patients 2020-11-15T00:19:58-06:00 Radhwan Nidal Al-Zidan <p>At the end of 2019, the whole world was witnessing the birth of a new member of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) family in Wuhan city, China. Since then, the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has rapidly invaded every corner of the world. Before the end of September 2020, nearly 32 million cases worldwide were recorded, with a death toll of approximately 1 million cases. As COVID-19 has spread across the world, certain groups of people prove more susceptible than others. Elderly patients and people with chronic medical conditions such as heart disease or diabetes are more likely to experience or even suffer from serious diseases. As a population, senior citizens take more medicines than young people. Similarly, people with chronic illnesses who are several taking drugs to control their illness. All this poses a significant query in managing COVID-19 cases: can a standard drug regimen be paired with one or more experimental drugs? For example, some of the most widely prescribed medicines—including antibacterial drugs, antifungals, heart-related medications, neuroleptics, contraceptives, and sedatives —can have extensive and often even severe interactions with some of the experimental COVID-19 therapy. Therefore, to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate associated with COVID-19, this issue needs to be answered in detail. This review addressed the key points related to the drug-drug and drug-disease interaction in patients with COVID-19. To help health care providers locate the answers they need in the shortest possible time, the information contained in this review has been included in easy-to-read tables.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong> Drug interactions; DDIs; Polypharmacy; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Multiple Unite Pellet Systems (MUPS) as Drug Delivery model 2020-11-15T00:19:58-06:00 Saad M. Majeed Mohammed K. Al-Shaheen Radhwan Nidal Al-Zidan Sameer M. Mahmood <p>Multiparticulate drug delivery systems are mainly oral dosage form, consist of small discrete units that exhibit different characteristics especially in release pattern and drug bioavailability. These systems are represented by granules, pellets, microspheres, microcapsules, and minitablets. Pellets offer high flexibility in the design, formulation, and development of oral dosage forms such as sachet, suspension, capsule, and tablet. Multiparticulate tablets manufactured by compaction of multiple unite pellets is one of the latest and, yet, challenging technologies. Multiparticulate tablets combine the benefits of both a tablet and a pellet-filled capsule in one dosage form but their manufacturing experience many difficulties. The oral multiparticulate products consist of polymer-coated subunits or pellets, which are embedded in an inert excipients’ matrix, formulated to overcome the difficulty in administering capsules and improve the physicochemical stability of suspension and offer predictable release and uniform distribution in the gastro-intestinal tract compared to the plain tablet. This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of MUPS, the properties of an ideal MUPS, various pharmaceutical applications of MUPS, the challenges and key variables that to be considered in the tableting process for successful production of MUPS</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>MUPS<sup>®</sup>, Pellets, Multiparticulate tablets.</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Zahar Mohra (Bezoar) an Alexipharmic Unani Mineral Drug: Review 2020-11-17T01:17:16-06:00 , Mustehasan Misbahuddin Azhar Sofia Naushin Mahe Alam <p>Rhazes (855-925 AD) the great scholar of Unani System Medicine (USM), initially classified Materia Medica according to animal, mineral and plant origin. <em>Zahar Mohra </em>is a Greenish white, good‑looking&nbsp;mineral stone with a slippery feel having a good smell and taste obtained from mines. In USM it is considered to be a universal antidote. The great Unani Scholar Yuhannā Māsawayh (777-857 AD), was one of the first physicians who mentioned the medicinal uses of <em>Zahar Mohra.</em>&nbsp;In Unani Medicine it is used to treat epidemic diseases such as <em>Haiza</em> (Cholera), <em>Tawoon</em> (Plague), as an antidote for different poisoning and to provide strength to vital organs. To check adulteration the quality standard of <em>Zahar Mohra</em> has been laid down. All the available information regarding this historically important stone has been compiled which will help the researcher to find a solution of pandemic disease in the current scenario.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong>&nbsp;<em>Zahar Mohra, </em>Unani Medicine, Fade Zahar Kani, Mineral Bezoar</p> 2020-11-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transmission and Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak 2020-11-17T01:21:10-06:00 Yousef Sawikr <p>The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has presented unmatched challenges to the healthcare systems in almost every country around the world. Currently, there are no established effective vaccines or therapeutic agents against the virus. Present clinical management includes infection prevention and control process and supportive care including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilator support. It is proposed this is likely the zoonotic beginning of COVID-19. Individual to-individual transmission of COVID-19 contamination prompted the separation of patients that were accordingly managed an assortment of medicines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, supplemental oxygen, ventilator support</p> 2020-11-17T01:21:10-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##