Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2019-06-18T10:41:02-05:00 Ram C Dhakar, Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <form></form> Fabrication of Gelatin/Karaya gum blend microspheres for the controlled release of Distigmine bromide 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 O. Sreekanth Reddy M.C.S. Subha T. Jithendra C. Madhavi K. Chowdoji Rao <p>This paper reports the fabrication of gelatin/karaya gum microspheres by emulsion crosslinking method for controlled release of distigmine bromide. The microspheres were crosslinked with the help of glutaraldehyde and used for controlled oral delivery of distigmine bromide. The obtained microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Drug release kinetics of the microspheres is investigated in simulated intestinal fluid pH 7.4 at 37<sup>o</sup>C. Results illustrated that microspheres was influenced by the pH of test mediums, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. The drug release kinetics was analyzed by evaluating the release data using different kinetic models.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Karaya Gum, Gelatin, microspheres, drug delivery.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design and Characterization of Dual Drug Loaded Microspheres for Colon Drug Targeting 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Nidhi Jain Singhai Anand Rawal Rahul Maurya Suman Ramteke <p>The present investigation was focus to prepared and characterized eudragit coated pectin microspheres for the delivery of mesalamine and prednisolone to the colon. The pectin microspheres were prepared using emulsion dehydration technique. A 3<sup>3</sup> full factorial design (three variables in three levels) was employed to evaluate the combined effect of the selected independent variables: drugs to polymer ratio, emulsifier concentrations and stirring speed on dependent variables such as particle size and size distribution, percentage yield, % drug entrapment and swelling ratio. Optimized formulation i.e. F18, F24, and F27 were coated with eudragit S100 by the solvent evaporation technique to prevent drug release in the stomach. Eudragit S100 coated pectin microspheres were further characterized for coating thickness and <em>in-vitro</em> release kinetics. The cumulative percent drug release of mesalamine and prednisolone from formulation in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was found to be 97.01 <u>+</u> 1.35% and 96.89 <u>+</u> 0.67% for mesalamine and prednisolone, respectively. Optimized formulation (F24) was characterized for <em>in-vivo </em>studies. The eudragit-coated pectin microspheres may improve therapeutic efficacy by local action and reduce the side effects by minimizing the systemic absorption of mesalamine and prednisolone. Amalgamation of mesalamine and prednisolone in therapeutic regimen will show synergism action for treatment of UC.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. using Acetic acid induced ulcer model 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Virendra Kumar Patel Narendra Kumar Lariya <p><em>Moringa oleifera </em>Lam commonly known as Moringa, a native plant from Africa and Asia, and the most widely cultivated species in Northwestern India, is the sole genus in the family Moringaceae. It comprises 13 species from tropical and subtropical climates, ranging in size from tiny herbs to massive trees. It is grown for its nutritious pods, edible leaves and flowers and can be utilized as food, medicine, cosmetic oil or forage for livestock. Its height ranges from 5 to 10 m. Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects in humans. MO has been recognized as containing a great number of bioactive compounds. The most used parts of the plant are the leaves, which are rich in vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate anti-ulcer activity of various extract of the plant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Moringa oleifera, </em>Anti-ulcer activity, acetic acid induced</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Gel-Loaded Microsponges of Clarithromycin for Topical Delivery 2019-06-18T04:13:06-05:00 Pankaj Sharma Rakesh Kumar Jat Vivek Kumar Sharma <p>In this study Eudragit RS 100 facilitated microsponges were prepared by the double emulsification technique (Quasi emulsion technique) and subsequently dispersed in a carbopol gel base for controlled delivery of clarithromycin to the skin. The microsponges formulations were prepared by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method employing Eudragit RS 100 as a polymer. The compatibility of the drug with formulation components was established by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface morphology, particle size, production yield, and drug content and encapsulation efficiency of microsponges were examined. Shape and surface morphology of the microsponges were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Particle size of prepared microsponges was observed in the range of 103.8 to 140.2µm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous, spherical nature of the microsponges. SEM photographs revealed the spherical nature of the microsponges in all variations; however, at higher ratios, drug crystals were observed on the microsponge surface. Increase in the drug/polymer ratio (1:1 to 1:5) increased their yield (60.00 to 87.05), average particle size of all formulations ranges from 80.00 μm to 90.00 μm which is in increasing order due to the increase in the concentration of polymer but after certain concentration it was observed that as the ratio of drug to polymer was increased, the particle size decreased, The pH of the gel was determined having average pH of 6.3 ± 0.2, The viscosity of the formulation was analysed by Brookfield viscometer with maximum reading of 1723 and minimum reading of 1720 cps, the drug content of different formulations was found in the range 95.2 to 99.8%, the spredibility of gel containing microsponges revealed in the range of 17.4 to 25.10 showing good characteristics of spreading, the cumulative release of the formulations are in the range of 61.1% to 75.4%.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Microsponges, Clarithromycin, Eudragit RS 100, Sustained and controlled release, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis, Characterization and Biological activities of 2-Amino-3-Methyl pyridine New Dithiocarbamate metal complexes 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 S. Khajavali A. Jayaraju J. Sreeramulu <p>Dithiocarbamates are a class of sulfur-based metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. A new series of new transition metal [Cu(II), and Ni(II)] complexes of dithiocarbamates were synthesized from 2-Amino-3-Methyl pyridine and Carbon disulfide and further characterized. The investigation of these complexes confirmed that the stability of metal–ligands coordination through, S&amp;S,N atoms as bidendate chelates.. It is necessary to understand the binding properties in developing new potential Protein targeting against neurological disorders.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:2-Amino-3-Methylpyridine,MetalComplexes,Dithiocarbamates,neurological disorders.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inhibition of Innate Immune Responses of Polymorphonuclear Leucocytes and Monocytes by Rhinacanthin‑C 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Rashmi Dahima <p>Phagocytosis is a pivotal microbicidal function of innate immune cells by which phagocytes would engulf and eliminate invading pathogens. The functioning and efficacy of immune system is altered by many pathogens <em>e.g. </em>bacteria and fungi and the nonspecific kind of innate immunity is responsible for providing protection against these invading pathogens. The aim of this study is to assess the inhibitory effect of rhinacanthin‑C on phagocytic activities to obtain important insights into its ability to suppress phagocytes. Phagocytosis activity of innate immune cell was monitored using a flowcytometer and myeloperoxidase activity assay was conducted using a myeloperoxidase activity colorimetric assay. Rhinacanthin‑C at 100.0 and 6.25 μg/ml significantly showed strong inhibition of phagocytosis with percentage of 26.40% and 30.59% respectively, in comparison with the positive control (p&lt; 0.001). A dose-dependent (50.0, 25.0, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 μg/ml) inhibition of MPO activity of rhinacanthin-C was observed and show high activity compared to control cells (p&lt; 0.001). This finding indicated that rhinacanthin-C was able to suppress human phagocyte response and emphasizing their potency as immunomodulatory agents. Nevertheless, further investigations are needed to elucidate other immunomodulatory responses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>macrophage, monocyte, myeloperoxidase, phagocytosis, rhinacanthin-C</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Docking of 3,5-diphenyl- pyrazoline with monoamine oxidase A receptor and In-Silico structural property calculation 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Kumar Pratyush Alpana Asnani <p>Depression is one of the widely spread disorder in current population and is increasing exponentially. Now age group is not a mandatory clause for depression as children today are also affected. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) isoform was reported for treating depression by elevating mood. Hydrazines have been also reported for their antidepressant action by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase. In this current study we have chosen 3,5-diphenyl-pyrazoline as ligand molecule which actually mimics the structure of cyclic hydarazine and was supposed to bind with MAO A receptor and inhibit it. Autodock software was used and standard protocol of docking was carried out by selecting grid of X:Y:Z (60:60:60). Other insilico properties were calculated using Molinspiration online property calculator, Protox II for structural property calculation and acute oral toxicity determination respectively. Results revealed though the ligand molecule was safe but not solely effective for MAO inhibition. Derivatization in the molecule is must increasing its biological potential.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Depression, Docking, pyrazoline, Insilico toxicity determination</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and evaluation of floating microspheres of lovastatin using Eudragit-E and ethyl cellulose by solvent evaporation method 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Kapil Kumar Purohit Navneet Garud <p>Hollow multі-unіt mіcrospheres were prepared by a solvent dіffusіon technіque іn emulsіon wіth a drug and an acrylіc polymer. These were dіssolved іn a mіxture of ethanol-dіchloromethane and poured іnto an aqueous solutіon of PVA wіth stіrrіng to form emulsіon droplets. The rate of drug release іn mіcro balloons was controlled by changіng the ratіo of polymer to drug. The mіcroballoons were floatіng іn vіtro for 12-24 hours when submerged іn aqueous medіa. Radіographіc studіes showed that mіcroballons admіnіstered orally to humans were dіspersed іn the upper part of the stomach and were held there for 3 hours agaіnst perіstaltіc movement. Floating Microspheres of Lovastatin were formed by Solvent Evaporation method .The formulas LV7 of Lovastatin Floating Microspheres shows a very good drug release profiles and shown better sustained action till the end of last hour (24th hrs). It will improve patient compliance and increase in bioavailability which give better approach to treat hypertensive condition and the antihyperlipidemic action of Lovastatin lower the long term complications of Hypertension and reduce the risk of heart failure, CHF, Myocardial Infarction and also vascular damage in blood vessels and kidney.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Lovastatin, Floating microspheres, Drug Entrapment, In-vitro drug release.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of Liquid and Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Silymarin 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Shubhrajit Mantry Debasmita Majumder <p>The objective of our investigation was to formulate a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of Silymarin using minimum surfactant concentration that could include its solubility, stability and also oral bioavailability. Silymarin are widely use drug for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, have poor bioavailability due to their poor water solubility that limits dissolution rate. To overcome this limitation SEDDS were prepared to attempt their release property. The solubility of the drug was determined by various vehicles. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using Cinnamon (oil), Tween 20 (surfactant) and PEG 200 (co-surfactant) and water to identify the efficient Self-emulsifying region. Through pseudo ternary phase diagram investigation, four different formulations were prepared of liquid-solid SEDDS. The stability can be achieved more by developing the solid dosage form by converting the liquid SEDDS to solid SEDDS formulation. The liquid SEDDS was converted into free flowing powder by adsorption of liquid onto solid carriers by using Aerosil 200 that provides a high surface area. The <em>in vitro</em> release of solid SEDDS was 58.16% within 8 h. The optimized formulation (F1) showed higher dissolution release than the commercial product.&nbsp; The <em>in vitro</em> drug release kinetics study of optimized formula was found better Regression coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) compare with other formulation. In conclusion the study elucidated that adsorption to solid carrier technique could be useful method to prepare the solid SEDDS from liquid SEDDS, which can improve oral absorption of Silymain.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Silymarin, Self emulsifying drug delivery system, Cinnamon oil, Tween 20, PEG 200.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Estimation of Gabapentin and Amitriptyline Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Amol Vhanmane Ashpak Tamboli Sunil More <p>see PDF</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Tropicamide loaded Niosomes 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Gayitri Joshi Arun Kumar Singh Prashant Upadhyay Abhishek Tiwari <p>Tropicamide is an antimuscarinic drug used in eye disease. The niosomal vesicular drug delivery system facilitate the permeation of drug through the cornea because of the micron/nano size of vesicles containing drugs, which will increase the corneal penetration of drug, and increase the residence time of formulation in ocular cavity that result to increase the bioavailability of drug. Tropicamide loaded Niosomes by investigating the relationship between drug/Nonionic surfactant ratio were successfully prepared by thin film hydration method and compare the result of different grade of span used (20,40,60) with different ratio of cholesterol. niosomes were evaluated for particle size ,drug entrapment efficiency, drug content ,corneal permeation study and in–vitro drug release. Respectively as a result the niosomes designed showed nearly spherical particles with a mean particle size 156.3nm. Niosomes prepared using cholesterol and span 60 in the ratio (1:1) f9 shoed higher entrapment efficiency (84.35%) in-vitro drug release (94.02%) was optimized.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Niosomes, <em>in-situ </em>gel, vesicles, ocular cul-de-sac, viscoelastic gel.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Enhancement of Sulfamethoxazole by Solid Dispersion using Spray Dryer Technique 2019-06-15T08:35:29-05:00 Pravin Gadakh Surup Singh Valvi Shubham Jagatp Amol Gomase <p>The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility of SMZ by preparing solid dispersion using a spray dryer. Different polymers were used to study their effect on the solubility of SMZ. Effect of polymer on solubility of drug in the form of solid dispersion was studied by determining the solubility of each solid dispersion separately. It was observed that solubility of drug changes with change in the polymer. As&nbsp;&nbsp; a result of this study, it was found that solubility of SMZ was significantly enhanced by solid dispersion with the polymers especially with the PVP K30 and HPMC E15.</p> <p><strong>Keywords </strong>SMZ, Solubility, Solid dispersion, Spray dryer.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Isoxsuprine Hydrochloride by Direct Compression Method 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Priyanshi Jain , Ekta R S Kushwaha Azaz Khan <p>A sustained-release tablet formulation should ideally have a proper release profile insensitive to moderate changes in tablet hardness that is usually encountered in manufacturing. Isoxsuprine hydrochloride is structurally a novel vasodilator. The short biological half-life (5±2 hr) and the fast clearance make the drug, a suitable candidate for the development of modified release formulation. A novel oral controlled delivery system for isoxsuprine hydrochloride was developed and optimized. Matrix tablets of isoxsuprine hydrochloride were prepared by using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K15), Gaur Gum and PVP K 30 as polymer substance to achieve required sustained release profile. The matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method which is now days considered a cost effective and simple method of manufacturing. It is considered as an appropriate method for hygroscopic and thermolabile substances. Six formulations of different polymer percentages were formulated (F1-F6). Pre-compression parameters were evaluated. The influence of matrix forming agents and binary mixtures of them on isoxsuprine hydrochloride release was investigated. The formulated tablets were characterized by hardness, friability, thickness, weight variation and <em>in vitro </em>drug release. The formulated tablets had acceptable physicochemical characters. There was no chemical interaction found between the drug and excipients throughout FT-IR and UV study thought of in the present investigation. The quantity of isoxsuprine hydrochloride present in the tablets and the release medium were estimated by a simple, rapid and validated UV method. The dissolution results show that increased amount of polymer resulted in reduced and extended drug release. F4 formulation is the optimum formulation due to its better targeting profile in terms of release. First order kinetic profiles were achieved. This formulation may provide an alternative for oral controlled delivery of isoxsuprine hydrochloride and be helpful in the future treatment of&nbsp;&nbsp; peripheral vascular disease.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Isoxsuprine hydrochloride, HPMC K15, Gaur Gum, PVP K30, Direct compression method, Dissolution</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Extended Release Floating Matrix Tablet of Eperisone Hydrochloride by Direct Compression Method 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 , Ekta Priyanshi Jain Shailesh Jain Mohammed Azaz Khan <p>Increased complications and costs of marketing of innovative drugs focused greater attention to the development of sustained release (SR) or controlled release (CR) drug delivery systems. Delivery systems extended release or controlled release rate can achieve predictable and reproducible, the extended duration of activity for the short time of life - drugs, reduced toxicity and dose reduction request, the optimized therapy and better patient compliance. It is controlled primarily by the type and the proportion of the polymers used in the preparation. Eperisone hydrochloride is a centrally acting muscle relaxant acting through poly and mono-synaptic reflexes in the spinal cord, exhibits vasodilator effect, increases blood flow and inhibits the pain reflex pathway. The objective of present work was to develop and evaluated oral extended release floating matrix tablet of eperisone HCl prepared by the method of direct compression, using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15, HPMC K4) and PVP K30 as matrix formation polymers. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was used as gas generating agents. The FTIR spectra of the eperisone HCl and other excipients alone and in combination show the compatibility of the drug and excipients. Nine formulations of different polymer percentages were formulated (F1-F9). Pre-compression parameters were evaluated. The influence of matrix forming agents and binary mixtures of them on eperisone HCl release was investigated. The formulated tablets were characterized by thickness and diameter, drug content, hardness, friability, uniformity of weight,<em> In vitro</em> buoyancy studies and dissolution rate studies. The formulated tablets had acceptable physicochemical characters. The data obtained from the <em>in-vitro </em>dissolution studies of optimized batch F7 were fitted in different models. The optimized formulation F7 showed 99.45±0.45% drug content and floating lag times of 65±4 sec. Drug release mechanism was found to be first order kinetics. Eperisone HCl floating tablets exhibited increased gastric residence time, there by improved bioavailability and therapeutic effect of the drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sustained release, Eperisone hydrochloride, Direct compression, Pre and post compression parameters</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Biochemical and Haematological Responses of Common Carp (Labeo rohita) after treatment with medicinal herb Curcuma cassia 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Ahmed Reyaz Mallik Qaiser Jehan Shammi Sanjay Telang <p>Curcumas are the unimaginable world of hidden gingers, which get its name from some of the varieties because they bear their flowers on short stalks amid its foliage. <em>Curcuma cassia</em> is a perennial monocot herb with fleshy rhizomes. The present study deals with the use of medicinal plant <em>Curcuma cassia</em> in fish diet to study the biochemical and haematological profile on <em>Labeo rohita</em> a common fish. The plant was extracted and processed for decoction method. The extract obtained was then mixed with 0.5 kg salt (NaCl) and 1.0 kg fish feed powder in the ratio 10:1. Required amount of sterilized water was mixed to make it paste. Haematological and biochemical studies were done after administering the extracts for 30days. Based on the results it is appropriate to conclude that the plant extract of <em>Curcuma cassia</em> incorporated in fish diet may improve the biochemical and haematological profile in blood of fish <em>Labeo rohita</em>. It was observed that the herbal diet fed fishes exhibited significant increase in RBC, WBC, serum protein and globulin and also maintained hepatics disorder enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) which may be considered as a sign of improvement in health status. It may be due to the presence active components i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids. Phytochemicals in herbs may act as a potent gradient in improving the health of fishes as well as human beings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Labeo rohita, Curcuma cassia,</em> Biochemical, Haematological profile, Fish</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation of Fish Feed Using Medicinal Herb Curcuma Amada and Its Biochemical and Haematological Changes in Labeo Rohita 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Ahmed Reyaz Mallik Qaiser Jehan Shammi Sanjay Telang <p>A characteristic feature of fish is the wide physiological range of blood parameters and also the large individual variations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haematological profile and biochemical profile of fish <em>Labeo rohita</em>. The blood parameters viz., total WBC and RBC count, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC values were analyzed using standard methods. The differences found in this study can be attributed to the feeding behaviour, life style and adaptation of the different fish species to the habitat in which they dwell. <em>Curcuma amada</em> Roxb is commonly known as mango ginger. It is a perennial, rhizomatous, aromatic herb belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The ranges of serum biochemistry vary from species to species and can be influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors such as water temperature, seasonal pattern, food, age and sex of the fish. The present study deals with the use of medicinal plant <em>Curcuma amada </em>in fish diet to study the biochemical and haematological profile on <em>Labeo rohita</em> a common fish. The plant was extracted and processed for decoction method. The extract obtained was then mixed with 0.5 kg salt (NaCl) and 1.0 kg fish feed powder in the ratio 10:1. Based on the results it is appropriate to conclude that the plant extract of <em>Curcuma amada </em>incorporated in fish diet may improve the biochemical and haematological profile in blood of fish <em>Labeo rohita</em>. It was observed that the herbal diet fed fishes exhibited significant increase in RBC, WBC, serum protein and globulin and also maintained hepatics disorder enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) which may be considered as a sign of improvement in health status. It may be due to the presence active components i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, glycosides, alkaloids, flavanoids). Providing quality fish feed became a prime aim of every aquaculturist. Though fish feed devours around 50% of the production cost, yet it plays the pivotal role in the production and yield outcome.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design, Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Glipizide 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Dillip Kumar Brahma Neeraj Sharma <p><em>Diabetes mellitus</em> is metabolic disorder it is caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin that, among other consequences, to increase in plasma glucose concentration associated with change hyperglycemia and disturbance of lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, also protein metabolism. Absolute lack of insulin called as Type 1 diabetes mellitus also called as juvenile diabetes. The condition caused by a lesion in the beta cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is a long term metabolic disorder that characterized by high blood sugar , insulin resistance ,and relative lack of insulin/ The prepared tablets were adequately hard to withstand pressure the hardness ranged from (2.91-3.67). The friability from the tablets was less which represent less loss of free particles. The weight variation and wetting were within limits. The dissolution of prepared tablets was relatively fast.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Diabetes mellitus</em>, glipizide, Fast Disintegrating Tablets.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of the acute oral toxicity of methanol extract of aerial parts from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Mohanraj Subramanian Sangameswaran Balakrishnan <p><em>Marsilea quadrifolia</em> Linn is a pteridophyte belonging to Family Marsileaceae commonly known as European water clover. <em>M. quadrifolia</em> is used to treat snake bite, cough, bronchitis, diabetes, psychiatric diseases, eye diseases, diarrhoea and skin diseases. Objective of the study is to identify a dose causing major adverse effects and an estimation of the minimum dose causing lethality, according to regulatory guidelines (OECD 425). Female Swiss Albino mice weighing 20-25 gm, aged 56 to 70 days were chosen for the study. Mice were divided into two groups (n=10/group). Group I served as control and treated with Saline. The Group II received methanol extract of <em>M. quadrifolia</em> orally ranging from 175 to 2000 mg/kg body weight by using oral feeding needle sleeved on to disposable syringe. They were kept in individual polypropylene cages provided with clean bedding of rice husk.<em>.</em> There was no mortality or behavioural changes observed in treated animals. All the animals belonging to the treated group survived throughout the 14 days observation period after dosing. The data revealed that LD<sub>50 </sub>of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg b.w. There was no significant variation found in body weight and organ to body mass index. In comparison with control group, there was significant increase in levels of ALT, AST,Bilirubin, total proteins, globulin levels, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, platelet count, MCV, MCH, WBC count and lymphocytes whereas ALP and MCHC levels were reduced significantly. No significant changes were observed in HB, total RBC, total bilirubin, albumin. The methanol extract of aerial parts from <em>Marsilea quadrifoli</em>a Linn had nontoxic effect on the biochemical and haematological parameters studied up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The lethal dose is therefore over 2000 mg/kg.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Marsilea quadrifolia, </em>Methanol, Albino mice, Snake bite</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Conjugation of Ibuprofen to Poly Ethylene Glycol and In-vitro drug release evaluation 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Sikhamoni Dutta Debapratim Das Gupta <p>Polymers have become an integral part of drug delivery systems due to their improved pharmacokinetics properties. Polymer conjugation is a well-known and widely exploited technique useful to improve therapeutic properties of peptides, proteins, small molecules and oligonucleotides. Polymer conjugated drug generally exhibit prolonged half-life, higher stability, water solubility, lower immunogenicity, antigenicity and often also to the specific targeting tissue. Polymer materials are designed to be capable of delivering active substance. to the target diseased tissues and&nbsp; cells. Conjugation of Ibuprofen and polyethylene glycol (PEG) helps to increase the duration of action of the parent drug. The PEG-Ibu conjugates were synthesized from ibuprofen and PEG with two different molecular weights by esterification in the presence of DCC and DMAP. The PEG-Ibu conjugation characterized by FT-IR, UV, DSC and NMR and also <em>in-vitro</em> drug release study in different buffer at different ph.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Polymer, Conjugation, <em>In vitro, </em>prodrug, spacer molecule.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of UV- Spectrophotometric Method for estimation of Vancomycin Hydrochloride 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Saikat Pande Jolly R Parikh <p>UV-spectrophotometry refers to&nbsp;absorption spectroscopy&nbsp;or reflectance spectroscopy in the&nbsp;ultraviolet-visible&nbsp;spectral region. This method of analysis is gaining importance as it is rapid, simple, precise, less time consuming and highly accurate. The objective of the present investigation was to develop an accurate, rapid and robust method for determination of Vancomycin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations by using UV spectrophotometric method. Vancomycin hydrochloride shows maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 281 nm, which is used for this study. The method provides a linear response from a quantitation range of 20 µg/ml to 100 µg/ml in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 with regression equation y = 0.0038x + 0.0045 and r<sup>2</sup> 0.9994. Interday precision and accuracy was found to be below 0.2 and above 99.00% respectively for the developed method. Thus the developed method may be suitably applied for regular quality control of Vancomycin hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Vancomycin hydrochloride, spectroscopic method, validation.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and Screening of Actinomycetes producing Antibacterial compounds from different river sediments 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Sahil Abbas Girendra Gautam Pawan Kumar Gautam <p>The history of antibacterial begins with the observations of&nbsp;<a href="">Pasteur</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="">Joubert</a>, who discovered that one type of bacteria could prevent the growth of another. They did not know at that time that the reason one bacterium failed to grow was that the other bacterium was producing an antibiotic. Of course, in today's common usage, the term antibiotic is used to refer to almost any drug that attempts to rid your body of a&nbsp;<a href="">bacterial infection</a>. The past researches indicated that huge number of antibiotics was produced by Gram +ve ike bacteria known as Actinomycetes. So we can say that among all microbes more than 50% of the known antimicrobial compounds were produced by Actinomycetes only.&nbsp; In our study isolation and screening of Actinomycetes was performed by using different river sediments. Soil samples was collected from river Godaveri and Krishna and&nbsp;&nbsp; stored in the U.V. and alcohol sterilized Poly bags. Soil samples was serially diluted up to 10<sup>-6</sup> and 1 ml from each dilution was plated on different isolation media like starch Casein agar, Albumin media and YMA media, consisting of antifungal agent Nystatin 50 µg/ ml, by pour plate technique. The plates were incubated at different temperature ranges 18 <sup>0</sup>C to 28 <sup>0</sup>C upto 7-14 days.&nbsp;Determination of antibacterial activities of pure actinomycetes cultures of S1, S2, S3 and S4 were performed by using streak -plate method. Mueller hinton agar plates will prepared and inoculated with actinomycetes cultures by a single streak of inoculums in the center of the Petri dish and will incubated at 27<sup>0</sup>C for 4 days. Later, the plates will seeded with test organisms by a single streak at a 90<sup>0</sup> angle to actinomycetes strains. Antagonism was measured by the determination of the size of the inhibition zone. The antibacterial activity of compound was&nbsp;&nbsp; tested against different gram +ve and Gram –ve by the standard disc diffusion method and cup plate method. Standard streptomycin was used for comparison of the antibacterial activity.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and evaluation of Emulgel containing Coriandrum sativum seeds oil for Anti-inflammatory activity 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Shraddha Mohite Anuradha Salunkhe <p>The present work deals with the formulation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity containing <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> seeds oil. The major component of <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> seed oil is linalool (60-70%) and this linalool content is suitable for anti-inflammatory activity. Our main purpose is to treat inflammation at faster rate with minimum side effects. During formulation and development of any new dosage form the foremost common perplexity featured from hydrophobic behavior of medication that ultimately results in poor water solubility and bioavailability issues. Such types of problems are overcome by incorporating <em>Coriandrum sativum </em>seeds oil emulsion into gel base as 1:1 proportion to obtained a emulgel. Emulsion was prepared by using 3<sup>2</sup> factorial design in which peppermint oil and span 20 were selected as two factors. The emulgel was prepared by incorporating optimized batch of emulsion (F9 batch ) into gel base as 1:1 proportion and evaluated for their physical examination, pH, viscosity, extrudability, swelling index, drug content, <em>In-vitro</em> diffusion study, <em>In- vivo</em> anti-inflammatory study and stability study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Anti-inflammatory activity, <em>Coriandrum sativum</em>, Emulgel, Linalool, O/W type emulsion.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical Screening and Immunomodulator Activity of Mimusops elengi Linn. 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Nandlal Singh Raghuveer Irchhaiya Rishikesh Gupta Ram Narayan Prajapati Vihangesh Dixit <p><strong>Aim.&nbsp; </strong>Phytochemical screening screening and investigation for immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Mimusops elengi using different parameters like carbon clearance, albumin globulin ratio, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, total leukocyte count and estimation of immunoglobulin etc.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods. </strong>Ethanolic extract&nbsp; of the plant leaves was&nbsp; prepared. Preliminary phytochemical screening has been conducted. 1g of carragenan was dissolved in 100ml. of water for injection. 1% w/v suspension of carbon black as Indian ink. 2% PVP solution is prepared in water for injection. Four sets (A,B,C and D) of the animals were taken. Each set contains five groups and each group has six animals. After that different parameters of imunomodulation were performed.</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion.</strong> Phagocytic index was determined by measuring the concentration of Indian ink at different time intervals. The rate of Carbon clearance is a measure of Phagocytic activity, The result ( table 2 and&nbsp; and fig 1) Suggested that in the case of control animals, the concentration of Indian ink obtained after 12 minuts of experimental time was decreased nearly 52% of its initial value as compared with the value recorded initially at 3 minuts. this decreased could be described of the natural course of phagocytosis to the particles by liver macrophages. on the other hand the ethanolic extract of the mimusops elengi&nbsp; showed Significant immunostimulant activity as reflected by lower recovery of carbon particles as compared against that obtained by the control. the same trend was followed even after increasing the dose and the result were found to be directly influence by the increase in dose.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The results of this study clearly indicate that the Ethanolic extract of M. elengi linn.leaves can be used as promising immunostimulating agents. The activity may be due to the presence of phytochemicals reported through phytochemical screening.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>&nbsp;Mimusops elengi, solvent extraction, carbon black as Indian ink.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmacognostical and Phytophysicochemical investigations of Trigonella foenum – graecum Linn 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 R. M. Thorat D.D. Gaikwad <p>Fenugreek (<em>Trigonella foenum-graecum </em>L.), plant is distributed throughout the world and which belongs to the family Fabacecae. The fenugreek seed contains active constituents such as Carbohydrates, Proteins, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Free amino acids, Saponins, Glycosides, Vitamins, Minerals, Mucilage, Fixed Oils &amp; Volatile Oils etc. It has been commonly used as a traditional food and medicine. Fenugreek is known to have hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolaemic effects, Anti-inflammatory effects. Fenugreek has potential for curing diseases and also as a source for preparing raw materials of pharmaceutical industry like in steroidal hormones. This review gives view mainly on the Morphological evaluation, Microscopic evaluation, Physicochemical evaluation, Fluorescence Analysis and Phytochemical&nbsp; evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong><em>Trigonella Foenum-groecum </em>L., Seeds, Fabacecae, Saponins.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride and glipizide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Snehal Bapusaheb Bagadane Prerana B. Jadhav <p>A simple, accurate, economical and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Metformin hydrochloride and Glipizide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation&nbsp; of Metformin hydrochloride and Glipizide was achieved by&nbsp; using Cosmosil C 18 (250 mm × 4.6 ID, particle size-5 micron) column as stationary phase with&nbsp; the mobile phase comprising of methanol and water (60:40 ,pH 3 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid) in an isocratic mode and flow rate of 0.8 ml/min with UV detection at 226 nm. The retention time of Metformin hydrochloride and Glipizide were found to be 4.159 min and 5.571 min respectively. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines for the parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, percent recovery, robustness, ruggedness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The % RSD is found to be less than 2 % and the tailing factor for both the drugs are found to be less than 2. The number of therotical plates for Metformin hydrochloride and Glipizide were found to be more than 2000.All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied for the estimation of Metformin hydrochloride and Glipizide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Metformin hydrochloride, Glipizide, RP-HPLC, Validation, Simultaneous estimation, ICH guidelines.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oviasose: A Novel Oligosaccharide from the Milk of Gaddi Sheep (Ovis aries) 2019-06-15T08:35:30-05:00 Pushpraj Singh Sanyogita Shahi Desh Deepak <p>Oligosaccharides are the most biologically diverse and important carbohydrate among biological system, present as natural constituents in fruits, vegetables, milk, blood, bacteria fungus etc. Oligosaccharides present in milk protect infants by reducing the number of pathogen infections and promoting the development of the intestinal epithelium. Oligosaccharides isolated from sheep milk strongly stimulate the immune system and are used for treatment of immune system related disorders. Keeping above mentioned biological activities of Gaddi sheep’s (Gaddi is a breed of sheep found at higher altitude of Himalayan region) milk oligosaccharides in mind we have isolated a novel oligosaccharide namely <strong>Oviasose</strong> from sheep’s milk and elucidated its structure by chemical degradation &amp; spectroscopic techniques (like <sup>1</sup>H NMR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR, COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC) and Mass Spectrometry. The structure of Oviasose was established by comparing the chemical shift (<sup>1</sup>H NMR and <sup>13</sup>C NMR) of anomeric signals and other important signals of isolated milk oligosaccharide with the chemical shifts of known milk oligosaccharides, 2D-NMR and mass of Oviasose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp; </strong>Sheep milk, Oligosaccharides, NMR, Oviasose.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical investigation of Equisetum debile Roxb. 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Preksha Sharma J. P. Mohanty Pallab Ghosh Chandrika Sharma Bhupen Subba <p>Herbal medicines are increasingly gaining popularity as they possess minimal or no side effects therefore, authentication of the crude drugs are necessary to ensure that the herbal drugs so obtained are safe and of optimal quality. In the present study, various pharmacognostical parameters such as organoleptic evaluation, macroscopic evaluation, microscopic evaluation, physico chemical evaluation (moisture content, loss on drying, ash values, extractive values), and phytochemical evaluation were conducted for the plant <em>E. debile </em>Roxb. (Equisetaceae). Pharmacognostic evaluation helps to identify the commercial varieties, substitutes, adulterants and any other quality control parameter of the drugs. It is a simple and reliable tool, by which complete information of the crude drugs can be obtained (WHO 1998). Pharmacognostical evaluation helps to establish the authenticity of the drugs, it also helps to differentiate the drugs from other species and it also helps to detect any form of adulteration.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Equisetum debile </em>Roxb.<em>, </em>pharmacognostical, organoleptic evaluation, phytochemical analysis.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physicochemical evaluation, in vitro anti-inflammatory, in vitro anti-arthritic activities and GC-MS analysis of the oil from the leaves of Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall of Meghalaya 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Tiewlasubon Uriah Swarnim Rai J. P. Mohanty Pallab Ghosh <p>The aim of our present study is to assess the <em>in vitro</em> anti-inflammatory activity against denaturation of proteins whereby the test oil sample at different concentrations was incubated with egg albumin and the absorbance was determined at 660 nm.&nbsp; The anti-arthritic activity was investigated by two methods; firstly, <em>in-vitro</em> method by bovine serum protein denaturation and the absorbance was measured at 255 nm and secondly <em>in vitro </em>method by egg albumin denaturation where the absorbance was measured at 660 nm. In all the studies diclofenac sodium was used as thestandard drug. The physicochemical parameters like colour, solubility, refractive index, boiling point, specific gravity, carbon residue, iodine value, acid value, ester value were evaluated. The different components of the volatile oil were determined by GC-MS analysis. Ten organic compounds were identified out of which Methyl salicylate C<sub>8</sub>H<sub>8</sub>O<sub>6</sub> was found to be the most dominant organic compound of <em>Gaultheria fragrantissima</em> oil (97.7%). The present results exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of protein (albumin) denaturation by the test oil. The study reveals that diclofenac sodium was less effective when compared with the test oil. From the present findings it can be concluded that the essential oil of <em>Gaultheria fragrantissima</em> from Meghalaya possessed significant anti-inflammatory and anti- arthritic effects against the denaturation of protein <em>in vitro</em>. This effect could be due to the high content of methyl salicylate (97.7%) which is an inflammation-fighting compound.&nbsp; The high altitude and conducive climatic conditions of Meghalaya make wintergreen from this region far more superior in comparison to the ones grown in other parts of the world.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Gaultheria fragrantissima</em>, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, GC-MS, methyl salicylate.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drug Utilization Study and Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting among Patients Using Anticoagulants in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Nafaa Alzubaidi Manju Sharma Watheeq Abdulmalik Anwar Habib Abdulsalam Alhalmi <p>Drug utilization (DU) is systematic regulatory approach designed to identify diversity of drugs use and to evaluate the rational use of medicines in population. Anticoagulants are drugs used to avoid thrombus extension and embolic consequences with associated risks related to their administration. <strong>Objectives: </strong>The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the drug prescription pattern of anticoagulants, observe and report drug interactions and adverse drug reactions among patients using anticoagulants. <strong>Method: </strong>Utilization of anticoagulant drugs was evaluated in 50 patients from 4 wards (dialysis, medicine, orthopedic and intensive-care unit) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in a cross-sectional, prospective study conducted for 4 months i.e. from 1<sup>st</sup> January 2018 to 30<sup>th</sup> April 2018. <strong>Results: </strong>LMWH (enoxaparin) was the maximum preferred parenteral anticoagulant prescribed to 31 % of patients as prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis followed by heparin. 14(28%) of total population were administered combination therapy and 36 (72%) patients received only one anticoagulant drug during hospitalization. The most prescribed drug combination was enoxaparin+warfarin followed by enoxaparin+acenocoumarol. For discharge medicines, 14 patients were prescribed oral anticoagulants;&nbsp;9 (64.3%) patients were prescribed with warfarin and the remaining 5 (35.7%) patients were given acenocoumarol. 28(56%) patient’s laboratory tests were evaluated for parameters like prothrombine time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR). In the remaining 22(44%) patients, the above tests were not performed. Sixteen drug interactions were identi­fied, ten were pharmacodynamics and the rest six were pharmacokinetic interac­tions. Three adverse drug reactions were reported during the study. The need for dosage adjustment in differ­ent diagnostic situations or specific populations is very crucial. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The therapy with these drugs needs to be cost effective and reduce the complications associated with their use.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>&nbsp;Anticoagulants, Drug utilization evaluation, Drug interactions.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Method development, validation and comparative study of generic Vs. branded generic formulations of amoxicillin trihydrate in capsule dosage form 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Santosh V. Gandhi Mohitosh R. Mahajan <p>The present work relates to development and validation of simple, precise and sensitive UV spectrometric and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of Amoxicillin Trihydrate in Capsule dosage form. Method were developed and applied for comparative study of generic vs branded generic formulations of Amoxicillin Trihydrate.&nbsp; Amoxicillin Trihydrate in methanol shows maximum absorbance at 229 nm and the data of linear regression analysis indicated a good linear relationship over the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ml with a correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) 0.998 by UV- Spectroscopy and the concentration range of 2000-12000 ng/band with a correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) 0.997 by HPTLC. The main objective was to compare and evaluate the price and quality of branded generic and generic formulations of Amoxicillin Trihydrate 250 mg Capsule. The evaluation parameters like content of active ingredients, content uniformity test, mass variation, disintegration test, and in vitro release studies were performed as described in Indian Pharmacopeia 2010.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Branded Generic, Generic, Quantitative and Qualitative Determination, Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, HPTLC, Comparative Studies.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Recent Approach for Development and Standardization of Madhushoonya Churna: Ayurvedic Polyherbal Formulation 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Sonali Patil Shruti Shah <p>The quality of herbal medicine depends on the profile of the constituents in the final product and has significant implications in its efficacy and safety. Due to the complex nature and inherent variability of the phytoconstituent in the plant based drugs, it is difficult to establish quality control parameters for Ayurvedic formulations..These Traditional herbal formulations must follow regulatory guidance to create scientific evidence base with robust chemistry, manufacturing and controls. Traditionally <em>Madhu Shoonya Churna</em> helps keep diabetes in check. The research aims to standardize the preparation and to set the quality control parameters for manufacturing of this Churna. The powder characteristics, test for phytochemical constituents and organoleptic characteristics were performed on formulation. Instrumental analysis was done by using HPLC &amp; HPTLC. The results obtained were useful for standardization of ASU drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Herbal medicine, <em>Madhu Shoonya Churna,</em> HPLC &amp; HPTLC</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Possible involvement of Opioid like Receptor1 (ORL1) Receptor in Ischemic Preconditioning Induced Protection in Rat Brain 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Anjali Singh Neeraj Kumar Bhupesh C. Semwal Harlokesh N. Yadav <p>Opioid receptor like 1 receptor (ORL1) is a family of G-protein coupled receptor, reported to produce cardio-protection against ischemia- reperfusion induced injury in rat heart. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of ORL1 receptor in ischemic preconditioning (IPC) induced protection in rat brain. IPC was induced by giving 3 episodes of ischemia and reperfusion. Global ischemia for 17 min was given by occlusion of carotid artery followed by 24hr of reperfusion. Memory was assessed by measuring escape latency time (ELT) for consecutively 4 days and time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ) was measured on 5th day by using morrish water maze. IPC significantly decrease in infarct size and improvement in memory as compared to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in control group. Pretreatment with JTC-801(1mg/kg, <em>i.p.</em>)<em>, </em>a selective ORL1 receptor antagonist or Glibenclamide (1mg/kg<em>, i.p</em>.), the KATP channel blocker significantly reduce the amplitude of IPC induced cerebroprotection measured in terms of infarct size and positively affects the memory measured in terms of time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ) at 5th day as compare to IPC group. The cerebroprotective effect of IPC was significantly attenuated in JTC-801 and Glibenclamide in combination as compare to Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) group and treated group (Glibenclamide). These results may indicate that cerebroprotective effect of IPC of brain and improvement of memory mediated through ORL1 receptor and activation of KATP channels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Opioid receptor like1 receptor, ischemic preconditioning, JTC-801, latency time</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE Modified Okra Gum with Silica: A Novel Superdisintegrant for Fast Disintegrating Tablet 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Anchal Puri Dhruv Dev D.N. Prasad Shabnam Hira Rajni Sharma <p>The present work on the fast disintegrating tablet of Atenolol was done to formulate a dosage form which can release the active ingredient at the faster rate. The fast disintegrating tablet was made by wet granulation method, the natural gum was used (Modified Okra Gum (<em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em>)). The gum in a modified form is a combination with the silica which increases the disintegration rate of the gum. The swelling index of Modified gum was found as 205. The pH of the gum was found as 6.1, in the gum no microbial growth was found during the study. In the contact with the water, due to high porosity, the tablet mass get swell hence it helps in the faster drug release. The water absorption ratio was found best in F4 formulation that was 84%. The eight formulations were studied for the drug content or the drug release, the drug release of the formulations F1 to F8 was found in the range of 90to 98%. Since the present was done using the natural disintegrating agent, so it was also subjected to study for the efficiency. In the present study the disintegration time of Modified Okra Gum containing tablet was compared with the synthetic disintegrating agent (Sodium Starch Glycolate). Disintegration time of Modified Okra Gum was found best in F4 formulation as 2min 10 sec. whereas tablet containing sodium Starch Glycolate was found as 2 min 34sec.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Okra gum, Silica, Super-disintegrant, Modified gum.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate and Fluticasone Propionate from Bulk and Dry Powder Inhaler Formulation 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Rahul K Godge Soniya S Satpute Magar M Sagar <p>A method was developed and validated for analysis of Formoterol Fumarate and Fluticasone Propionate in dry powder inhaler formulations. Separation was achieved on a HiQ Sil C18HS, 250×4.6 mm, 5 µm column using a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile: 0.01 M Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate solution (80:20 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1ml/min PDA detection at 215.0 nm. This method is validated according to ICH guidelines, which include linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness. The result obtained were within the acceptance criteria as per ICH guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> formoterol fumarate dihydrate, fluticasone propionate, buffer, HPLC.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Floating Microsphere of Losartan Potassium Using Natural Polymer 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Bharti Patel R S Kushwaha Shailesh Jain <p>Floating drug delivery system is one of the novel drug delivery system. Floating drug delivery system have a bulk density less than gastric fluids and so remain buoyant in the stomach without affecting gastric emptying rate for a prolonged period of time. Various approaches have been used to retain the dosage form in stomach as a way of increasing the gastric residence time, including floatation systems, high-density systems, mucoadhesive systems, magnetic systems, unfoldable, extensible, or swellable systems and superporous hydrogel systems. The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate floating microspheres of losartan potassium for the prolongation of gastric residence time. The microspheres were prepared by solvent diffusion–evaporation method using ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and sodium alginate as natural polymers. Ethanol/dichloromethane blend was used as solvent in a ratio of 1:2. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow properties, particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment, as well as <em>In-vitro</em> release studies and stability studies. The shape and surface morphology of the microspheres were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The floating microspheres showed particle size, buoyancy, drug entrapment efficiency and yield in the ranges of 331.6 nm, 69±3 to 81±2%, and 60.25±0.25 to 75.65±0.74% and 69.98±0.56 to81.47±0.52%, respectively. Maximum drug release after 12 hr was 99.45 % for formulations F4. Scanning electron micrographs indicate pores both on the surface and interior of the microspheres. &nbsp;Accelerated stability study was also performed for three months indicated that optimized formulation was stable. The developed losartan microsphere system is a promising floating drug delivery system for oral sustained administration of losartan.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Losartan Potassium, Floating microspheres, Drug entrapment, In-vitro drug release, Ethyl cellulose, Hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles of Thunbergia Grandiflora and Its Antimicrobial Activity 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Priyanka Pal Naveen Gupta Shailesh Jain <p>Nanoparticles are gaining interest in biomedical applications due to its importance such as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-cancer agents. A conventional method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles involves toxic reagents which produce harmful by-products and are hazardous to the environment. To overcome these limitations, green synthesis of nanoparticles was established. Eco-friendly methods using plant extracts are gaining popularity due to the abundance of raw materials and the production of non-toxic by-products threatening to the environment. Moreover, the nanoparticles synthesized from the plant extract are cost-effective. In addition, nanoparticles produced by green synthesis methods produce synergetic effect where both the nanoparticles as well as the natural bioactive constituents of the plant influence the biocidal properties. The present investigation evaluates phytochemical screening, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and green synthesis, characterization of silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial activity. Three dissimilar solvents viz., petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol were used to prepare crude extracts of <em>T. grandiflora </em>leaves.&nbsp; Antioxidant activity was examined by means of DPPH and reducing power assay method. AgNPs were synthesized by using 1mM AgNO<sub>3</sub> solution mixed with leaf aqueous extract of <em>T. grandiflora</em>. The characterization of the prepared AgNPs was done by UV-Vis spectrometry and FTIR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity was studied by agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical screening results unveiled the bearing of different phytochemicals viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, carbohydrates, terpenoids, steroids, tannins and free anthraquinones particularly with relatively high abundance in methanol extract. The total phenolics content of leaves of methanolic extract was (0.058mg/gm), followed by flavonoids (1.080mg/gm). &nbsp;Likewise methanol extract too exhibited effective free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities were concentration dependent. The characterization results of the prepared AgNPs displayed that the silver nanoparticles are formed and stabilized by plant phyto-constituents and also exhibited virtuous antimicrobial property. Green synthesis process is a pivotal area in nanotechnology and usage of natural resources is the best choice for the making of NPs as a sustainable, eco-friendly, inexpensive and free of chemical contaminant method.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Studies on Chromene based 2, 6-disubstituted-Thiazolo [3,2-B] [1,2,4] Triazole derivatives: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Md Arif Naseer Asif Husain <p>In this study, a series of novel chromene based 2,6-disubstituted-thiazolo[3,2-b] [1,2,4] triazole derivatives <strong>(7a-g) </strong>were synthesized by condensing 5-substituted-1,2,4-traizole-thione <strong>(6a-g)</strong> using poly phosphoric acid through one pot reaction. The structure of new compounds was supported by <sup>1</sup>H NMR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR and MS data. The synthesized compounds were evaluated using writhing assays for analgesic and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method for anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Some of the newly synthesized compounds <strong>7c, 7f</strong> and <strong>7g</strong> showed very good anti-inflammatory activity with 90.83%, 85.81% and 88.40% protection respectively along with low GI toxicity as compared to standard drug ibuprofen while compounds <strong>7a, 7b, 7d</strong> and <strong>7f</strong> showed highest analgesic activity with 52.54%, 54.02%, 56.76% and 52.45% protection among them compound <strong>7d </strong>showed better protection than standard drug ibuprofen.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>thiazolo-triazoles, Chromene, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate and Emtricitabine in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Chaitali S Kalamkar Sanjay B Bhawar <p>New Analytical method was developed for the estimation of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate in drug product by liquid chromatography. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Cosmosil C18 column (250mm×4.6ID, 5µm) at ambient temperature. The separation achieved employing a mobile phase consists of&nbsp;&nbsp; Methanol:water(80:20v/v). The flow rate was 0.8ml/ minute and ultra violet detector at 252nm. The average retention time for Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate found to be 4.277min and 5.293min. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The assay methods were found to be linear from 10-50µg/ml for Emtricitabine and 15-75µg/ml for Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate.&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate, HPLC, Methanol and validation.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><br> </p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anticancer Activity of Bee Venom against Lung Cancer Cell Line (A549 Cells) Enhanced by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from Syzygium Aromaticum 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Balasubramanian Bagyalakshmi Sivamani Lalitha Priyadarshini Angusamy Balamurugan <p>Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous extracts of <em>Syzygium aromaticum</em>. Total phenolic content and iron oxide nanoparticles were found to increasing with concentration of extract and had higher antioxidant activity. The UV-Visible spectral analysis showed absorption peaks at 240 nm. SEM image of nanoparticles revealed that they were aggregated and had irregular shape. The signals obtained in EDAX spectrum imply that particles synthesized were iron oxide nanoparticles. The FT-IR spectrum revealed that nanoparticles which is capped by C-H group of alkane. The average size of nanoparticles was 52 nm. The nanoparticles were mixed with bee venom in various ratios to enhance anticancer activity and were identified as 1:1. MTT assay of 1:1 volume ratio of iron oxide nanoparticles and bee venom was found to have cytotoxicity higher than absence of nanoparticles. It confirmed the enhancement of anticancer activity by iron oxide nanoparticles of clove extract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Syzygium aromaticum;</em> Green synthesis; Iron oxide nanoparticles; Bee venom; Anticancer activity.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE Formulation and Characterization of Transdermal Patch of Candesartan Celexitil 2019-06-15T08:35:31-05:00 Shabnam Hira Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N. Prasad Anchal Puri Sahil Kaushal <p>The aim of the present study is to formulate and characterized the transdermal patch of Candesartan celexitil. The objective is study was to increase the bioavailability of drug. In the present study, transdermal patch of Candesartan celexitil were prepared&nbsp; by solvent casting technique employing HPMC cps 50 polymer and glycerin as plasticizer using mercury as substrate. Total thirteen formulation (F1-F13) were prepared having drug and polymer ratio (1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10). From the selected batch F2 containing drug polymer ratio (1:4), four formulations each were prepared and evaluated containg drug urea (1-4%) and oleic acid (1-4%) as permeation enhancer. The prepared transdermal patches were evaluated on the basis of different parameters like weigh, thickness, folding endurance, percent moisture absorption, percent moisture loss, drug content uniformity, in vitro skin permeation study. The fabricated final transdermal patches were further subjected to in vitro permeation study. In order to confirm the exact mechanism of drug release from all the patches, the data were computed and graphed according to Korsmeyer equation. Diffusion exponent of release process controlled by Super case Ⅱ transport Non- Fickian diffusion, n values of Korsmeyer- Peppas model shows a combination of diffusion and dissolution mechanism indicating the drug release from the formulation was controlled by more than one process. It was concluded that the prepared formulation F13 (4% w/v of oleic acid) showed highest cumulative percent drug release and increase the bioavailability of the drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Novel drug delivery system, Transdermal drug delivery, Transdermal drug delivery system, Differential scanning calorimetry.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phyto Physicochemical Profile of Withania somnifera Dunal (Solanaceae) 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Sushant Sukumar Bargale T. B. Tripathy H.K. Shashirekha <p><strong>Introduction-</strong> The present article deals with study of phytochemical analysis of Withania somnifera Dunal roots. Withania somnifera also known as Ashwagandha or winter cherry. Various preparations of Ashwagandha (WS) are available in the market used in the treatment of many clinical conditions in India. <strong>Objective-</strong> Evolution of Physico-chemical values and phytochemical analysis of Ashwagandha Churna. &nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methods- </strong>The current investigation deals with extraction and detection or screening of active phytochemical compounds from different extracts of Withania somnifera root. Pharmacognostic studies, Physicochemical studies, Preliminary phytochemical studies was carried out. <strong>Result and conclusion - </strong>The result drown were 2% foreign mater was determined. Loss on drying 1.6%, total ash obtained was 9 %, acid insoluble ash was 1% and water soluble extractive was 12 % and Alcohol soluble extractive was 13 %. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of various phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrate, Steroids and Saponin Glycoside.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ashwagandha, Withania Somnifera, Phytochemical.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of pH and Gastrointestinal Enzymes on Stability of Psoralen, Bakuchicin and Bakuchiol using Simultaneous TLC Densitometric Method and Standardization of commercial formulations containing Psoralea cordyfollia Linn. 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Jyotsna Rudrakumar Chopade Kakasaheb R. Mahadik L. Sathiyanarayanan Ajinkya Nikam <p><em>Psoralea corylifolia </em>is used for treatmet of skin diseases such as psoriasis, vitiligo. Psoralen is responsible for its effectiveness against psoriasis. Bakuchicin and Bakuchiol are DNA polymerase and topoisomerase II inhibitors. To study the effect of pH and gastrointestinal (GI) enzymes on Psoralen, Bakuchicin and Bakuchiol from <em>Psoralea corylifolia </em>Linn using a simple, sensitive, accurate and robust high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The method was performed on silica gel 60 F<sub>254</sub>with n- Hexane : Ethyl acetate ( 7.5 : 2.5 v/v)&nbsp; as the mobile phase. Densitometric scanning at 285 nm for Psoralen, Bakuchicin and Bakuchiol was used. The method was validated as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). In addition the applicability of the method was tested for the standardization of both mono and polyherbal formulations containing the above markers. The R<sub>f </sub>values of 0.37, 0.48 and 0.63 were obtained for Psoralen, Bakuchicin and Bakuchiol respectively. The linearity range of 20-120 ng spot-<sup>1</sup>,&nbsp; 20-120 ng spot<sup>-1</sup> and 80-280 ng spot-<sup>1</sup>&nbsp; with good correlation coefficients of r<sup>2</sup> = 0.998, 0.998 and 0.999 were obtained for Psoralen, Bakuchicin and Bakuchiol&nbsp; respectively. The method was applied for the <em>in vitro</em> stability studies of above markers in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids to study the effect of pH and GI enzymes. Psoralen was found to be most stable in the simulated physiological fluids whereas other two compounds showed instability. The method was found to be precise, robust and suitable for the routine quality control analysis of plant extracts and polyherbal formulations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Psoralea corylifolia </em>Linn, Leguminoceae, HPTLC, Enzymatic stability</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and its Genetic Diversity in clinical Isolates from Uttarakhand Population 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Monika Kuriyal Anjali Bhandari Aaryansh Kumar Suman Dheeraj Shootha Yati Gairola Narotam Sharma Satish Chandra Nautiyal <p>Hepatitis C is major cause of chronic liver disease. It has been recognised as a global health problem because of the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Quantization and genotyping of HCV RNAs are important to determine the optimal duration of anti-viral therapy and predict likelihood of response. Total 77 samples were tested biochemically, serologically and molecular assay (Roche COBAS TaqMan 48 Real Time PCR). Out of 77 cases 33(42.85%) were with high viral load (&gt;10<sup>3</sup>IU/ ml of HCV RNA) and low viral load (below 10<sup>3</sup>IU/ml) 2 (2.59%) and 42 (54.54%) were target not detected (below 25 IU/ml). Genotype 3 was prevailed with 68.42% out of 35 cases followed by HCV genotype 15.78% in 1, 5.26% in 2 and 6, 2.63% in 1b and 4. In addition, our studies showed that genotype 1, 2, 4 and 6 (mixed genotype was detected in 1 cases with viral load 6.62 × 10<sup>8</sup>IU/ml). Total protein content in serum in all the cases was average except 04 cases that was having low protein content. 02 cases were having low uric acid content that was having high viral load. From all high positive (high viral load) cases which were further diagnosed for their genotyping in which genotype 3 was prevalent following by genotype1, 1b, 2, 4 and &nbsp;6. Study signifies the gene based diagnosis and its clinical relevance for the proper management of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Hepatitis, Chronic, Real Time PCR, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Serology</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained release tablets of Venlafaxine HCl 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Abdul Aala Fazli Taha Umair Wani Syed Naiem Raza Khalid Bashir Mir Nisar Ahmad Khan <p>The aim of the present study was to develop a tablet formulation for sustained release of venlafaxine HCl. Control or sustained release formulations have great applications in improving the physicochemical properties and the pharmacokinetic profile of the drugs. Carbopol tablets containing venlafaxine HCl were developed successfully by wet granulation technique. The tablets were evaluated for matrix integrity and drug release in 0.1 N HCl using USP II dissolution apparatus maintained at optimum conditions. The developed tablets were robust and possessed excellent physicochemical properties. The tablets showed great matrix integrity and withstood the hydrodynamic environment of the dissolution medium for &gt; 12 hours. The hydration and swelling behaviour of the tablets was excellent. It was found that the swelling characteristics of the tablets depended on the amount of the polymer used in the tablets as well as the polymer/drug ratio. The tablets provided more than 90% drug release over a period of 12 hours. The drug release data was subjected to kinetic dissolution modelling. It was found that the drug release from the tablets followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model of drug release. This suggests that the mechanism of the drug release from the formulations may be both diffusion as well as polymer erosion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sustained release, Carbopol, Venlafaxine HCl</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Edible Flowers 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Belekere Lakshmeesh Nanda <p>Cancer is the second major cause of deaths after cardiovascular diseases due to exposure to various carcinogens in the food we eat, the water we drink and the air we breathe. Excessive free radicals produced during cellular metabolism can attack the deoxyribose, DNA backbone and bases, which leads to cytotoxicity or mutation and finally it causes cancer. There is a necessity for research to search of new compounds with cytotoxic activity, as the treatment of cancer. The available anticancer drug is often unsatisfactory due to the problem, which cause cytotoxicity to the normal cells along with cancer cells. Plants are considered as the valuable sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which produce certain substances that have effects on living animal cells like apoptosis of cancer cells. In recent days emphasis has been on the use of edible sources for maintenance of the health. Therefore edible flowers which are now extensively used in preparation of foods is gaining much more attention for their medicinal value. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antitumor activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Rose and Pea flowers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Edible flowers, Blue pea flower, Rose, Anticancer, Antioxidant</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aphrodisiac activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Celosea argentea dried seeds in male rats 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Nishigandha Yadav Swati Kolhe Sachin Tembhurne <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The study was aimed at to investigate the aphrodisiac activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of <em>Celosea argentea</em> dried seeds (Amaranthacea) in male albino rats in different doses. <strong>Material and methods: </strong>The animals were selected in the present investigation on the basis of their performance in the Copulatory arena and runway apparatus. After selection animal (n=6), they were treated with extract of Celosea argentea (200 and 400 mg/kg) and sildenafil citrate (5mg/kg) orally. While the control animals were given with normal water. All the treatments were given for 21days. Sexual motivation and mating behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on 11<sup>th</sup> and 21<sup>st</sup> day of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment the parameter such as sexual motivation, mating behavior, serum testosterone level, histological examination of testes, relative organ weight and body weight percent were evaluated. <strong>Result: </strong>The hydro-alcoholic extract of <em>celosia argentea </em>seeds showed a significant increase in mating behavior, serum testosterone levels, testes- body weight ratio as compared to vehicle control, while at the dose of 400mg/kg of <em>Celosea argentea</em> seeds extract assume closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results of the study strongly suggest that the seed extract of Celosia argentea have good aphrodisiac activity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aphodisiac, <em>Celosea argentea</em>, sexual motivation, mating behavior, Serum testosterone level</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Design Of Expert for the Development and Systematic Optimisation of L-Asparaginase loaded Nanoparticulate Carrier Drug Delivery Systems 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Gazal Sharma Amit Kumar Goyal Anirudh Pratap Singh <p>L-Asparaginase (L-ASN) is a clinically approved chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma. The aim of this research study was to develop and to optimize solid lipid nanoparticle formulation loaded with enzyme L-Asparaginase using response surface methodology (RSM) <sup>[1]</sup>. The formulation was prepared by a modified double emulsion method followed by solvent evaporation technique using a combination of high-speed homogeniser (10000 rpm) and an automatic hotplate for a temperature 40°C.&nbsp; Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was involved in the study to establish and to understand the relationship between selected design factors and the experimental data thus obtained. A set of 29 formulations were prepared in triplicate based on the recommendations of BBD.<sup>[2]</sup> The desired results obtained were found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. The responses were fitted to a quadratic; polynomial model. The statistical validation using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done for the respective fitted models.<sup>[3]</sup> Response Surface Graphs and 3D contour plots were constructed to understand the effect of independent variables in different combinations on the desired responses. SLN prepared were found to be spherical in shape and the mean particle size ˂198 nm.<sup>[4]</sup> The polydispersity index (PDI) and the zeta potential recorded for the prepared formulation corresponding to the particle size was 0.096 ± 0.043 and −10.39 mV respectively. The enzyme drug loading was 10.11% ± 2.02 and the enzyme entrapment efficiency was found to be 76.19% ± 1.23. BBD found to be very effective in considering the effects of independent formulation variables to develop an optimised enzyme loaded SLN formulation with sufficient activity of the L-ASN enzyme.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Solid Lipid Nanoparticle, Response Surface Methodology, Box-Behnken Design</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of metoprolol succinate by using xanthan gum and carbopol 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Satish Kumari Anchal Puri Dhruv Dev DN Prasad , Monika <p>Metoprolol succinate is a β1 selective antagonist used as an Anti-hypertensive, Anti arrhythmic, Anti Angina. The aim of present investigation was to develop matrix tablets of Metoprolol succinate using different polymers.Metoprolol succinate matrix tablet was prepared by use of xanthan gum and carbopol-934 as a polymer initially by direct compression methods. Physicochemical compatibility of the drug with polymer was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and DSC. Metoprolol succinate matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method using different polymers. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability and dissolution. The result of matrix tablets formulation (A-4) showed drug release 94.12% in 720 min. Therefore it was concluded that formulation (A-4) containing carbopol-934 and xanthan gum in the ratio of 80:20 showing promising result for sustained release of Metoprolol succinate, further for improvement of release profile in situ interpolymeric complexes of both carbopol and xanthan gum were tried. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability and dissolution. The results of IPC formulation B-11 showed drug release 96.29% in 720 min. It was concluded that tablets were prepared by using in-situ inter polymer complex formed with 70:30 ratio of Carbopol and Xanthan gum solution as binder. Formulation B-11 showed promising result because of its resistance in pH 1.2 HCL buffer for more than 2 hrs showed the maximum sustained release as compared to simple matrix tablet because of more acid resistance of the complex. Thus, sustained release matrix tablets of Metoprolol succinate using biocompatible polymers were successfully formulated, evaluated and found to be suitable candidates in extending the release of the drug from the matrix tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Metoprolol succinate, Sustained release Matrix tablets, Direct compression, Wet granulation method.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmacognostic Investigation and HPTLC Fingerprinting of a Siddha Polyherbal Drug, Padai chankaran 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 B Neethu Kannan V Gayathri Devi John Anitha GS Lekha M Natarajan A Kanagarajan <p>The present study aims to establish the quality and purity of a Siddha formulation, Padai chankaran by laying down various pharmacognostic parameters, physico-chemical constants and HPTLC fingerprint profiles. Padai chankaran is a Siddha polyherbal preparation comprised of <em>Catunaregum spinosa</em> – root bark, <em>C. spinosa</em> – seed and <em>Alangium salvifolium</em> – root bark as the ingredients. The formulation is used as an external application, having astringent, anthelmintic and antiseptic activities that supports in healing of ulcers and dermatological diseases. Powder microscopy studies and physico-chemical analysis were carried out. Also, an attempt has been made to develop a HPTLC method for phytochemical fingerprinting and the mobile phase Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (5: 2: 0.1) gave the best resolution for various components. Hence, the aforesaid analyses confirmed the purity and quality of the Siddha formulation for their future applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Padai chankaran, powder microscopy, physico-chemical, HPTLC studies</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Emerging Novel Drug Delivery System for Control Release of Curcumin through Sodium Alginate/Poly(ethylene glycol) Semi IPN Microbeads-Intercalated with Kaolin Nanoclay 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 O. Sreekanth Reddy M.C.S Subha T. Jithendra C. Madhavi K. Chowdoji Rao <p>The aim of the present work is fabrication of Curcumin encapsulated microbeads from Sodium Alginate/Polyethylene Glycol/Kaolin using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker by simple ionotropic gelation technique. The developed microbeads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm the formation of microbeads. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies have confirmed uniform molecular dispersion of CUR in the microbeads. Encapsulation efficiency of CUR in microbeads was ranged from 40 to 49%. Dynamic swelling studies and <em>in vitro</em> release kinetics were performed in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) and simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) at 37 <sup>o</sup>C. The results suggest that both swelling studies and cumulative release studies were depend on pH of the test medium, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. The <em>in vitro</em> release data were analysed by using Korsmeyer peppas equation to compute the diffusion exponent (n); the results suggest that it followed non-Fickian diffusion.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sodium Alginate, Polyethylene Glycol, Kaolin, Microbeads, Drug delivery</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Facile and Green Synthesis of Iron and Silver supported Iron Nanoparticles from Novel Plant Extract of Aegle marmelos: Anti-bacterial and Anti-fungal Activity. 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Shikha Munjal Aakash Singh <p>Nanoscience and nanoparticles are getting attention in wide aspects of Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, biotechnology medicine and even industries. The green synthesis of different single and doped metal nanoparticles has been known for last few years and having their beneficial, medicinal and pharmaceutical result. In the light of all this, we are approaching for an ecofriendly, less perilous and plant mediated green synthesis of Iron oxide nanoparticle as compared with other conventional and unsafe methods. We report for the synthesis of iron oxide NPs by aqueous extract of leaf of variety of medicinally important plant belonging from family Rutaceae and Aegle marmelos species. During the course of study different result was observed for different part of different plants, an intense surface resonance Plasmon band in the UV-visible spectrum as the basic characterization. The further study of formation of iron oxide NPs were confirmed by FTIR, SEM,EDX, TGA and XRD.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Green Synthesis, Rutaceae, A. marmelos extract, Ag-iron oxide nano particles.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In-vitro Antioxidant activity assay of Habenaria longicorniculata J. Graham wild medicinal tubers 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 BN Satish Suma V Mallya <p><strong>About</strong><em>: Habenaria longicorniculata</em>J.Graham are wild medicinal orchids with immunomodulatory and rejuvenating properties. Hence it has been tested to evaluate its antioxidant property. <strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Tubers were collected from Western-ghats during flowering season, shade dried, powder prepared and used for further study. In vitro antioxidant activity for DPPH, Nitric oxide, Hydroxyl radicals and inhibitory activity for Hydrogen peroxide was planned as per standard protocol. <strong>Results:</strong> The antioxidant activity property of <em>H. longicorniculata</em> J. Graham tuber extract exhibited the IC<sub>50</sub> value for DPPH &gt;1000, for NO and OH &gt;5000 and inhibitory activity for H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> 68.6189 respectively. Thus tubers of test drug proved to be potent H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>inhibitor.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Habenaria longicorniculata</em>J.Graham, In vitro antioxidant, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub></p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmacognostical and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Nardostachys jatamansi Dc Rhizome, Achyranthus aspera Linn plant and Trachyspermum ammi Linn fruit 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Vrunda V Shah Vipul K Shah Devdas D Santani <p><em>Nardostachys jatamansi, Achyranthus aspera and Trachyspermum ammi </em>are very important medicinal plants which are traditionally used in many medical conditions.&nbsp;The present study involves Pharmacognosy and&nbsp;preliminary&nbsp;phytochemical&nbsp;investigations&nbsp;of the rhizomes, whole plant and fruit parts of above three plants respectively .This study consist of the morphological and&nbsp;microscopical study of the plant; the&nbsp;phytochemical&nbsp;screening and testing for alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, steroids and&nbsp;flavonoids; TLC study and HPTLC fingerprinting.&nbsp;The parameters from the above were recorded with an objective of drawing an attention on the plant as well as a reference for further scientific investigations.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;<em>Nardostachys jatamansi, Achyranthus aspera, Trachyspermum ammi,</em> Flavanoids,&nbsp; Microscopical, Pharmacognosy.</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Herbosome an approach to deliver Aegle marmelos extract: Formulation, characterization and stability study 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Jaydeep Chauhan Harshita Gupta Komal Pandey Viral Shah Bhagyashree Kamble Bhagyashree Kamble <p><em>Aegle marmelos</em> fruit has tremendous potential to treat the various ailments for instance; diabetes, microbial diseases and many more. Despite, having abundant therapeutic activity poor lipid solubility and gastric instability limits the efficacy of <em>Aegle marmelos </em>extract (AME). With an idea to overcome these hurdles, AME was formulated as Herbosome in this study. The concept of Herbosome is gaining popularity, as it provides a sheet of lipid on the outer part of drug or extract, which helps in the bioavailability enhancement. In the present work, AME was prepared by cold extraction method and percentage yield was found to be 20% w/w. Here, Marmelosin one of the major phytoconstituent in <em>Aegle marmelos</em>, was used as a marker for standardization of the prepared extract. Further, preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out. Whereas, quantitative estimation of Marmelosin in AME by High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was conducted. In further steps, pre-formulation parameters (effect of several processes and formulation parameters) were studied and Herbosome loaded AME was formulated by conventional technique i.e. thin film method and soyalecithin were used as phospholipids. Several parameters including, percent entrant efficiency (%EE), particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta-potential were taken into consideration for the evaluation of AME Herbosome. Later on, followed by,<em> In vitro</em> release of optimized formulation was studied and the formulation was able to release up to 92% even after 12 hours. After developing successful AME Herbosome, stability study was performed as per the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines up to the period of a month. Herbosome was found to be stable at room temperature, even between 2-4ºC. Henceforth, to confirm the efficacy of optimized formulation, <em>In vitro</em> studies (antidiabetic) are going on in the laboratory.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Aegle marmelos</em>,<em> Aegle marmelos </em>extract, Herbosome, <em>In vitro</em> release, Marmelosin, Thin film method, soyalecithin, and stability study</p> 2019-06-15T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Fluconazole Microsponge using Eudragit L 100 by Quasi Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method 2019-06-15T08:35:32-05:00 Mansi Hans Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N . Prasad , Monika Diksha Sharma <p>The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate the fluconazole microsponge by using Eudragit L 100. Microsponge was made because they provide controlled as well as target specific release of the drug. Thus study the effect of stirring rate on the formation of microsponge. Microsponge containing Fluconazole were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method at different stirring rate i.e 500, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Particle size of prepared microsponge was observed in the range of 76.2 to 32.5μm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous, spherical nature of the microsponges. The production yield, entrapment efficiency and drug content were found to be 78.24%, 82.76%, 81.36%. The impact of Drug: Polymer ratio and process variables i.e stirring speed and stirring time on the physical features of microsponges like production yield, mean particle size, entrapment efficiency were examined. It was shown that production yield, drug content and entrapment efficiency was found to be increase with increase in drug polymer ratio while drug: polymer ratio has reverse effect on particle size, as drug: polymer ratio increase, particle size decrease. As the polymer concentration increased, more amount of polymer surrounding the drug, thus increasing the thickness of the wall of the polymer matrix which lead to extended diffusion path and ultimately to lesser drug release or more sustained release. The effect of stirring rate on the morphology of microsponge. The formulation with higher drug to polymer ratio 1:8 (i.e F4) was chosen to investigate the effect of stirring rate on the morphology of microsponges. The dispersion of the drug and polymer within the aqueous phase was found to be dependent on the agitation speed. As the speed was increased the size of microsponges was reduced and the microsponges were found to be spherical and uniform.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Novel drug delivery system, Microsponges, Eudragit L 100, Fluconazole, Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method.</p> 2019-06-15T04:32:20-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## To study the comparative dissolution profiles of sustained release tablets of metformin hydrochloride by using various hydrophilic polymers 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Diksha Sharma Dhruv Dev D.N. Prasad Mansi Hans Ruchika Sahore <p>In this research study an attempt was made to formulate sustained release matrix tablets of Metformin Hydrochloride as it possesses relatively shorter plasma half-life, low bioavailability. The sustained release formulations of the drug were capable of maintaining the plasma level for 8-12 hours. The overall objective of this research was to formulate the tablet by using various hydrophilic polymers i.e. Xanthan gum, Guar gum, Aloe barbadensis and Methocel K4M. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. In Vitro studies were performed by USP XX apparatus I, basket and the data was analyzed using zero order, first order, and Korsmeyer and Higuchi models. Nine formulations were made, out of which F-9 formulation which was composed of Aloe Barbadensis in the ratio of 1:2, with combination of other polymers (xanthan gum, guar gum and methocel K4 M) showed maximum drug release within 12 hours with sustained release profile because Aloe barbadensis showed maximum swelling followed by entanglement of polymers chains, thus gave maximum gel strength which provides main retarding factor for the drug release. The use of three polymers (xanthan gum, guar gum and methocel K4M) alone in the different formulations i.e. from F-1 to F-6 was not able to sustain the drug release because of their rapid solubilization in acidic pH leads to pores in the matrix, finally causes surface erosion and initial disaggregation of the matrix tablet prior to gel layer formation around tablet core causes rapid release of the drug within 1 hour as compared to F-9 formulation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Sustained drug delivery system, Aloe Vera, Methocel K4M, Xanthan gum, Guar gum and Metformin HCl.</p> 2019-06-15T04:33:37-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rationalized Approach for Formulation and Optimization of Ebastine Microemulsion Using Design Expert for Solubility Enhancement 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Jaswandi Mehetre Kumar Vimal Tejal Mehta Mukesh Gohel Naazneen Surti <p>Ebastine is available as an oral antihistamine formula for allergic disorders such as tablets and syrup. Oral ebastine causes unfavorable effects on heart like QT prolongation, severe gastric distress, decreased tear production, resulting in dryness of the ocular surface, which exacerbates ocular discomfort and increasing susceptibility of eye to irritation. To avoid systemic side effects and ocular discomfort, topical ocular therapy could prove to be superior to systemic therapy in treating ocular allergies. Hence, topical formulation was developed to achieve onsite exposure of ebastine for ocular allergies. Moreover, conjunctiva is more accessible to hydrophilic molecules than lipophilic molecules. This creates challenge for a lipophilic molecule such as ebastine for topical ocular development. Successful dissolution of ebastine in o/w microemulsion allows its use in more convenient soluble form. Initially, solubility of drug in various oils, surfactant and cosurfactant was determined, followed by pseudo-ternary phase diagram to find microemulsion area. The D-optimal mixture design was employed for optimization of formulation. The optimized microemulsion formulation was characterized for its transparency, drug content, droplet size, zeta potential, viscosity, isotonicity, osmolarity and surface tension etc. The optimum physicochemical properties were observed to be eye-fitting. Carboxy methyl cellulose and sodium hyaluronate were used as gelling agents at different concentrations to increase residential time at the site of action. In vitro drug release study revealed that ebastine release from microemulsion gel in a sustained manner up to 24 hrs. for the purpose of providing prolonged therapy for ocular allergy. Hence, prepared microemulsion had great potential as an alternative to customary oral formulations of poorly soluble drug.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Ebastine, Microemulsion, D-optimal mixture design, Solubility</p> 2019-06-15T04:34:51-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of the essential oil of monocot grass Kyllinga triceps Rottb. 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Amit Upadhyay Vinay Jain Suman Jain <p><em>Kyllinga triceps</em> rottb. Is a monocot perennial herb found in various parts of india <sup>[1]</sup>. It is used traditionally by the people for treatment of diabetes, liver problems <sup>[2]</sup> and as antidote <sup>[3]</sup>. In the present study chemical constituents of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation of the powdered rhizome of the plant were identified with help of GC-MS. analysis. Ferruginol, β- Caryophyllene, α-Eudesmol, were present in higher concentration, oil sample has a characteristic aromatic odour,which is due to the presence of high amount of linalool, β- Caryophyllene, and α-Eudesmol.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>kyllinga triceps, antidote, rhizome, caryophyllene, α-Eudesmol.</p> 2019-06-15T04:36:01-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted extraction for Tephrosia purpurea by Response Surface Methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Kanchan Dilip Nikam Nutan Kendre Vikas Bhise Pravin Wakte <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of the present research work is to optimize the Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) of whole plant of <em>Tephrosia purpurea </em>by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and to evaluate its antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay and Ferric (Fe<sup>3+</sup>) Reducing Power Assay.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong><em>T. Purpurea</em> was subjected to UAE by Box-Behnken experimental design using independent factors/variables. The design matrix developed by software consists of 15 runs. All batches were subjected to DPPH radical power assay to determined antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The optimal conditions for batch which showed highest extraction yield i.e. 9.82 % were 30 min irradiation time, 15 min soaking time, and 6.665% solid: solvent ratio. Statistical analysis of experiments indicated that the irradiation time and solid: solvent ratio has significantly affected the extraction (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.01). The Box-Behnken experimental design shows that the polynomial regression models are in good agreement with the experimental results and with the coefficients of multiple determination of 0.9499 for extraction yield. The batch showing highest extraction yield were also showed highest DPPH scavenging activity i. e.87.96% and batch having optimal conditions viz 10 min irradiation time, 15 min soaking time, and 6.665% solid: solvent ratio showed 98.08 % ferric reducing power assay.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This research work showed the UAE can be a method of extraction of <em>T. purpurea</em>. The antioxidant activity done by DPPH radical scavenging assay and Ferric (Fe<sup>3+</sup>) Reducing Power Assay may be useful for further research work of <em>T. purpurea</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Tephrosia purpurea</em>, Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, Response surface methodology, Antioxidant activity</p> 2019-06-15T04:38:08-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anti-Anxiety and Antidepressant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dalbergia Sissoo for Anxiety and Depression in Ovariectomized Rats 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Mrunal Mukesh Vaidya Swati Kolhe Sachin Tembhurne <p>There are studies showing the effects of long-term ovarian hormones withdrawal and post-menopause on animal behavior. Ovarian hormones play a critical role is modulating anxiety and depressive symptoms in female. Thus, this current study evaluated the anxiety and depression of long-term ovariectomy (OVX) in adult rats subjected to the light and dark chamber and forced swimming tests. In this study, we tested the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Dalbergia</em> <em>sissoo</em> on female anxiety and depression in long-term postsurgical bilateral ovariectomized female rats. 6-month old female Wistar rats were used and distributed in 5 groups; diestrus rats, ovariectomized (OVX) groups with 60 days, OVX treated with standard β Estradiol (0.1mg/kg/s.c), OVX treated hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Dalbergia</em> <em>sissoo</em> (200 &amp; 400 mg/kg). All treatments were given for further 28 days after post-surgical period (60 days) in ovariectomized female rats. They were evaluated on the 28th day in the light and dark chamber and forced swim test apparatus. The treatment of the hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Dalbergia</em> <em>sissoo</em> (200 and 400 mg/kg) in the OVX rats shows significant increase in the time spent in the light chamber and the immobility time was significantly decrease in the extracted treated groups as compared to the OVX group. Anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors were observed in rats which were influenced by post-menopause or ovarian hormone withdrawal. Results suggested that 28 days of treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Dalbergia</em> <em>sissoo</em> is able to lower the anxiety levels and depression in estrogen deficient females.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Dalbergia</em> <em>sissoo</em>, Post menopause, Anxiety, Depression, Light dark box, Forced swim test.</p> 2019-06-15T04:40:01-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Protective effects of some Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) grade food preservatives against experimentally induced renal dysfunction 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Barsha Dassarma Saptadip Samanta Dilip K Nandi Somnath Gangopadhyay <p>Drug induced nephrotoxicity is the current concern of research due to its awful worldwide occurrences. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) grade food preservatives e.g. butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), L-ascorbic acid (Vit.C) and gamma-tocopherol (Vit. E) exhibits potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties against severe oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of food preservatives on carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>)-induced (230 mg/ kg b wt/ rat/day) nephritic damage in rats. Nephritic markers like serum urea, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine; antioxidant markers such as GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, and lipid peroxidation end product, MDA were measured to establish anti-oxidant properties of said food preservatives and vitamins. The results had shown an elevated level of serum urea (387.30%), blood urea nitrogen (376%), serum creatinine (646.82%) and marked decreased activity of antioxidant markers like SOD (81.03%), CAT (72.24%), GSH (63.04%), GPx (50.34%) as well. CCl<sub>4</sub> induced nephrotoxicity also caused 48.14% and 59.47% increase in sodium and potassium concentration. Histological studies also confirmed that antioxidant status in renal cells was restored as BHA, BHT, L-ascorbic acid, and gamma-tocopherol successfully ameliorated certain degenerative changes caused due to CCl<sub>4</sub> intoxication. Therefore, it can be concluded that supplementation of certain food preservatives like BHA, BHT and like Vitamins L-ascorbic acid, gamma-tocopherol may be potentially beneficial to the community affected by severe renal dysfunction.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, L-ascorbic acid, gamma-tocopherol, CCl<sub>4</sub> intoxication.</p> 2019-06-15T06:50:10-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arrhythmic Activities of 1-(Alkanoylphenoxy/ Thiophenoxy)-3-(N4-Phenylpiperazinyl) Propane 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Keshav Parashar Sushil Kumar Starling <p>Synthesis and pharmacological screening of 1-(o-, m-,p-alkanoyl-, p-benzoyl-, p-cinnamoyl-, p-α-hydroxypropyl- p- α -acetoxypropyl-, p- α-oximainopropyl-, p- α -ureidiminopropyl-phenoxy/ p-propionylthiophenoxy)-3-N<sup>4</sup>-(phenylpiperazinyl)propanes, 1-(p-propionylphenoxy)-3-substituted aminopropane, 1-(p-propionylphenoxy)-3-N<sup>4</sup>-(phenylpiperazinyl) ethane and butanes and B-(p-propionylphenoxy)-N<sup>1</sup>-(N<sup>4</sup>-phenylpiperazinyl) propionamide are reported. Some of the compounds possess Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arrhythmic activity.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> pharmacological screening, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-arrhythmic activity, anti-depressant activity, IR spectra, etc.</p> 2019-06-15T06:51:26-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Assessment of Petroff’s and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine- Sodium Hydroxide Method in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Rajeev Kumar Jha Vikram Singh M Vijayasimha Gimmi Chhetry <p>Tuberculosis (TB) stays one of the deadliest communicable disease and responsible for almost two million deaths every year worldwide. The objective of the present study is to compare Petroff’s and N-acetyl-L cysteine- sodium hydroxide methods used for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. This present study was conducted in the department of ST John’s Medical college and Hospital, Bangalore, from October 2011 to September 2012. Total 100 sputum specimen was collected from patients under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) Guidelines. These samples were decontaminated with Petroff’s and NALC- NaOH Method and same were processed for L J culturing and incubated at 37˚C. As per result analysis, out of total 100 sputum sample, 64 % smears were positive by petroff’’s methods and 69 % smears were positive by NALC - NAOH methods. The positivity rate was increased by NALC – NAOH method. All samples were cultured on LJ medium for bacterial growth. A maximum number of cultures were positive by NALC – NAOH method (53 %) and Petroff”smethod (51 %). This study concludes that NALC-NaOH method is effective and provides valid and rapid results. This method can be used for routine diagnosis and for better sensitivity of Mycobacterium growth. There is further multicentric research is required in respect of targeting larger population for better effective outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tuberculosis, Petroff’s, NALC- NaOH Method, Sputum, L J Culture</p> 2019-06-15T06:52:37-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Local Drug Delivery to Bone Joints with Microspheres 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Chidambaram Soundrapandian Adarsh Pratik Poudyal <p>The concept of local drug delivery in the form of microspheres has potential for use as an alternative to conventional therapy strategies in the treatment of pain and inflammatory symptoms in case of certain bone and joint diseases. Commonly preferred treatment options for these symptoms (such as oral NSAIDs, analgesics, opioid pain medications) need to be frequently administered or applied and additionally, these suffer from multiple limitations. A prolonged release formulation of an NSAID i.e. Diclofenac Sodium, might prevent frequent administrations and improve the therapeutic outcome. In the current research, Diclofenac Sodium (DS)-loaded microspheres were prepared using thermal control and ionic cross-linking techniques. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO<sub>4</sub>) was used in specific quantities to enhance the self-hardening property of the microspheres. An encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of up to 90.24% and 61.41% respectively were achieved from the formulations. FTIR analysis indicated no major interactions between the active ingredient and the excipients used in the formulation process. <em>In-vitro </em>studies on the biodegradability of the microspheres disclosed that the microspheres showed a slow degradation pattern over time. Release study of the prepared microspheres revealed that the release of DS was prolonged achieving release of drug over a period of up to 11 days. The microspheres seem to fulfil the requisite criteria in-vitro. The results obtained suggest that DS-loaded microspheres have the potential for further investigation and development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Local drug delivery, microspheres, bone and joint diseases, NSAIDs</p> 2019-06-15T06:54:26-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis, Characterization and Drug delivery of Verapamil Hydrochloride loaded Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Beads 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 B. Mallikarjuna O. Sreekanth Reddy K Pallavi M.C.S Subha N. Madhavi <p>In the present research programme, Verapamil Hydrochloride loaded Sodium Alginate/Polyethylene oxide/Montmorillonite nanocomposite beads were prepared by using gelation method.&nbsp;&nbsp; Sodium alginate (SA) and&nbsp; Poly ethylene oxide (PEO) with different ratios were blended with different weight ratios of MMT solution. The nanocomposite beads were characterized Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (X-RD). FTIR was used to understand the hydrogen bonding between SA, PEO, MMT and drug. The X-RD studies were performed to understand the crystalline nature of drug after encapsulation into the beads. SEM was used to study the surface morphology of nanocomposite beads. In vitro studies were carried out in buffer media by using UV-vis spectroscopy(λ<sub>max</sub>-263nm) at pH 7.4. The Controlled drug release studies were observed upto 12hrs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sodium Alginate (SA), Poly ethylene oxide (PEO), Montmorillonite (MMT), Verapamil Hydrochloride (VPHCl), Nanocomposite beads&nbsp; and Drug Delivery</p> 2019-06-15T06:56:13-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparation and Characterization of Itraconazole Microsponges using Eudragit RSPO and Study the Effect of Stirring on the Formation of Microsponges 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 , Monika Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N. Prasad Mansi Hans Satish Kumari <p>The purpose of the present study was to prepare and evaluate Itraconazole loaded microsponges using Eudragit for the controlled release of the drug and study the effect of stirring rate on the formation of microsponges. Microsponges containing Itraconazole were prepared by using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method at different stirring rate i.e. 500, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1500rpm.&nbsp; Particle size of prepared microsponge was observed in the range of 78.43 to 23.18 µm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous, spherical nature of the microsponges. The production yield, entrapment efficiency, and drug content were found to be 80.88%, 84.53% and 82.89%. The formulation with higher drug to polymer ratio 1:10 (i.e. F5) was chosen to investigate the effect of stirring rate on the morphology of microsponges. As the speed was increased, the particle size of microsponges was reduced and uniform spherical microsponges were formed. As drug polymer ratio increased, Production yield, drug content and entrapment efficiency was found to be increased while drug: polymer ratio has reverse effect on particle size, as drug: polymer ratio increase, particle size decreases. The cumulative percentage drug release upto 8hrs for F5 was 89.54% and the mechanism of drug release from the formulations during the dissolution was determined using the zero order, first order, higuchi equation and Peppas equation. All formulations were best fitted to Zero order and peppas plot. The best formulation F5 follows Zero order release.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Microsponges, Itraconazole, stirring rate, Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method</p> 2019-06-15T06:57:45-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cytotoxic effect of Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. F.) T. Anderson leaf extract on Allium cepa root tip. 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Fouzia Hilal <p>Cytotoxicity is a major subject in pharmaceutical studies relevant to the area of cancer research. Low cytotoxicity to healthy cells and high cytotoxicity to cancerous cells is the ultimate goal of many chemotherapy drugs. <em>Hemigraphis</em> <em>alternata</em> (Burm. F.) T. Anderson of Acanthaceae family is an exotic plant adapted to India, a versatile tropical low-creeping perennial herb .The leaves of <em>Hemigraphis</em> <em>alternata</em> were collected .50% and 25% aqueous extracts of the plants were prepared from fresh leaves. Onion root tips treated with each concentration were used for cytology study. Mitotic index (M.I.) and various chromosomal abnormalities were studied. Present study showed lower Mitotic index frequency in roots treated with extract as compared to control. Chromosome aberrations were observed in all stages of mitosis. The most frequently observed abnormalities were nuclear lesions, chromosome stickiness, multipolar anaphase, chromosome laggards, stellate chromosome etc..</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cytotoxicity, Mitotic index, Chromosomal aberrations, <em>Hemigraphis alternata</em>.</p> 2019-06-15T06:59:10-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaf and its effect on the liver 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 Elizabeth O Nweke Godwin U Ndukwe Julia K Opara <p>The effect of ethanolic extract of <em>Annona muricat</em>a leaf on the liver of albino rats were investigated in this study<strong>. </strong>Twenty (20) male albino rats weighing between 180-200 g were used in this study. The animals were divided into groups A, B, C and D. Group A was treated with 2 ml/kg body weight of distilled water, Group B was treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract<strong>, </strong>Group C was treated with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract and Group D was treated with 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract. The treatments were given orally and lasted for a period of 30 days. After the last day of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the liver harvested, weighed and fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and SPSS version 2.0. Results showed a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in liver weight when compared to control and a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in serum levels of ALP, ALT and AST at highest dose. Histopathological findings showed distortions of the liver cytoarchitecture with the highest dose having a more significant effect. Consumption of ethanolic extract of <em>A. muricata</em> leaf at higher doses has the potential of causing liver damage. Thus, its consumption should be regulated or better still taken at lower doses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Annona muricata</em>; Liver; Liver enzymes; Albino rats</p> 2019-06-15T07:00:46-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of Patients’ awareness and their perspective about diabetic disorder in T2DM patients: A descriptive study 2019-06-15T08:35:33-05:00 RAJ Kumar Bhardwaj H L Kazal, Dr Kamlesh Kohli, Dr KMDS Panag, Dr Kavita Paul, Dr <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder is mostly related to the sedentary life style of subjects. Awareness of diabetes disorder among diabetics plays a crucial role in its management.</p> <p><strong>Aims &amp; Objectives:</strong> To study the awareness of diabetes disorder, its complications and management among T2DM patients.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study done among T2DM patients who visited the OPD of department of Medicine at GGS Hospital, Faridkot (in a rural area of Punjab-India). A pretested proforma contained questionnaire related to the awareness/ knowledge to diabetic disorders, its complications and management was distributed among 300 subjects and their response was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 235 patients responded (78.33%) to the pretested proforma. Males and females were 48.08% and 51.92% respectively. 25.53% subjects were illiterate. Lack of knowledge about diabetic disorders in 79.57%, duration of treatment in 73.61%, their complications in 74.89%, modification of diet in 40%, their body care/cleanliness in 62.55% and leaving of medication in 76.17% were seen. A habit of taking other indigenous / complimentary medicines was also seen in 40.43% of cases along with conventional antidiabetic therapy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Most of the diabetic patients had lack of knowledge about diabetic disorders, its complications and management. They also left the medicine in midway of treatment and had developed signs &amp; symptoms of hyperglycemia. A good number of patients also took indigenous products to treat their disease. They also didn’t follow the life style modification measures appropriately. Therefore, adequate awareness/knowledge should be provided to all the diabetic patients to manage diabetic disorder in a better way.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Knowledge, Perspectives, Complications, Life style modification, <em>Complementary &amp; Alternative medicine (CAM), </em>Medication compliance &amp; Adherence.</p> 2019-06-15T07:06:26-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Eco-benign Synthesis of AgNps using Hydroalcoholic Extract of Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck : Anticancer Response against Human Breast Cancer Cells MCF-7 2019-06-18T10:41:02-05:00 Ravindra Bhausaheb Chintamani Kishor S. Salunkhe Kiran R. Kharat Macchindra J. Chavan <p>Breast Cancer is the second foremost reason of Cancer mortality in females globally. The conventional treatments available for Breast Cancer include surgery yet they are related to serious side effects that have moved the worldwide focus towards Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM). One of the emerging strategies has been the use of plant extracts for synthesizing metal nanoparticles (such as gold and silver) for anticancer applications. The objective of this study is to reflect the current availed study on green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) with its future prospects to treat Breast Cancer. The development of eco-friendly and reliable techniques for silver nanoparticles synthesis is a vital initiative in the area of nanotechnology. <em>Brassica oleracea var. italica</em> Plenck Leaves Extract (LE) prepared by maceration process and silver nanoparticles of LE prepared by using biological reduction method. Female rats were divided into 5 groups, Group-I served as Positive Control and received normal saline. Group-II served Negative Control (Tumor Bearing) and was treated with single dose of MCF 7. Breast Cancer Cells (1.7 mg/pellet). Group-III served Standard Control (Tumor Bearing) treated with Paclitaxel 40 mg/Kg. Group-IV served test and treated with LE 400 mg/Kg, Group-V served test and treated with LENP 400 mg/Kg respectively about 21 days and on 21<sup>th</sup> day blood samples were collected for Hematological Parameters and Feed and Water Consumption, Body Weight Determination and Organ Weight were estimated. These discoveries infer that the synthesized Silver nanoparticles utilizing green nanotechnology could be a perfect methodology to battle malignant growth and irresistible ailments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Breast Cancer, Nanotechnology, Synthesis, , MCF-7, CAM</p> 2019-06-15T07:07:56-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Copper sulfate-resistant bacteria isolated from Blue Soil Hills, Sagada, Mountain Province, Philippines 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Alvin T. Reyes Jojie G. Estes Alfred T Reyes Jay L. Bermudez Jimbo D Atayde T Aguilar John Paul Luigi S., Baltazar Michael E Calapardo Roval L Vallada <p>The objective of this study was to isolate copper sulfate-resistant bacteria in Blue Soil Hills, Sagada, Mountain, Province, Philippines. Three distinct bacterial colonies were isolated from the soil sample. The isolates were different from one another based upon colonial characteristics and growth patterns in solid and liquid medium. All three bacteria were gram-positive and were able to grow in medium supplemented with various concentrations of copper sulfate. More luxurious growth was observed in medium with highest supplementation (333.33 ppm). The isolated bacteria could be potential bioremediation agents in soil and water heavily contaminated with copper.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Copper sulfate, bioremediation, Blue Soil Hills, Sagada, Mountain Province</p> 2019-06-15T07:10:20-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inhibition and Exploration of Bisphenol-A in Albino Mice: Endocrine Disrupting Agent 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Nehal Mohsin Anil Kumar Middha Vinay Kumar <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is an&nbsp;<a href="">organic compound</a>&nbsp;with the&nbsp;<a href="">chemical formula</a>&nbsp;C<sub>15</sub>H<sub>16</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and is made from phenol and acetone. It is a colorless solid that is soluble in organic solvents, but poorly soluble in water, having two&nbsp;<a href="">phenol</a>&nbsp;<a href="">functional groups</a>, it is used to make&nbsp;<a href="">polycarbonate</a>&nbsp;polymers and <a href="">epoxy resins</a>, along with other materials used to make plastics. Polycarbonate plastic is made by reacting BPA with phosgene. The mitochondrial toxicity was estimated by the assay of mitochondrial marker enzymes, by measuring the level of lipid peroxidation, GSH levels and levels of other antioxidant enzymes such as GPx, GR and SOD. Respiratory function of testicular mitochondria appears particularly susceptible to xenobiotic actions, which can contribute to a decrease in mitochondrial produced ATP and even to predispose cells to undergo mitochondria-mediated cell death. Our study showed that exposure to BPA induces significant oxidative stress in testicular mitochondria in mice and melatonin scavenges the free radicals. Human exposure to BPA is due to its widespread use, along with reproductive and developmental effects reported in animal study have generated considerable attention on this chemical in recent years. These aspects need further investigation in properly conducted studies with a wide dose range of BPA.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bisphenol A, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes and EDCs.</p> 2019-06-15T07:11:37-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Callicarpa macrophylla Leaves Extracts Evaluated as Hepatoprotective in Wistar Rats 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Mohammad Shabib Akhtar Anil Kumar Middha Vinay Kumar <p>Liver is one of the most important organ, which plays a provital role in regulating various physiological processes in the body. It has great capacity to detoxicate toxic substances and synthesize useful principles. <em>Callicarpa macrophylla</em> has witnessed pivotal role in herbal medicine since several years. The ethanolic &amp; aqueous extracts of <em>Callicarpa macrophylla </em>leaves was tested for its phytochemical constituents and hepatoprotective activity against CCl<sub>4</sub> induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rats. The results revealed that the oral administration of CCl<sub>4</sub> (2 mL/kg) to the animals caused statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) increases in the serum activities of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and bilirubin when compared with control group where there was decreased in level of total protein and albumin. The extract at a dose of200 &amp; 400 mg/kg(for both extract) was able to protect against CCl<sub>4</sub> induced hepatotoxicity in albino rat as revealed by significant decreases in the serum level of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and bilirubin and whereas an increase in total protein concentration when compared to the CCl<sub>4</sub>+distilled water treated group. The ethanolic extract at 400mg/kg, p.o. was found most effective among all the extract treatments when compared to CCl<sub>4</sub>+distilled water treated groups. The further studies are needed to evaluate potential usefulness of ethanolic and aqueous extract in clinical condition associated with liver damage.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Callicarpa macrophylla</em>, CCl<sub>4, </sub>Hepatotoxicity, Liver enzymes and bilirubin</p> 2019-06-15T07:15:41-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Validation of Stability indicating RP- HPLC method for Simultaneous Estimation of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir in Bulk Tablet Dosage Form 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 S.D. Mankar S.B. Bhawar P.R. Dalavi <p>The present research work describes a simple, accurate, precise, effective, Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir in their tablet dosage form. A reverse phase high performance chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir their combined dosage. The separation was achieved by Inertsil ODS C18 column (150X4.6mm, 5µm) column, and ACN: 0.1% TFA in the proportion of 30:70 %v/v as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 245 nm. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>For RP-HPLC method results of the validation indicate that the method was linear in the range of 100-600μg/ml for Sofosbuvir and 22.5-135μg/ml for Ledipasvir.&nbsp; The % recoveries for Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir obtained in the accuracy study were 99.92-100.31% and 99.84-100.55% respectively. The LOD for Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir were found to be 0.395μg/ml and 0.132μg/ml respectively. LOQ for Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir were found to be 1.197μg/ml and 0.401μg/ml respectively. Force degradation study also done and method is stability indicating. Developed methods were found to be accurate, precise, rapid and stability indicating for simultaneous estimation of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: RP-HPLC, Sofosbuvir, Ledipasvir, ACN, TFA.</p> 2019-06-15T07:17:02-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Potential of Amaranthus Dubius Leaf on Rodent Models 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Brajesh Patel Anand Chourasiya <p><em>Amaranthus </em><em>dubius </em>is known for its various remedies against many ill conditions. Present study has been carried out to delayed type hypersensitivity reaction also stimulated by <em>Amaranthus </em><em>dubius</em> significantly indicates that the extract could stimulate the haemopoetic system. The mechanism of action could be unfolded only after detailed investigations whereby the extract modulates the immune system however; the extract contains compounds which had immunomodulatory activity. CMI responses are critical to defence against infectious organisms, infection of foreign grafts, tumor immunity and delayed‐type hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, increase in DTH reaction in rat in response to T cell dependent antigen revealed the stimulatory effect by pretreatment of levamisole on T cell. DTH is a part of the process of graft rejection, tumour immunity, and, most important, immunity to many intracellular infectious microorganisms, especially those causing chronic diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<em> Amaranthus dubius, </em>Immunomodulatory Potential, Antigen, Hypersensitivity</p> 2019-06-15T07:18:15-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Clindamycin phosphate Niosomes by using Reverse Phase Evaporation Method 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Rajni Sharma Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N Prasad Sahil Kaushal Anchal Puri <p>The formulate and evaluate Niosome drug delivery system for Clindamycin phosphate to increase its effectiveness by increasing penetration through skin and reducing its side effects Sorbitan esters which are Non-ionic surfactants was the key ingredient which forms vesicles upon hydration with aqueous media. Cholesterol was used to make vesicle stable and rigid. Different formulations were preparing by using different sorbitan ester and changing the ratio of surfactant and Cholesterol. Clindamycin Phosphate is an antibiotic widely used for the treatment of acne. The pseudomonas colitis occurs with oral dosage form while in topical dosage forms it has side effects like irritation, skin rash, itching etc. its topical bioavailability is also less. An attempt has been made to overcome these limitations for the preparation to prepare niosomes of clindamycin phosphate as well as for the enhanced delivery through skin by the variation in cholesterol level. Niosome were prepared by reverse phase evaporation method using span 60 as polymer. The compatibility of drug and polymer is analyzed by using FTIR and DSC method. There was no interaction detected by FTIR, DSC study. Further the prepared niosomes were evaluated for drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, and in vitro drug release. Amongst all the formulation batch 3 shows the best release when compared to other batch. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) revealed that niosomes were spherical and porous. Finally it was concluded that clindamycin phosphate have been found suitable for controlled release formulation due to its bioavailability and biodegradability and thus lead to improved patient compliance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Niosomes, Clindamycin Phosphate, Reverse phase evaporation method, Span60.</p> 2019-06-15T07:19:34-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmacological study of trunk bark of Acacia nilotica var adansonii (Guill et Perr).o Ktze (Mimosaceae): Assays, antioxidant and antispasmodic activities 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Gilchrist L Boly Abdoul Aristide Traore Moussa Ouedraogo Mohamed Belemlilga Tata K. Traore Lazare Belemnaba Noufou. Ouedraogo Andre Lupu Sylvin Ouedraogo Mirn Liviu o Innocent P Guissou <p>Aim of this study was to evaluate <em>in vitro</em> polyphenols content, antioxidant and antispasmodic properties of the aqueous extract and fractions of the trunk bark of <em>Acacia nilotica.</em> According to a survey conducted in rural Burkina Faso, <em>Acacia nilotica</em> var. adansonii (Guill and Perr). Ktze reported to be widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diarrhoea and parasitosis. A maceration of the powder of the trunk bark of the plant was carried out. Then the aqueous macerate obtain, was fractionated with dichloromethane, butanol and ethyl acetate successively. The phenolic compounds of the aqueous extract, butanol and ethyl acetate fractions was determinated. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract and fractions was evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests. The contractility test on smooth muscle was realized according to Magnus method. Assay of the extracts revealed a high content of polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids. The aqueous extract, the butanol fraction and the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated a high antioxidant capacity. Aqueous extract showed a better antispasmodic effect of acetylcholine contraction induction at 1 μM (IC<sub>50</sub> = 13.02 μg / mL) and for BaCl<sub>2</sub> at 160 μg / mL (IC<sub>50</sub> = 117.2 μg / mL). The aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica and his fractions had antioxidant properties. Only aqueous extract proven better antispasmodic property. Hence its use in traditional medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> <em>Acacia nilotica</em>, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic</p> 2019-06-15T07:20:57-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparation, Quality Control and Stability Studies of Avipattikar churna 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Sonali Patil Shruti Shah <p>Throughout&nbsp; world&nbsp; more people are turning to use medicinal plant products in healthcare system. Worldwide need of alternative medicine has resulted in growth of natural product markets and interest in traditional systems of medicine. Proper integration of modern scientific techniques and traditional knowledge is important. There is a growing focus on the importance of traditional health care system (<em>viz</em>. Ayurveda, Unani, Homoeopathy, Yoga) in solving health care problems. Systematic approach and well-designed methodologies for the standardization of herbal formulations are developed.&nbsp;In the present study preparation of <em>Avipattikar Churna</em> was carried out and then it was subjected to various quality control parameters. The formulation was prepared as per the guidelines mentioned in pharmacopeia &amp; various tests performed were&nbsp; physical properties (such as moisture content) , biochemical test, ash value, HPLC, IR spectroscopy. The above parameters can be used as preliminary standardization for quality control of <em>Avipattikar Churna</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; .</p> <p>Keywords: Standardization, herbal formulation, <em>Avipattikar Churna</em>, Physicochemical properties.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T07:22:11-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preclinical evaluation of Sesbanian grandiflora flower extract for antihyperlipidimic and antiobesity activity on experimental rats 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Sandhyarani Anil Nikam Swati U. Kolhe Sachin V. Tembhurne <p>Obesity is a chronic disorder of global prevalence and associated with morbidity and mortality. So the attention is being focused on the investigation of plant based drug&nbsp; used in the traditional&nbsp; medicine for the treatement of&nbsp; obesity .The present study is undertaken to evaluate the anti- hyperlipidimic and anti-obesity activity of <em>Sesbania&nbsp; grandiflora</em> flower extract in High Fatty Diet induced Obesity in rats.&nbsp; Female wistar rat weighing 150-200 g were divided into different groups i.e. normal control, Negative control [Hfd control], orlistat [STD control], extract of sesbania grandiflora flower contain 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg group. .Obesity was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as glucose, triglyceride, serum cholesterol, HDL [High Density Lipoprotein], LDL [Low Density Lipoprotein] level. The results of the present investigation demonstrated that, the extract of sesbania grandiflora flower at 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg shows significant protective effects on biochemical parameters such as body weight, BMI, obesity index, and adiposity index respectively as compared to HFD [High Fatty Diet] control group. Similarly, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol HDL, LDL was found to be attenuated as compare to HFD control group. The ethanolic extract of sesbania grandiflora flower exhibit significant anti-hyperlipidemia and anti- obesity activity in High fatty diet induced in obese rat.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: HFD [High fatty diet], sesbania grandiflora flower extract, anti- obesity, Anti –Hyperlipidimic Activity.</p> 2019-06-15T07:24:06-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ABTS radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of flavonoid fractions from Terminalia bellirica fruit rinds 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Jesna James K Soumya T. M Archana A.P Shahid S Sudheesh <p>Plants are widely used in traditional medicine from the beginning of mankind because of its significant healing power and least side effects. The extraction and isolation of biologically active components from plants for the designing and synthesis of novel drugs became an emerging research area for years. Plants possess a large spectra of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids etc. they&nbsp; are the major contributors of pharmacological activities shown by plants. Present study aimed at the ABTS radical scavenging and antimicrobial testing of flavonoid fractions from the fruit rinds of <em>Terminalia bellirica</em>. The effect of flavonoids from diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts against six bacterial strains and two fungal strains are evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. The results revealed that these flavonoid containing fractions possess excellent ABTS radical scavenging activity with very low concentrations and considerable antimicrobial potential when compared with their respective standards.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: ABTS radical, antimicrobial, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, flavonoid, <em>Terminalia bellirica</em></p> 2019-06-15T07:26:13-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Designing and Molecular Modeling Studies on Novel Bisindole-imidazopyridine Against Adrenocarcinoma 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 AMAN MOURYA kapish kapoor <p>Adrenocarcinoma is an uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells originating in the ducts or breast lobules. EGFR or Epidermal growth factor receptor is a transmembrane protein with cytoplasmic kinase activity that transduces important growth factor signaling from the extracellular milieu to the cell. 45 bisindole-imdazopyridine analogues were obtained from the literature. Free-wilson QSAR studies were erformed on the given data set. Compounds were designed on the basis of QSAR studies. Further, Molecular docking studies were performed on the designed compounds to check the binding affinity on the protein. After that Drug-likeliness and ADMET studies were performed on the selected molecules. The results revealed that the selected analogues can be used against the treatment of adrenocarcinoma.</p> <p>Keywords: Adrenocarcinoma, bisindole-imidazopyridine, QSAR, Molecular Docking, ADME studies.</p> 2019-06-15T07:27:48-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evalution of Levamisole Niosomes by using Sonication method 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Ruchika Sahore Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N. Prasad Diksha Sharma Mansi Hans <p>Niosomes or non- ionic surfactants vesicles are one of the many different carriers for transporting a drug molecule to its site of action. Niosomes are vesicular system similar to liposomes that can be used for amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Niosomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, non- immunogenic and exhibit flexibility. Niosomes has been widely used for controlled release drug delivery system. Niosomes can entrap both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs.&nbsp; Niosomes are chemically stable drug delivery systems. Niosomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, non- immunogenic and exhibit flexibility in structure. Niosomes have been widely used for controlled drug delivery system. They have been prepared with different ratios of surfactants and cholesterol and their properties have been determined by scanning electron microscopy. There are five batches of Levamisole niosomal preparations were prepared by changing the surfactant concentration but keeping the cholesterol concentration constant. The surfactant used Span40 and the five batches of niosomal preparations in the ratios of 1:1:1, 1:2:1, 1:3:1, 1:4:1 and 1:5:1 (Surfactant: cholesterol: drug). Furthermore, the release profiles, entrapment efficiency, size distribution and stability of these niosomes under various temperatures were studied. Niosomes were prepared using Span40 by using sonication method. The test changes in the characteristics of the liposomes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>- Niosomes, Compositions, Preparation methods, Factors affecting, characterizations, in- vitro methods, Applications.</p> 2019-06-15T07:29:25-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative fingerprint and extraction yield of Prosopis cineraria (Lin.) Druce. Leaves with phenolic compounds (Gallic acid) & flavonoids (Rutin) 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 RAM SINGH BISHNOI Manish Kumar Ajay Kumar Shukla C.P. Jain <p>The main objective of this study is to analyse the extraction yield of <em>Prosopis cineraria</em> leaf with respect to phenolic compounds (Gallic acid) and flavonoids (Rutin). UV and FTIR spectroscopic methods were employed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds (gallic acid) and flavonoids (rutin) in the leaf extract of <em>Prosopis cineraria</em>. The extraction yield of methanolic extract was found to be superior. The FTIR signals at 675-600, 1225–950, 1540-1870, and 3500–3200 cm<sup>-1</sup>, are the indicator of presence of phenol (Gallic acid) &amp; Rutin (flavonoid). &nbsp;These signals were used to identify the presence of the functional groups in the extract. This study concludes that data obtained from the UV &amp; FTIR spectroscopy is enough to fingerprint &amp; evaluate extraction yield of <em>Prosopis cineraria</em>.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong>&nbsp; UV spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, Methanolic extract, Rutin, Gallic acid, <em>Prosopis cineraria</em>.</p> 2019-06-15T07:31:17-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical appearance, microbiological findings and antimicrobials susceptibility pattern of orofacial infections of odontogenic origin in relation to cytokine analysis. 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Neha Vishnoi RAM SINGH BISHNOI M.K. Gupta <p><img src="/public/site/images/bishnoiram7/abstract_neha1.png"></p> 2019-06-15T07:32:46-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Ointment for Wound Healing and Antimicrobial Activity 2019-06-15T08:35:34-05:00 Sanjay B. Bhawar Santosh B. Dighe Rutuja B. Tambe <p>Herbal therapy and herbal drugs predominates in traditional medicine as well as in alternative medicine practiced in the developed world. Among the various indications where traditional herbal medicines are used, skin related disorders is ranked top. Thus, the main objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate a polyherbal ointment for wound healing and antimicrobial activity. Ointments were formulated using hydroalcoholic extracts (soxhlet extraction) of <em>Piper nigrum</em> and <em>Curcuma longa</em> were evaluated for its physicochemical property, wound healing and antimicrobial activity. Ointments were prepared using different concentrations of the extracts such as 2%, 4% w/w by fusion method using emulsifying ointment as base. Formulations were tested for its physicochemical properties like pH, spreadability, extrudability and viscosity and gave satisfactory results. The prepared formulations were also stable at various temperature. Further, extract were evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris by paper disc diffusion method. All the extract showed predominant activity against selected species. Formulations were also evaluated for wound healing activity. Hence an attempt was made to formulate a polyherbal ointment, and to evaluate for its physical parameter, the formulated ointment was compared with the standard ointment (povidone iodine). Overall result of this study reveals that this is an effective polyherbal ointment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Piper nigrum, Curcuma longa, </em>Wound healing activity, Antimicrobial activity.</p> 2019-06-15T07:34:55-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of functional groups in Corbichonia decumbens by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 A ARUNPRASATH M. Indhumathi <p>The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical compounds and FTIR analysis of <em>Corbichonia decumbens</em>. The FTIR method was performed on a spectrophotometer system, which was used to detect the characteristic peak values and their functional groups. The results showed in preliminary phytochemical analysis are Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Glycosides, Steroids were observed in hexane and ethanol extracts. The phenol and tannins were only present in the ethanolic extract. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed different characteristic peak values with various functional compounds in the ethanol extracts. In FTIR analysis of <em>C. decumbens </em>there are 33 functional groups were identified. The FTIR analysis of <em>C. decumbens</em> was the first attempt based on the literature survey.</p> 2019-06-15T07:36:44-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A new validated stability-indicating gradient RP-HPLC method for the determination of pemetrexed disodium and its process related substances 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 S. Hemchand R. Ravi Chandra Babu Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna <p>Pemetrexed disodium is used for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer. In the present study a simple stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Pemetrexed disodium. The process related substances such as Dimer-1 impurity, Dimer-2 impurity, N-Methyl Pemetrexed, Pemetrexed diethyl ester, Alanine derivative of Pemetrexed, DMF derivative of Pemetrexed, Acid intermediate, Oxidation impurity and D-isomer were separated on gradient mode and quantified. Forced degradation studies were performed to prove the specificity. Hypersil BDS C18 100 x 4.6mm, 3µm was used for the separation (at 27°C) with mobile phase mixture consisting of <strong>(</strong>0.02M sodium dihydrogen phosphate with 0.1% HCOOH and pH 3.8 with dilute sodium hydroxide): Acetonitrile (40:60 v/v) (pH 3.8) with a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Methanol: water (1:1) was used as diluent and the eluted compounds were monitored at 240 nm. 0.5-1500 µg/mL with linear regression equation y = 20588x - 9294.1 (R<sup>2</sup>=0.9999). The degradation products observed during the forced degradation studies were well resolved from the drug peak and proving that the method is a stability-indicating method. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines.</p> <p>Keywords: Pemetrexed disodium, RP-HPLC, gradient mode, Related substances, Stability indicating, Validation.</p> 2019-06-15T07:44:46-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation Development and Evaluation of Leaf Extract of Ficus benghalensis for Antidiabetic Activity 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Ravindra B. Laware Shubhangi P. Pulate Santosh B Dighe Sanjay B Bhawar <p>Herbal products are known for their inherent property i.e. comparatively safe and economic. In present study, leaf extract of <em>ficus benghalensis</em> was evaluated for antidiabetic activity. The aim of the research work was to formulate and evaluate capsule dosage form of ethanolic extract. Leaves of <em>Ficus benghalensis</em> collected from local area of Ahmednagar district and shade dried. Ethanolic, Hydroalcoholic and petroleum ether extracts were prepared using soxhlet apparatus. Extracts were screened for antidiabetic activity using alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Oral glucose tolerance test was measured as parameter to check antidiabetic activity. Ethanolic extract was found most effective among them. Granules were prepared using ethanolic ectract and filled in capsule.&nbsp; Capsule were evaluated for parameters including uniformity of weight, disintegration time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ficus benghalensis</em>, Ethanolic extract, Antidiabetic activity</p> 2019-06-15T07:46:20-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Putative Role of Moringa oleifera in Prophylaxis of Chemotherapy Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Srikanta Chandra Avik Das Tathagata Ray Lucky Mukherjee Jyotirmay Samanta <p>Cancer chemotherapy is associated with a plethora of morbidities among which neuropathic pain is a prevalent one. The pathology underpinning chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain can be multifarious, however, dearth of effective medication largely plagues the quality of life of such patients. A good rationale can be found behind focusing on herbal alternatives like extracts of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> for which anti-cancer potential has already been reported. Hence we have carried out a pilot study for evaluating the protective potential of the methanolic extract of the plant against paclitaxel induced neuropathic pain in mice. Our evaluation has been based on standard paradigms focusing on neuromotor, oxidative and histopathological assessments. We have found significant improvisation in groups treated with both pregabalin and extract, the amelioration being largely graded in nature. Hence our research has opened up the doors of a newer horizon of herbal alternatives available for chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain, however further look out into the domain is avidly awaited for.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: NP: Neuropathic Pain, CC: Cancer Chemotherapy, HA: Herbal Alternatives</p> 2019-06-15T07:47:41-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Putative Role of Ethanolic Extract of Vernonia cinerea in the Amelioration of Chemotherapy Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Srikanta Chandra Avik Das Jyotirmay Samanta Tathagata Ray Lucky Mukherjee <p>Cancer chemotherapy is associated with a plethora of morbidities among which neuropathic pain is another one. The pathology underpinning chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain can be multifarious, however, dearth of effective medication largely plagues the quality of life of such patients. A good rationale can be found behind narrowing down on herbal alternatives namely methanolic extracts of <em>Vernonia cinerea</em> for which anti-cancer potential has already been reported. Hence we have carried out a pilot study for evaluating the protective potential of the methanolic extract of the plant against paclitaxel induced neuropathic pain in mice. Our evaluation has been based on standard paradigms focusing on neuromotor, oxidative and histopathological assessments and TNF α Assessment. We have found significant improvisation in groups treated with both pregabalin and extract, the amelioration being largely graded in nature. Hence our research has opened up the doors of a newer horizon of herbal alternatives available for chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain, however further look out into the domain is avidly awaited for.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> NP: Neuropathic Pain, CC: Cancer Chemotherapy, HA: Herbal Alternatives</p> 2019-06-15T07:50:26-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Evaluation of Ezetimibe Lyophilized Dry Emulsion Tablets 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Dhananjay Patil Rakesh Bachhav Dipika Gosavi Rahul Pagar Vinod Bairagi <p>This article presents the development of lyophilized dry emulsion tablets prepared with the dry emulsion technique to enhance the in-vitro dissolution and in-vivo performance of the poorly bioavailable drug Ezetimibe. Ezetimibe (EZT) is a lipid-lowering drug that inhibits intestinal uptake of dietary and biliary cholesterol without affecting the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients. Ezetimibe has a very low solubility and dissolution rate resulting in highly variable bioavailability, which is also in part due to extensive efflux by p-glycoprotein (P-Gp). Tablets were fabricated by freezedrying o/w emulsions of Ezetimibe. The Emulsions were prepared using a matrix former solution (alginate or gelatin, 2 or 4%) containing a sugar alcohol (mannitol), as the water phase and Labrafac® as the oil phase under proper homogenization. In the present study friability, disintegration time, and <em>in-vitro dissolution</em>of lyophilized dry emulsion tablets were done. Results showed the significant influence of the matrix former and emulsifier type on the disintegration time. <em>In-vitro dissolution</em> studies revealed the enhanced dissolution rate of Ezetimibe from the lyophilized tablets compared to the plain drug. DSC studies proved presence of the drug in the amorphous form in the fabricated tablets. The obtained results suggest a promising, easy-to-manufacture and effective dosage form for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.</p> <p>Keywords: Ezetimibe, lyophilized dry emulsion tablet, and hyperlipidemia, freeze drying, Labrafac.</p> 2019-06-15T07:51:46-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fabrication and optimization of buccal film comprising rizatriptan benzoate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for improved ex vivo permeation 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Pramod Salve Nikhil Bali <p>The objective of the present study was to fabricate and optimize mucoadhesive buccal film encloses rizatriptan benzoate (RBZ) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for improved <em>ex-vivo</em> permeation. RBZ loaded SLNs were formulated by hot high pressure homogenization method. SLNs were characterized for size, zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The RBZ SLNs comprising mucoadhesive buccal film were fabricated using dependent variables in different concentration of Eudragit RS100 and HPMC K4M by using solvent evaporation method. The formulations were experimentally optimized using two factors, three level statistical design approach. The formulated buccal film comprising RBZ SLNs evaluated for mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, drug release and <em>ex vivo</em> permeation. The optimized formulation of RBZ SLNs showed particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency i.e. 228 nm, 0.22±0.02, -14mV, 81.78% respectively. Optimized mucoadhesive buccal film formulation followed Korsmeyer-Peppas drug release kinetic model with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Flux, lag time, permeability values in <em>ex vivo </em>permeation of RBZ from SLNs loaded film were found to be 0.071µg/cm<sup>2</sup>.h, 60 min., 0.014 respectively. The flux and permeability values were increased and lag time for permeation was decreased in ex vivo permeation studies of RBZ SLNs buccal film as compared to RBZ film. The results of the <em>in vitro</em> and <em>ex vivo</em> permeation study advocate the mucoadhesive film comprising RBZ SLNs is encouraging approach for drug delivery to brain targeting diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Solid Lipid nanoparticles; Rizatriptan benzoate; Buccal film; Bioavailability.</p> 2019-06-15T07:54:19-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of Phytochemicals in Methanolic Extract of Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees Collected from Kanyakumary Coast of Tamil Nadu, India 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 M Sakunthala J John Peter Paul <p>The present study was aimed to explore the preliminary phytochemicals analysis of <em>Enteromorpha compressa</em> (L.) Nees collected from Kanyakumari in the Southern coast of Tamil Nadu, India. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract was carried out using Harborne method, followed by the characterization was done using FT-IR and HPLC. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of the following secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, emodines, tannins, flavonoids, quinones, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phlobatannins, coumarins, steroids, diterpenes and triterpenoids. The crude methanol extract of <em>Enteromorpha compressa</em> (L.) Nees was passed into FTIR and it confirmed the presence of functional groups such as alcohols and phenols, aliphatic compounds, aromatic nitro compound, amides, vinyl ethers, organophosphorus compounds, amines, sulfonyl chloride, primary aliphatic amines, ketones, phosphines and aliphatic compound. HPLC fingerprint of <em>Enteromorpha compressa</em> (L.) Nees displayed three prominent peaks at the retention time of 2.050min, 2.493min and 3.427min out of six compounds separated.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Seaweeds, Phytochemicals, Secondary metabolites, FTIR, HPLC</p> 2019-06-15T07:55:12-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Microsponge Delivery System 2019-06-15T12:23:36-05:00 Mansi Hans Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N Prasad Diksha Sharma , Monika <p>Microsponge is recent novel technique for control release and target specific drug delivery system. Microsponge technology has been introduced in pharmaceutical industry to provide the controlled release of active drug ingredient for the application into the skin in order to decrease systemic exposure and reduce local cutaneous reactions to active drugs. Microsponges comprises of microporous beads, typically 10-25 microns in diameter, loaded with active agent. The microsponge releases its active ingredient on a time mode, when applied to the skin,&nbsp; and also in response to other stimuli that are used mostly for topical and recently for oral administration. Microsponge technology has many favourable characteristics which make It all around suitable as drug delivery vehicle. Microsponge systems can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is mostly porous, allowing the sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Microsponge drug delivery system causes increased efficacy for the topically active agents with enhanced safety and product stability for a longer period of time with reduction in side effects. In addition their non-allergenic, non-irritating, non-mutagenic and nontoxic behaviour makes them the suitable dosage form. The present review emphasis Microsponge drug delivery system along with its release mechanism.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Novel drug delivery system, Microsponges, Microsponge drug delivery system, Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method.</p> 2019-06-15T12:23:36-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Standardization and Quality Evaluation of Herbal Drugs 2019-06-15T13:28:10-05:00 Omprakash G Bhusnure Shivraj Suryawanshi S.M. Vijayendra Swamy Sachin B Gholve Padmaja S. Girm Mahesh J Birajdar <p>In recent years most, people throughout world are turning to use medicinal plant and herbal product in healthcare system. the use of herbal product as medicine by the basis of history. The identification of pure active ingredient is an important requirement for Quality and dose determination of plant related dugs. Therefore, evaluation of the parameters based upon chemical, physical, microbiological, therapeutic and toxicological studies can serve as an important tool in stability studies. Standardization of herbal drugs means confirmation of its identity, Quality and purity. The present overview covers the standardization parameters with their standards value of some herbal drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Herbal medicine, Standardization, Quality control, evaluation, WHO Guidelines.</p> 2019-06-15T13:28:10-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rituximab therapy for Severe and Persistent Lichenoid drug-reaction 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Kamel El-Reshaid Shaima Al-Bader <p>We report on a patient with severe and fixed lichenoid drug-reaction.&nbsp; She did not respond to 2 months treatment with high-dose corticosteroids.&nbsp; Hence, Rituximab was given.&nbsp; One month later, her lesions improved and remained stable for 14 months of follow up.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> fixed drug reaction, Prednesone, Rituximab.</p> 2019-06-15T07:59:45-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Unani Formulation in Patients With GERD: A Case Series 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Maryam Zafar Tabassum Latafat Mursaleen Naseer Hina Talat <h1><strong>abstract</strong></h1> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as the backward flow of gastric contents into the oesophagus. A small amount of reflux occurs in normal individuals. It is a common disease with a prevalence as high as 10% - 20% in the western world. The disease may develop typical, atypical oesophageal and extra-oesophageal symptoms, complications, and can adversely affect an individual's quality of life. Management of GERD may involve lifestyle modification, medical therapy with PPIs, and anti - reflux surgery. But this is having adverse effects. So, the present study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of unani formulation in the treatment of GERD.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Material &amp; Methods:</strong> We conducted this study on ten clinically diagnosed cases of GERD attending the Moalejat OPD at AKTCH, AMU Aligarh.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All the symptoms like heartburn, regurgitation, nausea, water brash, sleeplessness were significantly improved after the 45 days treatment with this Unani formulation. The result was analyzed and shown on Likert’s scale.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The preliminary findings indicate that this Unani drug formulation is effective in patients with GERD.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>GERD, Unani formulation, PPIs.</p> 2019-06-15T08:03:24-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nanostructured lipid carriers: A platform to lipophilic drug for oral bioavailability enhancement 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Deepak Patil Seema Pattewar Sarvesh Palival Gargi Patil Swapnil Sharma <p>Lipid based drug delivery system such as Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are among the most promising drug delivery system used in many industries such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries. Over the last few years, new constituents of lipids have developed and <a href="">investigated</a> for enhancement of bioavailability. The present manuscript is an attempt on solving the concerned uncertainty with <a href="">efficacious</a> peroral administration of hydrophobic drugs through fabricating new lipid formulations, NLC. NLC, the second-generation lipid carrier is usually composed of solid lipids and liquid lipids together in a system. This mixing causes depression in melting point of substrates and converts the mixture into solid form at body temperature and termed as NLC. NLC shows a high drug loading with minimum drug expulsion. The unique advantages of NLC over SLN and Lipid-drug conjugates (LDC) are <a href="">increase</a>d capacity of drug loading, avoidance of drug expulsion. This manuscript gives detailed information on definitions and simple way of production methods, new approaches in formulation of NLC and it also highlights how NLC improves bioavailability of bioactive molecules through peroral route and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier. It also gives idea about the <a href="">supremacy</a> of NLC over other lipid-based system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Bioavailability; Lipids; Lipophilic drugs; Nanostructured lipid carriers; Solid lipid nanoparticle.</p> 2019-06-15T08:04:56-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A review on Phytosome loaded with novel herbal drug and their formulation, standardization and applications 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Amar U Upase Omprakash G Bhusnure Sachin B Gholve Padmaja S Giram Pragati B Wattamwar <p>Novel Drug Delivery System is need of time, as it makes bioavailability, securityand overall therapeutics of a drug easy-going and in the bat of an eye. In the recent days, most of the regnant maladies and nutritional disorders are treated with herbal medicines because of their less after math, economical and easily accessible. The potency of any herbal medication is contingent on the delivery of the effectual level of the therapeutically active constituent. But because of high polarity and poor lipophilicity, the active contents are incompletely assimilated resulting in poor bioavailability.Herbal drugs comprises of a vast array of active contents which furnishes us with a number of applications. But due to high polarity and poor lipophilicity the active contents are poorly absorbed resulting in poor bioavailability. These problems can be overcome by formulating a suitable novel preparation of the herbal extract. Phytosomes are one of the novel drug delivery system containing hydrophilic bioactive phytoconstituents of herbs surround and bound by phospholipids.This phytophospholipid complex resembles a little cell which exhibit better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile than the conventional herbal extract resulting in better bioavailability. This article highlights recent information, commercial preparation of phytosomes as well as the various other novel approaches for delivery of herbal constituents.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Phytosomes, Bioavailability, Phosphatidylcholine, Phytoconstituents.</p> 2019-06-15T08:07:39-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oral hypoglycemic drugs: An overview 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Pardeep Kaur Munish Kumar Jyoti Parkash D.N. Prasad <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of oral hypoglycemic agents in obese Type-2 diabetic patients. The objectives are to compare fasting and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) levels, to compare body mass index in all the groups and to identify glycosylated hemoglobin levels and adverse drug reaction in all the groups. Diabetes mellitus is one of the world’s major diseases. It currently affects an estimated143 million people worldwide and the number is growing rapidly. In the India, about 1-5% population suffer from diabetes or related complication. So there is need to cure this disease. Anti-diabetic drugs treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of insulin, exenatide, and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral anti hyperglycemic agents. There are different classes of anti-diabetic drugs, and their selection depends on the nature of the diabetes, age and situation of the person, as well as other factors. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a disease caused by the lack of insulin. Insulin must be used in Type 1, which must be injected or inhaled. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease of insulin resistance by cells. Treatments include agents which increase the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas, agents which increase the sensitivity of target organs to insulin , and agents which decrease the rate at which glucose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> hypoglycemic, blood suger, insulin, diabetes mellitus, pancreas</p> 2019-06-15T08:09:01-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review on Buccal Adhesive Drug Delivery System: A Promising Strategy for Poorly Soluble Drugs 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Mangilal Teelavath K.S.K Rao Patnaik <p>Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of these drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parentral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Over the last few decades' pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal routes as an alternative to injections. Among the various transmucosal sites available, mucosa of the buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has expanse of smooth muscle which is relatively immobile, abundant vascularization, rapid recovery time after exposure to stress and the near absence of langerhans cells. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. Further, these dosage forms are self-administrable, cheap and have superior patient compliance. Developing a dosage form with the optimum pharmacokinetics is a promising area for continued research as it is enormously important and intellectually challenging. With the right dosage form design, local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to optimize the rate of drug dissolution and permeation. Advances in experimental and computational methodologies will be helpful in shortening the processing time from formulation design to clinical use.</p> 2019-06-15T08:10:05-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Microsponge as Emerging Drug Delivery System 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Avinash Darekar Pooja Pawar Ravindranath B. Saudagar <p>A microsponge delivery system will entrap a wide variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients and then release them onto the skin over a time and additionally in response to different stimuli including rubbing, moisture, pH, friction, or ambient skin temperature. It can also be used for controlled oral delivery of drugs using water-soluble, water-insoluble and bio-erodible polymers. The primary aim of any drug delivery system is to provide a therapeutic quantity of drug to the suitable site in the body, to punctually achieve and retain the desired drug concentration. The elemental application of the microsponge technology arises as of the difficulty experienced with predictable formulations in release active ingredients over an extended period of time. Microsponges also enhanced bioavailability of active ingredient and increase the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug. Microsponge is providing some advantages like controlled release and extended release of active agents by using different polymers. They become a reduced irritation and improved thermal, physical, and chemical stability of the product. The present review describes microsponge technology including its method of preparation, characterization, programmable parameters and release mechanism of microsponge drug delivery system. Microsponges can be designed to programmable release of drug by using different triggers like solubility triggered systems, pressure triggered systems, temperature triggered systems and pH triggered systems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Microsponge delivery system (MDS), programmable release, controlled release, porous microspheres, improves bioavailability.</p> 2019-06-15T08:11:13-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Drug Discovery Development for Treatment of Tuberculosis 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Nisha Saxena Noopur Srivastava Poonam Shukla Govind Kumar Tripathi <p>Since decades Tuberculosis (TB) has been a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity with more than one-third of the world population infected with latent TB. Recent fight with an age old disease continuously smack with a dawdling approach toward its treatment. In spite of extensive researches in this field for combating the disease we are lacking behind in race with its causing agent Microbacterium Tuberculosis. Multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em> creates the worldwide open threat to human welfare. Thus there is a need of swift researches for its combat. Here in this review we are giving a brief description towards various chemical agents which have been used for its therapy and new families arrived as a potential drug candidate till date.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Tuberculosis (TB), <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>, Multidrug resistance (MDR), Extensively drug resistance (XDR), Directly Observed Treatment (DOTs), Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Short-course, Nanoparticles, Drug delivery</p> 2019-06-15T08:12:28-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Review on Neuropathic Pain 2019-06-15T08:35:35-05:00 Vishal U. Shewale Smita S. Aher Ravindranath B. Saudagar <p>Neuropathic pain is defined as “Pain is observed as disease of the somatosensory nervous system.” The cause of pain is very wide-ranging and may certainly be idiopathic<strong>.</strong> Two nerve damage classifications have been described and they are outlined. These are first line and second line. Neuropathic pain is generated by electrical hyperactivity of neurons along the pain pathways. The sensory pathway consists of at least three neurons, and lesions anywhere along the pathway can lead to neuropathic pain. A successful clinical management for neuropathic pain requires balancing the advantages and side effects of available drugs, lifestyle interventions, and treating the underlying cause if possible for the management of neuropathic pain requires various lines of treatment i.e first line and second line treatment which includes various types of drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Neuropathic pain, Hyperalgesia, Neuralgia, Neuronal Hyperactivity, Neurapraxia.</p> 2019-06-15T08:14:09-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concept of Aging of Skin in Unani Medicine and its Management through Hydration therapy: A Review 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 ABUL FAIZ Mohammed Anas <p>Unani medicine is based upon the theory of four humors in the body. The temperaments of individuals are revealed accordingly by the words sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, and melancholic on the preponderance of the respective humor. Innate fluid (Ratoobat-e-ghareeziya) plays a key role in maintaining equilibrium of innate heat (Hararat-e-ghareeziya). Change in the quality and quantity of Ratoobat-e-ghareeziya, directly affects Hararat-e-ghareeziya. Excessive reduction (tahleel) in Hararat-e-ghareeziya affects in two ways; i.e. Diminished Hararat-e-ghareeziya causes change in physiological functions of the body like in case of skin, when innate fluid of diminished, the skin becomes cold and dry in temperament which leads to wrinkles and early aging of skin. Hydration is one of the important therapies to prevent early aging of skin. Recent studies also reveal that during the aging cell division in the skin, decreases reduce collagen production and change the elastin fibers of structure. The visible changes are a decrease in sebum production and the moisture content, which is why many elderly suffer from dry skin and decreased elasticity of the skin. The result is that the skin is flaccid and puckering. Other factors are your lifestyle, diet, heredity, and other personal habits like smoking&nbsp;can produce free radicals.&nbsp; Free radicals damage the cells, leading to premature wrinkles. This paper aims to present the concept of Aging of skin, prevention and basic principles of management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Aging, Humors, Temperament</p> 2019-06-15T08:15:24-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ganotherapy 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Shivani Sonar Sheetal Gondkar Ravindranath B Saudagar <p>Ganotherapy is simply consisting of five steps used to explain how ganoderma supports the body which in turn to overcome its health problems by itself. The five steps are Scanning, Detoxification, Regulation, Building and Regenerating. Ganoderma must be consumed according to ganotherapy procedure; this ensures maximum benefits in health and wellness. Ganotherapy is based on consuming ganoderma based products RG/GL i.e. Reishi Gand and Ganocelium which are a 90 days and 18 day sold red mushroom called Ganoderma lucidum. Ganoderma provides wide range of nutraceuticals as it contains at least 400 nutrients. Ganoderma works on body and not on the disease promoting natural immune system helps in balancing the body and in turn the body treats itself for wide range of health problems. Thus ganotherapy takes holistic approach to alternative complementary medicines. The core belief of ganotherapy is “Our body is the best doctor” and “Prevention is better than cure”.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ganotherapy, Ganoderma lucidum, Red mushroom, Reishi gand, Ganocelium</p> 2019-06-15T08:16:28-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Liquid Filled Hard Gelatin Capsule 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Shivani Sonar Sheetal Gondkar Ravindranath B Saudagar <p>Novel dosage forms emerges more and more in recent years. One of them is liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules, which have gelatin or the hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as capsule shell. The liquid-filled hard gelatin capsule is gradually getting attention because of its new-concept dosage form design, which bring liquid drugs by solid form. The paper mostly presents application, pharmaceutical manufacturing, quality assessment, vision of liquid-filled hard gelatin capsules and emphases on the application and pharmaceutical manufacturing of liquid-filled capsule. It is recommended that the capsule is suitable for many liquid or semi-solid natural plant extract and achieve different release profiles. The preparation adopted liquid-filled hard capsules technology. The impact factors concluded property of shell and device of filling. The quality was frequently evaluated by moisture content of capsule shell, dissolution rate. At the same time, it was pointed out that the new dosage form has remarkable marketing prospect and bring profits for enterprises.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Liquid filled capsule, Capsule Shell, Gelatin, HPMC, Dissolution rate.</p> 2019-06-15T08:17:40-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effervescent Floating Drug Delivery System: A review 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Nilesh V Pakhale S.B Gondkar R.B. Saudagar <p>Effervescent floating drug delivery systems release gas CO2, thus reduce the density of the system and remain buoyant in the stomach 2 for a prolonged period of time and released the drug slowly at a desired rate so it can be used to prolong the gastric residence time in order to improve the bioavailability of drug. In the present article we will discuss in detail about effervescent agent and mechanism of effervescent floating drug delivery system. Oral sustained release gastro-retentive dosage forms offer many advantages for drugs with the absorption from upper parts of the gastro intestinal tract. Gastric emptying is a complex process and it is highly variable. The floating drug delivery systems are useful methods to avoid this variability which increases the retention time of the drug delivery systems for more than 12 hours. &nbsp;This review article is in pursuit of giving detailed information on the pharmaceutical basis of their design, classification, advantages, in vitro and in vivo evaluation parameters, and application of floating systems, and applications of these systems. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form and the future potential of FDDS. At attempt has been made in this review article to introduce the readers to current development in floating drug delivery system,</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Effervescent system, Floating drug delivery system, Effervescent agent, floating lag time, Gastric residence time.</p> 2019-06-15T08:19:34-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Floating Drug Delivery System: A comprehensive review 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Prashant Patil Priyanka Baviskar Ravindranath B. Saudagar <p>The recent literature with some special interest on the principal mechanism of floatation to obtain gastric retention is the main purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS). The recent developments in floating drug delivery systems are containing the physiological and formulation variables impacting on gastric retention time, approaches to formulating of single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are discussed in detail. This review also summarizes evaluation parameters and application of floating drug delivery systems. These systems are useful to several problems introduced during the formulations of a pharmaceutical dosage form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>floating drug delivery system, gastro-retention, floating beads, gastric technology.</p> 2019-06-15T08:20:53-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Medicinal efficacy of Khar-e-Khasak Khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn) 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Qamar Alam Khan Asim Ali Khan Shagufta Parveen <p>Khar-e-Khasak-khurd (<em>Tribulus terrestris</em> Linn.) commonly known as <em>Gokharu</em>, is used for a long time for treatment of various diseases. Considerable literature is available in Unani system of medicine regarding the medicinal properties of Khar-e-khasak-khurd (<em>Tribulus terrestris</em> Linn.). Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are pharmacologically active, such as Harmine, Chlorogenin, Tribuloside, Trigogenin. Whole plant and seeds are used as traditional herbal medicine and having properties such as diuretic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, antiurolithic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, and antibacterial. In the present review, an attempt has been made to cover the major pharmacological actions as well therapeutic uses of Khar-e-khasak-khurd (<em>Tribulus terrestris</em> Linn.) mentioned in Unani system of medicine.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: <em>Tribulus terrestris</em> Linn. Unani Medicine, Khar-e- Khasak Khurd, Pharmacological Actions.</p> 2019-06-15T08:22:03-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concept of Cosmetics in the light of Classical Unani Literature 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Mohammad Anas Abul Faiz Shireen Fatima Ziaur Rahman <p>Since very ancient period Unani physicians has paid great attention toward the use of cosmetics. Unani literature is very rich in cosmeceutical formulations taking care of appearance and dealing with cosmetic diseases in humans. In Unani classical text like Kitab-ul-Mansoori, Al-Hawi-fil-Tib, Kamiul-us-Sana, Al-Qanoon-fit-Tib, Zakheera-e-Khwarzam Shahi, the details of cosmetics are mentioned under the headings of <em>Tazeeniyaat</em>. There are several single drugs or compound formulations described in Unani classical text. The use of Unani cosmetics is splendid because of its low cost, no side effect, easily available preparation. There are several Unani cosmeceuticals are described in unani classical text like Solid Cosmeceutical (<em>Ghaza, Ghaliya, Kajal</em>), Semi-solid Cosmeceutical (<em>Tila, Zimad, Ubtan</em>) and Liquid cosmeceutical (<em>Ghusool, Pashoya</em>).</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Unani Medicine, Tazeeniyaat, Ubtan, Ghaza.</p> 2019-06-15T08:23:37-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Microsphere: A Review 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Manisha M Mahale R B Saudagar <p>Microspheres having free flowing powder characteristics, which are consisting of synthetic polymers and&nbsp; proteins. These are biodegradable in nature having particle size less than 200um. Microspheres are the multiparticulate drug delivery systems which are consisting from natural and synthetic material. Microsphere improves bioavailability, stability and target the drug to specific site at predetermined rate. types of microspheres are bioadhesive, floating, radioactive, polymeric and biodegradable microspheres. Microspheres are particularly used in novel drug delivery system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>microsphere, advantages, types, method of preprations.</p> 2019-06-15T08:24:45-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A view of Homoeopathy on Musculoskeletal Disorders in Sports Injuries 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Chintamani Nayak Akshay K Hati Samar Pati Subhashree Dhal BISWARANJAN PAITAL <p>Musculoskeletal disorders and treatment focus on various aspects of Repetitive Motion Injuries, Repetitive Strain Injuries, Cumulative Trauma Disorders, Occupational Cervico-brachial Disorders, Overuse Syndrome, Regional Musculoskeletal Disorders, Soft Tissue Disorders, Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders, Musculoskeletal Disorders. It can be seen in the elderly, arthritis, drug interaction checker, fibromyalgia, living healthy, lupus osteoarthritis, pill identifier, rheumatoid arthritis, sports injuries, etc. Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common problems in sport injuries resulting loss of mobility and physical independence. Homoeopathic treatment schedule considers disease as a dynamic unit and the derangement of the whole man, expressed through the particular organs of the body, i.e. the ‘whole man’ is primarily diseased and individual organs/parts are only secondarily affected. It distinguishes each entity suffering from various or same diseases as different from others, because individuals are inimitable by virtue of their particular and peculiar mental and physical states, and characteristics. Concisely, it lays emphasis on, the ‘person diagnosis’, instead of the ‘disease diagnosis’. Therefore,” every diseases has a cure” is the believe of homoeopathy. Under this flow of homeopathy principle, the aim of this article is to present some of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders in sports Injuries and their homoeopathic treatment schedule .Sports is an essential part of each nation. There are many ways to classify sports injuries based on the time taken for the tissues to become injured, tissue type affected, severity of the injury, and type of the injury occurred in the individual. Therefore, different homeopathic treatments are required to tackle different category of injury especially the outcomes of sport activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Acute injuries, homoeopathy, overuse injuries, prevention, sports injuries, treatment.</p> 2019-06-15T08:26:20-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dhattura Lavana: An Eccentric Salt Preparation in Folklore 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 O.P. Amrutha Sharma K. Govinda Kumar G. Ajith H.P. Savitha <p><em>Lavana kalpana</em> is a formulation in Ayurveda which is prepared from combination of certain drugs with <em>lavana</em> (Salt). A particular heating pattern is followed for drugs and<em> lavana</em> in an earthen crucible by subjecting it to <em>putapaka</em>. Number of <em>lavana kalpana</em> like <em>Narikela lavana</em> <em>Arka lavana</em> and other such formulations are being practiced in Ayurveda. <em>Dhattura lavana</em> is also a formulation of <em>Dhattura</em> and <em>lavana</em> used in alcohol dependence.&nbsp; An attempt was made in this work to gather the information about this formulation. It is observed that this formulation is used by traditional practioners of Kerala. The reference of <em>Dhattura lavana</em> could not be found in the books or literatures of <em>Ayurveda</em>. Deviating from the general method of preparation of <em>putapaka, Dhattura lavana</em> is prepared in a unique way. In this formulation, a decoction of <em>Dhattura</em> is prepared first and to that equal amount of<em> lavana</em> is added and dehydrated.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Dhattura lavana, Lavana kalpana, madatyaya, tadarthakari chikitsa.</em></p> 2019-06-15T08:27:39-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A review on polymers in natural or modified form used in sustained release tablet 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Satish Kumari Anchal Puri Dhruv Dev DN Prasad , Monika <p>Tablet is a solid dosage form which is used to deliver the drug to the body to make pharmacological action. The oral dosage form should disperse into small particles to deliver active ingredients in the body, the disperse time of the dosage form depends on the ingredients which are used in the tablet. To make the tablet disintegrate slow usually sustained release agents are used. The sustained release tablets helps in maintaining the drug concentration in the body for the higher time. In this review article various polymers of natural origin and their modified forms are studied, which can be used in the sustained release tablet. In this review article the polymers studied were, Psyllium husk, HPMC K100M, Cellulose polymers, Cellulose ether polymers, Xanthan gum, Guar gum, Eudragit RLPO, Eudragit RSPO, Eudragit RL 100, Eudragit RS 100, Kollidone SR and Carnauba wax. Now a day the sustained release tablets are used more than the conventional tablets because of the patient incompliance. The main part of the sustained release tablets are the polymers. In the study it was found that the modified forms of natural polymers works better than in their natural form. In the study it was found that the hydrophilic polymers also work better like Xanthan gum and Guar gum, they are effecting and non-toxic in nature. The cellulose derivatives were studied and it was found that Substituted cellulose-methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose works better in the combination form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sustained release, Xanthan gum, Guar gum, Eudragit, Kollidone, HPMC</p> 2019-06-15T08:28:56-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Solid Dispersion as Strategy to Improve the Solubility of Poorly Water Soluble Drugs and their Utilization and Consideration during Formulation Development 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 MAHESH BABANRAO SHEJUL R.K. Godge S.B. Kakad S.S. Siddheshwar <p>Solid dispersions are most promising system to increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs.&nbsp; By using reduction in drug particle size in required specification, and due to that improving drug wettability, bioavailability may be todays need. Solid dispersion generally presented as amorphous products, mainly obtained by two major different methods, melting and solvent evaporation. Now days, surfactants have been included to stabilize the formulations, thus avoiding drug recrystallization and potentiating their solubility. New manufacturing processes to obtain solid dispersions have also been developed to reduce the drawbacks of the initial process. In this review, it is intended to discuss the consideration during formulation development also role of hydrophobic polymer for solubility enhancement various strategy to inhibit the recrystallization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Solid dispersion, recrystallization, solubility, bioavailability, dissolution rate, hydrophobic polymer.</p> 2019-06-15T08:30:13-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Agni Dushti and Associated Diseases: An Ayurveda Perspective 2019-06-15T08:35:36-05:00 Ashish Tiwari Rohit Khatik Neeraj Kanungo Viajayata Kanungo <p>The medical system of India Ayurveda encompasses traditional knowledge about diseases and their management, in this regards Ayurveda science mentioned different theories and principles related to healthy living. Furthermore Ayurveda emphasized various concept related to normal or abnormal physiological functioning of body and <em>Agni</em> is one of such concept. The digestive &amp; metabolic activities of body govern through the<em> Agni </em>which not only perform digestion and assimilation of food but also contributes greatly towards the growth and development of body. The normal functioning of <em>Agn</em>i provides <em>Bala, Ayu, Swasthyam, Ojha, Utsaha, Teja </em>and <em>Prabha </em>thus help to maintain good physical and mental status. On the other hand improper functioning of <em>Agni</em> leads <em>Agni Dusthi </em>which is the major causative factor for many digestive and metabolic ailments. The <em>Agni Dusthi</em> and diseases associated with disturbed functioning of <em>Agni</em> increasing day by day due to the unwholesome consumption of dietary materials. Considering this aspect present article summarized some clinical manifestation of <em>Agni Dusthi</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ayurveda, Agni,</em> <em>Agni Dusthi, Digestion.</em></p> 2019-06-15T08:32:28-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Various analytical methods for analysis of atorvastatin: A review 2019-06-15T09:25:44-05:00 Pooja A Chawla Shailendra Pandey , Monika <p>Hyperlipidemia is produced due to abnormal elevated level of lipids in the blood and is a major risk factor for many heart diseases such as atherosclerosis and stroke.&nbsp; Lipids have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis in humans. In hyperlipidemia there are increased levels of both LDL and triglycerides. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with statins has become an integral part of management of vascular diseases. Statins are the first line therapy for lowering lipid levels. Among statins atorvastatin is the most effective and currently available antihyperlipidemic drug. An enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase play an important for endogenous cholesterol synthesis. Atorvastatin is HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitor which significantly reduces the lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein) and also increases the HDL (high-density lipoprotein) levels. Various analytical methods such as reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), liquid chromatography tendam mass spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis (CE), spectrophotometric methods for determination of atorvastatin as single and in combination with other drugs have been reported.&nbsp; In this review an attempt has been made to covers all the recent analytical methods which has been used for analysis of atorvastatin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Atorvastatin, Analytical Methods, HPLC, HPTLC.</p> 2019-06-15T09:25:44-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An exhaustive overview of floating drug delivery system 2019-06-15T09:27:29-05:00 Lucky Mukherjee Srikanta Chandra Bijayan Mukherjee Mithun Bhowmick <p>The purpose of writing this review is to narrowing down on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) and to compile the current literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to ameliorate gastric retention. The current amelioration of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention approaches to design single unit and multiple unit floating systems, and a plethora and formulation aspects are covered in detail. This review also summarizes the in vitro technique and in vivo studies to evaluate the performance and application of floating systems and applications of these systems. These systems are useful to several plights encountered during the amelioration of a pharmaceutical dosage form.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:&nbsp; FDDS: Floating Drug Delivery System, ND: Narrowing down, PD: Pharmaceutical dosage</p> 2019-06-15T09:27:29-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pharmaceutical Creams and their use in wound healing: A Review 2019-06-15T09:29:25-05:00 Pratikcha Rai Adarsh Pratik Poudyl Sujit Das <p>Creams have been used as topical preparations since time immemorial due to their ease of application to the skin and also their removal. Pharmaceutical creams have a variety of applications ranging from cosmetic purposes such as cleansing, beautifying, altering appearance, moisturizing etc. to skin protection against bacterial, fungal infections as well as healing cuts, burns, wounds on the skin. The human skin is easily vulnerable to injury but it has the capability to heal on its own. However, the natural healing process can take time and there is also risk of infection especially in the early stages of injury. In such cases, creams can be applied to the site of injury to speed up the healing process as well as protect the wound from infection. In this review of literature, we have focused on the use of pharmaceutical creams for wound healing with detailed discussion relating to the wound healing process, suitable methods of preparation of creams; their classification based on their function, characteristics and emulsion type and the various types of creams, ingredients used in the formulation of creams and their various evaluation parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cream, Wound Healing</p> 2019-06-15T09:29:25-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sustained Release Drug Delivery System with the Role of Natural Polymers: A review 2019-06-15T09:31:17-05:00 Diksha Sharma Dhruv Dev D.N. Prasad Mansi Hans <p>An appropriately designed sustained release dosage form is opted to be a major goal in solving the problems which arises regarding the targeting of a drug to a specific organ or tissue and for controlling its rate of delivery to the target site. The development of oral sustained release system has proven to be a major challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain as well as localize the system at targeted areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore the development of matrix type drug delivery system is promising option regarding the development of an oral sustained release system. There is availability of wide variety of polymers which helps the formulation scientist to develop sustained/controlled release products. The attractiveness of these dosage forms is increasing because of their awareness towards toxicity and ineffectiveness when administered by oral route in the form of tablets and capsules. Numerous advantages are provided by sustained release products over conventional dosage forms through optimizing various bio-pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of drugs and finally leads to reduction in dosing frequency to such an extent that only once daily dose is required for therapeutic management with maximum utility of drug with reduction in both local as well as systemic side effects. They can cure or control diseased condition in shortest possible time with smallest quantity of drug to assure greater patient compliance. Polymer swelling, drug dissolution and its diffusion are the known mechanisms for drug release through polymer network.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Oral drug delivery system, sustained release dosage form, matrix system, polymer swelling, drug diffusion.</p> 2019-06-15T09:31:17-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytosomes: A Novel Drug Delivery for Herbal Extracts 2019-06-15T09:32:56-05:00 Jayashri J. Bhise Omprakash G. Bhusnure Sneha R. Jagtap Sachin B. Gholve Richa R. Wale <p>The term “phyto” means plant while “some” means cell-like. Phytosome is novel emerging technique applied to phyto-pharmaceutical which contains phytoconstituents to herbal extract surrounds and bound by lipids. Phytosome shows better absorption, hence produces better bioavailability than the conventional herbal extracts. Because of their improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. Phytosomes are herbal formulation which has enhanced the therapeutic effects of the plant extracts and herbal lead molecule by increasing bioavailability in the target site compared to conventional herbal extracts. This is improved forms of herbal formulation which contain the bioactive phytoconstituents of herb essence enclosed and bound by a lipid. Phytosomes demonstrated improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response than customary botanical extracts.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytosomes; Bioavailability, Phospolipids, phytoconstituents.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-15T09:32:56-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nanosponges: A Novel Trend for Targeted Drug Delivery 2019-06-15T09:34:52-05:00 Sneha R. Jagtap Omprakash G. Bhusnure Imran N. Mujewar Sachin B. Gholve V.B. Panchabai <p>Effective targeted drug delivery system has been a dream for a long time, but it has been largely frustrated by the complex chemistry that is involved in the development of new systems. Topical drug delivery system has many problems like poor permeability, skin irritation, allergic reactions etc. major problems of newly developed chemical entities is their poor solubility in water and pharmacokinetic issues. These poorly-water soluble drugs show many problems in formulating them in conventional dosage forms and the critical problems associated is its very low bioavailability. The invention of Nanosponge has become a significant step towards overcoming these problems. Nanosponge is tiny sponges with a size about a virus (250nm-1um), which can be filled with a wide variety of drugs. Nanosponge play vital role in targeting drugs delivery in a controlled manner. This sponge can circulate around the body until interact with specific target site and stick on surface and releasing drug in controlled manner both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs are&nbsp; incorporated in nanosponge . Important characteristics of these sponges are their solubility in aqueous from and suitable for the drugs with poor solubility. This review is focusing on the preparation method, applications of nanosponge, factor in the field of drug delivery.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: nanosponge, poor solubility, Biodegradable polymers, synthesis, preparation</p> 2019-06-15T09:34:52-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cancer Cell Metabolism: A Review 2019-06-15T09:37:18-05:00 Rajashree Bordoloi Shuvam Bhuyan Abhijit Das <p>It has been known for decades that cancer cells exhibit enhanced rates of Glucose uptake and glycolysis. Rapidly growing Tumor cells display remarkably different metabolic autonomy from the tissues which they are derived. Tumor cells alter their metabolism to support growth and proliferation. In this study, we have re-examined the metabolism in tumor cells and have made an attempt to bring together the major contributions made to this topic till date. This review in particular highlights the altered metabolism in the high energy demanding tumour cells, genetic changes that alter tumour cell metabolism and the role of metabolic microenvironments that may promote malignant progression.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Crabtree, Warburg, Metabolic microenvironments, Hypoxia, pH,</p> 2019-06-15T09:37:18-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Pharmacological Activities of Calotropis Procera 2019-06-15T09:39:59-05:00 Rohit P Mali Priya S Rao R. S. Jadhav <p>The plant <em>Calotropis procera </em>&nbsp;(Aiton) Dryand belong to the Apocynaceae family it is popularly known as “Rui” in Marathi, “ Mudar” in hindi other common name include Rubber Bush, Apple of sodom. (India &amp; Pakistan). The bark and leaves are known to show wound healing, shows anti-Hyperglycemic effect, Analgesic, Anti pyretic, neuromuscular blocking activity, Purgative, anti-cancer activities. The phytochemistry of plant reveals presence of triterpenoids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, anthocyanins, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol, β-sitosterol, flavanols, mudarine, resins, a powerful bacteriolytic enzyme calactin, a nontoxic proteolytic enzyme calotropin, and a wax was isolated from the heartwood of <em>Calotropis procera. </em>The present review focuses on pharmacological activities of <em>Calotropis procera</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> &nbsp;<em>Calotropis procera, anti- </em>Hyperglycemic effect, wound healing, pharmacological activities.</p> 2019-06-15T09:39:59-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytomedicines as potent alternative Anti-microbial naturopathic treatment in Chronic Communicable diseases: A Review 2019-06-15T09:41:48-05:00 ZAHIDA SHAH Sabeeha Shafi Tabasum Ali <p>Communicable Diseases are caused by various opportunistic pathogenic micro-organisms that pose a serious health threat to the health of human beings. The contagious diseases are spread by various pathogenic micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, bacteria or Protozoa through various mediums like air, blood, feces or through other blood fluids etc. Malaria, Respiratory disorders, fever, Measles, athletes foot, rabies are some common examples of these diseases. Allopathic management of these diseases by synthetic drugs pose serious health threats like multi-drug resistance. Phytomedicines are considered the safest alternative sources of treatment to overcome the multi-drug resistance as the important phytoconstituents present in phytomedicines like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols are known since time immemorial for their alleviation in chronic diseases like Cancer, Diabetes etc.</p> 2019-06-15T09:41:48-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diabetes the Global Economic Burden of Adults and the Role of Herbalism as a safe & altenative cost -effective therapy. An Updared Overview 2019-06-15T09:44:25-05:00 ZAHIDA SHAH Sabeeha Shafi <p>Diabetes is a major global health threat to the human health as the prevalence has rapidly increased over the past four decades. The costs of diabetes include both direct costs from medical care as well as indirect costs incurred through loss of productivity or earnings, both of which are important contributors to the global economic burden. Global trend with focus on green medicine serve as an important safe &amp; alternative cost effective therapy as compared to allopathic medicine. Plants have their chemical compounds which demonstrate alternative and safe effects on diabetes mellitus. Most of plants contain glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, etc., that are frequently implicated as having antidiabetic effect. Herbalism is becoming focusing point due to research on herbs and their use in treatment of diabetes and its prevention The scientific study of traditional medicines, concerned medicinal plants are thus of great importance.</p> 2019-06-15T09:44:25-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bilayer Tablet: Novel Technology Use in Extended Release Drug Delivery System 2019-06-15T10:04:31-05:00 Shreya Saha Mithun Bhowmick Rimpa Goswami <p>Bilayer tablet is a successful technology of controlled release formulation or extended release formulation to provide successful drug delivery. The name of this development is clear that the tablets have been consisting of two layers, these are immediate release layer (IR) and another is extended release layer (ER). In this era it is very useful in many developing countries as a combination therapy for various disease treatment purposes. Bilayer tablet are needs to separate incompatible active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) by physical separation. In this formulation IR and ER both layers are present and it form extended release layer (ER). This types of formulations helps to maintain plasma level concentration in the body. So, it is a very useful and successful technology in novel drug delivery system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Bilayer tablet, extended drug release, Tablet press,</p> 2019-06-15T10:04:31-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gandhahastadi Agada: A Review 2019-06-15T10:07:00-05:00 T Vidyavati Gazala Hussain H.R Nataraj S Srinidhi <p>Agada Tantra is a branch of Ayurveda that deals with the science of toxicology. It deals with the treatment of various poisons. For the management of poisons various treatment procedures have been described, one among them is the use of formulations taken internally. Varied formulations are described of just herbal, animal origin drugs and also herbo- mineral in origin. One among them is Gandhahastadi agada that is mentioned in the treatment of visha. It is a formulation of nineteen drugs and the bhavana dravya is of animal origin drugs namely Ajamutra (Goat’s urine), Go pitta (cow’s bile) and Ashwa pitta (horse’s bile) alternatively for seven days. This is indicated in various conditions such as Visuchika, Pilla, Arbuda, Arma, Kandu, Kshaya (consumption), Dourbhalya (asthenia), Madatyaya (alcoholism), Pandu (anaemia), Moha (unconsciousness), etc. and also as nasya in&nbsp; sarvajwara (all types of fever).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gandhahastadi Agada, visha, formulation</p> 2019-06-15T10:07:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Strategies to improve the potential of transdermal devices by enhancing the skin permeation of therapeutic entities 2019-06-15T10:10:46-05:00 Syam S. Nair <h1>Although transdermal route of drug delivery displays numerous benefits over conventional strategies, this pathway is yet to presents its complete potential. The chief ground for this statement is ascribed to the presence of extremely packed outermost layer of skin called stratum corneum. This compactly packed barrier is selectively permeable and furnishes smaller and lipophilic molecules to diffuse into the deeper skin layers. Due to this only a few transdermal product is commercially available. So in order to guarantee the effective transport of drug molecules, it is necessary to break the stratum corneum layer. There are two acceptable methods to break the stratum corneum architecture- active strategy which comprises the application of external energy such as in electroporation, sonophoresis, iontophoresis etc. and passive strategy which involve the application of permeation enhancers, nanoparticles etc. This article comprehensively detail the active and passive methods employed in transdermal drug delivery systems to disrupt the stratum corneum bilayers.</h1> <h1>Keywords: transdermal drug delivery, lipophilic molecules, permeation enhancers</h1> 2019-06-15T10:10:46-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A REVIEW ON CONCEPT OF GRIVASANDHIGATAVATA AND ITS MANAGEMENT WSR CERVICAL SPOMDYLOSIS 2019-06-15T10:13:43-05:00 dr. pinkee gautam Dr. Priyanka Singh Dr Ajay Kumar Sahu Prof.Ram Kishor Joshi <p>Cervical spondylosis is caused by degenerative disc disease and usually produces intermittent neck pain in middle aged and elderly aged patients. This pain usually responds to activity modification, neck immobilization, isometric exercise, and medication. Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition of the cervical spine that most likely is caused by age-related changes in the intervertebral discs. Clinically, several syndromes, both overlapping and distinct are seen: Neck and shoulder pain, suboccipital pain and headache, radicular symptoms, and cervical spondylosis may coexist. As disc degeneration occurs, mechanical stresses result in osteophytic bars which form along the ventral aspect of the spinal canal. Any disease related to locomotor system of the body can be considered in the umbrella of ‘Vata Vyadhi’. SandhigataVata is mentioned under Vata Vyadhi. Acharya Charaka has mentioned that Nidana Sevana aggravates Vata Dosha and this Vata gets vitiated in Griva Asthi and Sandhi it leads to Griva-SandhiGataVata. Key Words: Griva-SandhigataVata, Cervical Spondylosis, management, Nidana.</p> 2019-06-15T10:13:43-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Current Challenges in Non-Invasive Insulin Drug Delivery System: A Review 2019-06-15T10:18:34-05:00 Komal Vilas Harak P.B. Patil R.B. Saudhagar <p>The Frederick Banting and Charles Best extracted insulin from bovine pancreas in 1922, who received the Nobel prize for their contribution in the medical field with Johan McLeod, The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the route of choice for the administration of most drugs, regardless of their molecular structure or weight and administration of insulin exogenously via subcutaneous route which mimic the pancreatic insulin secretion, for In todays era, insulin delivery by noninvasive route is an area of current interest in diabetes mellitus treatment by parenteral route for type-I and type-II diabetes mellitus , while noninvasive therapy through oral delivery is greatly desired, there are challenges that include the low bioavailability due to the rapid enzymatic degradation in the stomach. This review article patent that provides the novel approaches for noninvasive insulin drug delivery system to the bloodstream through the go tract.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes mellitus, insulin, non-invasive insulin drug delivery, modern insulin drug delivery, absorption enhancer, insulin pump.</p> 2019-06-15T10:18:34-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Topical Gels as Drug Delivery System 2019-06-15T10:23:24-05:00 P.B. Patil S.K. Datir R.B. Saudagar <p>The clinical evidence indicates that topical gel is a safe and most effective treatment option for use in the management of skin related disease and used for local action to reduce the side effects associated with other conventional dosage form. Topical drug delivery systems include a large variety of pharmaceutical dosage form like semisolids, liquid preparation, sprays and solid powders. Most widely used semisolid preparation for topical drug delivery includes gels, creams and ointments. A gel is a cross-linked polymer network swollen in a liquid medium. Its properties depend strongly on the interaction between solid state polymer and the liquid component. Gels exhibit no steady-state flow. The interaction between polymer and the liquid dispersion medium form an interlacing three dimensional network of particles of dispersed phase. The increased viscosity caused by interlacing and consequential internal friction is responsible for the semisolid state. Topical gel formulation provides a suitable delivery system for drugs because they are less greasy and can be easily removed from the skin. Gel formulation provides better application property and stability in comparison to cream and ointments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Topical, drug delivery, gels, review, skin. Percutaneous penetration, drug delivery, organogels, Hydrogel.</p> 2019-06-15T10:23:09-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advancement in Novel Drug Delivery System: Niosomes 2019-06-15T10:28:59-05:00 Rajni Sharma Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N. Prasad Shabnam Hira , Monika <p>Niosomes represent a promising drug delivery module. Noisome same as to liposome and Noisome represent alternative vesicular drug delivery systems with respect to liposomes, due to the noisome ability to encapsulate the different type of drugs within their multi environmental structure. Niosomes are thoughts to be a better system for drug delivery as compared to liposomes due to various factors like cost, stability etc. They are many types of drug deliveries that can be possible using niosomes like targeting, ophthalmic, topical, parenteral, etc. In recent research, comprehensive research carried over noisome as a drug carrier. Various drugs are enlisted and tried in noisome surfactant vesicles. Niosomes proved to better drug carrier system and has the potential to reduce the side effects of drugs and increased therapeutic effectiveness in various diseases. Noisome used more than fifty drugs are tried in niosomal formulations by the intravenous route, per oral administration, trans-dermal route of administration, and inhalation preparation, ocular nasal route of administration. Treatment of infectious diseases and immunization has undergone a revolutionary work in recent years. The large numbers of disease-specific biological have been developed, and also emphasis has been made to effectively deliver these biological. Niosomes shows an emerging class of novel vesicular systems. Niosomes are self-assembled vesicles composed primarily of synthetic surfactant and cholesterol. Comprehensive research carried over noisome as a drug carrier. Various drugs are enlisted and tried in noisome surfactant vesicles. This article presents an overview of the techniques of preparation of noisome, types of noisome, characterization and their applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords-</strong>Niosomes; Method of preparation; Evaluation study; Application of Niosomes</p> 2019-06-15T10:28:59-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## AZELNIDIPINE: A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC ROLE IN HYPERTINSION 2019-06-15T10:32:11-05:00 vishal Uttam shewale Smita S. Aher Ravindranath B. Saudagar <p>&nbsp;Hypertension is the most common regulating risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death; the increased risk associated with blood pressure (BP) elevation can be greatly reduced by treatment with antihypertensive drugs that lower both BP and related target organ damage. New Ca2+ channel antagonists have been recently developed, especially in the DHP compounds that have considerable higher vascular selectivity, slower onset and longer duration of hypotensive action. The antihypertensive effect of azelnidipine is primarily based on the inhibition of trans-membrane Ca2+ influx through the voltage-dependent channels of vascular smooth muscles. Ca2+ channels are categorized into several subtypes, including L-type, T-type, N-type, P/Q-type, and R-type Ca2+ channels depend on their electrophysiological properties.&nbsp; Clinical studies have demonstrated that azelnidipine markedly reduced heart rate and proteinuria in hypertensive patients by inhibiting sympathetic nerve activity. Azelnidipine has also been confirmed to have cardio-protective, neuroprotective, and anti-atherosclerotic properties, and has also been found to prevent insulin resistance.</p> 2019-06-15T10:32:11-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality By Design: A Systematic Approach for the Analytical Method Validation 2019-06-15T10:37:24-05:00 Nisha Kumari Bhupendra Singh Geetanjali Saini Amit Chaudhary Kritika Verma Manish Vyas <p>The scientific way to develop an easy and robust analytical technique for critical analysis is a QbD approach. QbD is a systematic approach to product or method development that begins with predefined objectives and uses science and risk management approaches to achieve product and method understanding and ultimately method control. The aim of the analytical QbD is to achieve quality in measurement. The main objective of this review to explain different steps involved in method development by the QbD approach for analytical method development and describes the implementation of QbD in analytical procedure validation. The advantages of applying QbD principles to analytical technique include discovering and minimizing the source of variability that may lead to poor method robustness and ensuring that the method meets its intended performance need throughout the product and method lifecycle.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Quality by design (QbD), Risk Analysis, Analytical method validation</p> 2019-06-15T10:37:24-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Retropharmacology of Gliptins: A Focus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2019-06-15T10:43:24-05:00 Srikanta Chandra Avik Das Jyotirmay Samanta Tathagata Ray Lucky Mukherjee Bijayan Mukherjee <p>As we know inflammatory bowel disease is an emergent plight in developed &amp; developing countries. IBD is an idiopathic ulceroinflammatory condition of the bowel which may or may not have transmural stretch. IBD has two clinic pathological condition Ulcerative colitis &amp; Crohns’s disease. In United State of America there are 1.4 million of people suffering from Ulcerative colitis. IBD has a plethora of comorbid disorders .Gastrointestinal disorder arising from cholelithiasis, cutaneous disease arising from psoriasis &amp; metabolic disorders arising from diabetes mellitus. DPP4 which is instrumental in aggravating diabetes mellitus gets hiked in IBD too , which may have serious implications in the worsening of the latter in diabetes . Hence, in our research we probed for the anticolitic potential of a standard inhibitor of DPP4, Linagliptin to ensure the enzymes suitability as a probable target for IBD.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>IBD: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, UC: Ulcerative colitis, CD: Crohn’s disease</p> 2019-06-15T10:43:23-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Recent updates on natural compounds in treatment of diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive Approach 2019-06-15T12:03:09-05:00 Nidhi Bais G.P. Choudhary <p>Diabetes is one of the major public health concerns over the world Persistent hyperglycemia or uncontrolled diabetes has the potential to cause serious complications such as kidney disease, vision loss, cardiovascular disease, and lower-limb amputations which contributed towards morbidity and mortality Herbal medicine, phytomedicine or botanical medicine are synonymous, utilizes plants intended for medicinal purposes. Medicinal use of herbal medicine in the treatment and prevention of diseases including diabetes has a long history compared to conventional medicine Several medicinal plants and their preparations have been demonstrated to act at key points of glucidic metabolism. The most common mechanisms of action found include the inhibition of α-glucosidase and of AGE formation, the increase of GLUT-4 and PPARs expression and antioxidant activity. However, the selection of herbs might depends on several factors, which include the stage of progression of diabetes, types of comorbidities that the patients are having, availability, affordability as well as the safety profile of the herbs. This review focuses on the herbal and natural remedies that play the role in the treatment or prevention of this morbid disorder e diabetes, including their underlying mechanisms for the blood glucose-lowering property and the herbal products already been marketed for the remedial action of diabetes</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Diabetes, kidney disease, vision loss, α-glucosidase</p> 2019-06-15T12:03:09-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Novel Strategy: Microsponges for Topical Drug Delivery 2019-06-15T12:10:33-05:00 , Monika Jagdeep Singh Dua D.N. Prasad Mansi Hans Rajni Sharma Satish Kumari <p>Microsponge delivery system is a unique and effective technology for the controlled release of topical agents. It is highly cross- linked porous, polymeric microspheres that can entrap wide range of active agents and in response to trigger or stimuli and release them onto the skin over a time. It consists of micro-porous beads, typically 5-300µm in diameter that acquire the flexibility to entrap a wide variety of active ingredients such as fragrances, sunscreens, emollients, anti-fungal, anti-infective, and anti-inflammatory agents etc., that are mostly used to prolong the topical administration of the drug . Recently it was investigated that microsponges also used for oral drug delivery system. The topical agent formulation with microsponge delivery system can be prepared in many different forms, such as cream, gel, or lotion. When the formulation is applied to the skin, the MDS releases its active ingredients on a time and in response to other stimuli (rubbing, temperature, pH etc.). They reduce side effects, enhance stability and modify drug release. Because of the size of the microsponges they cannot pass through the stratum corneum, so they remain on the skin surface and slowly releasing the active ingredients over a period. Slow rate of release from MDS reduce the irritancy associated with the topical agents. Slow and gradual release pattern of MDS prevents excessive build-up of the active agents in the epidermis and dermis. Therefore, these particles, remains on the surface of the skin and its fine lines delivering the active over prolonged time.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Microsponge Delivery System, Quasi- emulsion solvent diffusion.</p> 2019-06-15T12:10:33-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Recent Review on Film Forming Topical Formulation 2019-06-15T13:19:54-05:00 S A Nimase P B Patil R B Saudagar <p>Film forming&nbsp; topical formulation is solutions / sprays , gels , emulsion are a novel approach is as an alternative to the conventional dosage formed&nbsp; used on the topically on skin , such as ointment , creams or patches .The polymeric solution is an applied to the skin as a liquid and forms a transparent invisible film by solvent evaporation the aim of this review was to search for alternatives to the conventional dosage forms .it is a novel approach helpful in providing&nbsp; sustained release drug delivery system with increase resistance time&nbsp; ,reduce skin irritation , improve skin adhesion property , increase drug&nbsp; release&nbsp; and increase patient comfortability.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: film&nbsp; forming formulation , transdermal drug delivery ,evaluation parameter.</p> 2019-06-15T13:19:54-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytopharmaceuticals: An emerging platform for innovation and development of new drugs from botanicals 2019-06-15T13:23:53-05:00 Omprakash G Bhusnure Madhuri C Shinde Swamy S.M Vijayendra Sachin B Gholve Padmaja S Giram Mahesh J Birajdar <p>A phytomedicine, or phytopharmacutical, is a complex mixture derived from plant sources that is used as a medicine or drug. The Ministry of Health has begun the standardization of the names of all phytopharmaceutical preparations. The development of phytopharmaceutical products, which might partially substitute some of the conventional medications demanding imported raw materials, and which could be produced by pharmaceutical industries based in developing countries through joint projects. Highest demands are made on clinically proven phyto-pharmaceuticals. Their effect and safety have to be verified in randomized, double-blind, (placebo)-controlled clinical trials. They are developed and scientifically evaluated in the same way as conventional medicinal products. Globally, herbal medicine has been considered an important alternative to modern allopathic medicine. While they have become very popular, only select herbs have been scientifically evaluated for their potential in medical treatment. The new drug Veregen (Polyphenon E) Ointment is the first prescription botanical (herbal) drug approved by the U.S. FDA under the “new” drug amendments of 1962 that required drugs to be proven safe and effective prior to being marketed in the U.S. Because of the unique health benefits and relatively low side effects, natural products such as food/dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and herbal medicines have been gaining popularity all over the world&nbsp; The gap between the popularity of these remedies and the frequently weak scientific basis of their use is striking. In reality, the efficacy and true frequency of side effects for most herbal medicine products is not known because the majority have not yet been tested in large clinical trials and because pharmacovigilance systems are much less extensive than those in place for pharmaceutical products. In contrast to the popularity of herbal medicinal products, physicians and consumers often have a very critical view of robust efficacy and safety profiles. Application of pharmaceutical nanotechnology for plant actives and extracts, is gaining a tremendous growth and interest among the scientist.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phytopharmaceuticals, Harbal, plant extract, phototherapy, Morphine, Ayurveda, metabolites, fingerprint.</p> 2019-06-15T13:23:53-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##