Phytochemical Screening, GCMS, FTIR profile of Bioactive Natural Products in the methanolic extracts of Cuminum cyminum seeds and oil
Seeds of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) are widely used as a spice for their distinctive aroma. C. cyminum have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Literature presents ample evidence for biomedical activities of cumin which is attributed to its bioactive secondary metabolites - terpenes, phenols, and flavonoids. Besides, health effects of cumin seeds have been experimentally validated through phytochemical analysis depicting the presence of a wide array of bioactive secondary metabolites (BASMs) viz., alkaloid, coumarin, anthraquinone, flavonoid, glycoside, protein, resin, saponin, tannin and steroid. Pharmacological studies indicate that BASMs in seeds of C. cyminum exert antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-platelet-aggregation, hypotensive, bronchodilatory, immunological, contraceptive, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-osteoporotic, aldose reductase, α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory effects. In the present study phytochemical screening, GCMS, FTIR profile of bioactive natural products from C. cyminum has been envisaged. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 21 compounds, of which Cuminaldehyde was prominent. FTIR analysis showed the presence of a strong peak value for 15 compounds and medium peak value for 6 compounds. Many of the compounds in the list could be ADMET bioprospected for biomedical applications as natural drug leads.
Keywords: Cuminum cyminum; Cuminaldehyde; Bioactive Natural Products; GCMS; FTIR
2. Selick HE, Beresford AP, Tarbit MH. The emerging importance of predictive ADME simulation in drug discovery. Drug Discovery Today. 2002; 7(2):109-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6446(01)02100-6
3. Caldwell GW, Yan Z, Tang W, Dasgupta M, Hasting B. ADME optimization and toxicity assessment in early-and late-phase drug discovery. Current topics in medicinal chemistry. 2009; 9(11):965-80. https://doi.org/10.2174/156802609789630929
4. Cook D, Brown D, Alexander R, March R, Morgan P, Satterthwaite G, Pangalos MN. Lessons learned from the fate of AstraZeneca's drug pipeline: a five-dimensional framework. Nature reviews Drug discovery. 2014; 13(6):419-31. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd4309
5. Yu H, Adedoyin A. ADME-Tox in drug discovery: integration of experimental and computational technologies. Drug discovery today 2003; 8(18):852-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6446(03)02828-9
6. Kola I, Landis J. Can the pharmaceutical industry reduce attrition rates?. Nature reviews Drug discovery. 2004; 3(8):711-6. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd1470
7. Yang H, Sun L, Li W, Liu G, Tang Y. In silico prediction of chemical toxicity for drug design using machine learning methods and structural alerts. Frontiers in chemistry. 2018; 6:30. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2018.00030
8. Ferreira LL, Andricopulo AD. ADMET modeling approaches in drug discovery. Drug discovery today. 2019; 24(5):1157-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2019.03.015
9. Cheng F, Li W, Liu G, Tang Y. In silico ADMET prediction: recent advances, current challenges and future trends. Current topics in medicinal chemistry. 2013; 13(11):1273-89. https://doi.org/10.2174/15680266113139990033
10. Patel CN, Kumar SP, Rawal RM, Patel DP, Gonzalez FJ, Pandya HA. A multiparametric organ toxicity predictor for drug discovery. Toxicology mechanisms and methods. 2020; 30(3):159-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2019.1681044
11. Ramya S, Murugan M, Krishnaveni K, Sabitha M, Kandeepan C, Jayakumararaj R. In-silico ADMET profile of Ellagic Acid from Syzygium cumini: A Natural Biaryl Polyphenol with Therapeutic Potential to Overcome Diabetic Associated Vascular Complications. JDDT, 2022; 12(1):91-01. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5179
12. Sabitha M, Krishnaveni K, Murugan M, Basha AN, Pallan GA, Kandeepan C, Ramya S, Jayakumararaj R. In-silico ADMET predicated Pharmacoinformatics of Quercetin-3-Galactoside, polyphenolic compound from Azadirachta indica, a sacred tree from Hill Temple in Alagarkovil Reserve Forest, Eastern Ghats, INDIA. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2021 Oct 15; 11(5-S):77-84. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5-S.5026
13. Loganathan T, Barathinivas A, Soorya C, Balamurugan S, Nagajothi TG, Ramya S, Jayakumararaj R. Physicochemical, Druggable, ADMET Pharmacoinformatics and Therapeutic Potentials of Azadirachtin-a Prenol Lipid (Triterpenoid) from Seed Oil Extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2021; 11(5):33-46. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i5.4981
14. Kandeepan C, Kalaimathi RV, Jeevalatha A, Basha AN, Ramya S, Jayakumararaj R. In-silico ADMET Pharmacoinformatics of Geraniol (3, 7-dimethylocta-trans-2, 6-dien-1-ol)-acyclic monoterpene alcohol drug from Leaf Essential Oil of Cymbopogon martinii from Sirumalai Hills (Eastern Ghats), INDIA. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2021; 11(4-S):109-18. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i4-S.4965
15. Li, D., L. Chen, Y. Li, S. Tian, H. Sun, and T. Hou. ADMET evaluation in drug discovery. 13. Development of in Silico prediction models for P-Glycoprotein substrates. 2014; 11(3):716-726. https://doi.org/10.1021/mp400450m
16. Schyman, P., R. Liu, V. Desai, and A. Wallqvist. vNN web server for ADMET predictions. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017; 8:889. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00889
17. Soorya C, Balamurugan S, Ramya S, Neethirajan K, Kandeepan C, Jayakumararaj R. Physicochemical, ADMET and Druggable properties of Myricetin: A Key Flavonoid in Syzygium cumini that regulates metabolic inflammations. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2021; 11(4):66-73. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4890
18. Yuan H, Ma Q, Ye L, Piao G. The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules. 2016; 21(5):559. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050559
19. Thomford NE, Senthebane DA, Rowe A, Munro D, Seele P, Maroyi A, Dzobo K. Natural products for drug discovery in the 21st century: innovations for novel drug discovery. International journal of molecular sciences 2018; 19(6):1578. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061578
20. Atanasov AG, Zotchev SB, Dirsch VM, Supuran CT. Natural products in drug discovery: advances and opportunities. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2021; 20(3):200-16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41573-020-00114-z
21. Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Linder T, Wawrosch C, Uhrin P, Temml V, Wang L, Schwaiger S, Heiss EH, Rollinger JM. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review. Biotechnology advances 2015; 33(8):1582-614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.08.001
22. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the nearly four decades from 01/1981 to 09/2019. Journal of Natural Products. 2020; 83(3):770-803. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b01285
23. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological activities of Cuminum cyminum-A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2016; 6(6):46-65.
24. Mnif S, Aifa S. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) from traditional uses to potential biomedical applications. Chem Biodivers. 2015; 12(5):733-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201400305
25. Nadeem M, Riaz A. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) as a potential source of antioxidants. Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences. 2012; 22(2):101-7.
26. Rai N, Yadav S, Verma AK, Tiwari L, Sharma RK. A monographic profile on quality specifications for a herbal drug and spice of commerce-Cuminum cyminum L. International Journal of Advanced Herbal Science and Technology. 2012; 1(1):1-2.
27. Baser KH, Kürkçüoglu M, Özek T. Composition of the Turkish cumin seed oil. Journal of essential oil research. 1992; 4(2):133-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1992.9698034
28. Kandeepan C, Sabitha M, Parvathi K, Senthilkumar N, Ramya S, Boopathi N, Jayakumararaj R. Phytochemical Screening, GCMS Profile, and In-silico properties of Bioactive Compounds in Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Moringa oleifera. JDDT 2022; 12(2):87-9. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v12i2.5250
29. Jeevalatha A, Kalaimathi R, Basha A, Kandeepan C, Ramya S, Loganathan T, Jayakumararaj R. Profile of bioactive compounds in Rosmarinus officinalis. JDDT 2022; 12(1):114-22. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5189
30. Kadhirvel K, Ramya S, Sudha TS, Ravi AV, Rajasekaran C, Selvi RV, Jayakumararaj R. Ethnomedicinal survey on plants used by tribals in Chitteri Hills. Environ We Int J Sci Tech. 2010; 5:35-46.
31. Kalaimathi R, Jeevalatha A, Basha A, Kandeepan C, Ramya S, Loganathan T, Jayakumararaj R. In-silico Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination and Toxicity profile of Isopulegol from Rosmarinus officinalis. JDDT 2022; 12(1):102-8. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v12i1.5188
32. Kalaivani T, Premkumar N, Ramya S, Siva R, Vijayakumar V, Meignanam E, Rajasekaran C, Jayakumararaj R. Investigations on hepatoprotective activity of leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.(Rutaceae). Ethnobotanical leaflets. 2009; 2009(1):4.
33. Krishnaveni K, Sabitha M, Murugan M, Kandeepan C, Ramya S, Loganathan T, Jayakumararaj R. vNN model cross validation towards Accuracy, Sensitivity, Specificity and kappa performance measures of β-caryophyllene using a restricted-unrestricted applicability domain on Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning approach based in-silico prediction. JDDT 2022; 12(1-S):123-31.
34. Loganathan T, Barathinivas A, Soorya C, Balamurugan S, Nagajothi TG, Jayakumararaj R. GCMS Profile of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites with Therapeutic Potential in the Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica: A Sacred Traditional Medicinal Plant of INDIA. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2021; 11(4-S):119-26. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i4-S.4967
35. Ramya S, Alaguchamy N, Maruthappan VM, Sivaperumal R, Sivalingam M, Krishnan A, Govindaraji V, Kannan K, Jayakumararaj R. Wound healing ethnomedicinal plants popular among the Malayali tribes in Vattal Hills, Dharmapuri, TN, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2009; 2009(10):6.
36. Ramya S, Jayakumararaj R. Antifeedant activity of selected ethno-botanicals used by tribals of Vattal Hills on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2009; 2(8):1414-8.
37. Ramya S, Jepachanderamohan PJ, Kalayanasundaram M, Jayakumararaj R. In vitro antibacterial prospective of crude leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linn. against selected bacterial strains. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2009; 2009(1):32.
38. Ramya S, Krishnasamy G, Jayakumararaj R, Periathambi N, Devaraj A. Bioprospecting Solanum nigrum Linn.(Solanaceae) as a potential source of Anti-Microbial agents against selected Bacterial strains. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2012; 2(12):65.
39. Ramya S, Neethirajan K, Jayakumararaj R. Profile of bioactive compounds in Syzygium cumini-a review. Journal of Pharmacy Research 2012; 5(8):4548-53.
40. Shanmugam S, Sundari A, Muneeswaran S, Vasanth C, Jayakumararaj R, Rajendran K. Ethnobotanical indices on medicinal plants used to treat poisonous bites in Thiruppuvanam region of Sivagangai district in Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2020; 10(6-s):31-36. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v10i6-s.4432
41. Sivaperumal R, Ramya S, Ravi AV, Rajasekaran C, Jayakumararaj R. Herbal remedies practiced by Malayali's to treat skin diseases. Environ We Int J Sci Tech. 2009; 4(1):35-44.
42. Sivaperumal R, Ramya S, Ravi AV, Rajasekaran C, Jayakumararaj R. Ethnopharmacological studies on the medicinal plants used by tribal inhabitants of Kottur Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India. Environ We Int J Sci Technol. 2010; 5:57-64.
43. Soorya C, Balamurugan S, Basha AN, Kandeepan C, Ramya S, Jayakumararaj R. Profile of Bioactive Phyto-compounds in Essential Oil of Cymbopogon martinii from Palani Hills, Western Ghats, INDIA. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2021; 11(4):60-5. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v11i4.4887
44. Sundari A, Jayakumararaj R. Herbal remedies used to treat skin disorders in Arasankulam region of Thoothukudi District in Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2020; 10(5):33-38. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v10i5.4277
45. Sundari A, Jayakumararaj R. Medicinal plants used to cure cuts and wounds in Athur region of Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2020; 10(6-s):26-30. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v10i6-s.4429
46. Wu F, Zhou Y, Li L, Shen X, Chen G, Wang X, Liang X, Tan M, Huang Z. Computational approaches in preclinical studies on drug discovery and development. Frontiers in chemistry 2020: 726. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00726
47. Romeilah RM, Fayed SA, Mahmoud GI. Chemical compositions, antiviral and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2010;6(1):50-62.
48. Gachkar L, Yadegari D, Rezaei MB, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SA, Rasooli I. Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils. Food chemistry. 2007 Jan 1; 102(3):898-904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.035
49. Chaudhary N, Husain SS, Ali M. New Phenolic, triterpenic and steroidal constituents from the fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2014 May 1; 3(1):149-54.
50. Moghadam AR. Essential oil of the seeds of Cuminum cyminum L.(Apiaceae). Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences. 2015; 4(3):161-3.
51. Bettaieb I, Bourgou S, Wannes WA, Hamrouni I, Limam F, Marzouk B. Essential oils, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of different parts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2010 Oct 13; 58(19):10410-8. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf102248j
52. Abdulazeem L, Jassani MJ, Al-Sheakh MA. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Cuminum cyminum (Cumin) seed extract. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021 Aug 6; 14(8):4349-54. https://doi.org/10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00755
53. Rebey IB, Kefi S, Bourgou S, Ouerghemmi I, Ksouri R, Tounsi MS, Marzouk B. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014; 69(4):358-64 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-014-0442-9
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).