CRISPR Therapeutics: New Emerging Developments and Clinical Applications
CRISPR gene editing is a genetic engineering technique applied in clinical applications in which the genomes of living organisms may be modified. It is based on the principles of the CRISPR-Cas9 antiviral defense system. It is based on delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA into a living organism cell and that organisms’s genome can be “cut” and –“paste” at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be modified for desired outcome (i.e., CRISPR for Precision Medicine). CRISPR gene editing harnesses the natural defense mechanisms of some bacteria to cut human DNA strands. Then the DNA strand either heals itself or injects a new piece of DNA to mend the gap. Studies have been reported in Lung Cancer diagnosis and treatments. CRISPR-based engineering techniques have been developed for T Cells and Stem cells applications (i.e. Gene Corrections in Hematopoietic Stem Cells for the Treatment of Blood and Immune System Diseases). Even though earlier CRISPR methodologies were used for performing simple DNA edits, recent applications include the ability to delete genes or insert genes, and edit regulatory regions in a wide range of cell types. The role of CRISPR in human therapeutics is currently focused on utilizing CRISPR techniques to perform either in vivo editing of human cells–everything from the head, eye all the way to neurons and liver cells--or performing ex vivo therapies. The FDA’s new genomic CRISPR technology based products approval process begins with review and evaluation of preclinical studies in order to establish and characterize the proposed product’s safety profile. New genomic products must be shown to be safe and effective for the FDA approval process. The sponsor of the new genomic product must show that the product is safe and effective in human subjects.1
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