An Overview on Biomaterials: Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications

  • Nikita A Naidu Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002
  • Kamlesh Wadher Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002
  • Milind Umekar Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002


The development of biomaterials have existed from around half a century and manifest its use in different fields. Biomaterials are used in living creature body, looking on its biocompatibility nature. In recent years, advances of biomaterials are showing a marked presence in the fast growing fields of pharmaceuticals and medicines. According to their availability, different types of biomaterials like metal, ceramic, polymer and their composites are used for several purpose in the body. In this review article, types of biomaterials have been discussed with their advantages, disadvantages and recent applications in the pharmaceutical field such as implants used to mimic the structure and function of tissues, dental implants, wound healing, cell regeneration, regenerative medicines, delivery of drugs and different organ regeneration. Organ regeneration leading to replacement of organs such as heart, trachea and lungs etc. by use of specific biomaterials have been reported with the diagnosis of diseases and its treatment.

Keywords: Biomaterial, Polymers, Pharmaceutical applications, Tissue engineering, Drug delivery


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Nikita A Naidu, Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002

Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002

Kamlesh Wadher, Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002

Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002

Milind Umekar, Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002

Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 441002


1. Ghasemi-Mobarakeh L, Kolahreez D, Ramakrishna S, Williams D. Key terminology in biomaterials and biocompatibility. Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering. 2019; 10:45-50.
2. Kargozar S, Ramakrishna S, Mozafari M. Chemistry of biomaterials: Future prospects. Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering. 2019; 10:181-90.
3. Nair LS, Laurencin CT. Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials. Progress in polymer science. 2007; 32(8-9):762-98.
4. Wang J, Yu Y, Guo J, Lu W, Wei Q, Zhao Y. The Construction and Application of Three‐Dimensional Biomaterials. Advanced biosystems. 2020;4(2):1900238.
5. Kaur G. Biomaterials influencing human lives. InBioactive glasses 2017 (pp. 1-20). Springer, Cham.
6. Regi MV, Esbrit P, Salinas AJ. Degradative Effects of the Biological Environment on Ceramic Biomaterials. InBiomaterials Science 2020 (pp. 955-971). Academic Press.
7. Zwingenberger S, Nich C, Valladares RD, Yao Z, Stiehler M, Goodman SB. Recommendations and considerations for the use of biologics in orthopedic surgery. BioDrugs. 2012; 26(4):245-56.
8. Fernandes JS, Gentile P, Pires RA, Reis RL, Hatton PV. Multifunctional bioactive glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials with antibacterial properties for repair and regeneration of bone tissue. Acta biomaterialia. 2017; 59:2-11.
9. Asadpour S, Yeganeh H, Ai J, Ghanbari H. A novel polyurethane modified with biomacromolecules for small-diameter vascular graft applications. Journal of Materials Science. 2018; 53(14):9913-27.
10. Leja K, Lewandowicz G. Polymer biodegradation and biodegradable polymers-a review. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2010; 19(2).
11. Roy SM, Sahoo SK. Controlled drug delivery: polymeric biomaterials for. Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials. 2015; 11:2135-46.
12. Oryan A, Kamali A, Moshiri A, Baharvand H, Daemi H. Chemical crosslinking of biopolymeric scaffolds: Current knowledge and future directions of crosslinked engineered bone scaffolds. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2018; 107:678-88.
13. Wadher KJ, Kakde RB, Umekar MJ. Study on sustained-release metformin hydrochloride from matrix tablet: Influence of hydrophilic polymers and in vitro evaluation. International journal of pharmaceutical investigation. 2011; 1(3):157.
14. Zarrintaj P, Manouchehri S, Ahmadi Z, Saeb MR, Urbanska AM, Kaplan DL, Mozafari M. Agarose-based biomaterials for tissue engineering. Carbohydrate polymers. 2018; 187:66-84.
15. Yazdi MK, Taghizadeh A, Taghizadeh M, Stadler FJ, Farokhi M, Mottaghitalab F, Zarrintaj P, Ramsey JD, Seidi F, Saeb MR, Mozafari M. Agarose-based biomaterials for advanced drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release. 2020 .
16. Lee KY, Mooney DJ. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications. Progress in polymer science. 2012; 37(1):106-26.
17. Lin N, Dufresne A. Nanocellulose in biomedicine: Current status and future prospect. European Polymer Journal. 2014; 59:302-25.
18. Lu DR, Xiao CM, Xu SJ. Starch-based completely biodegradable polymer materials. Express polymer letters. 2009; 3(6):366-75.
19. Davison-Kotler E, Marshall WS, García-Gareta E. Sources of collagen for biomaterials in skin wound healing. Bioengineering. 2019; 6(3):56.
20. Kato Y, Onishi H, Machida Y. Application of chitin and chitosan derivatives in the pharmaceutical field. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2003; 4(5):303-9.
21. Okada M. Chemical syntheses of biodegradable polymers. Progress in polymer science. 2002; 27(1):87-133.
22. Törmälä P. Biodegradable self-reinforced composite materials; manufacturing structure and mechanical properties. Clinical materials. 1992; 10(1-2):29-34.
23. Gunatillake P, Mayadunne R, Adhikari R. Recent developments in biodegradable synthetic polymers. Biotechnology annual review. 2006; 12:301-47.
24. Ronca S. Polyethylene. InBrydson's plastics materials 2017 (pp. 247-278). Butterworth-Heinemann.
25. Ogueri KS, Ogueri KS, Allcock HR, Laurencin CT. Polyphosphazene polymers: The next generation of biomaterials for regenerative engineering and therapeutic drug delivery. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena. 2020; 38(3):030801.
26. Raghavendra GM, Varaprasad K, Jayaramudu T. Biomaterials: design, development and biomedical applications. InNanotechnology applications for tissue engineering 2015 (pp. 21-44). William Andrew Publishing.
27. Prasad K, Bazaka O, Chua M, Rochford M, Fedrick L, Spoor J, Symes R, Tieppo M, Collins C, Cao A, Markwell D. Metallic biomaterials: Current challenges and opportunities. Materials. 2017; 10(8):884.
28. Festas AJ, Ramos A, Davim JP. Medical devices biomaterials–A review. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. 2020; 234(1):218-28.
29. Parida P, Behera A, Mishra SC. Classification of Biomaterials used in Medicine.
30. Su Y, Cockerill I, Wang Y, Qin YX, Chang L, Zheng Y, Zhu D. Zinc-based biomaterials for regeneration and therapy. Trends in biotechnology. 2019; 37(4):428-41.
31. Ehrlich H. Biocomposites and mineralized tissues. InBiological Materials of Marine Origin 2015 (pp. 91-210). Springer, Dordrecht.
32. Jockisch KA, Brown SA, Bauer TW, Merritt K. Biological response to chopped‐carbon‐fiber‐reinforced peek. Journal of biomedical materials research. 1992; 26(2):133-46.
33. Dorozhkin SV. Biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates. Biomatter. 2011; 1(1):3-56.
34. Bohl KS, Shon J, Rutherford B, Mooney DJ. Role of synthetic extracellular matrix in development of engineered dental pulp. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. 1998; 9(7):749-64.
35. Farhadian, N., Godiny, M., Moradi, S., Azandaryani, A.H. and Shahlaei, M., 2018. Chitosan/gelatin as a new nano-carrier system for calcium hydroxide delivery in endodontic applications: Development, characterization and process optimization. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 92, pp.540-546.
36. Wang Y, Zhao Y, Ge L. Effects of the enamel matrix derivative on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells. Journal of dentistry. 2014; 42(1):53-9.
37. Haugen HJ, Basu P, Sukul M, Mano JF, Reseland JE. Injectable Biomaterials for Dental Tissue Regeneration. International journal of molecular sciences. 2020; 21(10):3442.
38. Bapat RA, Joshi CP, Bapat P, Chaubal TV, Pandurangappa R, Jnanendrappa N, Gorain B, Khurana S, Kesharwani P. The use of nanoparticles as biomaterials in dentistry. Drug discovery today. 2019; 24(1):85-98.
39. Zimmermann WH, Schneiderbanger K, Schubert P, Didie M, Munzel F, Heubach JF, Kostin S, Neuhuber WL, Eschenhagen T. Tissue engineering of a differentiated cardiac muscle construct. Circulation research. 2002; 90(2):223-30.
40. Shimizu T, Sekine H, Yamato M, Okano T. Cell sheet-based myocardial tissue engineering: new hope for damaged heart rescue. Current pharmaceutical design. 2009; 15(24):2807-14.
41. Petersen TH, Calle EA, Zhao L, Lee EJ, Gui L, Raredon MB, Gavrilov K, Yi T, Zhuang ZW, Breuer C, Herzog E. Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation. Science. 2010 ; 329(5991):538-41.
42. Ayatollahi MR, Davari MH, Shirazi HA, Asnafi A. To Improve Total Knee Prostheses Performance Using Three-Phase Ceramic-Based Functionally Graded Biomaterials. Frontiers in Materials. 2019; 6:107.
43. Varma R, Aoki FG, Soon K, Karoubi G, Waddell TK. Optimal biomaterials for tracheal epithelial grafts: An in vitro systematic comparative analysis. Acta biomaterialia. 2018; 81:146-57.
44. Fishman JM, Wiles K, Lowdell MW, De Coppi P, Elliott MJ, Atala A, Birchall MA. Airway tissue engineering: an update. Expert opinion on biological therapy. 2014; 14(10):1477-91.
45. Chung L, Maestas Jr DR, Housseau F, Elisseeff JH. Key players in the immune response to biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2017; 114:184-92.
46. Sun J, Tan H. Alginate-based biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. Materials. 2013; 6(4):1285-309.
47. Davis NF, Cunnane EM, Quinlan MR, Mulvihill JJ, Lawrentschuk N, Bolton DM, Walsh MT. Biomaterials and regenerative medicine in urology. Cell Biology and Translational Medicine, 2018; 3:189-98.
48. Jensen G, Holloway JL, Stabenfeldt SE. Hyaluronic Acid Biomaterials for Central Nervous System Regenerative Medicine. Cells. 2020; 9(9):2113.
49. Vandghanooni S, Eskandani M. Natural polypeptides-based electrically conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2020; 147:706-33.
50. Doostmohammadi M, Forootanfar H, Ramakrishna S. Regenerative medicine and drug delivery: Progress via electrospun biomaterials. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2020; 109:110521.
51. Abbott RD, Kaplan DL. Engineering biomaterials for enhanced tissue regeneration. Current Stem Cell Reports. 2016; 2(2):140-6.
52. Thurber AE, Omenetto FG, Kaplan DL. In vivo bioresponses to silk proteins. Biomaterials. 2015; 71:145-57.
53. Chouhan D, Lohe TU, Samudrala PK, Mandal BB. In situ forming injectable silk fibroin hydrogel promotes skin regeneration in full thickness burn wounds. Advanced healthcare materials. 2018; 7(24):1801092.
54. Mulholland EJ. Electrospun biomaterials in the treatment and prevention of scars in skin wound healing. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. 2020; 8.
55. Luo JD, Wang YY, Fu WL, Wu J, Chen AF. Gene therapy of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and manganese superoxide dismutase restores delayed wound healing in type 1 diabetic mice. Circulation. 2004; 110(16):2484-93.
56. Zhu Y, Hoshi R, Chen S, Yi J, Duan C, Galiano RD, Zhang HF, Ameer GA. Sustained release of stromal cell derived factor-1 from an antioxidant thermoresponsive hydrogel enhances dermal wound healing in diabetes. Journal of Controlled Release. 2016; 238:114-22.
57. Fan Y, Wu W, Lei Y, Gaucher C, Pei S, Zhang J, Xia X. Edaravone-loaded alginate-based nanocomposite hydrogel accelerated chronic wound healing in diabetic mice. Marine drugs. 2019; 17(5):285.
58. Wu H, Li F, Shao W, Gao J, Ling D. Promoting angiogenesis in oxidative diabetic wound microenvironment using a nanozyme-reinforced self-protecting hydrogel. ACS central science. 2019; 5(3):477-85.
59. Speidel AT, Stuckey DJ, Chow LW, Jackson LH, Noseda M, Abreu Paiva M, Schneider MD, Stevens MM. Multimodal hydrogel-based platform to deliver and monitor cardiac progenitor/stem cell engraftment. ACS central science. 2017; 3(4):338-48.
60. Moura D, Souza MT, Liverani L, Rella G, Luz GM, Mano JF, Boccaccini AR. Development of a bioactive glass-polymer composite for wound healing applications. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2017; 76:224-32.61.
61 Nadri S, Mahmoudvand H, Taee N, Anbari K, Beiranvand S. Promethazine and oral Midazolam preanesthetic children medication. Pediatric emergency care. 2020; 36(7):e369-72.
62. Forouzandehdel S, Forouzandehdel S, Rami MR. Synthesis of a novel magnetic starch-alginic acid-based biomaterial for drug delivery. Carbohydrate research. 2020; 487:107889.
63. Jones RE, Foster DS and Longaker MT. Management of chronic wounds. JAMA 2018; 320:1481-2.

64. Kamoun EA, Kenawy ER, Chen X. A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings. Journal of advanced research. 2017; 8(3):217-33.
65. Wang T, Zheng Y, Shi Y, Zhao L. pH-responsive calcium alginate hydrogel laden with protamine nanoparticles and hyaluronan oligosaccharide promotes diabetic wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis and antibacterial activity. Drug delivery and translational research. 2019; 9(1):227-39.
66. Huang J, Ren J, Chen G, Li Z, Liu Y, Wang G, Wu X. Tunable sequential drug delivery system based on chitosan/hyaluronic acid hydrogels and PLGA microspheres for management of non-healing infected wounds. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2018; 89:213-22.
67. Chen Z, Wu J, Wang Y, Shao C, Chi J, Li Z, Wang X, Zhao Y. Photocontrolled healable structural color hydrogels. Small. 2019; 15(37):1903104.
68. Luo Y, Wei X, Huang P. 3D bioprinting of hydrogel‐based biomimetic microenvironments. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2019; 107(5):1695-705.
69. Yun YH, Lee BK, Park K. Controlled Drug Delivery: Historical perspective for the next 8generation. Journal of Controlled Release. 2015; 219:2-7.
70. Cai AY, Zhu YJ, Qi C. Biodegradable Inorganic Nanostructured Biomaterials for Drug Delivery. Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2020; 7(20):2000819.
71. Li Z, Mei S, Dong Y, She F, Li Y, Li P, Kong L. Functional Nanofibrous Biomaterials of Tailored Structures for Drug Delivery—A Critical Review. Pharmaceutics. 2020 ; 12(6):522.
72. Lim TC, Spector M. Biomaterials for enhancing CNS repair. Translational stroke research. 2017; 8(1):57-64.
73. Xing H, Lee H, Luo L, Kyriakides TR. Extracellular matrix-derived biomaterials in engineering cell function. Biotechnology advances. 2020; 42:107421.
74. Corti M, Calleri E, Perteghella S, Ferrara A, Tamma R, Milanese C, Mandracchia D, Brusotti G, Torre ML, Ribatti D, Auricchio F. Polyacrylate/polyacrylate-PEG biomaterials obtained by high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with tailorable drug release and effective mechanical and biological properties. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2019; 105:110060.
75. Kim HS, Yun YH, Shim WG, Yoon SD. Preparation of atenolol imprinted polysaccharide based biomaterials for a transdermal drug delivery system. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2020 ; 59:101893.
76. Zhao J, Yin F, Ji L, Wang C, Shi C, Liu X, Yang H, Wang X, Kong L. Development of a Tau-Targeted Drug Delivery System Using a Multifunctional Nanoscale Metal–Organic Framework for Alzheimer’s Disease Therapy. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2020; 12(40):44447-58.
77. Shi S, Vissapragada R, Abi Jaoude J, Huang C, Mittal A, Liu E, Zhong J, Kumar V. Evolving role of biomaterials in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation oncology. Bioactive materials. 2020; 5(2):233-40.
78. Seah I, Zhao X, Lin Q, Liu Z, Su SZ, Yuen YS, Hunziker W, Lingam G, Loh XJ, Su X. Use of biomaterials for sustained delivery of anti-VEGF to treat retinal diseases. Eye. 2020; 34(8):1341-56.
79. Li JA, Chen L, Zhang XQ, Guan SK. Enhancing biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloy by preparing PDA/HA coating for potential application of cardiovascular biomaterials. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2020; 109:110607.
80. Chen TY, Wen TK, Dai NT, Hsu SH. Cryogel/hydrogel biomaterials and acupuncture combined to promote diabetic skin wound healing through immunomodulation. Biomaterials. 2021; 269:120608.
46 Views | 18 Downloads
How to Cite
Naidu N, Wadher K, Umekar M. An Overview on Biomaterials: Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications. JDDT [Internet]. 15Feb.2021 [cited 4Mar.2021];11(1-s):154-61. Available from: