Assessment of Good Pharmacy Practice among Community Pharmacist and their Perceptions on Ethical Dilemmas
Drugs are the prime member of any disease prevention plans and ailment treatment programmes. Pharmacists are the health professionals appointed by relevant authorities for safe and efficacious use of drugs, since they are the specially upskilled and trained personnel for controlling, organizing and distribution of medicines. Medicine alone does not provide desired treatment output. In order to achieve the optimal treatment goals pharmacist must provide enhanced drug related needs and ensure the services are of proper quality. This study aims to assess the Good Pharmacy Practice among community pharmacist, determine the frequency of ethical dilemma at community pharmacy settings and to assess the reasons why community pharmacists may compromise ethical values.It was a descriptive cross - sectional study carried out in different community pharmacies in Kozhikode district of Kerala. The study was executed in 6 months time period. The sample size was 115 community pharmacists working in Kozhikode district. Total of 120 subjects were enrolled and data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The result shows that most of the pharmacists were providing quality services to the patients and they are facing various ethical dilemma situations in their day today life. They were facing ethical dilemma situation at least once in three months. Community pharmacists compromise on ethical values and ethical issues mainly for protecting their job. The physicians request and employer’s invasion into their activities has a great role in ethical dilemma situations and thus violating the rules.
Keywords: GPP, community pharmacy, ethical dilemma, pharmacy services.
2. Rajiah K, Venkataraman R, Samuel N, Rodrigues PA, George A, Joseph AM, Kolencherry S, Kodath VV, Menaka K, Duraisingh B. Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions on Ethical Dilemmas, Pharmacy values and Decision-making. Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2018 Oct; 11(4):169.
3. Hanafi S, Poormalek F, Torkamandi H, Hajimiri M, Esmaeili M, Khooie S, Gholami K, Hayatshahi A, Javadi M. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Good Pharmacy Practice in Iran. Journal of pharmaceutical care. 2013:19- 24.
4. Wuttipanich T, Kitisopee T. Economic impact assessment on good pharmacy practice regulation in Thai community pharmacy. Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TJPS). 2015 Sep 30; 39(3).
5. Tiyyagura SR, Purnanand A, Rathinavelu MR. Assessment of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) in Pharmacies of Community Settings in India. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2014; 4(12):27-33.
6. Rajiah K, Venkataraman R. Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions and Experiences towards Values, Ethics and Decision-making: A Qualitative Study. Indian journal of pharmaceutical education and research. 2018 Oct 1; 52(4):S164-73.
7. Rajiah K, Venaktaraman R. The effect of demographic and social factors on the decisionmaking of community pharmacists in ethical dilemmas. Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2019 Jul 1; 8(3):174.
8.Cooper R. Ethical problems and their resolution amongst UK community pharmacists: A qualitative study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham).
09.Gyawali M, Baharadar M, Thapa HS, Subedi S, Bhattarai A, Dangi NB. Assessment of Compliance to Good Pharmacy Practice by Community Pharmacies of Bhaktapur and Lalitpur Districts, Nepal.
10. Crnjanski T, Krajnovic D, Tadic I, Stojkov S, Savic M. An Ethical issue scale for community pharmacy setting (EISP): Development and validation. Science and engineering ethics. 2016 Apr 1; 22(2):497-508.
11. Smith F. Community pharmacy in Ghana: enhancing the contribution to primary health care. Health Policy and Planning. 2004 Jul 1; 19(4):234-41.
12. Cooper RJ, Bissell P, Wingfield J. Dilemmas in dispensing, problems in practice? Ethical issues and law in UK community pharmacy. Clinical Ethics. 2007 Jun 1; 2(2):103-8.
13. Ansari M. Evaluation of community pharmacies regarding dispensing practices of antibiotics in two districts of central Nepal. PLoS One. 2017 Sep 26; 12(9):e0183907.
14. Resnik DB, Ranelli PL, Resnik SP. The conflict between ethics and business in community pharmacy: what about patient counseling?. Journal of Business Ethics. 2000 Nov 1; 28(2):179-86.
15. Rodríguez JV, Juričić Ž. Perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacists toward professional ethics and ethical dilemmas in the workplace. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2018 May 1; 14(5):441-50.
16. Shrestha R, Ghale A. Study of good pharmacy practice in community pharmacy of three districts of Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Int J Sci Reports. 2018 Oct; 4:240.
17. Trap B, Hansen EH, Trap R, Kahsay A, Simoyi T, Oteba MO, Remedios V, Everard M. A new indicator based tool for assessing and reporting on good pharmacy practice. Southern Med Review. 2010 Oct 1; 3(2).
18. Wijesinghe PR, Jayakody RL, Seneviratne RD. An assessment of the compliance with good pharmacy practice in an urban and rural district in Sri Lanka. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety. 2007 Feb; 16(2):197-206.
19. Crnjanski T, Krajnovic D, Savic M. Pharmacists’ assessment of the difficulty and frequency of ethical issues encountered in community pharmacy settings. Science and Engineering Ethics. 2019 Aug 15; 25(4):1017-36.
20. Okoro RN. Investigation of final‐year pharmacy students' views on professionalism and ethics in pharmacy practice: an interventional study. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2020 Apr; 28(2):130-3.
21. Al-Arifi MN. Community pharmacist perception and attitude toward ethical issues at community pharmacy setting in central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2014 Sep 1; 22(4):315-25.
22. Shah JV, Patel JM, Barot RG, Patel GM, Mansuri MM, Deshpande SS. Current Indian pharmacy practice: Need for up gradation. J Pharm Sci Bioscientific.
23. Stenson B, Syhakhang L, Eriksson B, Tomson G. Real world pharmacy: assessing the quality of private pharmacy practice in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Social science & medicine. 2001 Feb 1; 52(3):393-404.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).